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Sample records for adjacent pericarcinomatous foci

  1. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  2. Cholecystosonographic findings of clonorchiasis: Floating echogenic foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Kyun

    1989-01-01

    Author analysed cholecystosonographic findings in 22 patients with clonorchiasis, suspected prospectively by ultrasound and proved subsequently by demonstration of eggs in the stools. Fifteen gallbladders had nonshadowing, fusiform, discrete echogenic foci measuring 3∼6 mm in the lumen. Among these, the echogenic foci floated spontaneously in three cases, while in twelve cases they floated by position change or a light blow by the transducer. In the rest of the seven gallbladders, the echogenic foci were at the dependent portion. In the in vitro study with a worm suspension in saline in a surgical glove, the same echogenic foci as those seen in the gallbladders were demonstrated. The echogenic foci were precipitated in the dependent portion but float with a light blow on the glove. Author conclude that the floating echogenic foci in the lumen of the gallbladder are due to adult worms of clonorchis sinensis

  3. Cones and foci for protocol verification revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkink (Wan); J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe define a cones and foci proof method, which rephrases the question whether two system specifications are branching bisimilar in terms of proof obligations on relations between data objects. Compared to the original cones and foci method from Groote and Springintveld cite{GroSpr01},

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial focal epilepsy with variable foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epilepsy with variable foci Familial focal epilepsy with variable foci Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is an uncommon form of recurrent ...

  5. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Takahashi, Naoya, E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takao, E-mail: takakig@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Shiotani, Motoi, E-mail: Shiotani14@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, 2-15-3 Chuo-ku, Kawagishicho, Niigata 951-8566 (Japan); Maeda, Haruo, E-mail: h-maeda@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases.

  6. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. [Odontogenic foci and systemic diseases. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párkányi, László; Vályi, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Fráter, Márk

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present review is to provide an up-to-date picture of what we know about the connection between odontogenic foci and non-oral diseases. After a brief historical summary, we give an overview on how the odontogenic focus causes disease in distant areas of the body in general, and then we start the discussion of the particular conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The review is centered around the two main odontogenic foci: periodontitis and periapical periodontitis, the latter being a widely recognized but rarely discussed oral focus. Finally, we offer a few considerations that the practicing dentist may find useful when dealing with odontogenic foci. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(11): 415-422.

  8. Cervical Adjacent Segment Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Özbek, Zühtü; Özkara, Emre; Yağmur, İpek; Arslantaş, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cervical adjacent segment disease; is the general name ofdisc pathologies that develop in adjacent levels after cervical surgery. If thecervical adjacent segment disease that do not require reoperation and it doesnot cause clinical signs is called radiological cervical adjacent segmentpathology, but those causing radiculopathy, myelopathy or instability is calledclinic cervical adjacent segment pathology. The incidence of cervical adjacentsegment disease in 10-year follow-up is 2.4% -2.9%. Wh...

  9. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  10. 67. Do prenatal intracardiac echogenic foci affect postnatal cardiac function?

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    R. Bader

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Echogenic foci in the prenatal hear is not an uncommon finding. To determine whether prenatally diagnosed intracardiac echogenic foci are associated with neonatal cardiac dysfunction and persistence. Fetuses in which intracardiac echogenic foci were shown on prenatal sonography at 1 perinatal center from (September 2009 to December 2013 underwent postnatal echocardiography at ages 1 month to1 year. A single pediatric cardiologist assessed cardiac function by measuring the left ventricular shortening fraction and myocardial performance index. The presence of tricuspid valve regurgitation was also sought. Prenatally 60 fetuses had intracardiac echogenic foci mean age ± SD at diagnosis (23 ± 3.1. 53 (88.3% had left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci, and 7 (11.6% had right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci. 12 preganant ladies were lost for follow up (2 fetuses of 7 (28.5% with right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci., and 10 fetuses of 53 (18.8% with LV intracardiac echogenic foci %. Post natally, those infants, 32 (66.6% males and 16 (33.3% females were examined. At a mean age ± SD of 7.4 ± 3.1 months. Prenatally, all infants had a normal left ventricular shortening fraction. The overall mean left ventricular myocardial performance index (reference value, 0.36 ± 0.06, was normal for both infants with left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci (0.32 ± 0.01 and those with right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci (0.33 ± 0.05. Trace tricuspid valve regurgitation were noted in 15 (31% of the infants. Left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci persisted in 15 infants (34.8%, whereas right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci persisted in 1 infant (20%. Prenatally diagnosed intracardiac echogenic foci can be persistent but is not associated with myocardial dysfunction in the first year of life.

  11. Dentigenous infectious foci ? a risk factor of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Kr?l, Irena; S?jka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired hear...

  12. PMEL EcoFOCI Early Arctic Data, 1986-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Early Arctic Data, 1987 - 1991

  13. Study of metastatic foci by CT in autopsied lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mitsuru; Nobe, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Kyoichi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors reexamined all of the image diagnoses made during whole hospitalization in 11 lung cancer cases with autopsy. Of 39 metastatic foci observed at autopsy in the liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal and brain, 12 had been diagnosed on transverse CT images before death. Three foci were missed at initial readings. The period from CT to autopsy was less than 3 months for 9 of 12 correctly diagnosed foci. For 13 of 27 foci undetected by CT, CT was conducted more than 3 months before death. (Chiba, N)

  14. PMEL EcoFOCI Shelikof Line 8 Data, 1981-open

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Shelikof Line 8 Data

  15. Adjacent segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  16. Dentigenous infectious foci – a risk factor of infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Sójka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired heart disease, along with the presence at least 2 odontogenic infectious foci (ie, 2 or more teeth with gangrenous pulp and periodontitis). The group had earlier been qualified for the procedure of heart valve replacement. Swabs of removed heart valve tissue with inflammatory lesions and blood were then examined microbiologically. Swabs of root canals and their periapical areas, of periodontal pockets, and of heart valves were also collected. Results Microbial flora, cultured from intradental foci, blood and heart valves, fully corresponded in 14 patients. This was accompanied in almost all cases by more advanced periodontitis (2nd degree, Scandinavian classification), irrespective of the bacterial co-occurrence mentioned. In the remaining patients, such consistency was not found. Conclusions Among various dentigenous, infectious foci, the intradental foci appear to constitute a risk factor for infective endocarditis. PMID:22293883

  17. Dentigenous infectious foci - a risk factor of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Krol, Irena; Sójka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-02-01

    Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired heart disease, along with the presence at least 2 odontogenic infectious foci (ie, 2 or more teeth with gangrenous pulp and periodontitis). The group had earlier been qualified for the procedure of heart valve replacement. Swabs of removed heart valve tissue with inflammatory lesions and blood were then examined microbiologically. Swabs of root canals and their periapical areas, of periodontal pockets, and of heart valves were also collected. Microbial flora, cultured from intradental foci, blood and heart valves, fully corresponded in 14 patients. This was accompanied in almost all cases by more advanced periodontitis (2nd degree, Scandinavian classification), irrespective of the bacterial co-occurrence mentioned. In the remaining patients, such consistency was not found. Among various dentigenous, infectious foci, the intradental foci appear to constitute a risk factor for infective endocarditis.

  18. Fluorescent foci quantitation for high-throughput analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ledesma-Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of cellular proteins localize to discrete foci within cells, for example DNA repair proteins, microtubule organizing centers, P bodies or kinetochores. It is often possible to measure the fluorescence emission from tagged proteins within these foci as a surrogate for the concentration of that specific protein. We wished to develop tools that would allow quantitation of fluorescence foci intensities in high-throughput studies. As proof of principle we have examined the kinetochore, a large multi-subunit complex that is critical for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Kinetochore perturbations lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Hence, understanding kinetochore homeostasis and regulation are important for a global understanding of cell division and genome integrity. The 16 budding yeast kinetochores colocalize within the nucleus to form a single focus. Here we have created a set of freely-available tools to allow high-throughput quantitation of kinetochore foci fluorescence. We use this ‘FociQuant’ tool to compare methods of kinetochore quantitation and we show proof of principle that FociQuant can be used to identify changes in kinetochore protein levels in a mutant that affects kinetochore function. This analysis can be applied to any protein that forms discrete foci in cells.

  19. Adjacent segment degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Birjandi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is defined as degeneration that develops at mobile segments above or below a fused spinal segment and usually develops after spinal fusion or other back surgeries. Nearly 5 decades ago, the medical findings related to ASD were usually released in case reports as a relatively unusual complication of lumbar or lumbosacral fusions. Since the initial reports, ASD has been found to occur more often than the earlier predictions for its prospect incidence. It...

  20. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

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    Mathiak Krystyna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Methods Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE. Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG examinations. Results We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  1. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  2. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  3. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  4. Molecular mechanisms in DM1 - a focus on foci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    -expanded RNA remains in the nuclear compartment, while in dividing cells such as fibroblasts a considerable fraction of the mutant RNA reaches the cytoplasm, consistent with findings that both nuclear and cytoplasmic events are mis-regulated in DM1. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear aggregates......, or ribonuclear foci, are more dynamic than previously anticipated and regulated by several proteins, including RNA helicases. In this review, we focus on the homeostasis of DMPK mRNA foci and discuss how their dynamic regulation may affect disease-causing mechanisms in DM1...

  5. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  6. Bionomics of Geohelminth Nematodes in Contaminated Foci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted on the bionomics of geohelminths in contaminated foci in Abua communities using the Cobb's decanting and sieving method. The result of the study showed that eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides were 262 (44%), hookworm, 173 (29%) and Trichuris trichiura, 102 ...

  7. Bionomics of Geohelminth Nematodes in Contaminated Foci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted on the bionomics of geohelminths in contaminated foci in Abua communities using the Cobb's decanting and sieving method. The result of the study showed that eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides were 262 (44%), hookworm, 173 (29%) and Trichuris ...

  8. Formation of telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) foci in highly proliferating mouse cerebellar neuronal progenitors and medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Xiang, Chaomei; Molczan, Aliah; Baubet, Valérie; Conejo-Garcia, Jose; Xu, Xiaowei; Lieberman, Paul M; Dahmane, Nadia

    2012-09-15

    Telomeres play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and control of cellular senescence. Most eukaryotic telomeres can be transcribed to generate a telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) that persists as a heterogeneous nuclear RNA and can be developmentally regulated. However, the precise function and regulation of TERRA in normal and cancer cell development remains poorly understood. Here, we show that TERRA accumulates in highly proliferating normal and cancer cells, and forms large nuclear foci, which are distinct from previously characterized markers of DNA damage or replication stress. Using a mouse model for medulloblastoma driven by chronic Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, TERRA RNA was detected in tumor, but not adjacent normal cells using both RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and northern blotting. RNA FISH revealed the formation of TERRA foci (TERFs) in the nuclear regions of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. In the normal developing cerebellum, TERRA aggregates could also be detected in highly proliferating zones of progenitor neurons. SHH could enhance TERRA expression in purified granule progenitor cells in vitro, suggesting that proliferation signals contribute to TERRA expression in responsive tissue. TERRA foci did not colocalize with γH2AX foci, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) or Cajal bodies in mouse tumor tissue. We also provide evidence that TERRA is elevated in a variety of human cancers. These findings suggest that elevated TERRA levels reflect a novel early form of telomere regulation during replication stress and cancer cell evolution, and the TERRA RNA aggregates may form a novel nuclear body in highly proliferating mammalian cells.

  9. PMEL EcoFOCI Chukchi Sea profile data, 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Chukchi Sea. PMEL EcoFOCI data from a local source.

  10. Features of direct implantation in chronic foci of odontogenic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaryan А.А.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the developed therapeutic and prophylactic complex and efficacy of immediate implantation in 66 patients with chronic foci of odontogenic infection in the periapical region. Objective: to increase preventive measures of inflammatory and infectious complications and optimization of osteo-integrative processes in immediate implantation after tooth extraction, with periapical foci of chronic infection. It was found that the use of the developed medical complex of following up direct implantation includes the use of local photodynamic therapy, platelet, rich in fibrin as a injection and membranes; this allowed to create a favorable background for the prevention of inflammatory and infectious complications in the peri-implant area and created a favorable background for the osseo-integration of implants in 97.1% of the investigated.

  11. Acanthomatous ameloblastoma with atypical foci in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Jennifer L; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Powers, Barb E; Schaffer, Paula A

    2017-03-01

    Acanthomatous ameloblastoma is a common, locally invasive, nonmetastasizing tumor of the canine oral cavity. The long-term prognosis for canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma is good if complete excision can be achieved, usually by maxillectomy or mandibulectomy. A variant of acanthomatous ameloblastoma with atypical foci was noted in 5 dogs. There was no age, breed, or sex predisposition. Atypical cells were pleomorphic with a high mitotic rate. They were immunohistochemically negative for cytokeratin, vimentin, melan A, PNL2, CD3, Pax5, CD18, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, the atypical cells had modest amounts of electron-lucent cytoplasm, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, zonula adherens junctions, cleaved or irregular nuclei, and occasional cytoplasmic structures consistent with secretory granules or lysosomes. Complete excision was achieved by maxillectomy or mandibulectomy in 3 dogs; the lesion was incompletely excised in 2 dogs. No ancillary therapy was elected in any patient. No local recurrence or distant metastasis was reported in any case. One patient died of heart failure 20 mo following complete excision; all other patients were alive at last follow-up (average follow-up: 18.8 mo, range: 6-30 mo). The histogenesis of the atypical foci is unclear, but atypical foci within acanthomatous ameloblastoma do not appear to be associated with metastasis or with a poor prognosis relative to acanthomatous ameloblastoma with typical histologic morphology.

  12. Reliability of seizure semiology in patients with 2 seizure foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Kevin M; Schäuble, Barbara; Fessler, A James; So, Elson L

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether seizure semiology is reliable in localizing and distinguishing seizures at 2 independent brain foci in the same patient. Two masked reviewers localized seizures from 2 foci by their clinical semiology and intracranial electroencephalograms (EEGs). Epilepsy monitoring unit of referral comprehensive epilepsy program. Seventeen consecutive patients (51 seizures) with sufficient video and intracranial EEG data were identified by reviewing medical records of 366 patients older than 10 years. The primary outcome measures were interobserver agreement between the 2 masked reviewers; the proportion of seizures localized by semiology; the proportion of localized seizures concordant with intracranial EEG localization; and comparison between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in latency of intracranial EEG seizure spread. Interobserver agreement was 41% (κ score, 0.16). Only 30 of 51 seizures (59%) were localized by seizure semiology. The focus localized by semiology was concordant with the location of intracranial EEG seizure onset in 16 of 30 seizures (53%). No significant difference was observed between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in relation to the speed with which the EEG discharge spread from the location of seizure onset to another lobar region (P = .09, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Clinical seizure semiology is not as useful as intracranial EEG in localizing seizure onset in patients with dual seizure foci.

  13. Analysis of ionizing radiation-induced foci of DNA damage repair proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veelen, Lieneke R. van; Cervelli, Tiziana; Rakt, Mandy W.M.M. van de; Theil, Arjan F.; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination requires an extensive set of proteins. Among these proteins are Rad51 and Mre11, which are known to re-localize to sites of DNA damage into nuclear foci. Ionizing radiation-induced foci can be visualized by immuno-staining. Published data show a large variation in the number of foci-positive cells and number of foci per nucleus for specific DNA repair proteins. The experiments described here demonstrate that the time after induction of DNA damage influenced not only the number of foci-positive cells, but also the size of the individual foci. The dose of ionizing radiation influenced both the number of foci-positive cells and the number of foci per nucleus. Furthermore, ionizing radiation-induced foci formation depended on the cell cycle stage of the cells and the protein of interest that was investigated. Rad51 and Mre11 foci seemed to be mutually exclusive, though a small subset of cells did show co-localization of these proteins, which suggests a possible cooperation between the proteins at a specific moment during DNA repair

  14. ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Remotely sensed thermal-infrared spectral data can be used to derive surface temperature of any object if the optical and thermal properties are known. In this study 1M band six has been used to assess the spatial variability of the kinetic temperature of the central Ethiopian rift lakes and adjacent highlands.

  15. ANALYSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS INCIDENCE IN THE INFECTIOUS FOCI IN DAGESTAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Gireev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the investigation in 144 tuberculous foci and examination of 272 persons living in those foci and contacting with tuberculosis cases. It has been found out that outside tuberculous infectious foci a significant number of people is still exposed to tuberculous infection. During 5 years the average annual incidence in those exposed to tuberculous infection made 1176.5 per 100,000 pop., which is 32.2 fold higher than the rate for general population. In order to enhance efficiency of tuberculosis control activities in infectious tuberculous foci it is feasible to increase the territory coverage and duration of follow-up period.

  16. Theoretical and empirical linkages between workrelated commitment foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available No study has been reported thus far in the commitment literature which clarifies the relationship between six workrelated foci on a comparable theoretical basis. Such a comparison was made possible by the development of six instruments to operationalise involvement, commitment towards work, job, occupation, career, union and school as cognitive predispositions. A random, proportionally stratified sample of 510 teachers was drawn from 184 schools and a population of 4166 teachers from a previous provincial department of education. Only 279 of the 385 usuable questionnaires were fully completed and used for final analysis. A second-order factor analysis yielded four factors which explain about 66 of the total variance. These factors named "workaholism", "organisational-related involvement, commitment", "union commitment", and "work-related alienation" seem to be relative independent factors. No support for the existence of six separate foci could be found. Opsomming Geen studie is tot dusver in die verbondenheidliteratuur gerapporteer wat die verhouding tussen ses werkverwante foki op 'n vergelykbare teoretiese basis ophelder nie. So 'n vergelyking is moontlik gemaak deur die ontwikkeling van ses instrumente om betrokkenheid, verbondenheid tot werk, pos, beroep, loopbaan, vakbond en skool as kognitiewe predisposisies te operasionaliseer. 'n Ewekansige, proporsioneel-gestratifiseerde steekproef van 510 onderwysers is by 184 skole en 'n populasie van 4166 onderwysers van 'n vorige provinsiale onderwysdepartement getrek. Slegs 279 van die 385 bruikbare vraelyste was volledig voltooi en is vir finale ontleding gebruik. 'n Tweedeorde-faktorontleding het vier faktore opgelewer wat ongeveer 66 van die totale variansie verklaar. Hierdie faktore is "werkbeheptheid", "organisasie-verwante betrokkenheid/verbondenheid", "vakbondverbondenheid" en "werk-verwante vervreemding" genoem wat skynbaar relatief-onafhanklike faktore is. Geen steun vir die bestaan van

  17. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L

    2016-04-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model.

  18. Predicting the Presence of Adjacent Infections in Septic Arthritis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Scott; Bernstein, Derek T; Daram, Shiva; Dawson, John; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gold standard for treatment of septic arthritis is urgent surgical debridement. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may identify osteomyelitis, subperiosteal abscesses, and intramuscular abscesses, which frequently occur with septic arthritis. If these adjacent infections are not recognized, initial treatment may be inadequate. The purpose of this study is to develop a prediction algorithm to distinguish septic arthritis with adjacent infections from isolated septic arthritis to determine which patients should undergo preoperative MRI. An IRB-approved retrospective review of 87 children treated for septic arthritis was performed. All patients underwent MRI. Sixteen variables (age, sex, temperature, WBC, CRP, ESR, ANC, hematocrit, platelet count, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, symptom duration, weight-bearing status, prior antibiotic therapy, and prior hospitalization) from admission were reviewed. Graphical and logistical regression analysis was used to determine variables independently predictive of adjacent infection. Optimal cutoff values were determined for each variable and a prediction algorithm was created. Finally, the model was applied to our patient database and each patient with isolated septic arthritis or adjacent infection was stratified based upon the number of positive predictive factors. A total of 36 (41%) patients had isolated septic arthritis and 51 (59%) had septic arthritis with adjacent foci. Five variables (age above 3.6 y, CRP>13.8 mg/L, duration of symptoms >3 d, platelets 8.6×10 cells/μL) were found to be predictive of adjacent infection and were included in the algorithm. Patients with ≥3 risk factors were classified as high risk for septic arthritis with adjacent infection (sensitivity: 90%, specificity: 67%, positive predictive value: 80%, negative predictive value: 83%). Age, CRP, duration of symptoms, platelet count, and ANC were predictive of adjacent infections. Patients who met

  19. Effect of dibutylnitrosamine and saccharin on glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci and liver cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M A; Herren, S L; Britt, A L

    1983-01-01

    Consistent with the proposed precursor relationship of GGTase-positive foci to hepatocarcinogenesis, the induction of foci by DBN was associated with the induction of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma and the concurrent administration of sodium saccharin in the diet with DBN in the drinking water increased the tumorigenic response in the liver to DBN. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4.

  20. Preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging, electrocorticography, surgery and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Xu Wengui; Chen Hongyan; Weng Yongmei; Yang Pinghua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The value of preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging was investigated. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 patients with intractable partial seizures which was difficult to control with anticonvulsant for long period. In order to preoperatively locate the epileptic foci, double SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed during interictal and ictal stage. The foci were confirmed with electrocorticography (EcoG), surgery and pathology. Results: The author checked with EcoG the foci shown by SPECT, 23 patients had all typical spike discharge. The regions of radioactivity increase in ictal matched with the abnormal electrical activity areas that EcoG showed. The spike wave originated in the corresponding cerebrum cortex instead of hyperplastic and adherent arachnoid or tumor itself. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging contributes to distinguishing location, size, perfusion and functioning of epileptogenic foci, and has some directive function on to making out a treatment programme at preoperation

  1. [Predictors for abundance of Rattus tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia-xiang; Zhong, You-hong; Du, Chun-hong; Dong, Xing-qi; Yang, Shu-hui

    2013-02-01

    To explore the predictors on the abundance of Rattus (R.) tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci. Thirty natural villages that experienced previous plague cases in Lianghe county, Yunnan province, were selected followed by random selection of 20 households in each village through computer technique. Live traps were set in households to capture small mammals which were then identified to species in the field according to their morphological features. Data on potential factors for abundance of R. tanezumi were collected through questionnaires and field observation and were coded and computerized using EpiData software and further analyzed by hurdle regression model under R software. A total of 166 rodents (133 R. tanezumi and 33 Suncus murinus) were captured. from final multilevel hurdle regression model showed that the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures increased by 1.67- to 2.76-fold in households belonged to Dai ethnic families that stored foodstuff in metal pail, often raising dogs, and having adjacent houses. The number of R. tanezumi captures increased by 2.18-fold in the villages where over 80% of the households would raise chickens. In the villages with communal latrine, the likelihood and the number of R. tanezumi capture increased 1.93-fold and 2.38-fold, respectively. While the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 45% - 61% in those households where there were cats and cattle being raised and maize grown in the village. The number of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 63% in the households where there were outside toilet. The abundance of R. tanezumi seemed to be closely related to the ecological environment factors. Programs on plague control and prevention should relate to ecological factors that influencing the abundance of R. tanezumi.

  2. Multiple foci of spatial attention in multimodal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2016-11-15

    The maintenance of sensory information in working memory (WM) is mediated by the attentional activation of stimulus representations that are stored in perceptual brain regions. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we measured tactile and visual contralateral delay activity (tCDA/CDA components) in a bimodal WM task to concurrently track the attention-based maintenance of information stored in anatomically segregated (somatosensory and visual) brain areas. Participants received tactile and visual sample stimuli on both sides, and in different blocks, memorized these samples on the same side or on opposite sides. After a retention delay, memory was unpredictably tested for touch or vision. In the same side blocks, tCDA and CDA components simultaneously emerged over the same hemisphere, contralateral to the memorized tactile/visual sample set. In opposite side blocks, these two components emerged over different hemispheres, but had the same sizes and onset latencies as in the same side condition. Our results reveal distinct foci of tactile and visual spatial attention that were concurrently maintained on task-relevant stimulus representations in WM. The independence of spatially-specific biasing mechanisms for tactile and visual WM content suggests that multimodal information is stored in distributed perceptual brain areas that are activated through modality-specific processes that can operate simultaneously and largely independently of each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple foci of splenic tissue autotransplantation: Splenosis in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.; Drewa, S.; Lasek, W.; Pilecki, S.; Junik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Splenosis is usually defined as an autotransplantation of lienal tissue in the abdomen or cest following trauma to the spleen and/or splenectomy. The authors present the case of patient 15 years after a splenectomy performed because of extensive abdominal trauma. A new computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed multiple homogenous nodules, different in size, spread in the abdomen. Their density was characteristic of spleen. Ultrasound examination revealed only the largest tumors, located close to the liver and apparently isoechogenic to it. Static scintigraphy and SPECT were performed to prove the presence of splenosis. After treating the patient with colloid sulfide, multiple foci of increased radioisotope accumulation were identified in the abdomen, extrahepatic at the same locations as the masses visible on the CT scans, which were comparable to splenic tissue. Nodules revealed during CT or abdominal US in patients previously treated by splenectomy require further imaging with static scintigraphy of the liver and spleen in order to confirm or exclude splenosis. (author)

  4. WNT7B in fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuten Travis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating interstitial pneumonia causing a loss of respiratory surface area due to a proliferative fibrotic response involving hyperplastic, hypertrophic, and metaplastic epithelium, cystic honeycomb change, septal expansion, and variable inflammation. Wnt (wingless signaling glycoproteins are known to be involved in lung development and tissue repair, and are up-regulated in patients with IPF. Based on previous qRT-PCR data showing increased Wnt7B in lungs of IPF patients, a systematic, quantitative examination of its tissue site distribution was undertaken. Methods Tissue samples from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC of 39 patients diagnosed with mild to severe IPF/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and 19 normal patients were examined for the immunolocalization of Wnt7B. Results In normal lung, moderate Wnt7B reactivity was confined to airway epithelium, smooth muscle of airways and vasculature, and macrophages. IPF lung showed strong Wnt7B reactivity in fibroblastic foci, dysplastic airway and alveolar epithelium, and in highly discrete subepithelial, basement membrane-associated regions. All reactive sites were sized and counted relative to specific microscopic regions. Those in the subepithelial sites were found in significantly greater numbers and larger relative area compared with the others. No reactive sites were present in normal patient controls. Conclusions The results demonstrate Wnt7B to be expressed at high concentrations in regions of active hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrotic change in IPF patients. In this context and its previously established biologic activities, Wnt7B would be expected to be of potential importance in the pathogenesis of IPF.

  5. Residual γH2AX foci as an indication of lethal DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banáth, Judit P; Klokov, Dmitry; MacPhail, Susan H; Banuelos, C Adriana; Olive, Peggy L

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that tumor cells exposed to some DNA damaging agents are more likely to die if they retain microscopically visible γH2AX foci that are known to mark sites of double-strand breaks. This appears to be true even after exposure to the alkylating agent MNNG that does not cause direct double-strand breaks but does produce γH2AX foci when damaged DNA undergoes replication. To examine this predictive ability further, SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells were exposed to 8 DNA damaging drugs (camptothecin, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, hydrogen peroxide, MNNG, temozolomide, and tirapazamine) and the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci 24 hours after a 30 or 60 min treatment was compared with the fraction of cells that lost clonogenicity. To determine if cells with residual repair foci are the cells that die, SiHa cervical cancer cells were stably transfected with a RAD51-GFP construct and live cell analysis was used to follow the fate of irradiated cells with RAD51-GFP foci. For all drugs regardless of their mechanism of interaction with DNA, close to a 1:1 correlation was observed between clonogenic surviving fraction and the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci 24 hours after treatment. Initial studies established that the fraction of cells that retained RAD51 foci after irradiation was similar to the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci and subsequently lost clonogenicity. Tracking individual irradiated live cells confirmed that SiHa cells with RAD51-GFP foci 24 hours after irradiation were more likely to die. Retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci appears to be indicative of lethal DNA damage so that it may be possible to predict tumor cell killing by a wide variety of DNA damaging agents simply by scoring the fraction of cells that retain γH2AX foci

  6. An empirical test of multiple foci of commitment in a work team environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, James Wallace

    1995-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been recognized as a multiple foci phenomenon with two of the more important foci being the work team and the organization as a whole. That organizational and team commitment can vary differentially has been established. However, research has not attempted to determine the antecedents that may cause them to do so. At the same time, a number of constructs that have been explored as antecedents of organizational commitment have also been recognized as having partic...

  7. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2...... of aberrant crypt foci were found in the IQ mice (31.8 +/- 5.2) than in the PhIP mice (0.5 +/- 0.3), After 10 weeks aberrant crypt foci were found in all dosed groups, The IQ mice had significantly more (P less than or equal to 0.001) small and total aberrant crypt foci than the other groups, AOM and DMH...... induced a higher percentage of medium or large sized aberrant crypt foci than PhIP or IQ, The interpretation of the aberrant crypt foci as precursor lesions for colon cancer in the PhIP and IQ mice is difficult because PhIP and IQ have not been reported to be colonic carcinogens, If cooked food mutagens...

  8. Patents and Antitrust: Application to Adjacent Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Economides; William N. Hebert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the intersection of patents and antitrust where a patent holder uses the monopoly power it possesses in the market for a patented product to exclude competitors in an adjacent market and attempt to monopolize or monopolize the adjacent market. The present scheme for awarding patents cannot judge when the issuance of a patent will lead to the appropriate balance between innovation and efficiency. Where a patent holder’s invention uses an interface with adjacent products, the patent ...

  9. Transcriptomic Profiling of High-Density Giardia Foci Encysting in the Murine Proximal Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Jonathan K; Nosala, Christopher; Scott, Erica Y; Nguyen, Kristofer F; Hagen, Kari D; Starcevich, Hannah N; Dawson, Scott C

    2017-01-01

    Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines. The dearth of information about the diversity of host-parasite interactions occurring within distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract has been exacerbated by a lack of methods to directly and non-invasively interrogate disease progression and parasite physiology in live animal hosts. By visualizing Giardia infections in the mouse gastrointestinal tract using bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of tagged parasites, we recently showed that parasites colonize the gut in high-density foci. Encystation is initiated in these foci throughout the entire course of infection, yet how the physiology of parasites within high-density foci in the host gut differs from that of cells in laboratory culture is unclear. Here we use BLI to precisely select parasite samples from high-density foci in the proximal intestine to interrogate in vivo Giardia gene expression in the host. Relative to axenic culture, we noted significantly higher expression (>10-fold) of oxidative stress, membrane transporter, and metabolic and structural genes associated with encystation in the high-density foci. These differences in gene expression within parasite foci in the host may reflect physiological changes associated with high-density growth in localized regions of the gut. We also identified and verified six novel cyst-specific proteins, including new components of the cyst wall that were highly expressed in these foci. Our in vivo transcriptome data support an

  10. Three-dimensional characterization of fibroblast foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark G.; Fabre, Aurélie; Schneider, Philipp; Cinetto, Francesco; Sgalla, Giacomo; Jogai, Sanjay; Alzetani, Aiman; Marshall, Ben G.; O’Reilly, Katherine M.A.; Warner, Jane A.; Lackie, Peter M.; Davies, Donna E.; Hansell, David M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Sinclair, Ian; Brown, Kevin K.; Richeldi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the fibroblast focus is a key histological feature representing active fibroproliferation. On standard 2D pathologic examination, fibroblast foci are considered small, distinct lesions, although they have been proposed to form a highly interconnected reticulum as the leading edge of a “wave” of fibrosis. Here, we characterized fibroblast focus morphology and interrelationships in 3D using an integrated micro-CT and histological methodology. In 3D, fibroblast foci were morphologically complex structures, with large variations in shape and volume (range, 1.3 × 104 to 9.9 × 107 μm3). Within each tissue sample numerous multiform foci were present, ranging from a minimum of 0.9 per mm3 of lung tissue to a maximum of 11.1 per mm3 of lung tissue. Each focus was an independent structure, and no interconnections were observed. Together, our data indicate that in 3D fibroblast foci form a constellation of heterogeneous structures with large variations in shape and volume, suggesting previously unrecognized plasticity. No evidence of interconnectivity was identified, consistent with the concept that foci represent discrete sites of lung injury and repair. PMID:27275013

  11. [An autopsy case of brain candidiasis in premature infant: morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Goto, N

    1993-07-01

    An autopsy case of brain candidiasis occurring in a premature infant is presented, and the morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci are described in detail with the aid of serial sections of the affected brain. The patient was a boy, who was born after 25 weeks of gestation and died on day 15. Candida foci were composed of two infectious forms of Candida (yeasts and pseudohyphae) and various inflammatory reactions of the host. They were widely disseminated in the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges and ventricular system. In view of their morphology, they were classified into the acute and chronic inflammatory types. The acute type foci, characterized by microabscess of infiltration of neutrophils, were large and localized predominantly in the cerebral white matter, fiber tracts, central grey matter of the midbrain, reticular formation, floor of fourth ventricle and subependymal germinal layer; most of the acute type foci were found in the watershed zones where the blood supply was considered to be poorer than the other parts of the brain parenchyma. In contrast, the chronic type foci, characterized by nodular proliferation of astrocytes, were small and localized in the grey matter (the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei) and the leptomeninges. This study suggests that Candida infection to the brain may occur by different two kinds of way correlating with the proper vasoarchitecture of brain. In addition, it is recommended to make a close examination of the maternal vagina, placenta and umbilical cord after delivery to detect the risk of Candida infection.

  12. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  13. A comprehensive statistical classifier of foci in the cell transformation assay for carcinogenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Giulia; Malkoc, Kasja; Corvi, Raffaella; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

    2017-12-01

    The identification of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals is currently mainly based on animal studies. The in vitro Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) are a promising alternative to be considered in an integrated approach. CTAs measure the induction of foci of transformed cells. CTAs model key stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and are able to detect both genotoxic and some non-genotoxic compounds, being the only in vitro method able to deal with the latter. Despite their favorable features, CTAs can be further improved, especially reducing the possible subjectivity arising from the last phase of the protocol, namely visual scoring of foci using coded morphological features. By taking advantage of digital image analysis, the aim of our work is to translate morphological features into statistical descriptors of foci images, and to use them to mimic the classification performances of the visual scorer to discriminate between transformed and non-transformed foci. Here we present a classifier based on five descriptors trained on a dataset of 1364 foci, obtained with different compounds and concentrations. Our classifier showed accuracy, sensitivity and specificity equal to 0.77 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84. The presented classifier outperforms a previously published model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjacent segment disease following cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Samuel K; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine surgery is broadly divided into fusion and nonfusion procedures. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common procedure, although adjacent segment disease following the surgery is an ongoing clinical concern. Adjacent segment cervical disease occurs in approximately 3% of patients per year, with an expected incidence of 25% within the first 10 years following fusion. Nonfusion procedures such as anterior diskectomy and posterior foraminotomy do not decrease the rate of adjacent segment disease compared with ACDF. Recently, enthusiasm has developed for artificial disk replacement as a motion-sparing alternative to fusion. To date, however, multiple clinical trials and subsequent follow-up studies have failed to demonstrate significant reduction of adjacent segment disease when artificial disk replacement is performed instead of fusion.

  15. Scintigraphy in detection of latent inflammatory foci in patients with pseudarthroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woy-Wojciechowski, J.; Zawadzinski, S.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of infected pseudarthroses is one of the most difficult problems in orthopaedic surgery. Presence of latent inflammatory foci may be a serious complication after bone grafting. In 14 cases of pseudarthroses radioisotope scanning demonstrated in 5 cases presence of additional latent inflammatory foci which gave cues as to the type and extent of surgical treatment. In all these cases evaluation of the local condition by X-ray examination was insufficient. Isotope scanning was useful for a radical surgical treatment making possible complete eradication of the inflammation and reducing thus the risk of inflammation recurrence at the site of the operation performed for achieving bone union or for implanting bone graft. (author)

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant contro...

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of mo...

  18. Evidence of dental screening for oral foci of infection in oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Pre-treatment dental screening of, amongst others, head-and-neck-cancer and hematology patients aims to identify and eliminate oral foci of infection to prevent oral problems during or post-treatment. The efficacy of dental screening in these patients is yet not evidence based. In particular in high

  19. TRPV1 expression on peritoneal endometriosis foci is associated with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo Gondim; e Silva, Júlio César Rosa; Ribeiro da Silva, Alfredo; Candido Dos Reis, Francisco José; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the expression of capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 [TRPV1]) in the peritoneal endometriosis foci of women with and without chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A case-control study was conducted on 49 women with endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy, 28 of whom had CPP and 21 without CPP. Samples from peritoneum of the rectouterine excavation (2 cm2) were obtained by laparoscopy, fixed in 4% formaldehyde, and underwent immunohistochemistry analysis using rabbit anti-TRPV1 (1:400) polyclonal antibody. Image analysis revealed that the immunoreactivity for TRPV1 was more frequent in specimens (endometriosis foci) from women with CPP (n = 15 of 28, 53.6%), compared to samples from the endometriosis foci of women without CPP (n = 6 of 21, 28.6%; P = .04). There was no correlation with duration, intensity of pain, or stage of the disease (endometriosis). The present study shows that TRPV1 expression in peritoneal endometriosis foci is related to CPP in women. However, this association is not related to the endometriosis stage. In view of the immunoreactivity for TRPV1 observed here, we believe that some endometriotic lesions may provide a scenario for TRPV1 to be tonically active and this activity may contribute to the underlying pathology of CPP.

  20. Liposarcoma of bone with osteosarcomatous foci: Case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, E.F. Jr.; Worsham, G.F.; Brower, A.C.

    1982-03-01

    A case of liposarcoma arising in bone with rare foci osteosarcoma is reported. In this case, the tumor metastasized to the lungs as osteosarcoma. This is the third documented case and the fourth known case in the literature. Its rarity is somewhat surprising considering the innumerable possibilities of differentiation of the mesenchyme elements present in the bone marrow.

  1. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  2. Morphological features and activity of estrogen receptors of endometrium and foci of adenomyosis in postmenopausal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sitnikova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the research of morphological features and activity of estrogen receptors of endometrium and foci of adenomyosis in postmenopausal patients. Materials and methods. 30 cases of adenomyosis were investigated in the presence of the hyperplastic processes in the endometrium (endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterine body and endometrial hyperplasia and without it (age changes in patients aged 51-73 years. We conducted immunohistochemical research and hematoxylin and eosin stain. IHC blocks were produced by the method of Tissue Microarray. The expression of estrogen markers was evaluated according to point system of general staining method for ER-status determining. Results. Morphological structure of eu- and ectopic endometrium was studied in the work in detail, according to comorbidity. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (G2 was diagnosed in 4 cases out of 10 in the group with the endometrial adenocarcinoma, and in 6 cases - level 2 of the nuclear atypia. It was revealed that morphological picture of adenomyosis in the presence of hyperplastic processes in the endometrium is characterized by the predominance of glandular component over stromal one in the ectopic endometrium. Significant differences between all the groups of the studied women during the estimation of the levels of the estrogen activity of the components of the eutopical endometrium were not revealed, with the exception of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Comparative analysis of our results with data of the other researchers was conducted. Conclusion. It was established that the foci of adenomyosis retain their activity, that is morphologically manifested as the foci of proliferation and secretion. The level of ER expression of eutopical endometrium dominates over the endometrium of adenomyosis foci in the presence of the endometrial adenocarcinoma and the atrophy of the endometrium. Low level of ER expression in stromal cells in comparison with the

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in epileptic foci using [I-123] IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six epileptic patients, whose ages ranged from 6 months to 16 years (a mean age, 8 years and 2 months), were examined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [I-123] N-isopropyl p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). Of these patients, 44 had partial seizures (PS) and 12 had generalized seizures (GS). SPECT revealed abnormality of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 24 PS patients (54.5%), being correlated with EEG abnormality. Among the 24 patients, 22 had a decreased rCBF and 2 others had an increased rCBF. According to the PS type, rCBF abnormality in the foci was less frequently observed for benign age-related partial epilepsy (2/9) than for the other types of partial epilepsy (22/35). Among 35 patients with the other types of partial epilepsy, SPECT showed foci in the frontal (12), central (3), parietal (4), temporal (6), and occipital (6) regions, and diffuse spike-wave or the lack of paroaxysmals (4). The EEG foci was of the left hemisphere in 12 patients, and of the right hemisphere in 18 patients. Higher incidence of rCBF abnormality was associated with the temporal, partietal, and frontal foci than with the occipital foci. There was no correlation between the incidence of rCBF abnormlaity and the frequency of seizure activities on EEG. Complex partial seizures had a tendency to be associated with rCBF abnormality. In comparing IMP uptake in evaluable 17 patients with a decreased rCBF, a mean %CBF in foci compared to that in the contralateral area was 91.9%. All of the 12 GS patients showed no focal reduction of rCBF around the cortex. Patients with tonic-clonic seizure and myoclonic seizure had almost normal IMP images. The IMP images of organic lesions were a marked reduction of rCBF. IMP-SPECT may also be suitable for evaluating the underlying organic and secondary involving disorders with epilepsy. (N.K.)

  4. Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Andy; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng; Gaggero, Pascal Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement

  5. Advances in infectious foci imaging using 99mTc radiolabelled antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedeh Fatemeh Mirshojaei

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods of infection diagnosis, relying on experimental tests and culture of organisms from infected foci have continued to developing new technologies and automation. Nuclear medicine is a reliable diagnostic technique capable to detect infectious foci in human disease. A wide range of radiolabeled agents have been evaluated for demonstrating their ability to distinguish microbial infectious lesions. New researches continue to be made on the use of radiolabeled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection would be useful in monitoring of disease treatment. Here, the new approaches of infection scintigraphic imaging by radiolabeled antibiotics are thoroughly discussed in order to assess and compare their diagnostic value as targeting imaging radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  6. MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF THE DISEASE IN THE FOCI OF DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sh. Abildaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes contamination factors in children and adolescents from the foci of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The analysis of a study of these disease sources, the people who discontinued treatment and contacted with the children and adolescents in the foci demonstrated that these were mainly male alcoholics, as well as unemployed, intensive-phase therapy non-compliant inpatients, patients who went home without permission; 16% of them had convictions. The contacted children and adolescents from a group of patients who discontinued treatment were significantly more frequently stated to have a hyperergic response to tuberculin (10.8% than those who continued treatment (3.4% (p ≤ 0.05. Two children and 3 adolescents (15% fell ill in the treatment discontinuation group. One (3.0% adolescent did in the treatment continuation group (p ≤ 0.05.

  7. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, D K; Okelo, G B; Ndegwa, C W; Ashford, R W

    1993-01-01

    Active case detection and investigations of sandfly resting places in suspected transmission sites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley resulted in the identification of several foci of the disease in Samburu, Isiolo, Laikipia, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts. The foci occurred in areas ranging from semi-arid lowlands at 400 m altitude to highland plateaux at 2500 m, including the floor of the Rift Valley, and were mostly inhabited by recently settled communities, nomads and migrant charcoal burners. Four species of Phlebotomus, 3 of the subgenus Larroussius (P. pedifer, P. aculeatus and P. guggisbergi) and one Paraphlebotomus (P. saevus) were collected from caves, rock crevices and tree hollows found in river valleys and in lava flows.

  8. Additional decompression at adjacent segments leads to adjacent segment degeneration after PLIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Masayuki; Ikeda, Osamu; Ohtori, Seiji; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu; Someya, Yukio; Shibayama, Masataka; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Ooi, Toshio; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-08-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) is one of the major complications of lumbar fusion. Several previous retrospective studies reported ASD after PLIF. However, few reports evaluated whether decompression surgery combined with fusion surgery increases the rate of complications in adjacent segments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the degeneration in decompressed adjacent segments after PLIF. A total of 23 patients (12 men, 11 women; average age, 58.6) who underwent PLIF surgery [1 level (n = 9), 2 levels (n = 8), 3 levels (n = 4), 4 levels (n = 2)] were included. Additional adjacent decompression above or below the level of interbody fusion was performed at 25 levels and no adjacent decompression was performed at 15 levels. We retrospectively investigated ASD by X-ray films of all 40 adjacent segments (above and below fusion level) and clinical outcomes of all 23 cases. Of the 40 adjacent segments, 19 (47.5%) showed ASD and 9 (22.5%) showed symptomatic ASD. In the 19 segments with ASD, ASD occurred in 16 of 25 (64.0%) segments at decompressed sites compared with 3 of 15 (20.0%) non-decompressed sites. The ratio of ASD in adjacent segments was significantly higher at decompressed sites than at non-decompressed sites (p < 0.01). ASD occurs frequently in association with additional decompression above or below the level of PLIF. In cases in which the adjacent segments require decompression, a surgical strategy that preserves as much of the posterior complex as possible should be selected.

  9. Imaging Features that Discriminate between Foci Induced by High- and Low-LET Radiation in Human Fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Boissiere, Arnaud; Ravani, Shraddha; Romano, Raquel; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the formation of radiation-induced foci in normal human fibroblasts exposed to X rays or 130 keV/mum nitrogen ions using antibodies to phosphorylated protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATMp) and histone H2AX(gamma-H2AX). High-content automatic image analysis was used to quantify the immunofluorescence of radiation-induced foci. The size of radiation-induced foci increased for both proteins over a 2-h period after nitrogen-ion irradiation, while the size of radiation-induced foci did not change after exposure to low-LET radiation. The number of radiation-induced ATMp foci showed a more rapid rise and greater frequency after X-ray exposure and was resolved more rapidly such that the frequency of radiation-induced foci decreased by 90 percent compared to 60 percent after exposure to high-LET radiation 2 h after 30 cGy. In contrast, the kinetics of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX focus formation was similar for high- and low-LET radiation in that it reached a plateau early and remained constant for up to 2 h. High-resolution 3D images of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX foci and dosimetry computation suggest that multiple double-strand breaks from nitrogen ions are encompassed within large nuclear domains of 4.4 Mbp. Our work shows that the size and frequency of radiation-induced foci vary as a function of radiation quality, dose, time and protein target. Thus, even though double-strand breaks and radiation-induced foci are correlated, the dynamic nature of both contradicts their accepted equivalence for low doses of different radiation qualities

  10. Identifying Residual Foci of Plasmodium falciparum Infections for Malaria Elimination: The Urban Context of Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nourein, Amal B.; Abass, Mohammed A.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D.; El Hassan, Ibrahim; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identifying the location and size of residual foci of infections is critical where malaria elimination is the primary goal. Here the spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum infections within the urban extent of Khartoum state in Sudan is investigated using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from 1999 to 2008 to inform the Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative (KMFI).Methods: From 1999-2008 the KMFI undertook cross-sectional surveys of 256 clusters across 203 random sam...

  11. Toxicologic Evaluation of Trichloroacetic Acid: Effects on Rat Liver Peroxisomes and Enzyme Altered Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    with me, gave me three very beautiful and bright children , and makes my life worth living, I can only say I Love You and always will! mr-; * vii TABLE OF...34fix" the change. D. Promotion Promotion is the process in which the initiated cells are stimulated to become foci, nodules, papillomas, or polyps , which...same cellular gene was activated in each case (155). Analysis of the transforming genes in spontaneously occurring human colon carcinoma, bladder

  12. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, George S.; Pelekanis, Mihalis; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Ververidis, Haris N.; Kaldrymidou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomy...

  13. Domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njiokou F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the historic foci in West and Central Africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. In some HAT foci, pigs were found infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog commonly found in the four active HAT foci in Cameroon (Bipindi, Fontem, Campo and Doumé. Blood samples were collected from 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs and used for parasitological (QBC, immunological (LiTat 1.3 CATT and molecular (PCR analyses. QBC detected trypanosomes in 3.88 % domestic animals while 22.7 % were sero-positive with LiTat 1.3 CATT tests. Of the 875 animals analysed, 174 (19.88 % harboured T. brucei s.l. DNA, found in each of the four types of animal and in the four localities. The infection rate significantly differed among the animal species (p < 0.0001 and localities (p < 0.0001. The PCR also revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 27 (3.08 % domestic animals. The specific infection rates were as follows: sheep (6.74 %, goats (3.08 %, pigs (0.32 % and dogs (0 %. T. b. gambiense was found in 8 (3.92 % animals from Bipindi, 15 (4.83 % from Campo, 4 (2.59 % from Fontem-Center and none from Doumé. The infection rates significantly differed between the localities, and correlated with the intensity of HAT transmission in the foci.

  14. Motor correlates of models of secondary bilateral synchrony and multiple epileptic foci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiruška, Přemysl; Prokš, J.; Otáhal, Jakub; Mareš, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2007), s. 627-635 ISSN 1059-1311 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/03/0770; GA ČR GA304/05/2582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : epileptic foci * secondary bilateral synchrony * neocortex Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2007

  15. Linking motivation to presenteeism and absenteeism: The role of the discrepancy between two identification foci.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauzier, Martin; Delobbe, Nathalie; Foucher, Roland; 17th annual congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology

    2015-01-01

    Organizational identification (OI) can be defined as the perception of oneness with and belongingness to the organization (Ashforth & Mael, 1989). OI can be judged from different angles (see foci): the identification one’s hold toward the organization he work for or the identification one’s report having toward the job (or position) he currently hold within that particular organization. According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance produces discomfort for employees and, correspondingly...

  16. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with Adjacent Resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  17. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with adjacent resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  18. Rapid identification of paragonimiasis foci by lay informants in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Odermatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis leading to lung disease. Worldwide, an estimated 21 million people are infected. Foci of ongoing transmission remain often unnoticed. We evaluated a simple questionnaire approach using lay-informants at the village level to identify paragonimiasis foci and suspected paragonimiasis cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in an endemic area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. Leaders of 49 remote villages in northern Vientiane Province were asked to notify suspected paragonimiasis patients using a four-item questionnaire sent through administrative channels: persons responding positively for having chronic cough (more than 3 weeks and/or blood in sputum with or without fever. We validated the village leaders' reports in ten representative villages with a door-to-door survey. We examined three sputa of suspected patients for the presence of Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. 91.8% of village leaders participated and notified a total of 220 suspected patients; 76.2% were eventually confirmed; an additional 138 suspected cases were found in the survey. Sensitivity of village leaders' notice for "chronic cough" and "blood in sputum" was 100%; "blood in sputum" alone reached a sensitivity of 85.7%. SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach led to the identification of three previously unknown foci of transmission. A rapid and simple lay-informant questionnaire approach is a promising low-cost community diagnostic tool of paragonimiasis control programs.

  19. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-...... such as IQ or PhIP are to be used as initiators in the aberrant crypt foci test, the use of rats may be preferable.......The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...

  20. PCNA-dependent accumulation of CDKN1A into nuclear foci after ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rudolph, Jeanette Heede [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Jakob, Burkhard [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fink, Daniela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Tobias, Frank [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Blattner, Christine [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology and Genetics; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-03-26

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 confers cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage and inhibits DNA replication through its direct interaction with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Previously, we reported that in response to densely ionizing radiation CDKN1A rapidly is recruited to the sites of particle traversal, and that CDKN1A foci formation in response to heavy ions is independent of its transactivation by TP53. In this paper, we show that exposure of normal human fibroblasts to X-rays or to H2O2 also induces nuclear accumulations of CDKN1A. We find that CDKN1A foci formation in response to radiation damage is dependent on its dephosphorylation and on its direct physical interaction with PCNA. Live cell imaging analyses of ectopically expressed EGFP-CDKN1A and dsRed-PCNA show rapid recruitment of both proteins into foci after radiation damage. Detailed dynamic measurements reveal a slightly delayed recruitment of CDKN1A compared to PCNA, which is best described by bi-exponential curve fitting, taking the preceding binding of PCNA to DNA into account. Finally, we propose a regulatory role for CDKN1A in mediating PCNA function after radiation damage, and provide evidence that this role is distinct from its involvement in nucleotide excision repair and unrelated to double-strand break repair.

  1. Evaluation of three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung diseases with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Masamitsu

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung disease was evaluated by CT image, and it was examined whether each lung disease could be diagnosed by different distribution. Subjects were 120 cases (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 15 cases, sarcoidosis 23 cases, miliary tuberculosis 10 cases, diffuse panbronchiolitis 7 cases, chronic pulmonary emphysema 6 cases, pulmonary metastasis 9 cases, SLE 6 cases, PSS 8 cases, dermatomyositis (DM) 6 cases, RA 7 cases, SjS 9 cases and others 14 cases). CT image was obtained from apex to base of lung with 10 mm gapless. The image was divided into three parts in both head-tail direction and back-front direction, and two parts in cortex medulla direction, and the ratio of foci to whole in each part was evaluated in five phases, and the part with the highest ratio was determined as the predominant side. In idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis, miliary tuberculosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, chronic pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary metastasis, PSS and DM, the predominant side was confirmed, respectively, and usefulness of differential diagnosis was recognized. Constant distribution wasn't recognized in SLE, RA and SjS, because the state of disease was not always same in the foci of these diseases. (K.H.)

  2. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC SITUATION BY NATURAL-FOCI INFECTIONS IN THE CRIMEA FEDERAL DISTRICT IN 2014-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A-Yu; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Shaposhnikova, L I; Kotenev, E S; Dubyansky, V M; Volynkina, A S; Lisitskaya, Ya V; Samarina, I V; Penkovskaya, N A; Evstafiev, I L; Tovpinets, N N; Tsapko, N V; Belova, O A; Agapitov, D S; Samoded, T N; Nadolny, A A; Kovalenko, I S; Yakunin, S N; Shvarsalon, N K; Zinich, L S; Tikhonov, S N; Lyamkin, G I; Zharnikova, I V; Evchenko, Yu M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of epidemic manifestations of natural-foci infections (NFI), clarification of spectrum of their causative agents, determination of epizootic activity of natural foci in the Crimea Federal District (KFD). Epizootologic examination of 10 administrative districts of KDF was carried out. 291 pools (2705 specimens) of ixodes ticks and 283 samples of organs of small mammals were studied by PCRmethod for the presence of DNA/RNA of causative agents of a number of NFI. Morbidity by NFI in KFD was registered by 6 nosologies: Lyme borreliosis, Marseilles fever, leptospirosis; tularemia, intestine yersiniosis and tick-borne viral encephalitis, wherein, transmissive infections made up 91.6%. Circulation of causative agents of Crimea hemorrhagic fever, Q fever, group of tick-borne spotted fever, Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, West Nile fever, tularemia and leptospirosis was established. Due to activity of natural foci of NFI further monitoring of epidemiologic and epizootologic manifestations of these infections in the Crimea, including using genetic methods of analysis, is necessary for ensuring sanitary-epidemiologic welfare of KFD population.

  3. Evaluation of three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung diseases with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Masamitsu [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung disease was evaluated by CT image, and it was examined whether each lung disease could be diagnosed by different distribution. Subjects were 120 cases (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 15 cases, sarcoidosis 23 cases, miliary tuberculosis 10 cases, diffuse panbronchiolitis 7 cases, chronic pulmonary emphysema 6 cases, pulmonary metastasis 9 cases, SLE 6 cases, PSS 8 cases, dermatomyositis (DM) 6 cases, RA 7 cases, SjS 9 cases and others 14 cases). CT image was obtained from apex to base of lung with 10 mm gapless. The image was divided into three parts in both head-tail direction and back-front direction, and two parts in cortex medulla direction, and the ratio of foci to whole in each part was evaluated in five phases, and the part with the highest ratio was determined as the predominant side. In idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis, miliary tuberculosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, chronic pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary metastasis, PSS and DM, the predominant side was confirmed, respectively, and usefulness of differential diagnosis was recognized. Constant distribution wasn't recognized in SLE, RA and SjS, because the state of disease was not always same in the foci of these diseases. (K.H.)

  4. A clinical study on the detection of epileptogenic foci in epileptics using computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Eiki

    1979-01-01

    EEG findings of partial epilepsy were classified as localized abnormality in 65%, diffuse abnormality in 21% and borderline in 14% of cases. Abnormal CT findings of partial epilepsy were observed in 37% of the patients. These findings consisted of localized abnormalities in 68% and diffuse abnormalities in 32% of cases, and these were classified into 4 groups; localized or diffuse cerebral atrophy, localized low density, localized or multiple disseminated high density (calicification) and localized enhancement with contrast medium. Abnormal CT findings were more frequent in the cases of onset under 10 years of age. The incidence of CT abnormality seemed to be higher in the cases with continuous, especially continuous localized EEG abnormality, than in the cases with the other types of EEG abnormality. In the 16 cases out of 37 with CT abnormality, that is in 43% of the cases, the location of abnormal CT findings was coincident with that of their EEG foci. And epileptogenic foci were verified in 16% of all the patients. Cerebral angiography showed various and precise vascular abnormalities in 82% of these cases. And the CT abnormal group of patients was inferred to have considerable histopathological changes in the epileptogenic foci, but the group with normal CT images did not yield such significant findings. In comparison with partial epilepsy, 100 cases of generalized epilepsy were studied, and CT abnormalities were observed only in 16% of cases. Diffuse cerebral atrophy was naturally the most frequent kind of abnormal finding, and localized abnormalities were not so frequent in generalized epilepsy. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Sp100 colocalizes with HPV replication foci and restricts the productive stage of the infectious cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley H Stepp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that Sp100 (a component of the ND10 nuclear body represses transcription, replication and establishment of incoming human papillomavirus (HPV DNA in the early stages of infection. In this follow up study, we show that Sp100 does not substantially regulate viral infection in the maintenance phase, however at late stages of infection Sp100 interacts with amplifying viral genomes to repress viral processes. We find that Sp100 localizes to HPV16 replication foci generated in primary keratinocytes, to HPV31 replication foci that form in differentiated cells, and to HPV16 replication foci in CIN 1 cervical biopsies. To analyze this further, Sp100 was down regulated by siRNA treatment of differentiating HPV31 containing cells and levels of viral transcription and replication were assessed. This revealed that Sp100 represses viral transcription and replication in differentiated cells. Analysis of Sp100 binding to viral chromatin showed that Sp100 bound across the viral genome, and that binding increased at late stages of infection. Therefore, Sp100 represses the HPV life cycle at both early and late stages of infection.

  6. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  7. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  9. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2010 BEST and BSIERP Study 1WE10/WE10-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem & Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (Eco-FOCI) is an effort by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and associated...

  10. Imaging Features that Discriminate between Foci Induced by High-and Low-LET Radiation in Human Fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Boissiere, Arnaud; Ravani, Shraddha; Romano,Raquel; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-10-08

    In this study, we investigated the formation ofradiation-induced foci in normal human fibroblasts exposed to X rays or130 keV/mum nitrogen ions using antibodies to phosphorylated proteinkinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATMp) and histone H2AX(gamma-H2AX). High-content automatic image analysis was used to quantifythe immunofluorescence of radiation-induced foci. The size ofradiation-induced foci increased for both proteins over a 2-h periodafter nitrogen-ion irradiation, while the size of radiation-induced focidid not change after exposure to low-LET radiation. The number ofradiation-induced ATMp foci showed a more rapid rise and greaterfrequency after X-ray exposure and was resolved more rapidly such thatthe frequency of radiation-induced foci decreased by 90 percent comparedto 60 percent after exposure to high-LET radiation 2 h after 30 cGy. Incontrast, the kinetics of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX focus formationwas similar for high- and low-LET radiation in that it reached a plateauearly and remained constant for up to 2 h. High-resolution 3D images ofradiation-induced gamma-H2AX foci and dosimetry computation suggest thatmultiple double-strand breaks from nitrogen ions are encompassed withinlarge nuclear domains of 4.4 Mbp. Our work shows that the size andfrequency of radiation-induced foci vary as a function of radiationquality, dose, time and protein target. Thus, even though double-strandbreaks and radiation-induced foci are correlated, the dynamic nature ofboth contradicts their accepted equivalence for low doses of differentradiation qualities.

  11. Age-related disease association of endogenous γ-H2AX foci in mononuclear cells derived from leukapheresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd H Schurman

    Full Text Available The phosphorylated form of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX forms immunohistochemically detectable foci at DNA double strand breaks. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from leukapheresis from patients enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, γ-H2AX foci increased in a linear fashion with regards to age, peaking at ~57 years. The relationship between the frequency of γ-H2AX foci and age-related pathologies was assessed. We found a statistically significant (p = 0.023 50% increase in foci in PBMCs derived from patients with a known history of vitamin D deficiency. In addition, there were trends toward increased γ-H2AX foci in patients with cataracts (34% increase, p<0.10 and in sleep apnea patients (44%, p<0.10. Among patients ≥57 y/o, we found a significant (p = 0.037 36% increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci/cell for patients with hypertension compared to non-hypertensive patients. Our results support a role for increased DNA damage in the morbidity of age-related diseases. γ -H2AX may be a biomarker for human morbidity in age-related diseases.

  12. Spondylolisthesis adjacent to a cervical disc arthroplasty does not increase the risk of adjacent level degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, David Christopher; Cawley, Derek Thomas; Roscop, Cecile; Mazas, Simon; Coudert, Pierre; Boissiere, Louis; Obeid, Ibrahim; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pointillart, Vincent; Gille, Olivier

    2018-03-31

    To understand whether a spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranial to a cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) construes a risk of adjacent level disease (ALD). A retrospective review of 164 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up of a cervical disc arthroplasty was performed. Multi-level surgeries, including hybrid procedures, were included. Multiple implant types were included. The two inter-vertebral discs (IVD) cranial of the CDA were monitored for evidence of radiologic degeneration using the Kettler criteria. The rate of ALD in CDA found in this series was 17.8%, with most affecting the immediately adjacent IVD (27.4 and 7.6%, respectively p = 0.000). Pre-operative mild spondylolisthesis adjacent to a planned CDA was not found to be a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. Those with a degenerative spondylolisthesis are at higher risk of ALD (33%) than those with a non-degenerative cause for their spondylolisthesis (11%). Post-operative CDA alignment, ROM or induced spondylolisthesis do not affect the rate of ALD in those with an adjacent spondylolisthesis. Patients with ALD experience significantly worse 5-year pain and functional outcomes than those unaffected by ALD. A pre-operatively identified mild spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranially adjacent to a planned CDA is not a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  13. Identifying residual foci of Plasmodium falciparum infections for malaria elimination: the urban context of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourein, Amal B; Abass, Mohammed A; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D; El Hassan, Ibrahim; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2011-02-23

    Identifying the location and size of residual foci of infections is critical where malaria elimination is the primary goal. Here the spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum infections within the urban extent of Khartoum state in Sudan is investigated using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from 1999 to 2008 to inform the Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative (KMFI). From 1999-2008 the KMFI undertook cross-sectional surveys of 256 clusters across 203 random samples of residential blocks in the urban Khartoum state in September of each year. Within sampled blocks, at least five persons, including at least one child under the age of five years, were selected from each household. Blood smears were collected from the sampled individuals to examine the presence of P. falciparum parasites. Residential blocks were mapped. Data were analysed for spatial clustering using the Bernoulli model and the significance of clusters were tested using the Kulldorff scan statistic. A total of 128,510 malaria slide examinations were undertaken during the study period. In 1999, overall prevalence was 2.5%, rising to 3.2% in 2000 and consistently staying below 1% in subsequent years. From 2006, over 90% of all surveyed clusters reported no infections. Spatial clustering of infections was present in each year but not statistically significant in the years 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2008. Spatial clusters of high infection were often located at the junction of the Blue and White Niles. Persisting foci of malaria infection in Khartoum are likely to distort wide area assessments and disproportionately affect future transmission within the city limits. Improved investments in surveillance that combines both passive and active case detection linked to a geographic information system and a more detailed analysis of the location and stability of foci should be undertaken to facilitate and track malaria elimination in the state of Khartoum.

  14. Identifying residual foci of Plasmodium falciparum infections for malaria elimination: the urban context of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal B Nourein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the location and size of residual foci of infections is critical where malaria elimination is the primary goal. Here the spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum infections within the urban extent of Khartoum state in Sudan is investigated using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from 1999 to 2008 to inform the Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative (KMFI.From 1999-2008 the KMFI undertook cross-sectional surveys of 256 clusters across 203 random samples of residential blocks in the urban Khartoum state in September of each year. Within sampled blocks, at least five persons, including at least one child under the age of five years, were selected from each household. Blood smears were collected from the sampled individuals to examine the presence of P. falciparum parasites. Residential blocks were mapped. Data were analysed for spatial clustering using the Bernoulli model and the significance of clusters were tested using the Kulldorff scan statistic.A total of 128,510 malaria slide examinations were undertaken during the study period. In 1999, overall prevalence was 2.5%, rising to 3.2% in 2000 and consistently staying below 1% in subsequent years. From 2006, over 90% of all surveyed clusters reported no infections. Spatial clustering of infections was present in each year but not statistically significant in the years 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2008. Spatial clusters of high infection were often located at the junction of the Blue and White Niles.Persisting foci of malaria infection in Khartoum are likely to distort wide area assessments and disproportionately affect future transmission within the city limits. Improved investments in surveillance that combines both passive and active case detection linked to a geographic information system and a more detailed analysis of the location and stability of foci should be undertaken to facilitate and track malaria elimination in the state of Khartoum.

  15. Hemangioblastic foci in human first trimester placenta: Distribution and gestational profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Whittaker, Hannah; Jana Lim, Yu Ting; Swietlik, Stefanie; Charnock, Jayne; Jones, Carolyn J P

    2015-10-01

    The human placenta is a site of both hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. There are reports of hemangioblastic foci (HAF) in the first trimester placenta, but little published information about their spatiotemporal incidence. We have used semi-thin sections and whole mount staining techniques on archival early pregnancy hysterectomy material as well as freshly-collected termination tissue. We report a description of the distribution of HAF, their gestational profile, and some characteristics of the constituent cells. We show crypt-shaped HAF are present in villi at different levels from 4 to 11 weeks and in the chorionic plate from 4 to 9 weeks. In the villous placenta, the foci often approach closely at one end to the trophoblast basement membrane. Morphologically they show remarkable similarity to those found in the yolk sac at similar stages. In some crypts, all cells are CD34+, but CD34 and nestin progressively segregate into the endothelial lineage. Brachyury is present in less differentiated cells. The erythroid lineage is dominant, as shown by the widespread expression of CD235a/glycophorin and characteristic erythroid morphologies, indicating various degrees of differentiation. However, CD41 is also present in non-endothelial cells. Initially a discontinuous UEA-1/CD31-positive endothelium forms at the periphery of the foci. These cells appear to become integrated into the developing vasculogenic/angiogenic vessel network. We also demonstrate that, independent of HAF, vasculogenesis occurs near the tips of growing villi during the first trimester. We suggest HAF interface with the developing vascular network, producing communication channels that allow erythrocytes to enter the placental-embryonic circulation. We speculate that the erythroid cells act as oxygen reservoirs during the period before flow of maternal blood through the intervillous space of the placenta, allowing a slow feed of oxygen-rich cells to the developing embryo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    Full Text Available Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci.We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks.Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  17. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  18. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P < 0.05). Subsequently, AD in the ipsilesional CP became relatively stable, while AD in the ipsilesional PMA significantly increased from W4 to W12 after stroke (P < 0.05). In all of the patients, changes in the FM scores were greater in those with higher changes in AD of the ipsilesional PMA. Only initial impairment or lesion volume was predictive of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  19. Why should I share my knowledge? A multiple foci of commitment perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas; van Rossenberg, Yvonne Gerarda Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: ‘How does...... employee commitment impact on knowledge sharing?’ We study professional service firms operating in cross-boundary environments and examine the impact of commitment to the organisation, profession, team and client on knowledge sharing. The article contributes directly to our understanding...... of the interrelationship between (a) the types and foci of commitment and (b) bidirectional knowledge sharing....

  20. Giardia Colonizes and Encysts in High-Density Foci in the Murine Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, N. R.; Nosala, C.; Pham, J. K.; McInally, S. G.; Gourguechon, S.; McCarthy-Sinclair, B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host. Here, we have developed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to directly interrogate and quantify the in vivo temporospatial dynamics of Giardia infection, thereby providing an improved murine model to evaluate anti-Giardia drugs. Using BLI, we determined that parasites primarily colonize the proximal small intestine nonuniformly in high-density foci. By imaging encystation-specific bioreporters, we show that encystation initiates shortly after inoculation and continues throughout the duration of infection. Encystation also initiates in high-density foci in the proximal small intestine, and high density contributes to the initiation of encystation in laboratory culture. We suggest that these high-density in vivo foci of colonizing and encysting Giardia likely result in localized disruption to the epithelium. This more accurate visualization of giardiasis redefines the dynamics of the in vivo Giardia life cycle, paving the way for future mechanistic studies of density-dependent parasitic processes in the host. IMPORTANCE Giardia is a single-celled parasite causing significant diarrheal disease in several hundred million people worldwide. Due to limited access to the site of infection in the gastrointestinal tract, our understanding of the dynamics of Giardia infections in the host has remained limited and largely inferred from laboratory culture. To better understand

  1. Smad7 foci are present in micronuclei induced by heavy particle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-08-30

    DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ionizing radiation (IR) activate DNA damage response (DDR) and cytokine signaling pathways, including double strand break (DSB) repair and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway. Proteins assembled at IR-induced DSB sites can be visualized as foci, including γH2AX, 53BP1, ATM and ATF2. Unrepaired DSBs are thought to be one origin of micronuclei (MN), an indicator of genotoxic stress and chromosomal instability. Studies have detected γH2AX in IR-induced MN, indicating the presence of DSB in MN. Previously we reported that TGFβ downstream proteins Smad7 and phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) co-localized with DDR proteins following radiation. Here we studied the status of Smad7 and pSmad2 in MN post high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in human normal and cancerous cells. We observed γH2AX foci in IR-induced MN, whereas 53BP1 and ATF2 were absent. Interestingly, Smad7 foci, but not pSmad2, were detectable in both spontaneous and IR-induced MN. We compared the effect of particle track structures on the yield of MN using 5.6MeV/u boron (B) and 600MeV/u iron (Fe) particles with similar LET (200 and 180keV/μm, respectively) in human fibroblasts. The frequency of MN induced by B was lower than that by Fe particles, albeit the proportion of Smad7-positive to Smad7-negative MN remained constant. An increased frequency of spontaneous MN, with slightly higher ratio of Smad7 or γH2AX positive, was found in human prostate cancer cells (PC3) compared to normal cells. 24h after 1Gy of Fe particles exposure, the yield of MN increased, and the majority (∼70%) carried γH2AX and Smad7. Phospho-ATM (Ser1981) foci were found in both spontaneous and IR-induced MN in PC3 cells, displaying a much lower frequency compared to γH2AX and Smad7. Our data suggest a unique role of Smad7 in IR-induced MN formation, which may associate with DNA repair, apoptosis and genomic instability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. [Possible influences of climatic changes on the spread and intensity of foci of some human helminthiases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamoshin, A S; Khodakova, V I

    2000-01-01

    Climatic changes on the Earth and in some of its regions have caused and will cause alterations in the natural and social factors which may influence the circulation of causative agents of helminthiases that develop both on land and in water with the participation of hydrobiont. These include changes in the size of the first and second intermediate hosts, in the hydrological conditions of water reservoirs, in the amount of precipitation, soil moisture, heat, etc. Therefore, the expected global warming may alter the areas of some helminths, the intensity of foci, etc.

  3. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Shiung Wang; Jia-Hao Chang; Ti-Sheng Chang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact sp...

  4. Sumoylation controls CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated clock resetting via CBP recruitment in nuclear transcriptional foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yool; Chun, Sung Kook; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-10-01

    CLOCK-BMAL1 is a key transcription factor complex of the molecular clock system that generates circadian gene expression and physiology in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that sumoylation of BMAL1 mediates the rapid activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CREB-binding protein (CBP) in nuclear foci and also the resetting of the circadian clock. Under physiological conditions, a bimolecular fluorescence complementation-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET) assay revealed that CLOCK-BMAL1 rapidly dimerized and formed a ternary complex with CBP in discrete nuclear foci in response to serum stimuli. We found that the formation of this ternary complex requires sumoylation of BMAL1 by SUMO3. These processes were abolished by both the ectopic expression of the SUMP2/3-specific protease, SUSP1, and mutation of the major sumoylation site (Lys259) of BMAL1. Moreover, molecular inhibition of BMAL1 sumoylation abrogated acute Per1 transcription and severely dampened the circadian gene oscillation triggered by clock synchronization stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest that sumoylation plays a critical role in the spatiotemporal co-activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CBP for immediate-early Per induction and the resetting of the circadian clock. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-01-01

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  6. Rat liver foci and in vitro assays to detect initiating and promoting effects of chlorinated ethanes and ethylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, H A; Story, D L; Riccio, E S; Sivak, A; Tu, A S; Williams, G M; Tong, C; Tyson, C A

    1988-01-01

    Nine chlorinated aliphatics (CAs) were examined in a rat liver foci assay for tumor initiating and promoting activities. In this model, young adult male Osborne Mendel rats were first subjected to a partial hepatectomy, the test chemical was then administered at the maximum tolerated dose in the initiation or promotion phase in conjunction with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 30 mg/kg b.w.) or phenobarbital (PB; 0.05 percent, w/w, in the diet), and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) was used as a putative preneoplastic indicator. When administered in the promotion protocol after initiation with DEN, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCE), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TTCE), tetrachloroethylene (TTCY), and hexachloroethane induced significant increases in GGT+-foci above control levels. 1,1,2,2-TTCE, TTCY, and 1,1,2-TCE also induced significant increases in GGT+-foci when administered in the promotion protocol without DEN initiation. Two variants of GGT+-foci were observed: the classical type associated with PB promotion, and the other, which was more diffuse, less intensely stained, resembling foci undergoing redifferentiation and associated with CAs. A number of CAs were also genotoxic in short-term in vitro tests. Taken together, the studies suggest that CAs may be complete carcinogens in vivo with weak initiating activity and stronger promoting activity.

  7. Imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes in the brain on susceptibility-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aida, Noriko; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Shishikura, Ayako [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Miyata, Daiki [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Circulation Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Microsusceptibility changes in the brain are well known to correspond with microbleeds or micrometal fragments in adults, but this phenomenon has not been explored well in children. To assess imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Between 2006 and 2008, 12 children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility on SWI without corresponding abnormal signal on conventional MRI were identified and were retrospectively assessed. The locations of foci of microsusceptibility included the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar white matter, without any clear systematic anatomic distribution. CT (n = 5) showed no calcification at the locations corresponding to the microsusceptibility on SWI. Conventional MR imaging showed white matter volume loss (n = 5), delayed myelination (n = 2), acute infarction (n = 1), chronic infarction (n = 1), meningitis (n = 1), slight signal abnormality in the white matter (n = 1) and no abnormal findings (n = 1). Follow-up SWI (n = 3) showed no change of the microsusceptibility foci. Interestingly, all children had a history of heart surgery under extracorporeal circulation for congenital heart disease. Multiple foci of microsusceptibility can be seen in the brain on SWI in children with congenital heart disease who underwent heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation. (orig.)

  8. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  9. gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Cowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed gammaH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since gammaH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The

  10. Relationship between increasing concentrations of two carcinogens and statistical image descriptors of foci morphology in the cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Giulia; Corvi, Raffaella; Salovaara, Susan; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i.e. the step in which transformed colonies or foci are evaluated through morphological features. An objective evaluation of morphological features has been previously obtained through automated digital processing of foci images to extract the value of three statistical image descriptors. In this study a further potential of the CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells is addressed by analysing the effect of increasing concentrations of two known carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and NiCl 2 , with different modes of action on foci morphology. The main result of our quantitative evaluation shows that the concentration of the considered carcinogens has an effect on foci morphology that is statistically significant for the mean of two among the three selected descriptors. Statistical significance also corresponds to visual relevance. The statistical analysis of variations in foci morphology due to concentration allowed to quantify morphological changes that can be visually appreciated but not precisely determined. Therefore, it has the potential of providing new quantitative parameters in CTAs, and of exploiting all the information encoded in foci. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Live Dynamics of 53BP1 Foci Following Simultaneous Induction of Clustered and Dispersed DNA Damage in U2OS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Sollazzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells react differently to clustered and dispersed DNA double strand breaks (DSB. Little is known about the initial reaction to simultaneous induction of DSBs with different complexities. Here, we used live cell microscopy to analyse the behaviour of 53BP1-GFP (green fluorescence protein foci formation at DSBs induced in U2OS cells by alpha particles, X-rays or mixed beams over a 75 min period post irradiation. X-ray-induced foci rapidly increased and declined over the observation interval. After an initial increase, mixed beam-induced foci remained at a constant level over the observation interval, similarly as alpha-induced foci. The average areas of radiation-induced foci were similar for mixed beams and X-rays, being significantly smaller than those induced by alpha particles. Pixel intensities were highest for mixed beam-induced foci and showed the lowest level of variability over time as compared to foci induced by alphas and X-rays alone. Finally, mixed beam-exposed foci showed the lowest level of mobility as compared to alpha and X-ray exposure. The results suggest paralysation of chromatin around foci containing clustered DNA damage.

  12. Three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy of the inactive X chromosome territory reveals a collapse of its active nuclear compartment harboring distinct Xist RNA foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Daniel; Markaki, Yolanda; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Tattermusch, Anna; Cerase, Andrea; Sterr, Michael; Fiedler, Susanne; Demmerle, Justin; Popken, Jens; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Brockdorff, Neil; Cremer, Thomas; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Marion

    2014-01-01

    A Xist RNA decorated Barr body is the structural hallmark of the compacted inactive X territory in female mammals. Using super-resolution three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and quantitative image analysis, we compared its ultrastructure with active chromosome territories (CTs) in human and mouse somatic cells, and explored the spatio-temporal process of Barr body formation at onset of inactivation in early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We demonstrate that all CTs are composed of structurally linked chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). In active CTs the periphery of CDCs harbors low-density chromatin enriched with transcriptionally competent markers, called the perichromatin region (PR). The PR borders on a contiguous channel system, the interchromatin compartment (IC), which starts at nuclear pores and pervades CTs. We propose that the PR and macromolecular complexes in IC channels together form the transcriptionally permissive active nuclear compartment (ANC). The Barr body differs from active CTs by a partially collapsed ANC with CDCs coming significantly closer together, although a rudimentary IC channel system connected to nuclear pores is maintained. Distinct Xist RNA foci, closely adjacent to the nuclear matrix scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A) localize throughout Xi along the rudimentary ANC. In early differentiating ESCs initial Xist RNA spreading precedes Barr body formation, which occurs concurrent with the subsequent exclusion of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Induction of a transgenic autosomal Xist RNA in a male ESC triggers the formation of an 'autosomal Barr body' with less compacted chromatin and incomplete RNAP II exclusion. 3D-SIM provides experimental evidence for profound differences between the functional architecture of transcriptionally active CTs and the Barr body. Basic structural features of CT organization such as CDCs and IC channels are however still recognized, arguing against a uniform

  13. Gamma-H2AX foci in cells exposed to a mixed beam of X-rays and alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cellular effects of exposure to mixed beams of high and low linear energy transfer radiation. So far, the effects of combined exposures have mainly been assessed with clonogenic survival or cytogenetic methods, and the results are contradictory. The gamma-H2AX assay has up to now not been applied in this context, and it is a promising tool for investigating the early cellular response to mixed beam irradiation. Purpose To determine the dose response and repair kinetics of gamma-H2AX ionizing radiation-induced foci in VH10 human fibroblasts exposed to mixed beams of 241Am alpha particles and X-rays. Results VH10 human fibroblasts were irradiated with each radiation type individually or both in combination at 37°C. Foci were scored for repair kinetics 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h after irradiation (one dose per irradiation type), and for dose response at the 1 h time point. The dose response effect of mixed beam was additive, and the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles (as compared to X-rays) was of 0.76 ± 0.52 for the total number of foci, and 2.54 ± 1.11 for large foci. The repair kinetics for total number of foci in cells exposed to mixed beam irradiation was intermediate to that of cells exposed to alpha particles and X-rays. However, for mixed beam-irradiated cells the frequency and area of large foci were initially lower than predicted and increased during the first 3 hours of repair (while the predicted number and area did not). Conclusions The repair kinetics of large foci after mixed beam exposure was significantly different from predicted based on the effect of the single dose components. The formation of large foci was delayed and they did not reach their maximum area until 1 h after irradiation. We hypothesize that the presence of low X-ray-induced damage engages the DNA repair machinery leading to a delayed DNA damage response to the more complex DNA damage induced by alpha particles. PMID:23121736

  14. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  15. Visual Adjacency Lists for Dynamic Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawatsch, Marcel; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We present a visual representation for dynamic, weighted graphs based on the concept of adjacency lists. Two orthogonal axes are used: one for all nodes of the displayed graph, the other for the corresponding links. Colors and labels are employed to identify the nodes. The usage of color allows us to scale the visualization to single pixel level for large graphs. In contrast to other techniques, we employ an asymmetric mapping that results in an aligned and compact representation of links. Our approach is independent of the specific properties of the graph to be visualized, but certain graphs and tasks benefit from the asymmetry. As we show in our results, the strength of our technique is the visualization of dynamic graphs. In particular, sparse graphs benefit from the compact representation. Furthermore, our approach uses visual encoding by size to represent weights and therefore allows easy quantification and comparison. We evaluate our approach in a quantitative user study that confirms the suitability for dynamic and weighted graphs. Finally, we demonstrate our approach for two examples of dynamic graphs.

  16. Immunofluorescence detection of clustered gamma-H2AX foci induced by HZE-particle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N; Davis, E; O'Neill, P; Durante, M; Cucinotta, F A; Wu, H

    2005-10-01

    We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of foci of the phosphorylated form of the histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which is known to be activated by double-strand breaks after irradiation of human fibroblast cells with high-energy silicon (54 keV/microm) and iron (176 keV/microm) ions. Here we present data obtained with the ion path parallel to a monolayer of human fibroblast cells that leads to gamma-H2AX aggregates in the shape of streaks stretching over several micrometers in an x/y plane, thus enabling the analysis of the fluorescence distributions along the ion trajectories. Qualitative analyses of these distributions provide insights into DNA damage processing kinetics for high charge and energy (HZE) ions, including evidence of increased clustering of DNA damage and slower processing with increasing LET.

  17. Prevalence of small testicular hyperechogenic foci in subgroups of 382 non-vasectomized, azoospermic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Testicular hyperechogenic foci (THF) are associated with Klinefelter’s syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility, and testicular germ cell neoplasia. The aims of the study were to evaluate THF in relation to etiology of azoospermia and to Sertoli cell dysfunction. The structures inside the scrotum...... technique for detection of cytokeratin-18 (CK-18). The prevalence of THF was 13.4%. uTHF was found in 11 men (2.9%), the pattern was bilateral in four while other four had bTHF in the other testis. pTHF was detected in eight cases (2.1%), and except for one case with Klinefelter’s syndrome, pTHF was in all...

  18. Demonstration lessons in mathematics education: teachers' observation foci and intended changes in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug; Roche, Anne; Wilkie, Karina; Wright, Vince; Brown, Jill; Downton, Ann; Horne, Marj; Knight, Rose; McDonough, Andrea; Sexton, Matthew; Worrall, Chris

    2013-06-01

    As part of a teacher professional learning project in mathematics education, university mathematics educators taught demonstration lessons in project primary schools. These lessons were part of a "pre-brief, teaching, and debrief" process, in which up to eight teachers observed each lesson. Using brief questionnaires completed in advance of the lesson, during the lesson, following the debrief, and several weeks later, data were collected on teachers' intended and actual observation foci and any anticipated changes in their beliefs and practices arising from the experience. There were several common themes in teachers' intended observations, including a focus on questioning, catering for individual differences, and building student engagement. As evident in other research, teachers' intended and actual observations gave greater attention to teacher actions and decision making than to student learning and thinking. In this paper, we situate demonstration lessons within teacher professional learning models, describe the features of our model, summarise teacher data, and discuss issues arising from our work.

  19. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Karagiannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomyosis, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, such combination was never encountered before in dogs. Although uterine leiomyoma is quite usual in the reproductive system of female dogs, this case resembled relevant cases of human uterine adenomyomas in morphology, and thus it was offered a similar tentative diagnosis.

  20. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most cytotoxic types of DNA damage, which if left unrepaired can lead to mutations or gross chromosomal aberrations, and promote the onset of diseases associated with genomic instability such as cancer. One of the most discernible hallmarks...... of the cellular response to DSBs is the accumulation and local concentration of a plethora of DNA damage signaling and repair proteins in the vicinity of the lesion, initiated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of H2AX (¿-H2AX) and culminating in the generation of distinct nuclear compartments, so-called Ionizing...... of such DNA repair foci still remains limited. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries on the mechanisms that govern the formation of IRIF, and discuss the implications of such findings in light of our understanding of the physiological importance of these structures....

  1. Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiolo, Irene; Tang, Jonathan; Georgescu, Walter; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2013-01-01

    Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment

  2. Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolo, Irene; Tang, Jonathan; Georgescu, Walter; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2013-10-01

    Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment.

  3. Using network dynamic fMRI for detection of epileptogenic foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedic, Sanja; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Rondinoni, Carlo; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; dos Santos, Antonio C; Leite, Joao P; Gargaro, Ana C; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Ide, Jaime S

    2015-12-21

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders. It remains medically intractable for about one-third of patients with focal epilepsy, for whom precise localization of the epileptogenic zone responsible for seizure initiation may be critical for successful surgery. Existing fMRI literature points to widespread network disturbances in functional connectivity. Per previous scalp and intracranial EEG studies and consistent with excessive local synchronization during interictal discharges, we hypothesized that, relative to same regions in healthy controls, epileptogenic foci would exhibit less chaotic dynamics, identifiable via entropic analyses of resting state fMRI time series. In order to first validate this hypothesis on a cohort of patients with known ground truth, here we test individuals with well-defined epileptogenic foci (left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy). We analyzed voxel-wise resting-state fMRI time-series using the autocorrelation function (ACF), an entropic measure of regulation and feedback, and performed follow-up seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analysis. Disruptions in connectivity of the region exhibiting abnormal dynamics were examined in relation to duration of epilepsy and patients' cognitive performance using a delayed verbal memory recall task. ACF analysis revealed constrained (less chaotic) functional dynamics in left temporal lobe epilepsy patients, primarily localized to ipsilateral temporal pole, proximal to presumed focal points. Autocorrelation decay rates differentiated, with 100 % accuracy, between patients and healthy controls on a subject-by-subject basis within a leave-one-subject out classification framework. Regions identified via ACF analysis formed a less efficient network in patients, as compared to controls. Constrained dynamics were linked with locally increased and long-range decreased connectivity that, in turn, correlated significantly with impaired memory (local left temporal connectivity) and epilepsy

  4. The Adequacy of the Q Methodology for Clinical Validation of Nursing Diagnoses Related to Subjective Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Susana; Caldeira, Sílvia; Vieira, Margarida

    2018-04-01

    This article describes the adequacy of the Q methodology as a new option for the validation of nursing diagnoses related to subjective foci. Discussion paper about the characteristics of the Q methodology. This method has been used in nursing research particularly related to subjective concepts and includes both a quantitative and qualitative dimension. The Q methodology seems to be an adequate and innovative method for the clinical validation of nursing diagnoses. The validation of nursing diagnoses related to subjective foci using the Q methodology could improve the level of evidence and provide nurses with clinical indicators for clinical reasoning and for the planning of effective interventions. Descrever a adequação da metodologia Q como uma nova opção para a validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados com focos subjetivos. MÉTODOS: Artigo de discussão sobre as características da metodologia Q. Este método tem sido utilizado na pesquisa em enfermagem relacionada com conceitos subjetivos e inclui em simultâneo uma vertente qualitativa e quantitativa. CONCLUSÕES: A metodologia Q parece ser uma opção metodológica adequada para a validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA: A utilização da metodologia Q na validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados com focos subjetivos pode melhorar o nível e evidência e facilitar o raciocínio clínico dos enfermeiros, ao providenciar indicadores clínicos também necessários ao desenvolvimento de intervenções efetivas. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  5. Identifying disease foci from static and dynamic effective connectivity networks: Illustration in soldiers with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaprakash, D; Dretsch, Michael N; Venkataraman, Archana; Katz, Jeffrey S; Denney, Thomas S; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2018-01-01

    Brain connectivity studies report group differences in pairwise connection strengths. While informative, such results are difficult to interpret since our understanding of the brain relies on region-based properties, rather than on connection information. Given that large disruptions in the brain are often caused by a few pivotal sources, we propose a novel framework to identify the sources of functional disruption from effective connectivity networks. Our approach integrates static and time-varying effective connectivity modeling in a probabilistic framework, to identify aberrant foci and the corresponding aberrant connectomics network. Using resting-state fMRI, we illustrate the utility of this novel approach in U.S. Army soldiers (N = 87) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and combat controls. Additionally, we employed machine-learning classification to identify those significant connectivity features that possessed high predictive ability. We identified three disrupted foci (middle frontal gyrus [MFG], insula, hippocampus), and an aberrant prefrontal-subcortical-parietal network of information flow. We found the MFG to be the pivotal focus of network disruption, with aberrant strength and temporal-variability of effective connectivity to the insula, amygdala and hippocampus. These connectivities also possessed high predictive ability (giving a classification accuracy of 81%); and they exhibited significant associations with symptom severity and neurocognitive functioning. In summary, dysregulation originating in the MFG caused elevated and temporally less-variable connectivity in subcortical regions, followed by a similar effect on parietal memory-related regions. This mechanism likely contributes to the reduced control over traumatic memories leading to re-experiencing, hyperarousal and flashbacks observed in soldiers with PTSD and mTBI. Hum Brain Mapp 39:264-287, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  6. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-...

  7. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Gulf of Alaska Late Larval Survey DY11-02/2DY11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 70 stations were occupied. The standard FOCI grid and line 8 were samped. At each station we sampled using paired 20 and 60 cm Bongo frames (150 and 500...

  8. Hexanucleotide Repeats in ALS/FTD Form Length-Dependent RNA Foci, Sequester RNA Binding Proteins, and Are Neurotoxic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Bok Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GGGGCC (G4C2 intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Intranuclear neuronal RNA foci have been observed in ALS and FTD tissues, suggesting that G4C2 RNA may be toxic. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of 38× and 72× G4C2 repeats form intranuclear RNA foci that initiate apoptotic cell death in neuronal cell lines and zebrafish embryos. The foci colocalize with a subset of RNA binding proteins, including SF2, SC35, and hnRNP-H in transfected cells. Only hnRNP-H binds directly to G4C2 repeats following RNA immunoprecipitation, and only hnRNP-H colocalizes with 70% of G4C2 RNA foci detected in C9ORF72 mutant ALS and FTD brain tissues. We show that expanded G4C2 repeats are potently neurotoxic and bind hnRNP-H and other RNA binding proteins. We propose that RNA toxicity and protein sequestration may disrupt RNA processing and contribute to neurodegeneration.

  9. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce

  10. The IEC-publication 336/1981 - new formulation of the standards for X-ray foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldner, E.; Schnitger, H.

    1982-01-01

    With the new IEC-standard for foci a clear distinction has been made between application oriented focus classification, expressed by the focus nominal value as a dimensionless number and the detectable real geometric focus measured in the sense of the principle 'Truth in advertising'. Now, even regions of a size [de

  11. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Erk, van M.J.; Doornbos, R.P.; Krul, C.A.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2%

  13. FindFoci: a focus detection algorithm with automated parameter training that closely matches human assignments, reduces human inconsistencies and increases speed of analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Herbert

    Full Text Available Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ.

  14. Foci of decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images in leiomyosarcomas of soft tissue: correlation between MR and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilavaki, M. E-mail: mayiapil@otenet.gr; Drevelegas, A.; Nenopoulou, H.; Scordalaki, A.; Chourmouzi, D.; Sofroniadis, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S

    2004-09-01

    Objective: Leiomyosarcomas are rare soft tissue sarcomas with varying MR signal characteristics and histologic pictures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological features of foci, which showed decreased signal on T2-weighted images in leiomyosarcomas of soft tissue. Material and methods: We reviewed the MR images of six histologically proved cases of leiomyosarcomas of soft tissue and correlated the foci, which showed decreased signal on T2-weighted images with the histologic findings. Result: Microscopic examination revealed that these foci were composed of hyalinization of neoplastic tissue, internal septations, deposition of hemosiderin, or corresponded to metaplastic bone. Conclusion: The authors explain that the foci of decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images correspond to tissue components of the lesion, particularly fibrous tissue, hemosiderin and metaplastic bone. So, the suggestion is that leiomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors that show foci of decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images.

  15. Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome with cryptorchidism, recurrent pneumothorax, and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min A.; Shin, So Youn; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Seung Hyeun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited collagen disorder caused by defects or deficiency of pro-alpha 1 chain of type III procollagen encoded by COL3A1. vEDS is characterized not only by soft tissue manifestations including hyperextensibility of skin and joint hypermobility but also by early mortality due to rupture of arteries or vital organs. Although pulmonary complications are not common, vEDS cases complicated by pneumothorax, hemothorax, or intrapulmonary hematoma have been reported. When a patient initially presents only with pulmonary complications, it is not easy for clinicians to suspect vEDS. Patient concerns: We report a case of an 18-year-old high school student, with a past history of cryptorchidism, presenting with recurrent pneumothorax. Diagnoses: Routine laboratory findings were unremarkable. Chest high resolution computed tomographic scan showed age-unmatched hyperinflation of both lungs, atypical cystic changes and multifocal ground glass opacities scattered in both lower lobes. His slender body shape, hyperflexible joints, and hyperextensible skin provided clue to suspicion of a possible connective tissue disorder. Interventions: The histological examination of the lung lesions showed excessive capillary proliferation in the pulmonary interstitium and pleura allowing the diagnosis of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH)-like foci. Genetic study revealed COL3A1 gene splicing site mutation confirming his diagnosis as vEDS. Outcomes: Although his diagnosis vEDS is notorious for fatal vascular complication, there was no evidence of such complication at presentation. Fortunately, he has been followed up for 10 months without pulmonary or vascular complications. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, both cryptorchidism and PCH-like foci have never been reported yet as complications of vEDS, suggesting our case might be a new variant of this condition. This case emphasizes the

  16. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters. 80.1395 Section 80.1395 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake Union...

  17. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  18. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  19. Visualisation of γH2AX foci caused by heavy ion particle traversal; distinction between core track versus non-track damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakako Izumi Nakajima

    Full Text Available Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle.

  20. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters. Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about 31

  1. Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Al-Henhena

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells.

  2. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  3. In-vehicle extremity injuries from improvised explosive devices: current and future foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Masouros, Spyros D; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam M; Proud, William G; Brown, Katherine A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jon C

    2011-01-27

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have been epitomized by the insurgents' use of the improvised explosive device against vehicle-borne security forces. These weapons, capable of causing multiple severely injured casualties in a single incident, pose the most prevalent single threat to Coalition troops operating in the region. Improvements in personal protection and medical care have resulted in increasing numbers of casualties surviving with complex lower limb injuries, often leading to long-term disability. Thus, there exists an urgent requirement to investigate and mitigate against the mechanism of extremity injury caused by these devices. This will necessitate an ontological approach, linking molecular, cellular and tissue interaction to physiological dysfunction. This can only be achieved via a collaborative approach between clinicians, natural scientists and engineers, combining physical and numerical modelling tools with clinical data from the battlefield. In this article, we compile existing knowledge on the effects of explosions on skeletal injury, review and critique relevant experimental and computational research related to lower limb injury and damage and propose research foci required to drive the development of future mitigation technologies.

  4. Necrotic foci, elevated chemokines and infiltrating neutrophils in the liver of glycogen storage disease type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Youn; Weinstein, David A.; Starost, Matthew F.; Mansfield, Brian C.; Chou, Janice Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) patients manifest the long-term complication of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) of unknown etiology. We showed previously that GSD-Ia mice exhibit neutrophilia and elevated serum cytokine levels. This study was conducted to evaluate whether human GSD-Ia patients exhibit analogous increases and whether in GSD-Ia mice a correlation exists between immune abnormalities and, biochemical and histological alterations in the liver. Methods Differential leukocyte counts and cytokine levels were investigated in GSD-Ia patients. Hepatic chemokine production, neutrophil infiltration, and histological abnormalities were investigated in GSD-Ia mice. Results We show that GSD-Ia patients exhibit increased peripheral neutrophil counts and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8). Compared to normal subjects, HCA-bearing GSD-Ia patients have a 2.8-fold higher serum IL8 concentration, while GSD-Ia patients without HCA have a 1.4-fold higher concentration. Hepatic injury in GSD-Ia mice is evidenced by necrotic foci, markedly elevated infiltrating neutrophils, and increased hepatic production of chemokines. Conclusion Peripheral neutrophilia and elevated serum chemokines are characteristic of GSD-Ia with HCA-bearing GSD-Ia patients having the highest serum IL-8. In GSD-Ia mice these elevations correlate with elevated hepatic chemokine levels, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis. Taken together, peripheral neutrophilia and increased serum chemokines may indicate hepatic injuries in GSD-Ia PMID:18191274

  5. First detection of Leishmania major DNA in Sergentomyia (Spelaeomyia) darlingi from cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdjane-Brouk, Zohra; Koné, Abdoulaye K; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Charrel, Rémi N; Ravel, Christophe; Delaunay, Pascal; del Giudice, Pascal; Diarra, Adama Z; Doumbo, Siala; Goita, Siaka; Thera, Mahamadou A; Depaquit, Jérôme; Marty, Pierre; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Izri, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania major complex is the main causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the Old World. Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi are recognized vectors of L. major complex in Northern and Southern Sahara, respectively. In Mali, ZCL due to L. major is an emerging public health problem, with several cases reported from different parts of the country. The main objective of the present study was to identify the vectors of Leishmania major in the Bandiagara area, in Mali. An entomological survey was carried out in the ZCL foci of Bandiagara area. Sandflies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and sticky papers. In the field, live female Phlebotomine sandflies were identified and examined for the presence of promastigotes. The remaining sandflies were identified morphologically and tested for Leishmania by PCR in the ITS2 gene. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using the cyt-b sequence. Out of the 3,259 collected sandflies, 1,324 were identified morphologically, and consisted of 20 species, of which four belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and 16 to the genus Sergentomyia. Leishmania major DNA was detected by PCR in 7 of the 446 females (1.6%), specifically 2 out of 115 Phlebotomus duboscqi specimens, and 5 from 198 Sergentomyia darlingi specimens. Human DNA was detected in one blood-fed female S. darlingi positive for L. major DNA. Our data suggest the possible involvement of P. duboscqi and potentially S. darlingi in the transmission of ZCL in Mali.

  6. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  7. A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Martzoukou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.

  8. Radioiodination and Biological Evaluation of some Drugs for Inflammatory Foci Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Refaie, M.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical is defined as a chemical or pharmaceutical preparation labeled with a radionuclide in tracer or therapeutic concentration, used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. A radiopharmaceutical agent is usually administrated into a vein. Depending on which type of scan is being performed, the imaging will be done either immediately, a few hours later, or even several days after the injection. Imaging time varies, generally ranging from 20 to 45 minutes.In this thesis, we are more interested in the drugs that can be used for the treatment of all kinds of inflammation whether septic or aseptic. The inflammation by itself can be a controllable disease, but as the inflammation, specially the chronic type, can be the reason and the beginning of many more serious diseases as autoimmune disease, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and cancer, the study and the early diagnosis of the inflammation can prevent many future problems for the patient. The study of the inflammation has been discussed before by labeling drugs with Iodine-125 for the imaging of inflammatory foci like etodolac, meloxicam, piroxicam and other drugs.

  9. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  10. [A study on the taxonomy of soil amoebas from Caspian plague foci based on an analysis of ribosomal operon sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel', E I; Anisimova, L V; Novichkova, L A; Vidiaeva, N A; Guseva, N P; Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study on the taxonomy and quantitative abundance of free-living amoebas in soil samples from the Russian plague foci of the northwestern Caspian steppe, the Caspian sand, and the Volga-Ural steppe are presented. Amoebas of the Willaertia and Hartmanella genera, as well as representatives of myxomycetes, were isolated from samples. From these, amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus predominated and could be as abundantas 300000 cells per 1 g of soil. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene region showed that Acanthamoeba from the Volga-Ural steppe focus belonged to the A. castellanii species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that amoebas from two other Caspian foci belonged to the species of Acanthamoeba spp.

  11. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Chikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  12. Effect of carbamazepine (Tegretol) on seizure and EEG patterns in monkeys with alumina-induced focal motor and hippocampal foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J; Grewal, R S

    1976-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of chronic carbamazepine (Tegretol) medication on focal seizures and associated interictal EEG abnormalities in Rhesus monkeys with alumina-induced foci in either the sensorimotor cortex or the hipocampus was investigated. In both groups of animals, carbamazepine produced qualitative control of visible seizures and reduced intracortical spike propagation, but did not cause complete normalization of the background EEG; quantitative indices, such as spike density and amount of paroxysmal discharge representative of abnormal EEG activity, were significantly reduced with respect to predrug values during medication and after cessation as well. Threshold to pentylenetetrazol was elevated by carbamazepine in both groups of epileptic monkeys. Aggressivity and other clinical manifestations in monekys with hippocampal foci were markedly reduced by carbamazepine.

  13. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  14. Low doses of X-rays induce prolonged and ATM-independent persistence of γH2AX foci in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan N; Pustovalova, Margarita; Grekhova, Anna; Eremin, Petr; Vorobyova, Natalia; Pulin, Andrey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Klokov, Dmitry Y; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-09-29

    Diagnostic imaging delivering low doses of radiation often accompany human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies. However, effects of low dose radiation on MSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examine patterns of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and phospho-S1981 ATM (pATM) foci formation in human gingiva-derived MSCs exposed to X-rays in time-course and dose-response experiments. Both γH2AX and pATM foci accumulated linearly with dose early after irradiation (5-60 min), with a maximum induction observed at 30-60 min (37 ± 3 and 32 ± 3 foci/cell/Gy for γH2AX and pATM, respectively). The number of γH2AX foci produced by intermediate doses (160 and 250 mGy) significantly decreased (40-60%) between 60 and 240 min post-irradiation, indicating rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, γH2AX foci produced by low doses (20-80 mGy) did not change after 60 min. The number of pATM foci between 60 and 240 min decreased down to control values in a dose-independent manner. Similar kinetics was observed for pATM foci co-localized with γH2AX foci. Collectively, our results suggest differential DNA double-strand break signaling and processing in response to low vs. intermediate doses of X-rays in human MSCs. Furthermore, mechanisms governing the prolonged persistence of γH2AX foci in these cells appear to be ATM-independent.

  15. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: insights into the worldwide expansion of Central Asia plague foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Cui, Yujun; Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Anisimov, Andrey P; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2009-06-22

    The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y

  16. RNA/MBNL1-containing foci in myoblast nuclei from patients affected by myotonic dystrophy type 2: an immunocytochemical study

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    C. Pellicciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 is a dominantly inherited autosomal disease with multi-systemic clinical features and it is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetranucleotide repeat in the first intron of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9 gene in 3q21.The expanded-CCUG-containing transcripts are retained in the cell nucleus and accumulate in the form of focal aggregates which specifically sequester the muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1 protein, a RNA binding factor involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. The structural organization and composition of the foci are still incompletely known. In this study, the nuclear foci occurring in cultured myoblasts from DM2 patients were characterised at fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy by using a panel of antibodies recognizing transcription and processing factors of pre-mRNAs. MBNL1 proved to co-locate in the nuclear foci with snRNPs and hnRNPs, whereas no co-location was observed with RNA polymerase II, the non-RNP splicing factor SC35, the cleavage factor CStF and the PML protein. At electron microscopy the MBNL1-containing nuclear foci appeared as roundish domains showing a rather homogeneous structure and proved to contain snRNPs and hnRNPs. The sequestration of splicing factors involved in early phases of pre-mRNA processing supports the hypothesis of a general alteration in the maturation of several mRNAs, which could lead to the multiple pathological dysfunctions observed in dystrophic patients.

  17. Inducibility of nuclear Rad51 foci after DNA damage distinguishes all Fanconi anemia complementation groups from D1/BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godthelp, Barbara C. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Wassenaarseweg 72, NL-2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands); Wiegant, Wouter W. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Wassenaarseweg 72, NL-2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands); Waisfisz, Quinten [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Medhurst, Annette L. [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arwert, Fre [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joenje, Hans [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Wassenaarseweg 72, NL-2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands) and Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum, N. Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz (Poland)]. E-mail: m.z.zdzienicka@lumc.nl

    2006-02-22

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a cancer susceptibility disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. So far 11 complementation groups have been identified, from which only FA-D1/BRCA2 and FA-J are defective downstream of the central FANCD2 protein as cells from these groups are capable of monoubiquitinating FANCD2. In this study we show that cells derived from patients from the new complementation groups, FA-I, FA-J and FA-L are all proficient in DNA damage induced Rad51 foci formation, making the cells from FA-D1/BRCA2 patients that are defective in this process the sole exception. Although FA-B patient HSC230 was previously reported to also have biallelic BRCA2 mutations, we found normal Rad51 foci formation in cells from this patient, consistent with the recent identification of an X-linked gene being mutated in four unrelated FA-B patients. Thus, our data show that none of the FA proteins, except BRCA2, are required to sequester Rad51 into nuclear foci. Since cells from the FA-D1 and FA-J patient groups are both able to monoubiquitinate FANCD2, the 'Rad51 foci phenotype' provides a convenient assay to distinguish between these two groups. Our results suggest that FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 are part of the integrated FANC/BRCA DNA damage response pathway or, alternatively, that they represent sub-pathways in which only FANCD1/BRCA2 is directly connected to the process of homologous recombination.

  18. Dose-response relationship of γ-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandina, Tania; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine H.; Voisin, Pascale; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Romero, Ivonne; Garcia, Omar; Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of γ-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and γ-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y (0.5h) = 11.66D + 0.15 (R 2 = 0.99), Y (5h) = 2.44D + 0.15 (R 2 = 0.99), Y (8h) = 1.57D + 0.22 (R 2 = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using γ-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in γ-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  19. Dose-response relationship of {gamma}-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandina, Tania [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine H.; Voisin, Pascale [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Romero, Ivonne [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Garcia, Omar, E-mail: omar@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of {gamma}-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and {gamma}-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y{sub (0.5h)} = 11.66D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (5h)} = 2.44D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (8h)} = 1.57D + 0.22 (R{sup 2} = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using {gamma}-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in {gamma}-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  20. Development and validation of 'AutoRIF': Software for the automated analysis of radiation-induced foci

    OpenAIRE

    McVean, A; Kent, S; Bakanov, A; Hobbs, T; Anderson, RM

    2012-01-01

    Copyright @ 2012 McVean et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. Background: The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF) to invest...

  1. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  2. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  3. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 larger triplet expansion alters histone modification and induces RNA foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yih-Ru

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8 involves the expression of an expanded CTG/CAG combined repeats (CR from opposite strands producing CUG expansion transcripts (ataxin 8 opposite strand, ATXN8OS and a polyglutamine expansion protein (ataxin 8, ATXN8. The pathogenesis of SCA8 is complex and the spectrum of clinical presentations is broad. Results Using stably induced cell models expressing 0, 23, 88 and 157 CR, we study the role of ATXN8OS transcripts in SCA8 pathogenesis. In the absence of doxycycline, the stable ATXN8OS CR cell lines exhibit low levels of ATXN8OS expression and a repeat length-related increase in staurosporine sensitivity and in the number of annexin positive cells. A repeat length-dependent repression of ATXN8OS expression was also notable. Addition of doxycycline leads to 25~50 times more ATXN8OS RNA expression with a repeat length-dependent increase in fold of ATXN8OS RNA induction. ChIP-PCR assay using anti-dimethyl-histone H3-K9 and anti-acetyl-histone H3-K14 antibodies revealed increased H3-K9 dimethylation and reduced H3-K14 acetylation around the ATXN8OS cDNA gene in 157 CR line. The repeat length-dependent increase in induction fold is probably due to the increased RNA stability as demonstrated by monitoring ATXN8OS RNA decay in cells treated with the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. In cells stably expressing ATXN8OS, RNA FISH experiments further revealed ribonuclear foci formation in cells carrying expanded 88 and 157 CR. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that the expanded CUG-repeat tracts are toxic to human cells and may affect ATXN8OS RNA expression and stability through epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  4. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

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    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  5. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  6. First Detection of Leishmania major DNA in Sergentomyia (Spelaeomyia) darlingi from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdjane-Brouk, Zohra; Koné, Abdoulaye K.; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; Ravel, Christophe; Delaunay, Pascal; del Giudice, Pascal; Diarra, Adama Z.; Doumbo, Siala; Goita, Siaka; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Depaquit, Jérôme; Marty, Pierre; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Izri, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania major complex is the main causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the Old World. Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi are recognized vectors of L. major complex in Northern and Southern Sahara, respectively. In Mali, ZCL due to L. major is an emerging public health problem, with several cases reported from different parts of the country. The main objective of the present study was to identify the vectors of Leishmania major in the Bandiagara area, in Mali. Methodology/Principal Findings An entomological survey was carried out in the ZCL foci of Bandiagara area. Sandflies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and sticky papers. In the field, live female Phlebotomine sandflies were identified and examined for the presence of promastigotes. The remaining sandflies were identified morphologically and tested for Leishmania by PCR in the ITS2 gene. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using the cyt-b sequence. Out of the 3,259 collected sandflies, 1,324 were identified morphologically, and consisted of 20 species, of which four belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and 16 to the genus Sergentomyia. Leishmania major DNA was detected by PCR in 7 of the 446 females (1.6%), specifically 2 out of 115 Phlebotomus duboscqi specimens, and 5 from 198 Sergentomyia darlingi specimens. Human DNA was detected in one blood-fed female S. darlingi positive for L. major DNA. Conclusion Our data suggest the possible involvement of P. duboscqi and potentially S. darlingi in the transmission of ZCL in Mali. PMID:22276095

  7. Detecting Foci of Malaria Transmission with School Surveys: A Pilot Study in the Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebako N Takem

    Full Text Available In areas of declining malaria transmission such as in The Gambia, the identification of malaria infected individuals becomes increasingly harder. School surveys may be used to identify foci of malaria transmission in the community.The survey was carried out in May-June 2011, before the beginning of the malaria transmission season. Thirty two schools in the Upper River Region of The Gambia were selected with probability proportional to size; in each school approximately 100 children were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. Each child had a finger prick blood sample collected for the determination of antimalarial antibodies by ELISA, malaria infection by microscopy and PCR, and for haemoglobin measurement. In addition, a simple questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets was completed. The cut-off for positivity for antimalarial antibodies was obtained using finite mixture models. The clustered nature of the data was taken into account in the analyses.A total of 3,277 children were included in the survey. The mean age was 10 years (SD = 2.7 [range 4-21], with males and females evenly distributed. The prevalence of malaria infection as determined by PCR was 13.6% (426/3124 [95% CI = 12.2-16.3] with marked variation between schools (range 3-25%, p<0.001, while the seroprevalence was 7.8% (234/2994 [95%CI = 6.4-9.8] for MSP119, 11.6% (364/2997 [95%CI = 9.4-14.5] for MSP2, and 20.0% (593/2973 [95% CI = 16.5-23.2 for AMA1. The prevalence of all the three antimalarial antibodies positive was 2.7% (79/2920.This survey shows that malaria prevalence and seroprevalence before the transmission season were highly heterogeneous.

  8. Fast and Simple Detection of Yersinia pestis Applicable to Field Investigation of Plague Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples. PMID:23383008

  9. First detection of Leishmania major DNA in Sergentomyia (Spelaeomyia darlingi from cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohra Berdjane-Brouk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania major complex is the main causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL in the Old World. Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi are recognized vectors of L. major complex in Northern and Southern Sahara, respectively. In Mali, ZCL due to L. major is an emerging public health problem, with several cases reported from different parts of the country. The main objective of the present study was to identify the vectors of Leishmania major in the Bandiagara area, in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological survey was carried out in the ZCL foci of Bandiagara area. Sandflies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and sticky papers. In the field, live female Phlebotomine sandflies were identified and examined for the presence of promastigotes. The remaining sandflies were identified morphologically and tested for Leishmania by PCR in the ITS2 gene. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using the cyt-b sequence. Out of the 3,259 collected sandflies, 1,324 were identified morphologically, and consisted of 20 species, of which four belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and 16 to the genus Sergentomyia. Leishmania major DNA was detected by PCR in 7 of the 446 females (1.6%, specifically 2 out of 115 Phlebotomus duboscqi specimens, and 5 from 198 Sergentomyia darlingi specimens. Human DNA was detected in one blood-fed female S. darlingi positive for L. major DNA. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the possible involvement of P. duboscqi and potentially S. darlingi in the transmission of ZCL in Mali.

  10. Estradiol-induced promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka: Relationship of foci of cellular alteration to neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In some laboratory and field studies, female fish have higher prevalences of liver tumors than do males. The authors hypothesize gender and site-specific differences in prevalence are due to variable exposures of previously initiated fish to tumor modulating compounds. Estradiol, a growth promoter, increases incidences of hepatic tumors in carcinogen-treated rainbow trout and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Estradiol also increases incidences of hepatic foci of cellular alteration (FCA) in medaka. FCA are found in subadults of tumor-bearing feral populations. Lack of knowledge about the relationship of various phenotypes of FCA to eventual tumors, however, has prevented use of FCA as a biomarker. The authors examined fate and growth of liver FCA using a 2-step, initiation-promotion protocol. Three week old medaka were exposed to 200 ppm diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 24 hr. and then fed 0.1 ppm 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) continuously through sampling at weeks 4--26. Percent volume of FCA and morphometric characteristics of normal and focal hepatocytes, including numerical density and average hepatocyte volume were quantified using computer-assisted stereology. E2 increased percentage of liver occupied by DEN-initiated amphophilic, basophilic and eosinophilic FCA in both sexes. Focal parameters of young, DEN-initiated and estradiol-treated medaka were not reached until much later in fish given only DEN. Non-focal hepatocytes in estradiol-treated medaka were smaller and more numerous than in DEN-only counterparts. Morphometric analysis is quantitatively tracking the fate of specific phenotypes of FCA to determine their role in progression to cancer.

  11. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of coffee against induction of DNA damage and pre-neoplastic foci by aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Franziska; Huber, Wolfgang W; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Speer, Karl; Buchmann, Sandra; Bohacek, Rene; Mišík, Miroslav; Edelbauer, Leopold; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the protective properties of coffee towards aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) induced formation of pre-neoplastic hepatic foci and the identification of the constituents and molecular mechanisms that account for these effects. Rats consumed three different brews and were subsequently treated with AFB₁ (0.75 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally). Ten weeks later, the numbers and areas of hepatic foci were determined. Furthermore, the impact of the brews on AFB₁-induced DNA damage was quantified in single cell gel electrophoresis assays and the activities of drug metabolising enzymes and glutathione-related parameters were monitored. Additionally, single cell gel electrophoresis assay experiments were conducted with pure caffeine. All brews reduced the frequencies of the hepatic foci. The most pronounced protection (reduction 82%) was seen with the caffeine containing metal and paper filtered brews. DNA migration was reduced between 65 and 75% with the caffeine containing brews. In additional experiments, clear protective effects were found with caffeine at dose levels that corresponded to those contained in the coffee. This observation indicates that the alkaloid accounts partly for the protective effects of coffee. Furthermore, our findings indicate that induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase contributes to the chemopreventive effects of coffee since all brews increased the activity of this detoxifying enzyme. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of cantilevered sheet pile deflection on adjacent roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Cantilevered sheet pile walls are often used adjacent roadways as temporary support during construction. Excess movement of these walls has led to excessive roadway distress causing additional repairs to be necessary. This study assessed the effects ...

  14. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  15. Adjacent segment disease perspective and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M; Deusdara, Renato A M; Benzel, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. FOR THIS LITERATURE REVIEW, A SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED IN PUBMED WITH THE FOLLOWING KEYWORDS: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology.

  16. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  17. Variability of adjacency effects in sky reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, Philipp M M; Gege, Peter; Simis, Stefan G H; Eleveld, Marieke A; Peters, Steef W M

    2017-09-01

    Sky reflectance R sky (λ) is used to correct in situ reflectance measurements in the remote detection of water color. We analyzed the directional and spectral variability in R sky (λ) due to adjacency effects against an atmospheric radiance model. The analysis is based on one year of semi-continuous R sky (λ) observations that were recorded in two azimuth directions. Adjacency effects contributed to R sky (λ) dependence on season and viewing angle and predominantly in the near-infrared (NIR). For our test area, adjacency effects spectrally resembled a generic vegetation spectrum. The adjacency effect was weakly dependent on the magnitude of Rayleigh- and aerosol-scattered radiance. The reflectance differed between viewing directions 5.4±6.3% for adjacency effects and 21.0±19.8% for Rayleigh- and aerosol-scattered R sky (λ) in the NIR. Under which conditions in situ water reflectance observations require dedicated correction for adjacency effects is discussed. We provide an open source implementation of our method to aid identification of such conditions.

  18. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically possible range, and it might gradually lead to a degenerative intervertebral disc or progression of spondylolisthesis in the adjacent segments.

  19. The Volpe Center GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Program Plan : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop, Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Approach to DOT GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment. Identify forums and provide public outreach to make sure the progress and work are as open and transparent as possible. Develop an implementation plan that incorporates aspects from the DOT ...

  20. Molecular Disorganization of Axons Adjacent to Human Cortical Microinfarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Coban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease as well as other forms of dementia. We have recently shown that the molecular organization of axons into functional microdomains is altered in areas adjacent to white matter lacunar and microinfarcts, creating a peri-infarct penumbral injury in surviving axons. Whether similar changes in nodal, adjacent paranodal, and proximal axon initial segment molecular organization occur in the cortex adjacent to human CMIs is not known. Paraffin-embedded sections of autopsy brain tissue from five patients with CMIs were immunofluorescently labeled for nodal and paranodal markers including beta-IV spectrin, ankyrin-G, and contactin-associated protein. High magnification images from the peri-infarct cortical tissue were generated using confocal microscopy. In surviving cortical tissue adjacent to microinfarcts, we observed a dramatic loss of axon initial segments, suggesting that neuronal firing capacity in adjacent cortical tissue is likely compromised. The number of identifiable nodal/paranodal complexes in surviving cortical tissue is reduced adjacent to microinfarcts, while the average paranodal length is increased indicating a breakdown of axoglial contact. This axonal microdomain disorganization occurs in the relative absence of changes in the structural integrity of myelinated axons as measured by myelin basic protein and neurofilament staining. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of surviving axons adjacent to human CMIs is abnormal

  1. Tropical forest restoration: tree islands as recruitment foci in degraded lands of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahawi, R A; Augspurger, C K

    2006-04-01

    Tropical forest recovery in pastures is slowed by a number of biotic and abiotic factors, including a lack of adequate seed dispersal and harsh microclimatic extremes. Accordingly, methods to accelerate forest recovery must address multiple impediments. Here, we evaluated the ability of "tree islands" to serve as "recruitment foci" in a two-year study at three sites in northern Honduras. Islands of three sizes (64, 16, and 4 m2) and at two distances to secondary forest (20 and 50 m) were created by planting 2 m tall vegetative stakes of two native species: Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae) and Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), each in monoculture. Open-pasture "islands" of equal sizes served as controls. Tree islands reduced temperature and light (PAR) extremes as compared to open pasture, creating a microenvironment more favorable to seedling establishment. Seed-dispersing birds (quantified at one site only) showed an overwhelming preference for islands; 160 visits were recorded to islands compared with one visit to open pasture. Additionally, frugivores visited large islands more often, and for longer time periods, than small islands, thereby increasing the likelihood of a dispersal event there. In total, 144 140 seeds belonging to 186 species were collected in islands; more than 80% were grasses. Tree islands increased zoochorous tree seed rain; seed density and species richness were greater in tree islands than in open pasture, and large islands had greater seed density than smaller islands (Gliricidia only), suggesting that they are more effective for restoration. Distance to forest did not affect seed rain. A total of 543 seedlings and 41 species established in islands; > 85% were zoochorous. Seedling density did not differ among treatments (mean 0.2 seedlings/m2 for islands vs. 0.1 seedlings/m2 for pasture), although an increasing trend in tree islands over the course of two years suggests that seedling recruitment is accelerated there. Lastly, similar seedling

  2. [Survey on the foci of Paragonimus in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, You-Zhu; Li, Li-Sha; Lin, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Pei-Cong; Jiang, Dian-Wei; Fang, Yan-Yan; Lin, Chen-Xin; Li, Yan-Rong

    2010-12-30

    To investigate the natural foci of paragonimiasis in Youxi, Yongtai and Pinghe Counties of Fujian Province. One village each from the three counties was selected according to reported paragonimiasis cases. Freshwater snails collected from fields were examined for cercariae. Freshwater crabs obtained in the fields were examined for metacercariae by washing filtration method or direct compression method. Feces of cats and dogs were collected for the detection of eggs by water precipitation. In order to identify the species of Paragonimus, 4 cats were orally fed with metacercariae. At the same time, the habitat of three survey sites was observed. Three fluke species, namely, P. skrjabini, P. westermani and P. cenocopiosus(Syn. Euparagonimus cenocopiosus) were found. In Banlin Village of Youxi County and Chishui Village of Yongtai County, the seropositive rate by IgG ELISA were 6.8% (21/309) and 6.8% (9/133), respectively. Four species of freshwater snails were found, two species of Tricula and one species of Pseudobythinella were newly identified first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. Four species of freshwater carbs were found, one species of Nanhaipotamon served as a new second intermediate host of Paragonimus. In Youxi, the infection rate of P. skrjabini cercariae in snails and metacercariae in crabs was 2.1% (27/1 344) and 92.1% (58/63), respectively; the index of crab infection and the positive ratio of Paragonimus eggs in cat feces was 171.91 and 1/7, respectively. In Yongtai, the cercariae infection rate in Pseudobythinella and Tricula snails infected with P. skrjabini was 0.6% (4/690) and 0.1% (2/ 2330), respectively; the infection rate of P. skrjabini metacercariae in crabs was 18.2% (18/99); the index of crab infection was 9.12. In Pinghe, the infection rate of cercariae in Semisulcospira libertina and metacercariae in crabs was 03% (3/1092) and 44.9% (35/78), respectively; the index of crab infection was 616. Paragonimus skrjabini P. westermani and P

  3. [Factors related to household rodent abundance in rodent-borne disease foci in western Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiufang; Yin, Jiaxiang; Yang, Guangcan; Liu, Zhengxiang; Du, Chunhong; Shi, Liyuan; Su, Liqiong

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the factors related to the household abundance of rodents in rodent-borne disease foci in the western part of Yunnan province. From July 2011 to October 2012, 800 households (20 households in 1 village) were randomly selected in 40 natural villages of 10 counties in western Yunnan where rodent borne disease was endemic to conduct a study on relationship between rodent abundance and environmental factors. Five cages were placed in each household for 3 consecutive nights to capture rodents. The rodent species were identified based on their morphological characteristics. The data on potential factors related to rodent abundance were collected through questionnaires and field observation. A dataset was established by using EpiData software and the analysis was performed with hurdle regression model under R software. A total of 421 rodents were captured in 800 households, belonging to 9 species, 6 genera, 2 families, 2 orders. Rattus tanezumi was the predominant species (66.03%). The final hurdle regression model showed that the probability of capturing rodents in the households where family member had high education level and the garbage was placed outside declined by 50%-68% ;The probability of capturing rodents in the households of Dai and Yi ethnic groups increased by 2.16-2.87 times;The probability of capturing rodents in the households where rodents were observed or vegetables grown near houses increased by 1.54-1.59 times;In the households where many rodents were believed to exist, the probability of capturing rodents and the number of rodents captured increased by 1.59 and 1.84 times respectively. The number of rodents captured in the houses with cement or tile floor increased by 3.62 times. The household abundance of rodents in the area in western Yunnan, where the rodent-borne disease survey was conducted, seemed to be closely related to the social economy status, human intervention and ecological environment. To control the abundance of rodents

  4. Early detection of malaria foci for targeted interventions in endemic southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chime Nnenna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system could be an additional tool to identify foci of elevated incidence for targeted intervention. Methods Based on surveillance data collected weekly from 13 rural health centres (RHCs divided into three transmission zones, early warning thresholds were created following a technique successfully implemented in Thailand. Alert levels were graphed for all 52 weeks of a year using the mean and 95% confidence interval upper limit of a Poisson distribution of the weekly diagnosed malaria cases for every available week of historic data (beginning in Aug, 2008 at each of the sites within a zone. Annually adjusted population estimates for the RHC catchment areas served as person-time of weekly exposure. The zonal threshold levels were validated against the incidence data from each of the 13 respective RHCs. Results Graphed threshold levels for the three zones generally conformed to observed seasonal incidence patterns. Comparing thresholds with historic weekly incidence values, the overall percentage of aberrant weeks ranged from 1.7% in Mbabala to 36.1% in Kamwanu. For most RHCs, the percentage of weeks above threshold was greater during the high transmission season and during the 2009 year compared to 2010. 39% of weeks breaching alert levels were part of a series of three or more consecutive aberrant weeks. Conclusions The inconsistent sensitivity of the zonal threshold levels impugns the reliability of the alert system. With more years of surveillance data available, individual

  5. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, Gaëtan; Villagrasa, Carmen; Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  6. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  7. Fully automated interpretation of ionizing radiation-induced γH2AX foci by the novel pattern recognition system AKLIDES®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Roswitha; Hiemann, Rico; Wendisch, Maria; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Storch, Katja; Zöphel, Klaus; Fritz, Christina; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Wunderlich, Gerd; Conrad, Karsten; Kotzerke, Joerg

    2012-05-01

    Assessment of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) foci as a measure for double-strand breaks (DSB) is a common technique. Since visual interpretation is time-consuming and influenced by subjective factors, we adapted the pattern recognition algorithms of autoantibodies to automated reading of γH2AX foci. DSB formation was assessed by detection of γH2AX foci after exposition of thyreocyte rat cell line to (188)Re. We used pattern recognition algorithms of the automated fluorescence interpretation system AKLIDES(®) for evaluation of γH2AX foci. Manual investigation was performed by three laboratories involving five observers. The results were compared by determining correlation and inter-laboratory variability. The study confirmed the adaptation of automated interpretation system AKLIDES® to automated assessment of γH2AX foci in irradiated cells. Both manual and automated quantification resulted in increasing focus numbers depending on dose. Comparison of automated reading with visual assessment for five manual observers resulted in a determination coefficient of R(2) = 0.889. The inter-laboratory variability for five manual investigators of three laboratories was 38.4 %. The interpretation system AKLIDES(®) demonstrated a high correlation with visually observed results. High inter-laboratory variability found for manual investigations revealed the usefulness for a standardized technique for evaluation of γH2AX foci.

  8. Maturation of teeth adjacent to dental agenesis site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Yocheved; Babadzhanov, Daniel; Brin, Ilana; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis site in comparison to their antimeres. Panoramic views of 39 patients with unilateral dental agenesis and 42 normal controls were evaluated. The dental developmental stage (normal or delayed) of the teeth adjacent to the agenesis site was determined for each patient using the Haavikko's method, while the overall dental age was determined by Becker's method. No statistically significant difference was found in the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis, compared to their antimere and to the same teeth in the normal control group. However, the prevalence of cases with no difference in development was almost double for the tooth distal to the agenesis site compared to the tooth mesial to the agenesis site in the hypodontia group (84.6% distal and 43.6% mesial; p agenesis site was the 1st permanent molar. (1) No difference was found between the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis site and their antimeres. (2) Teeth mesial to the agenesis site showed some delay in development compared to teeth distal to the agenesis site, in this study. (3) The 1st molars, which were in most of the cases the distal adjacent tooth to the site of agenesis, showed developmental stability. (4) Additional longitudinal studies are needed to examine the dental developmental pattern in patients with agenesis.

  9. Vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebral fracture following lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-02-01

    Adjacent segment vertebral compression fracture after lumbosacral instrumented fusion has been reported to be a significant complication. Recently, percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been widely used for the treatment of non-traumatic osteoporotic vertebral fracture. However, the clinical effect of this minimally invasive treatment option to the post-fusion vertebral fracture has rarely been reported. We analysed characteristics of adjacent vertebral fractures following lumbar fusion and evaluated the clinical outcome of PVP. A total of 202 consecutive patients underwent PVP for compression fracture in our institute between January 2007 and December 2008. Among them, nine symptomatic adjacent vertebral fractures following lumbar fusion were identified. We randomly selected 50 control patients undergoing vertebroplasty for osteoporotic compression fracture in single level. We analysed the clinical data according to age, height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). Clinical outcome was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the rate of overall satisfaction. Fractures occurred at the cranial adjacent vertebra after fusion surgery in all cases. The mean BMD score for the spine and femur were significantly higher than the control group (p adjacent segment disease. The increased stress around the fusion segment can cause vertebral fracture even with a relatively higher BMD score. Vertebroplasty for the post-fusion vertebral fracture can be as effective as it is for the usual osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroug, Isam M A; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H; Samy, Abdallah M; Frah, Ehab A; ElMubarak, Wigdan A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in collection from April to June. There

  11. Adjacent Infrared Multitarget Detection Using Robust Background Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small target detection is very important for infrared search and track (IRST problems. Grouped targets are difficult to detect using the conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection method. In this study, a novel multitarget detection method was developed to identify adjacent or closely spaced small infrared targets. The neighboring targets decrease the signal-to-clutter ratio in hysteresis threshold-based constant false alarm rate (H-CFAR detection, which leads to poor detection performance in cluttered environments. The proposed adjacent target rejection-based robust background estimation can reduce the effects of the neighboring targets and enhance the small multitarget detection performance in infrared images by increasing the signal-to-clutter ratio. The experimental results of the synthetic and real adjacent target sequences showed that the proposed method produces an upgraded detection rate with the same false alarm rate compared to the recent target detection methods (H-CFAR, Top-hat, and TDLMS.

  12. Emission of pesticides during drilling and deposition in adjacent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimbach, Udo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In seven experiments seeds of maize, oil seed rape and barley, treated with neonicotinoids, were sown using pneumatic drilling equipment with deflectors attached in case of pneumatic suction systems. Directly adjacent to the drilled area of usually about 50 m width were replicated areas with bare soil as well as with crops. During maize (Zea mays drilling flowering oil seed rape (Brassica napus and during drilling of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oil seed rape flowering white mustard (Sinapis alba was adjacent. The amount of residues in the adjacent non crop areas in Petri dishes being distributed on the bare soil declined only slowly from 1 to 20 m distance from the area drilled. Seed batches with more abrasion and higher content of active substances in the dust resulted in higher residues off crop. After drilling of maize in four experiments in Petri dishes in adjacent non crop areas in 1-5 m distance between 0.02 and 0.40 g a.s./ha of neonicotinoids and in the adjacent oil seed rape a total of 0.05–0.80 g a.s./ha were detected. After drilling oil seed rape or barley these values were only 0.02–0.06 g a.s./ha in Petri dishes in non crop areas and 0.03-0.08 g a.s./ha in total in adjacent white mustard. In gauze net samplers installed vertically in 3 m distance in non crop areas up to seven times higher values were detected compared to Petri dishes.

  13. Transforaminal Endoscopic Surgery for Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeian, Albert Edward

    2017-01-01

    The natural history of degenerative disease after instrumented lumbar fusion can result in symptomatic radiculopathy at the adjacent segment. Here we describe our experience with transforaminal endoscopic decompression for the treatment of adjacent segment radiculopathy. A technique for the transforaminal endoscopic treatment of lumbar radiculopathy adjacent to instrumented lumbar fusions is presented. Prospectively, we followed a series of 9 consecutive patients operated on with lumbar radiculopathy above (5) or below (4) their instrumented fusion. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data with 2-year follow-up are presented. A consecutive series of 9 patients who underwent transforaminal endoscopic treatment for lumbar radiculopathy adjacent to an instrumented spinal fusion between 2012 and 2014 is presented. Three patients required revision to fusion at 2, 13, and 19 months postoperatively. The mean visual analogue scale score for radicular pain improved from an average pain score before surgery of 8.4 to 1.3 1 year after surgery and the mean visual analogue scale for back pain improved from an average pain score before surgery of 8.0 to 4.7 1 year after surgery (excluding the 1 patient with 2month postoperative failure). Transforaminal endoscopic surgical access to adjacent level disease pathology may be a unique approach to the treatment of adjacent segment disease because it allows for neural decompression of disc and foraminal pathology without requiring significant destabilizing bone removal. However, the 2-year failure rate presented here is 33%, which indicates that the benefit of this technique may ultimately be temporary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The p150 subunit of CAF-1 causes association of SUMO2/3 with the DNA replication foci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwada, Junsuke [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Niina; Yamaguchi, Yutaro; Uchimura, Yasuhiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shibahara, Kei-ichi [Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Mishima (Japan); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) can be post-translationally conjugated to a wide variety of proteins constituting chromatin, the platform for genetic and epigenetic regulation. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SUMO2/3 and SUMO2/3-modified proteins are delivered to the chromatin fibers. Here we report that the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), human p150, interacts directly and preferentially with SUMO2/3. Amino acid residue of 98-105 in p150 is essential and sufficient for SUMO2/3 interaction. p150-SUMO2/3 interaction coincided with regions that replicate chromatin fibers, because accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were detected at foci co-localized with both p150 and SUMO2/3 during the S-phase in a cell line expressing epitope-tagged p150. Although inhibition of SUMO2/3 expression had only a small effect on p150 deposition on the replication sites, depletion of p150 led to delocalization of SUMO2/3 from the replication foci. Furthermore, p150 mutants deficient in SUMO2/3 interaction, caused a major reduction of SUMO2/3 at the replication foci. Thus, our findings suggest an expanded role of p150 as a SUMO2/3-interacting factor, and raise the intriguing possibility that p150 plays a role in promoting delivery of SUMO2/3 or SUMO2/3-modified proteins (or both) on chromatin fibers during replication.

  15. DNA-damage foci to detect and characterize DNA repair alterations in children treated for pediatric malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies.

  16. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate sensitizes E1A+Ras-transformed cells to DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Maria V; Svetlikova, Svetlana B; Kukushkin, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

    2011-12-15

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) suppress the growth of tumor cells due to induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Recent data demonstrate that HDACi can interfere with DNA Damage Response (DDR) thereby sensitizing the cells to DNA damaging agents. Here, we show that HDACi sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiates the formation of γH2AX foci predominantly in S-phase E1A+Ras cells. Accumulation of γH2AX foci sensitizes the cells toward such DNA damaging agents as irradiation (IR) and adriamycin. In fact, NaBut potentiates the persistence of γH2AX foci induced by genotoxic agents. The synergizing effects depend on DNA damaging factors and on the order of NaBut treatment. Indeed, NaBut treatment for 24 h leads to an accumulation of G 1-phase cells and a lack of S-phase cells, therefore, adriamycin, a powerful S-phase-specific inhibitor, when added to NaBut-treated cells, is unable to substantially add γH2AX foci. In contrast, IR produces both single- and double-strand DNA breaks at any stage of the cell cycle and was shown to increase γH2AX foci in NaBut-treated cells. Further, a lifetime of IR-induced γH2AX foci depends on the subsequent presence of HDACi. Correspondingly, NaBut withdrawal leads to the extinction of IR-induced γH2AX foci. This necessitates HDACi to hold the IR-induced γH2AX foci unrepaired. However, the IR-induced γH2AX foci persist after long-term NaBut treatment (72 h) even after washing the drug. Thus, although signaling pathways regulating H2AX phosphorylation in NaBut-treated cells remain to be investigated, the obtained results show that NaBut potentiates effects of DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

  17. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama

  18. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    . The composition of the different diets was designed to achieve equivalent intakes of essential nutrients. Animals were killed after 10, 20, and 31 weeks. The study showed a pronounced effect of dietary composition on the development of DMH-induced ACF. The diet high in sucrose and dextrin caused a statistically......The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once...

  19. An automated and highly efficient method for counting and measuring fluorescent foci in rod-shaped bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H J; Hansen, F G

    2010-09-01

    Direct measurements of cells from photo micrographs are becoming increasingly used when investigating the position and/or distribution of chromosomal loci in bacteria. In general, these measurements have been done manually, and without clear definition of how they are made. Here we present a procedure for standardizing the measurement of cell properties from phase contrast images. Furthermore, we present a program using these standardized methods that can measure the intracellular positions of fluorescent foci in bacterial cells faster and with more precision than manual measurement.

  20. Behaviour of REEs in a tropical estuary and adjacent continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The distribution and accumulation of the rare earth elements (REE) in the sediments of the Cochin. Estuary and adjacent continental shelf ... in petroleum cracking catalysis, for the produc- tion of light weight hydrocarbons such as ...... Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (eds) Ahrens L H,. Press F, Runcorn S K and Urey H C ...

  1. Bird use of banana plantations adjacent to Kibale National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate bird use of a widespread matrix habitat in forested landscapes of western Uganda, I used mist nets to compare bird communities in the understory of continuous forest and adjacent banana plantations. Frugivorous and insectivorous birds accounted for a higher proportion of captures in the forest habitat than in ...

  2. PROBABILISTIC ZONING OF ADJACENT CATCHMENTS BY PHYSICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Andreev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the probabilistic zoning of avalanche sites is being made either on the basis of the available field data, or using the mathematical and physical modeling of avalanche dynamics processes. The work purpose consisted in research of interaction and compiling probabilistic zoning maps of two adjacent avalanche sites by a physical modeling method. For the two adjacent sites № 9 and 10 on the slope of northern exposition ofTchegetMountain(Elbrus region,Caucasus the model of this slope with the scale of 1: 2 500 was created. The model dimension is 0,82 × 1,1 ×0,57 m. This model was produced using the 4-mm plywood sheets imposed against each other. The model horizontals correspond to the10 mnatural ones. The model slope was also surfaced by thin gypsum lay and then varnished. The fine-grained sawdust (0.1 mm with a natural friction angle of 43º has been chosen as the loose material modeling snow. A series of experiments on modeling avalanche releases from the two sites were carried out resulted in the measurements of avalanche deposit parameters such as run-out distance and length, width and thickness of deposits. The similarity criteria were used during the experiments. The morphometric features of adjacent sites interaction are revealed. The basic result of the carried out work will consist in the probabilistic zoning map of two adjacent sites № 9 and 10.

  3. Concurrent statistical learning of adjacent and nonadjacent dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuong, L.C.; Meyer, A.S.; Christiansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    When children learn their native language, they have to deal with a confusing array of dependencies between various elements in an utterance. The dependent elements may be adjacent to one another or separated by intervening material. Prior studies suggest that nonadjacent dependencies are hard to

  4. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  5. Optimal induced universal graphs and adjacency labeling for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs

    2015-01-01

    bound. The lower bound and previously best upper bounds were presented in Alstrup and Rauhe (FOCS'02). Our upper bounds are obtained through a log2 n + O(1) labeling scheme for adjacency queries in forests. We hereby solve an open problem being raised repeatedly over decades, e.g. in Kannan, Naor...

  6. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  7. Dose distribution in the irradiation with adjacent fields. Medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudalbu, Cristina; Cozar, Onuc; Stan, Andrada

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the absorbed dose distribution for the irradiation with two adjacent fields in the case of medulloblastoma treatment and we optimized the irradiation technique by using three adjacent fields. As a purpose of this study we considered the secondary effects of the irradiation with two adjacent fields at the sensitive organs such as heart and lung. The objectives of this paper are: to achieve dose uniformity in the field junction region; to avoid the underdosage or overdosage in the junction area; the hot spot created due to the overlap of the beams in the depth has to be clinically acceptable; the dosage received by a sensitive structure such as the spinal cord must not exceed its tolerance dose. We should specify that this treatment technique was developed considering the following risk factors: the possibility of introducing very large dosage errors across the junction; the tumor recurrence if it is underdosed; severe complications if it is overdosed. The analysis of the irradiation technique was made from two points of view, geometric and dosimetric. The analysis from geometric and dosimetric points of view entails the conclusion that at the cord and lung level exists the risk of an important overdosage. This inconvenience was solved by moving one of the fields at the other side of the risk organs (if this procedure is possible) and by optimizing the irradiation technique by using three adjacent fields. (authors)

  8. Realisation of two adjacent high tones: Acoustic evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present findings of a multi-speaker production study that was undertaken to investigate the realisation of two adjacent high tones within the verb word in Northern Sotho, a Southern Bantu language. Experimental tokens are selected to ensure that the high tones originate from different combinations of morphosyntactic ...

  9. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, R.J.W.; Helder, M.N.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Bank, R.A.; Everts, V.; Smit, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were

  10. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Helder, Macro N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.; Bank, Ruud A.; Everts, Vincent E.; Smit, Theo H.

    2008-01-01

    The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were compared with 6

  11. Frugivorous birds influence the spatial organization of tropical forests through the generation of seedling recruitment foci under zoochoric trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Franck; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Gillet, Jean-François; Hambuckers, Alain

    2017-11-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal is recognized to influence the spatial organization of plant communities but little is known about how frugivores cause such patterns. Here, we explored the role of hornbills and primates in generating recruitment foci under two zoochoric trees, namely Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae) and Dialium spp. (Fabaceae - Caesalpiniodea) in a forest-savanna mosaic landscape in D.R. Congo. We also examined the influence of the availability of fruits in the neighborhood and the amount of forest cover in the landscape on such clumping patterns. The density and species richness of hornbill-dispersed and the density of primate-dispersed seedlings were significantly higher under Staudtia kamerunensis trees than at control locations. However, we did not find such patterns under Dialium spp. trees compared to control locations except for the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings which was lower at control locations. Also, we found that an increasing amount of forest cover in the landscape was associated with an increase in the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings, although the tendency was weak (R2 = 0.065). We concluded that S. kamerunensis acts as a recruitment foci and plays a structuring role in Afrotropical forests. Hornbills were probably the main frugivore taxon responsible for the clumping under that tree and appear as a key ecological component in fragmented and disturbed landscapes where the diversity of large frugivores such as primates is reduced. Our findings improve our understanding of the causal mechanisms responsible for the spatial organization of tropical forests.

  12. Comparison of benzodiazepine receptor and regional cerebral blood flow imagings of epileptiform foci in hippocampal kindled rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Kenzo

    1993-01-01

    To compare the benzodiazepine (Bz) receptor imaging and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging in the detection of epileptic foci, the distribution pattern of the Bz receptor and rCBF in hippocampal kindled rabbits was examined by a double tracer autoradiography using ethyl 7-[ 125 I]-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo [1, 5-a][1,4] benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate ( 125 I-Ro 16-0154) and 99m Tc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). In visual and quantitative analyses, 125 I-Ro 16-0154 accumulation in brain slices extracted after the completion of the kindling was markedly and extensively decreased in the kindled CA1 region mimicking a primary epileptic focus. 125 I-Ro 16-0154 accumulation was moderately decreased in the ipsilateral temporal lobe, dentate gyrus, CA2, CA4, and bilateral CA3 regions, regarded as the propagated sites of seizure discharges. 99m Tc-HMPAO accumulation was found to be decreased in the ipsilateral CA1, frontal, temporal and dentate gyri. However, the decrease was much more slight and less extensive than that in 125 I-Ro 16-0154 accumulation. These results suggest that Bz receptor imaging is much more sensitive in the detection of epileptic foci than rCBF imaging, and therefore that Bz receptor imaging is useful in clinical epilepsy. (author)

  13. Microscopic evaluation of nuclear foci (gamma H2AX) in cells irradiated with protons and lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracalente, C.; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Duran, Hebe; Ibanez, I.; Palmieri, M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Burlon, Alejandro; Valda, Alejandro; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Vazquez, Monica; Ozafran, Mabel J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The special properties of both physical and biological radiation particles with high-LET (Linear Transfer of Energy) have led to its increased use in cancer therapy. In this work, the effect of high and low LET radiation on cell lines with different radiosensitivity (Irs-20 and CHO-10B2) quantifying the number and size of nuclear foci obtained from histone H2AX (γH2AX) phosphorylation which plays an important role in DNA damage reparation is compared. Foci detection was performed by immunocytochemical methods and fluorescence microscopy. The cells cultures were irradiated with plateau-phase protons (14 MeV, LET: 3 keV/μ), on Bragg peak (3 MeV. LET: 14 KeV/μ) and with Lithium ions (7 MeV, LET: 250 KeV//μ) on the Tandar accelerator. A clonogenic analysis of the two cell lines was made. Irradiation with protons (low LET) showed a significant difference (p [es

  14. Biochemical Kinetics Model of DSB Repair and GammaH2AX FOCI by Non-homologous End Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis, A.; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Jennifer A.; Harper, Jane V.; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We developed a biochemical kinetics approach to describe the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) produced by low LET radiation by modeling molecular events associated with the mechanisms of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). A system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations describes the induction of DSB and activation pathways for major NHEJ components including Ku(sub 70/80), DNA-PK(sub cs), and the Ligase IV-XRCC4 hetero-dimer. The autophosphorylation of DNA-PK(sub cs and subsequent induction of gamma-H2AX foci observed after ionizing radiation exposure were modeled. A two-step model of DNA-PK(sub cs) regulation of repair was developed with the initial step allowing access of other NHEJ components to breaks, and a second step limiting access to Ligase IV-XRCC4. Our model assumes that the transition from the first to second-step depends on DSB complexity, with a much slower-rate for complex DSB. The model faithfully reproduced several experimental data sets, including DSB rejoining as measured by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE), quantification of the induction of gamma-H2AX foci, and live cell imaging of the induction of Ku(sub 70/80). Predictions are made for the behaviors of NHEJ components at low doses and dose-rates, where a steady-state is found at dose-rates of 0.1 Gy/hr or lower.

  15. Predisposing Characteristics of Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentado, Vincent J; Lubelski, Daniel; Healy, Andrew T; Orr, Robert D; Steinmetz, Michael P; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2016-07-15

    Retrospective Review. The aim of this study was to determine medical, radiographic, and surgical risk factors for the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after lumbar fusion. ASD is a recognized outcome of spinal fusion that leads to increased costs and debilitating symptoms for patients. However, a comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of this surgical outcome does not exist. The medical records of patients who received their first lumbar fusion for any indication were retrospectively examined for preoperative medical comorbidities and medications, as well as surgical approach and perioperative complications. A blinded reviewer assessed radiographs for each patient to examine sagittal alignment after fusion. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the risk of developing ASD on the basis of one or more predictors. A total of 137 patients fit the inclusion criteria; 9% required a follow-up operation for degeneration at segments adjacent to the fusion. The ASD group had a mean follow-up of 21.1 months prior to revision surgery and an overall follow-up of 41.0 months. The average follow-up in the control group was 14.0 months. Statistically significant independent predictors of developing ASD included antidepressant use [odds ratio (OR) = 5.4], diagnosis of degenerative scoliosis (OR = 34.2), fusion of L4-S1 (OR = 56.5), having no decompressions adjacent to the fusion, and low sacral slope (OR = 0.9). No patient who developed ASD received a decompression adjacent to the fusion such that an OR could not be generated for this independent predictor. This study is the first to use a combination of medical, surgical, and postoperative sagittal balance as risk factors for the development of adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion. The awareness of these risk factors may allow for better patient selection and surgical technique to decrease the probability of acquiring this adverse outcome. 4.

  16. [Slow Formation and Degradation of γH2AX Foci in Human Skin Fibroblasts Exposed to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekhova, A K; Eremin, P S; Osipov, A N; Eremin, I I; Pustovalova, M V; Ozerov, I V; Smetanina, N M; Lazareva, N L; Vorobyeva, N Yu; Pulin, A A; Maksimova, O A; Gordeev, A V; Bushmanov, A Yu; Kotenko, K V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that the kinetics of changes of γH2AX foci number (marker of DNA double-strand breaks) in human skin fibroblasts after exposure to low doses of X-ray radiation (20, 40 and 80 mGy) differs from that observed after exposure to medium-low doses (160 and 240 mGy). After exposure to 160 and 240 mGy the highest number of γH2AX foci was detected at 30 min after exposure (first experimental point) and further their decrease was observed. At the same time we observed a fast phase of repair (upto 4 h), in which there was a decrease of the foci amount to ~50-60% and a slow phase of repair (from 4 h to 24 h). After 24 h only ~3-5% of the foci amount observed at 30 min after irradiation was left. After exposure to low doses, the foci number did not decrease during 2 h and even 24 h after exposure their amount was ~25% from that observed at maximum points (1 h after irradiation at 40 and 80 mGy and 2 h after irradiation at 20 mGy).

  17. Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense “forest type” and T. simiae: prevalence in domestic animals of sleeping sickness foci of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimpaye, H.; Njiokou, F.; Njine, T.; Njitchouang, G.R.; Cuny, G.; Herder, S.; Asonganyi, T.; Simo, G.

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand the epidemiology of Human and Animal trypanosomiasis that occur together in sleeping sickness foci, a study of prevalences of animal parasites (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense “forest type”, and T. simiae) infections was conducted on domestic animals to complete the previous work carried on T. brucei gambiense prevalence using the same animal sample. 875 domestic animals, including 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs were sampled in the sleeping sickness foci of Bipindi, Campo, Doumé and Fontem in Cameroon. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method was used to identify these trypanosome species. A total of 237 (27.08%) domestic animals were infected by at least one trypanosome species. The prevalence of T. vivax, T. congolense “forest type” and T. simiae were 20.91%, 11.42% and 0.34% respectively. The prevalences of T. vivax and T. congolense “forest type” differed significantly between the animal species and between the foci (p < 0.0001); however, these two trypanosomes were found in all animal species as well as in all the foci subjected to the study. The high prevalences of T. vivax and T. congolense “forest type” in Bipindi and Fontem-Center indicate their intense transmission in these foci. PMID:21678793

  18. Low diversity of Leishmania parasites in sandflies and the absence of the great gerbil in foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fars province, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, P; Alaeenovin, E; Kazerooni, P A; Ready, P D

    2013-06-01

    Fars province lies to the south of the main foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in central and northern Iran, and its ZCL foci might have emerged more recently because of different transmission cycles. However, there have been limited studies of the parasites infecting the regional sandfly vectors. The diversities of sandflies and the Leishmania parasites infecting female sandflies were assessed for different habitats in Fars ZCL foci, 2008-2009, using standardized sandfly trapping and characterization of ribosomal DNA haplotypes of parasites. Vector diversity was similar to that in the main Iran ZCL foci, but parasite diversity was lower. Only Le. major was detected in Fars sandflies. Most infections were found in the abundant vector Phlebotomus papatasi collected in rodent burrows. Infections were detected for the first time in Iran in the related P. bergeroti. The failure to detect other gerbil parasites (Le. turanica, Le. gerbilli) is explained by the absence of one reservoir host, the great gerbil Rhombomys opimus. Other gerbils (Meriones species) may be the regional reservoir hosts, but transmission modelling is required for a better understanding of the emergence and stability of ZCL foci in Fars and other Iranian provinces.

  19. Differential numbers of foci of lymphocytes within the brains of Lewis rats exposed to weak complex nocturnal magnetic fields during development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    To discern if specific structures of the rat brain contained more foci of lymphocytes following induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and exposures to weak, amplitude-modulated magnetic fields for 6 min once per hour during the scotophase, the residuals between the observed and predicted values for the numbers of foci for 320 structures were obtained. Compared to the brains of sham-field exposed rats, the brains of rats exposed to 7-Hz 50 nT (0.5 mG) amplitude-modulated fields showed more foci within hippocampal structures and the dorsal central grey of the midbrain while those exposed to 7-Hz 500 nT (5 mG) fields showed greater densities within the hypothalamus and optic chiasm. The brains of rats exposed to either the 50 nT or 500 nT amplitude-modulated 40-Hz fields displayed greater densities of foci within the midbrain structures related to rapid eye movement. Most of the enhancements of infiltrations within the magnetic field-exposed rats occurred in structures within periventricular or periaqueductal regions and were both frequency- and intensity-dependent. The specificity and complexity of the configurations of the residuals of the numbers of infiltrated foci following exposures to the different fields suggest that the brain itself may be a "sensory organ" for the detection of these stimuli.

  20. Evaluation of agents to detect inflammatory foci using an experimental animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimpi, H.H.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the propensities of four agents- two metal complexes and two protein species, viz. 67 Ga-citrate, 99m Tc-citrate, 99m Tc-human immunoglobulin ( 99m Tc-HIG); and 99m Tc-human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-HSA), for localization of (turpentine- induced) inflammatory lesions in a rat and rabbit animal model systems. All these radiopharmaceuticals showed fairly good uptake in inflammatory lesions. 99m Tc-HIG, 99m Tc-HSA and 67 Ga-citrate showed slower blood clearance and higher liver uptakes. On the other hand 99m Tc-citrate demonstrated faster blood clearance and negligible liver and gut accumulation. The respective inflamed/normal muscle (IM/NM) ratios obtained with these agents in this animal model were in the following order: 99m Tc-HIG> 99m Tc-HSA> 67 Ga-citrate> 99m Tc-citrate at 5 h post injection. Although the IM/NM was relatively low in the case of 99m Tc-citrate as compared with other radiopharmaceuticals the inflammation could be detected within 1-3 h. post injection because of the higher activities that could be injected with this radiopharmaceutical. Since 99m Tc-citrate is predominantly excreted via renal pathway it is rapidly cleared from blood and shows fairly good accumulation in infection/inflammatory lesions at early time periods along with low uptakes in liver and adjacent organs. This agent can therefore be beneficially used to detect the abdominal abscess(es)/inflammation(s) within 1-3 h post injection. Because of its favourable characteristics, physical, biological, clinical, and even cost-effectiveness, it is suggested that 99m Tc-citrate could be tried out as an agent for detection of inflammation including abdominal and vertebral abscess(es). (author)

  1. Migration of PCBs from Sealants to Adjacent Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Kampmann, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    PCB in sealants can migrate into porous surfaces like concrete and brick and contaminate these materials. The study focuses on an analysis of concentration profiles in relation to alleviation of PCB contamination. The PCB content was determined in 20 samples of concrete and 6 samples of brick...... adjacent to outdoor PCB-containing sealants. The samples were submitted to the laboratory for normal commercial assessment of PCB content in relation to the handling of waste from renovation works in Denmark. The results showed that the PBC concentration in the sealant not necessarily relate...... to the concentration of the adjacent material. The profiles of PCB concentration into the materials showed some variation, though in general there is a tendency of relative higher concentration near the primary source in concrete and longer migration at low concentrations in brick. The concentration profiles seemed...

  2. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  3. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for the Management of Adjacent Segment Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Drew D; Summers, Garth K

    2017-12-01

    Adjacent segment pathology is an adverse effect of spinal fusion that precipitates accelerated spinal degenerative changes at vertebral segments contiguous with the fused vertebrae. The accelerated degeneration related to ASP can be challenging to manage, as it can lead to conditions such as radiculopathy and can create the need for reoperation. In the present case, a 50-year-old woman with a previous spinal fusion presented with a 1-year history of progressive low back pain, lumbar radiculopathy, and sciatica. Osteopathic manipulative treatment was used to manage her pain, and the patient reported that the treatment provided long-term resolution of her sciatica symptoms. This case demonstrates an effective use of osteopathic manipulative treatment in the conservative management of lumbar radiculopathy related to adjacent segment pathology.

  4. Plutonium in soil adjacent to Rocky Flats plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, M.W.; Illsley, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    In 1975, lawsuits were filed claiming contaminated lands adjacent to the plant. Five remote as well as 89 sites on lands under litigation were sampled using four sampling techniques at each site. An additional 71 sites were sampled using the Rockwell International technique. No results approached the EPA proposed guideline screening level of 200 mCi/km 2 , although numerous sites to the last of the plant exceed 2 d/m/g (10 mCi/km 2 )

  5. The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south-western coast of Africa, from southern Angola. (15°S) to Cape Agulhas (35°S; Fig. 1). Ecologically, it is split into separate northern and southern sub- systems by a zone of intense perennial upwelling near. Lüderitz (26–27.5°S; Shannon 1985). As is charac-.

  6. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  7. Jaw position uncertainty and adjacent fields in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Emma; Bäck, Anna; Chakarova, Roumiana

    2015-11-08

    Locoregional treatment of breast cancer involves adjacent, half blocked fields matched at isocenter. The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric effects of the uncertainties in jaw positioning for such a case, and how a treatment planning protocol including adjacent field overlap of 1 mm affects the dose distribution. A representative treatment plan, involving 6 and 15 photon beams, for a patient treated at our hospital is chosen. Monte Carlo method (EGSnrc/BEAMnrc) is used to simulate the treatment. Uncertainties in jaw positioning of ± 1 mm are addressed, which implies extremes in reality of 2 mm field gap/overlap when planning adjacent fields without overlap and 1 mm gap or 3 mm overlap for a planning protocol with 1 mm overlap. Dosimetric parameters for PTV, lung and body are analyzed. Treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap of the adjacent fields does not considerably counteract possible underdosage of the target in the case studied. PTV-V95% is for example reduced from 95% for perfectly aligned fields to 90% and 91% for 2 mm and 1 mm gap, respectively. However, the risk of overdosage in PTV and in healthy soft tissue is increased when following the protocol with 1 mm overlap. A 3 mm overlap compared to 2 mm overlap results in an increase in maximum dose to PTV, PTV-D2%, from 113% to 121%. V120% for 'Body-PTV' is also increased from 5 cm(3) to 14 cm(3). A treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap does not considerably improve the coverage of PTV in the case of erroneous jaw positions causing gap between fields, but increases the overdosage in PTV and doses to healthy tissue, in the case of overlapping fields, for the case investigated.

  8. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Meinou H.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A1A2A3B3B2B1) and crossed dependencies (A1A2A3B1B2B3), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A1A2A3B3_B1), reminiscent of the ‘missing-verb effect’ observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A1A2A3B1_B3). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch—which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively—showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning. PMID:22688641

  9. Adjacent segment disease in degenerative pathologies with posterior instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Guadalupe Ramírez Olvera; Manuel Villarreal Arroyo; Luis Mario Hinojosa Martínez; Enrique Méndez Pérez; Luis Romeo Ramos Hinojosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the real incidence of adjacent segment disease after fusion, and to identify the levels and predisposing factors for the pathology, as well as the functional results. METHODS: a retrospective case series study with level of evidence IIB, in a sample of 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine, spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis, submitted to surgery in the period 2005 to December 2013, with posterior instrumentation and posterolateral fusion, ...

  10. Novel Image Processing Interface to Relate DSB Spatial Distribution from Immunofluorescence Foci Experiments to the State-of-the-Art Models of DNA Breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed software (NASARadiationTrackImage) allows a quick and automatic segmentation of foci that indicate spatial localization of specific proteins that are visualized by immunofluorescence. Of interest are the spatial and temporal distribution of foci such as gammaH2AX, a signal of the phosphorylation of a variant of the histone H2A that has been shown to correspond to DSBs, or proteins involved in DSB processing, such as ATM, Rad51, and p53, following exposures of human cells to high charge and energy (HZE) ion irradiation. Experimental data are recorded as sets of two-dimensional images in color with cells and foci of gammaH2AX, ATM, Rad51 or others shown. Different cells, levels of radiation and timing after radiation were recorded. The software allows us to calculate the number of foci per cell, overall intensity of light in foci and their spatial organization. A simple statistical model allows for testing of foci overlap (eclipse). A more complex statistical model previously known as DNAbreak simulates track structure and random chromosome geometry. It has one adjustable parameter corresponding to an average intensity of DSB creation in cubic micrometers of DNA volume per particle track or unit dose. Its limitation is the low-resolution limit both in physical space and DSB's along DNA. It works adequately on the scale of a cell and provides further insights on how the geometry of tracks and DNA affects genomic damage of the cell and subsequent repair. Future developments of the model for the description of the time evolution of DNA damage response proteins, and more robust track structure models will be discussed.

  11. γ-H2AX foci are increased in lymphocytes in vivo in young children 1 h after very low-dose X-irradiation: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, Brunhild M.; Franke, Adrian A.; Lai, Jennifer F. [University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turner, Helen C.; Brenner, David J.; Zohrabian, Vatche M. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Radiological Research, New York, NY (United States); DiMauro, Robert [Kapi' olani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality involving ionizing radiation. The presence of γ-H2AX foci after low to moderate ionizing radiation exposure has been demonstrated; however it is unknown whether very low ionizing radiation exposure doses from CT exams can induce γ-H2AX formation in vivo in young children. To test whether very low ionizing radiation doses from CT exams can induce lymphocytic γ-H2AX foci (phosphorylated histones used as a marker of DNA damage) formation in vivo in young children. Parents of participating children signed a consent form. Blood samples from three children (ages 3-21 months) undergoing CT exams involving very low blood ionizing radiation exposure doses (blood doses of 0.22-1.22 mGy) were collected immediately before and 1 h post CT exams. Isolated lymphocytes were quantified for γ-H2AX foci by a technician blinded to the radiation status and dose of the patients. Paired t-tests and regression analyses were performed with significance levels set at P < 0.05. We observed a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci post-CT exams (P = 0.046) among the three children. Ionizing radiation exposure doses led to a linear increase of foci per cell in post-CT samples (102% between lowest and highest dose). We found a significant induction of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from post-CT samples of three very young children. When possible, CT exams should be limited or avoided by possibly applying non-ionizing radiation exposure techniques such as US or MRI. (orig.)

  12. Ionizing radiation-induced foci formation of mammalian Rad51 and Rad54 depends on the Rad51 paralogs, but not on Rad52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veelen, Lieneke R. van; Essers, Jeroen; Rakt, Mandy W.M.M. van de; Odijk, Hanny; Pastink, Albert; Zdzienicka, MaIgorzata Z.; Paulusma, Coen C.; Kanaar, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Homologous recombination is of major importance for the prevention of genomic instability during chromosome duplication and repair of DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks. Biochemical experiments have revealed that during the process of homologous recombination the RAD52 group proteins, including Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54, are involved in an essential step: formation of a joint molecule between the broken DNA and the intact repair template. Accessory proteins for this reaction include the Rad51 paralogs and BRCA2. The significance of homologous recombination for the cell is underscored by the evolutionary conservation of the Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54 proteins from yeast to humans. Upon treatment of cells with ionizing radiation, the RAD52 group proteins accumulate at the sites of DNA damage into so-called foci. For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is abrogated in the absence of Rad52, while Rad51 foci formation does occur in the absence of the Rad51 paralog Rad55. By contrast, we show here that in mammalian cells, Rad52 is not required for foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54. Furthermore, radiation-induced foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is impaired in all Rad51 paralog and BRCA2 mutant cell lines tested, while Rad52 foci formation is not influenced by a mutation in any of these recombination proteins. Despite their evolutionary conservation and biochemical similarities, S. cerevisiae and mammalian Rad52 appear to differentially contribute to the DNA-damage response

  13. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Sharma

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2 enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1 and first premolar (P1 at early stages of P2 (second premolar. Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212 and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage 'Ci' given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage 'Ci' decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 'Ci' was P1 'Coc' (cusp outline complete and M1 'Crc' (crown complete. Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 'Crc' and M1 stage 'R½' (root half. The chance of observing P2 at least 'Coc' (coalescence of cusps was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond 'Crc' and M1 is beyond 'R½'.

  14. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Johal, Ama S; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage 'Ci' given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage 'Ci' decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 'Ci' was P1 'Coc' (cusp outline complete) and M1 'Crc' (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 'Crc' and M1 stage 'R½' (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least 'Coc' (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond 'Crc' and M1 is beyond 'R½'.

  15. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  16. X-ray induced formation of γ-H2AX foci after full-field digital mammography and digital breast-tomosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried A Schwab

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT using a biological phantom model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. RESULTS: Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067-0.116 before and 0.094 (0.076-0.126 after FFDM (p = 0.0004. In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086-0.140 at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030-0.050 at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040-0.081 at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006-0.020 at glandular level. CONCLUSION: In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.

  17. [An assessment of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1992-04-01

    The parasitological data and the results of the virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and in the course of study of the immune structure of the population, are indicative of the circulation of CHF virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection. Data on spontaneous infection of four species of Ixodes ticks with CHF virus have been confirmed, including the data, obtained for the first time for this region, on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process. The study has revealed, also for the first time, that, together with European brown hares, the natural foci of this infection may be maintained by scilly shrews, common voles and European wood mice. Low activity of the Crimean focus may be the result of active land reclamation, keeping the cattle stalled in most of the stock-breeding farms of the region, as well as a sharp decline in the number of hares at the territories of hunting preserves.

  18. [An evaluation of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-09-01

    Parasitological data, the results of virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and during the study of the immune structure of the population and indicative of the circulation of CCHF, virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection, are presented. The data on the spontaneous CCHF virus infection of 4 tick species belonging to the genus Ixodes have been confirmed, and evidence on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process obtained for the first time in this region. The study has revealed for the first time that, besides European brown hares, scilly shrews, common voles and field mice may contribute to the maintenance of the natural foci of this infection. The low activity of the Crimean focus of CCHF may be the result of the intensive use of land, the widely spread stall-feeding of cattle, as well as a sharp decrease in the number of hares on the territories of hunting preserves.

  19. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  20. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  1. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  2. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  3. mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors are overexpressed in the foci of deep bowel endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibran, Luciano; Maranhão, Raul C; Tavares, Elaine R; Carvalho, Priscila O; Abrão, Maurício S; Podgaec, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases. This is the first study we know of to investigate lipoprotein receptors expression in deep endometriosis with bowel involvement. During 2014-2015, an exploratory case-control study was conducted with 39 patients, including 20 women with a histological diagnosis of deep endometriosis compromising the bowel and 19 women without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. Peripheral blood samples were collected on the day of surgery for lipid profile analysis, and samples of endometrial tissue and of bowel endometriotic lesions were also collected. The tissue samples were sent for histopathological analysis and for LDL-R and LRP-1 gene expression screening using quantitative real-time PCR. Patients with deep endometriosis had lower LDL-cholesterol than patients without the disease (119 ± 23 versus 156 ± 35; P = 0.001). Gene expression analysis of LDL receptors revealed that LDL-R was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions when compared to the endometrium of the same patient but not more than in the endometrium of women without endometriosis (0.027 ± 0.022 versus 0.012 ± 0.009 versus 0.019 ± 0.01, respectively; P Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP #2011/17245-0). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Spatio-temporal re-organization of replication foci accompanies replication domain consolidation during human pluripotent stem cell lineage specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Korey A.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Stanley, Edouard G.; Gilbert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lineage specification of both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is accompanied by spatial consolidation of chromosome domains and temporal consolidation of their replication timing. Replication timing and chromatin organization are both established during G1 phase at the timing decision point (TDP). Here, we have developed live cell imaging tools to track spatio-temporal replication domain consolidation during differentiation. First, we demonstrate that the fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (Fucci) system is incapable of demarcating G1/S or G2/M cell cycle transitions. Instead, we employ a combination of fluorescent PCNA to monitor S phase progression, cytokinesis to demarcate mitosis, and fluorescent nucleotides to label early and late replication foci and track their 3D organization into sub-nuclear chromatin compartments throughout all cell cycle transitions. We find that, as human PSCs differentiate, the length of S phase devoted to replication of spatially clustered replication foci increases, coincident with global compartmentalization of domains into temporally clustered blocks of chromatin. Importantly, re-localization and anchorage of domains was completed prior to the onset of S phase, even in the context of an abbreviated PSC G1 phase. This approach can also be employed to investigate cell fate transitions in single PSCs, which could be seen to differentiate preferentially from G1 phase. Together, our results establish real-time, live-cell imaging methods for tracking cell cycle transitions during human PSC differentiation that can be applied to study chromosome domain consolidation and other aspects of lineage specification. PMID:27433885

  5. Intestinal Bacterial Communities of Trypanosome-Infected and Uninfected Glossina palpalis palpalis from Three Human African Trypanomiasis Foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina sp. the tsetse fly that transmits trypanosomes causing the Human or the Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or AAT can harbor symbiotic bacteria that are known to play a crucial role in the fly's vector competence. We hypothesized that other bacteria could be present, and that some of them could also influence the fly's vector competence. In this context the objectives of our work were: (a to characterize the bacteria that compose the G. palpalis palpalis midgut bacteriome, (b to evidence possible bacterial community differences between trypanosome-infected and non-infected fly individuals from a given AAT and HAT focus or from different foci using barcoded Illumina sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Forty G. p. palpalis flies, either infected by Trypanosoma congolense or uninfected were sampled from three trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. A total of 143 OTUs were detected in the midgut samples. Most taxa were identified at the genus level, nearly 50% at the species level; they belonged to 83 genera principally within the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Prominent representatives included Wigglesworthia (the fly's obligate symbiont, Serratia, and Enterobacter hormaechei. Wolbachia was identified for the first time in G. p. palpalis. The average number of bacterial species per tsetse sample was not significantly different regarding the fly infection status, and the hierarchical analysis based on the differences in bacterial community structure did not provide a clear clustering between infected and non-infected flies. Finally, the most important result was the evidence of the overall very large diversity of intestinal bacteria which, except for Wigglesworthia, were unevenly distributed over the sampled flies regardless of their geographic origin and their trypanosome infection status.

  6. The Analysis of the Patterns of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Foci by a Stochastic Monte Carlo Model of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induction by Heavy Ions and Image Segmentation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    To create a generalized mechanistic model of DNA damage in human cells that will generate analytical and image data corresponding to experimentally observed DNA damage foci and will help to improve the experimental foci yields by simulating spatial foci patterns and resolving problems with quantitative image analysis. Material and Methods: The analysis of patterns of RIFs (radiation-induced foci) produced by low- and high-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation was conducted by using a Monte Carlo model that combines the heavy ion track structure with characteristics of the human genome on the level of chromosomes. The foci patterns were also simulated in the maximum projection plane for flat nuclei. Some data analysis was done with the help of image segmentation software that identifies individual classes of RIFs and colocolized RIFs, which is of importance to some experimental assays that assign DNA damage a dual phosphorescent signal. Results: The model predicts the spatial and genomic distributions of DNA DSBs (double strand breaks) and associated RIFs in a human cell nucleus for a particular dose of either low- or high-LET radiation. We used the model to do analyses for different irradiation scenarios. In the beam-parallel-to-the-disk-of-a-flattened-nucleus scenario we found that the foci appeared to be merged due to their high density, while, in the perpendicular-beam scenario, the foci appeared as one bright spot per hit. The statistics and spatial distribution of regions of densely arranged foci, termed DNA foci chains, were predicted numerically using this model. Another analysis was done to evaluate the number of ion hits per nucleus, which were visible from streaks of closely located foci. In another analysis, our image segmentaiton software determined foci yields directly from images with single-class or colocolized foci. Conclusions: We showed that DSB clustering needs to be taken into account to determine the true DNA damage foci yield, which helps to

  7. Induction and disappearance of γH2AX foci and formation of micronuclei after exposure of human lymphocytes to ⁶⁰Co γ-rays and p(66)+ Be(40) neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersickel, Veerle; Beukes, Philip; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Depuydt, Julie; Vral, Anne; Slabbert, Jacobus

    2014-02-01

    To investigate both the formation of micronuclei (MN) and the induction and subsequent loss of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci (γH2AX foci) after in vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to either (60)Co γ-rays or p(66)+ Be(40) neutrons. MN dose response (DR) curves were obtained by exposing isolated lymphocytes of 10 different donors to doses ranging from 0-4 Gy γ-rays or 0-2 Gy neutrons. Also, γH2AX foci DR curves were obtained following exposure to doses ranging from 0-0.5 Gy of either γ-rays or neutrons. Foci kinetics for lymphocytes for a single donor exposed to 0.5 Gy γ-rays or neutrons were studied up to 24 hours post-irradiation. Micronuclei yields following neutron exposure were consistently higher compared to that from (60)Co γ-rays. All MN yields were over-dispersed compared to a Poisson distribution. Over-dispersion was higher after neutron irradiation for all doses > 0.1 Gy. Up to 4 hours post-irradiation lower yields of neutron-induced γH2AX foci were observed. Between 4 and 24 hours the numbers of foci from neutrons were consistently higher than that from γ-rays. The half-live of foci disappearance is only marginally longer for neutrons compared to that from γ-rays. Foci formations were more likely to be over-dispersed for neutron irradiations. Although neutrons are more effective to induce MN, the absolute number of induced γH2AX foci are less at first compared to γ-rays. With time neutron-induced foci are more persistent. These findings are helpful for using γH2AX foci in biodosimetry and to understand the repair of neutron-induced cellular damage.

  8. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4cm (75%, 9/12, p=0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0-97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. US-guided percutaneous MWA appears to be a promising method for RCCs adjacent to renal sinus, especially for tumors ≤4cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomechanical Evaluation of Lumbar Decompression Adjacent to Instrumented Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Peter; Reyes, Phillip M; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Towne, Sara B; Kelly, Brian P; Theodore, Nicholas; Härtl, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Multilevel lumbar stenosis, in which 1 level requires stabilization due to spondylolisthesis, is routinely treated with multilevel open laminectomy and fusion. We hypothesized that a minimally invasive (MI) decompression is biomechanically superior to open laminectomy and may allow decompression of the level adjacent the spondylolisthesis without additional fusion. To study the mechanical effect of various decompression procedures adjacent to instrumented segments in cadaver lumbar spines. Conditions tested were (1) L4-L5 instrumentation, (2) L3-L4 MI decompression, (3) addition of partial facetectomy at L3-L4, and (4) addition of laminectomy at L3-L4. Flexibility tests were performed for range of motion (ROM) analysis by applying nonconstraining, pure moment loading during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Compression flexion tests were performed for motion distribution analysis. After instrumentation, MI decompression increased flexion-extension ROM at L3-L4 by 13% (P = .03) and axial rotation by 23% (P = .003). Partial facetectomy further increased axial rotation by 15% (P = .03). After laminectomy, flexion-extension ROM further increased by 12% (P = .05), a 38% increase from baseline, and axial rotation by 17% (P = .02), a 58% increase from baseline. MI decompression yielded no significant increase in segmental contribution of motion at L3-L4, in contrast to partial facetectomy and laminectomy (<.05). MI tubular decompression is biomechanically superior to open laminectomy adjacent to instrumented segments. These results lend support to the concept that in patients in whom a multilevel MI decompression is performed, the fusion might be limited to the segments with actual instability. MI, minimally invasive.

  10. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  11. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to...

  12. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  13. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongyan, E-mail: gaoyongyan7@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, 69 Yongding Road, Beijing, 100039 (China); Liang, Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Xiaoling, E-mail: 784107477@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Jie, E-mail: 1411495161@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Cheng, Zhigang, E-mail: 13691367317@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Han, Zhiyu, E-mail: hanzhiyu122@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Duan, Shaobo, E-mail: Dustin2662@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Huang, Hui, E-mail: 309hh@sina.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  14. Modular cervical plate system for adjacent segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Cashin, John L; Wright, Neill M

    2018-02-23

    Adjacent-level disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) occurs in a significant proportion of patients and frequently requires revision operation. Methods using traditional plates typically require removal of the plate with anecdotally increased operative-time and morbidity. We review our experience in treating symptomatic adjacent-segment disease using both traditional plate removal and modular- plate system which allows for add-on plate components rather than removal of the entire plate. Authors compared 64 patients with revision surgery using modular-plate system for adjacent- segment disease compared to 2-cohorts: (1) patients with traditional plate-removal and (2) patients with no prior plate. Clinical data included demographics, original surgery, presentation, current surgery, use of modular system, need for preoperative computed-topography, operative-time, blood loss, hospital stay, complications, length of dysphagia, neck disability index and time-until-fusion. Modular cervical plate system was utilized to prevent exposure and removal of the entire plate. The terminal portion of the plate was exposed and the distal module was removed. Following the discectomy/arthrodesis, a module-plate extension was added onto the previous plate for extension of the prior instrumentation. Preoperative planning computed-topography was required in 26% of plate-removal and 17% of modular-plate cases. Revision surgery with no prior plate had reduced operative-time (77.0±18.1 min) when compared with plate removal (103.8±46.2 min; p<0.01). Blood-loss was lower for modular-plate system (38.3±20.4 mL) and no prior plate (38.4±12.6 mL) versus plate removal (78.2±65.9 mL, p<0.01). Hospital stay was similar for all groups. No complications were experienced with modular-plate revision but plate removal and revision after no prior plate carried 7.7% and 10.5% complication rates, respectively. There was a trend towards lower dysphagia and neck disability index

  15. Adjacent segment infection after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis

    OpenAIRE

    Siam, Ahmed Ezzat; El Saghir, Hesham; Boehm, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background This is the first case series to describe adjacent segment infection (ASI) after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis (SD). Materials and methods Patients with SD, spondylitis who were surgically treated between 1994 and 2012 were included. Out of 1187 cases, 23 (1.94?%) returned to our institution (Zentralklinik Bad Berka) with ASI: 10?males, 13 females, with a mean age of 65.1?years and a mean follow-up of 69?months. Results ASI most commonly involved L3?4 (seven patients), T12...

  16. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  17. Meta-analysis of validity of echogenic intracardiac foci for calculating the risk of Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rubio Lorente

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Echogenic intracardiac foci are a second trimester marker associated with aneuploidy in high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to assess the validity of echogenic intracardiac foci for Down syndrome detection in the second trimester ultrasound scan. A systematic search in major bibliographic databases was carried out (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL. Twenty-five studies about echogenic intracardiac foci were selected for statistical synthesis in this systematic review. Those 25 considered to be relevant were then subjected to critical reading, following the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme criteria, by at least three independent observers. Then, the published articles were subjected to a meta-analysis. A global sensitivity of 21.8% and a 4.1% false positive rate were obtained. The positive likelihood ratio was 5.08 (95% confidence interval, 4.04–6.41. The subgroups analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences. In conclusion, echogenic intracardiac foci as an isolated marker could be a tool to identify—rather than exclude—the high-risk group of Down syndrome, although it should be noted that it shows low sensitivity.

  18. Induction and Persistence of Large γH2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinase–Deficient Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L. [Departamento de Micro y Nanotecnología, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Beatriz [Departamento de Radiobiología, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Mónica [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, Andrés [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, Alejandro [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of γ-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of γH2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of γH2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in γH2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 μm{sup 2}) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of γH2AX foci after high-LET irradiation.

  19. Adjacent segment disease in degenerative pathologies with posterior instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guadalupe Ramírez Olvera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the real incidence of adjacent segment disease after fusion, and to identify the levels and predisposing factors for the pathology, as well as the functional results. METHODS: a retrospective case series study with level of evidence IIB, in a sample of 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine, spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis, submitted to surgery in the period 2005 to December 2013, with posterior instrumentation and posterolateral fusion, with follow-up from 2007 until May 2014, in which the symptomology and radiographic findings were evaluated, to establish the diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: the study included 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine (n=116, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis (n=50 and degenerative scoliosis (n=13; during the study, 20 cases of adjacent level segment were identified, 80% of which were treated surgically with extension of the instrumentation, while 20% were treated conservatively with NSAIDs and therapeutic blocks. CONCLUSION: An incidence of 11% was found, with an average of 3.25 years in diagnosis and treatment, a prevalence of females and diagnosis of stenosis of the lumbar canal on posterior instrumentation, a predominance of levels L4-L5; 80% were treated with extension of the instrumentation. The complications were persistent radiculopathy, infection of the surgical wound, and one death due to causes not related to the lumbar pathology.

  20. Absorbed dose distribution analyses in irradiation with adjacent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudalbu, C.; Onuc, C.; Andrada, S.

    2002-01-01

    Because the special irradiation technique with adjacent fields is the most used in the case of medulloblastoma treatment, we consider very important to specify some general information about medulloblastoma. This malignant disease has a large incidence in children with age between 5-7 years. This tumor usually originates in the cerebellum and is referred to as primitive undifferentiated tumor. It may spread contiguously to the cerebellar peduncle, floor of the fourth ventricle, into the cervical spine. In addition, it may spread via the cerebrospinal fluid intracranially and/or to the spinal cord. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a treatment technique with cranial tangential fields combined with adjacent fields for the entire spinal cord to achieve a perfect coverage of the zones with malignant cells. The treatment in this case is an association between surgery-radio-chemotherapy, where the radiotherapy has a very important roll and a curative purpose. This is due to the fact that the migration of malignant cells in the body can't be controlled by surgery. Because of this special irradiation technique used in medulloblastoma treatment, we chase to describe in this paper this complex type of irradiation where the implications of the beams divergence in doses distribution are essentials

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for automatic detection of foci @]@of residual or recurrent disease after prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N.A.; Orman, Amber; Abramowitz, Matthew; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); Padgett, Kyle [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Casillas, Victor [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Punnen, Sanoj [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This study aimed to develop an automated procedure for identifying suspicious foci of residual/recurrent disease in the prostate bed using dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy. Data of 22 patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy (RT) with an identified gross tumor volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were analyzed retrospectively. An unsupervised pattern recognition method was used to analyze DCE-MRI curves from the prostate bed. Data were represented as a product of a number of signal-vs.-time patterns and their weights. The temporal pattern, characterized by fast wash-in and gradual wash-out, was considered the ''tumor'' pattern. The corresponding weights were thresholded based on the number (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) of standard deviations away from the mean, denoted as DCE1.0,.., DCE2.5, and displayed on the T2-weighted MRI. The resultant four volumes were compared with the GTV and maximum pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Pharmacokinetic modeling was also carried out. Principal component analysis determined 2-4 significant patterns in patients' DCE-MRI. Analysis and display of the identified suspicious foci was performed in commercial software (MIM Corporation, Cleveland, OH, USA). In general, DCE1.0/DCE1.5 highlighted larger areas than GTV. DCE2.0 and GTV were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). DCE2.0/DCA2.5 were also significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.52, 0.67, p < 0.05). K{sup trans} for DCE2.5 was statistically higher than the GTV's K{sup trans} (p < 0.05), indicating that the automatic volume better captures areas of malignancy. A software tool was developed for identification and visualization of the suspicious foci in DCE-MRI from post-prostatectomy patients and was integrated into the treatment planning system. (orig.) [German] Entwicklung eines automatischen Analyseverfahrens, um nach Prostatektomie mittels dynamischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter

  2. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with cryptorchidism, recurrent pneumothorax, and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like foci: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min A; Shin, So Youn; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Seung Hyeun

    2017-11-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited collagen disorder caused by defects or deficiency of pro-alpha 1 chain of type III procollagen encoded by COL3A1. vEDS is characterized not only by soft tissue manifestations including hyperextensibility of skin and joint hypermobility but also by early mortality due to rupture of arteries or vital organs. Although pulmonary complications are not common, vEDS cases complicated by pneumothorax, hemothorax, or intrapulmonary hematoma have been reported. When a patient initially presents only with pulmonary complications, it is not easy for clinicians to suspect vEDS. We report a case of an 18-year-old high school student, with a past history of cryptorchidism, presenting with recurrent pneumothorax. Routine laboratory findings were unremarkable. Chest high resolution computed tomographic scan showed age-unmatched hyperinflation of both lungs, atypical cystic changes and multifocal ground glass opacities scattered in both lower lobes. His slender body shape, hyperflexible joints, and hyperextensible skin provided clue to suspicion of a possible connective tissue disorder. The histological examination of the lung lesions showed excessive capillary proliferation in the pulmonary interstitium and pleura allowing the diagnosis of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH)-like foci. Genetic study revealed COL3A1 gene splicing site mutation confirming his diagnosis as vEDS. Although his diagnosis vEDS is notorious for fatal vascular complication, there was no evidence of such complication at presentation. Fortunately, he has been followed up for 10 months without pulmonary or vascular complications. To the best of our knowledge, both cryptorchidism and PCH-like foci have never been reported yet as complications of vEDS, suggesting our case might be a new variant of this condition. This case emphasizes the importance of comprehensive physical examination and history-taking, and the clinical

  3. Pediatric eMental healthcare technologies: a systematic review of implementation foci in research studies, and government and organizational documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Nicole D; McGrath, Patrick; Wozney, Lori; Soleimani, Amir; Bennett, Kathryn; Hartling, Lisa; Huguet, Anna; Dyson, Michele P; Newton, Amanda S

    2017-06-21

    Researchers, healthcare planners, and policymakers convey a sense of urgency in using eMental healthcare technologies to improve pediatric mental healthcare availability and access. Yet, different stakeholders may focus on different aspects of implementation. We conducted a systematic review to identify implementation foci in research studies and government/organizational documents for eMental healthcare technologies for pediatric mental healthcare. A search of eleven electronic databases and grey literature was conducted. We included research studies and documents from organization and government websites if the focus included eMental healthcare technology for children/adolescents (0-18 years), and implementation was studied and reported (research studies) or goals/recommendations regarding implementation were made (documents). We assessed study quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and document quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II. Implementation information was grouped according to Proctor and colleagues' implementation outcomes-acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability-and grouped separately for studies and documents. Twenty research studies and nine government/organizational documents met eligibility criteria. These articles represented implementation of eMental healthcare technologies in the USA (14 studies), United Kingdom (2 documents, 3 studies), Canada (2 documents, 1 study), Australia (4 documents, 1 study), New Zealand (1 study), and the Netherlands (1 document). The quality of research studies was excellent (n = 11), good (n = 6), and poor (n = 1). These eMental health studies focused on the acceptability (70%, n = 14) and appropriateness (50%, n = 10) of eMental healthcare technologies to users and mental healthcare professionals. The quality of government and organizational documents was high (n = 2), medium (n = 6

  4. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Caterina; Piaggi, Simona; Federico, Giovanni; Scarpato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H 2 O 2 -induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O 2 − ; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H 2 O 2 -induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX + cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents. This also indicates that

  5. Risk factors for adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Sung; Lee, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of adjacent segment problems after lumbar fusion has been found to vary, and risk factors for these problems have not been precisely verified, especially based on structural changes determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to describe the incidence and clinical features of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after lumbar fusion and to determine its risk factors. We assessed the incidence of ASD in patients who underwent lumbar or lumbosacral fusions for degenerative conditions between August 1995 and March 2006 with at least a 1-year follow-up. Patients less than 35 years of age at the index spinal fusion, patients with uninstrumented fusion, and patients who had not achieved successful union were excluded. Of the 1069 patients who underwent fusions, 28 (2.62%) needed secondary operations because of ASD and were included in this study. In order to identify the risk factors, we matched a disease group and a control group. The disease group consisted of 26 of the 28 patients with ASD, excluding the 2 patients for whom we did not have initial MRI data. Each patient in the disease group was matched by age, sex, fusion level and follow-up period with a control patient. The assumed risk factors included disc and facet degeneration, instability, listhesis, rotational deformity, and disc wedging. The mean age of the 28 patients with ASD requiring surgical treatment was 58.4 years, which did not differ significantly from that of the population in which ASD did not develop (58.2 years, p = 0.894). Of the 21 patients who underwent floating fusion, only 1 developed distal ASD. Facet degeneration was a significant risk factor (p < 0.01) on logistic regression analysis. The incidence of distal ASD was much lower than that of proximal ASD. Pre-existing facet degeneration may be associated with a high risk of adjacent segment problems following lumbar fusion procedures. PMID:19533182

  6. Cervical adjacent segment pathology following fusion: Is it due to fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Philip; Kim, Kee D

    2013-01-01

    Adjacent segment pathology affects 25% of patients within ten years of anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Laboratory studies demonstrate fused segments increase adjacent level stress including elevated intradiscal pressure and increased range of motion. Radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) has been associated to ACDF in multiple statistically significant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anterior cervical discectomy and arthroplasty (ACDA) and ACDF ...

  7. Red strain oryza sativa-unpolished thai rice prevents oxidative stress and colorectal aberrant crypt foci formation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammasakchai, Achiraya; Reungpatthanaphong, Sareeya; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in colorectal cancer development. Many dark pigments of plants have potent oxidative stress preventive properties. In this study, unpolished Thai rice was assessed for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. Red strain unpolished Thai rice was also administered to rats exposed to azoxymethane (AOM) for induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated for cellular oxidative stress and serum antioxidants, respectively. Red pigment unpolished Thai rice demonstrated high antioxidant activity and was found to significantly and dose dependently decrease the total density and crypt multiplicity of ACF. Consumption of Thai rice further resulted in high serum antioxidant activity and low MDA cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, the density of ACF was strongly related to MDA at r=0.964, while it was inversely related with FRAP antioxidants (r=-0.915, pred strain of unpolished Thai rice may exert potentially beneficial effects on colorectal cancer through decrease in the level of oxidative stress.

  8. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mengxu; Wang, Juanle; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Various Breads on DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colorectal Tumours in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangying; Zeng, Sien; Takashima, Tiri; Nozoe, Koichiro; Shobayashi, Megumi; Kakugawa, Koji; Murakami, Kaori; Jikihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lihua; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Bread is rich in dietary fibre and many phytochemical compounds, which may influence chemoprevention of colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of three kinds of bread on DMH-induced colorectal tumours in F344 rats. F344 rats were divided into four groups (Steinmetz Three-Grain bread, Steinmetz Country bread, White bread, and MF). All groups were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 8 consecutive weeks from 5 weeks of age. To investigate the antioxidant effect of bread, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging rate of bread and the serum levels of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in rats were examined. The number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the incidence of colorectal tumours were studied after 34 weeks of DMH treatment. The Steinmetz Three-Grain and Steinmetz Country bread groups had higher scavenging rates of the DPPH free radical and lower serum levels of 8-OHdG and incidence of ACF, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas of colon than the White bread and MF group. Steinmetz Three-Grain bread and Steinmetz Country bread have various ingredient combinations that may inhibit colorectal cancer progression. PMID:26075268

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Various Breads on DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colorectal Tumours in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangying Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is rich in dietary fibre and many phytochemical compounds, which may influence chemoprevention of colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of three kinds of bread on DMH-induced colorectal tumours in F344 rats. F344 rats were divided into four groups (Steinmetz Three-Grain bread, Steinmetz Country bread, White bread, and MF. All groups were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight once a week for 8 consecutive weeks from 5 weeks of age. To investigate the antioxidant effect of bread, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging rate of bread and the serum levels of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG in rats were examined. The number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF and the incidence of colorectal tumours were studied after 34 weeks of DMH treatment. The Steinmetz Three-Grain and Steinmetz Country bread groups had higher scavenging rates of the DPPH free radical and lower serum levels of 8-OHdG and incidence of ACF, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas of colon than the White bread and MF group. Steinmetz Three-Grain bread and Steinmetz Country bread have various ingredient combinations that may inhibit colorectal cancer progression.

  11. Inhibitory effect of various breads on DMH-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangying; Zeng, Sien; Takashima, Tiri; Nozoe, Koichiro; Shobayashi, Megumi; Kakugawa, Koji; Murakami, Kaori; Jikihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lihua; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Bread is rich in dietary fibre and many phytochemical compounds, which may influence chemoprevention of colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of three kinds of bread on DMH-induced colorectal tumours in F344 rats. F344 rats were divided into four groups (Steinmetz Three-Grain bread, Steinmetz Country bread, White bread, and MF). All groups were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 8 consecutive weeks from 5 weeks of age. To investigate the antioxidant effect of bread, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging rate of bread and the serum levels of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in rats were examined. The number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the incidence of colorectal tumours were studied after 34 weeks of DMH treatment. The Steinmetz Three-Grain and Steinmetz Country bread groups had higher scavenging rates of the DPPH free radical and lower serum levels of 8-OHdG and incidence of ACF, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas of colon than the White bread and MF group. Steinmetz Three-Grain bread and Steinmetz Country bread have various ingredient combinations that may inhibit colorectal cancer progression.

  12. Conventional colon adenomas harbor various disturbances in microsatellite stability and contain micro-serrated foci with microsatellite instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Lewitowicz

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer belongs to the most frequent occurring malignancies. A prediction of the clinical outcome and appropriate choice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy needs personalized insight to the main driving pathways. Because most CRCs have polyps as progenitor lesions, studying the pathways driving to adenomagenesis is no less important.Our purpose was the evaluation of microsatellite stability status within conventional colon adenomas and also β-catenin, BRAFV600E and p53 contribution.The cohort included 101 cases of typical colon adenomas with high grade epithelial dysplasia according to WHO. An immunohistochemistry method was used for the depiction of the expression of targeted proteins, as also their heterogeneity.Generally, we noted a 10% frequency of MSI events where MSI-H reached a 5% share occurred within the left colon and rectal polyps. β-catenin nuclear overexpression was noted with a 70% frequency and p53 with close to a 24% frequency. In addition, we found a presence of micro-serration foci more often within tubular adenomas, where focal MSI took place more often. Our results indicate that MSI events occur more often than had been theorized earlier. It results in tumour heterogeneity, more complex underlying pathways and finally ontogenetic molecular-diversity of tumours besides similar occurring histopathological features.

  13. Red Wine and Pomegranate Extracts Suppress Cured Meat Promotion of Colonic Mucin-Depleted Foci in Carcinogen-Induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Naud, Nathalie; Nassy, Gilles; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2017-01-01

    Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.

  14. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eCordon-Obras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  15. Antitumor activity of the β-glucan paramylon from Euglena against preneoplastic colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimada, Ryoko; Matsuyama, Ai; Yuasa, Masahiro; Sawamura, Hiromi; Yoshida, Eriko; Suzuki, Kengo

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the effects of β-glucans isolated from Euglena on the formation of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon were examined in mice. Mice were fed a semi-purified AIN-93M diet containing cellulose or the same diet but with the cellulose replaced with β-glucans in the form of Euglena, paramylon, or amorphous paramylon, for 11 weeks. After consuming these dietary supplements for 8 days, half of the mice were intraperitoneally administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) body weight every week for 6 weeks. Among the DMH-treated groups, the paramylon- and amorphous paramylon-fed mice displayed a significantly lower number of ACF than the control group. Also, the liver weight of the paramylon group was markedly decreased compared with those of the control and Euglena groups, whereas the cecal content weight and fecal volume of the paramylon group were significantly increased. As for the levels of organic acids in the cecal contents, the paramylon group displayed significantly increased lactic acid levels compared with the control and Euglena groups. From these findings, although the mechanism of the ACF-inhibiting effects of paramylon remains unclear, it is considered that β-glucans, such as paramylon and its isomer amorphous paramylon, have preventive effects against colon cancer and are more effective against the condition than Euglena.

  16. Use of γ-H2AX Foci Assay on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Sensitive Biomarker of Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajski, G.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Geric, M.; Filipic, M.; Nunic, J.; Straser, A.; Zegura, B.

    2013-01-01

    In modern medicine, it is impossible to imagine diagnostics and treatments without equipment that emit radiation (X-ray, CT, PET, etc.). At the same time there is a need to minimize the amount of radiation that the patient will gain during such medical examination. In that manner ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and dosimetry are the bases of assuring patients safety. The induction of gamma phosphorylated H2AX histone is newly developed tool in biodosimetry, which is more sensitive for the detection of radiation caused DNA damage than currently used micronucleus and comet assay. Gamma phosphorylation of H2AX histone is a consequence of DNA double strand breaks and its role is to trigger the DNA repair mechanisms. In this study, we tested the effect of 2 and 4 Gy X-rays on human peripheral blood lymphocytes from two healthy volunteers using γ-H2AX foci assay. The FITC signal from labelled antibodies was monitored using flow cytometry and clearly demonstrated the difference in control samples and irradiated samples. There was also the difference between the exposed blood samples from the two volunteers. The results of present study reveal new sensitive method that is capable of detecting changes in DNA when exposed to different doses of radiation, and thus potentially optimizing the ALARA principle.(author)

  17. Nodular inflammatory foci are sites of T cell priming and control of murine cytomegalovirus infection in the neonatal lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R Stahl

    Full Text Available Neonates, including mice and humans, are highly susceptible to cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. However, many aspects of neonatal CMV infections such as viral cell tropism, spatio-temporal distribution of the pathogen as well as genesis of antiviral immunity are unknown. With the use of reporter mutants of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV we identified the lung as a primary target of mucosal infection in neonatal mice. Comparative analysis of neonatal and adult mice revealed a delayed control of virus replication in the neonatal lung mucosa explaining the pronounced systemic infection and disease in neonates. This phenomenon was supplemented by a delayed expansion of CD8(+ T cell clones recognizing the viral protein M45 in neonates. We detected viral infection at the single-cell level and observed myeloid cells forming "nodular inflammatory foci" (NIF in the neonatal lung. Co-localization of infected cells within NIFs was associated with their disruption and clearance of the infection. By 2-photon microscopy, we characterized how neonatal antigen-presenting cells (APC interacted with T cells and induced mature adaptive immune responses within such NIFs. We thus define NIFs of the neonatal lung as niches for prolonged MCMV replication and T cell priming but also as sites of infection control.

  18. Early Life and Postnatal Western Diet Feeding and Susceptibility to Chemically Induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Male Rats Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gisele Aparecida Dionísio; Dias, Marcos Correa; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Marchesan Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida

    2016-07-01

    The modifying effects of a Western diet (WD) during early life on the susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH) were examined in male rats as later adults. Three groups were studied: a lifetime control diet-fed group, a test group fed WD since pregnancy from dams until postnatal day (PND) 42, and a group fed WD at adulthood. At PND 70, all groups received the carcinogen DMH and were euthanized 10 wk later. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were scored (number and crypt multiplicity) and the altered pattern of β-catenin expression was evaluated in the colonic lesions. ACF multiplicity (≥4 crypts) was significantly higher in the group fed WD at early life than in the group fed the control diet. ACF number, crypt multiplicity, and the number of high-grade dysplastic lesions were significantly higher in the group fed WD at adulthood than in the groupfed the control diet. The number of lesions with altered β-catenin expression was higher in the groups receiving WD at early life or at adulthood than in the lifetime control-diet-fed group. These findings indicate that WD exposure at early life increased the susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis at adulthood.

  19. Ocular onchocerciasis and intensity of infection in the community. III. West African rainforest foci of the vector Simulium sanctipauli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, K Y; Remme, J; Baker, R H; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1990-12-01

    The community pattern of ocular onchocerciasis is described for 11 villages from the forest area in Côte d'Ivoire where S. sanctipauli is the princial vector. An analytical method is applied which relates indices of ocular onchocerciasis with the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL) and compares the results with the ocular onchocerciasis pattern found in the West African savanna. In spite of high transmission levels as estimated by entomological indices, the CMFLs were relatively low which complicated the characterization of the ocular disease pattern. Nevertheless, it could be shown that ocular onchocerciasis is less severe in the Sanctipauli forest than in the savanna, even after correction for differences in CMFL. The prevalence of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness were low and advanced sclerosing keratitis was completely absent. The differences are explained by presuming strain differences of the parasite Onchocerca volvulus. For given CMFLs the mean microfilarial loads in the eye were significantly lower than in the savanna which suggests that the parasite strain in the Sanctipauli forest is less invasive to the eye. Ocular microfilarial loads were too low to determine if the parasite is also less pathogenic to the eye, as has been concluded previously for foci of S. yahense, but this possibility cannot be excluded.

  20. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Ninomiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted.

  1. Tritium in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is approximately 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States of America average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the river and from sea-water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary respectively. (author)

  2. Improved lookup table to correct CRT adjacent pixel nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley A.; Carney, Thom; Hu, Q. James

    1995-04-01

    Standard 1D gamma-correcting lookup tables do not compensate for adjacent pixel spatial nonlinearities along the direction of the display raster. These nonlinearities can alter the local mean luminance and contrast of the displayed image. Five steps are described for generating a 2D lookup table (LUT) that compensates for the nonlinearity. By adjusting the 2D LUT so it takes into account the inherent blur at light to dark transitions of the display system, the usable luminance range of the LUT can be extended while reducing the ringing artifact associated with luminance compensation. Use of the blur-compensated 2D LUT incurs no additional computational effort over an uncompensated 2D LUT. Matlab programs are included that can be used to generate a 2D LUT for a user's particular display system.

  3. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

  4. On Mathematical Optimization for the Visualization of Frequencies and Adjacencies as Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a frequency distribution and an adjacency relation attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one...... individuals as adjacent rectangular portions as possible and adding as few false adjacencies, i.e., adjacencies between rectangular portions corresponding to non-adjacent individuals, as possible. We formulate this visualization problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. We propose...

  5. [Immunohistochemical study of the specific features of expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 9 in the photoaged skin, the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E V; Snarskaya, E S; Zavalishina, L E; Tkachenko, S B

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the degradation of all types of collagens and other extracellular matrix components (elastin, proteoglycans, and laminin), their synthesis and accumulation play a key role in the hydrolysis of basement membrane. MMPs are involved in a wide range of proteolytic processes in the presence of different physiological and pathological changes, including inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. to study the specific features of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression in different stages of skin photoaging, in the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical examination. 12 samples of the healthy skin (6 samples of the eyelid skin with Glogau grade II photoaging; 6 ones of eyelid skin with Glogau grades III-IV photoaging) and biopsies from 8 foci of actinic keratosis and from 8 ones of basal cell carcinoma were examined. A positive reaction to MMPs was shown as different brown staining intensity in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes/tumor cells. MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded in 67% of the histological specimens of the Glogau grade III photoaged skin and in 100% of those of Glogau grade IV. In the foci of actinic keratosis, the expression of MMP-1 was observed in 62.5% of cases and that of MMP-9 was seen in 87.5%. In basal cell carcinoma, the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected in all investigated samples. The immunomorphological findings are indicative of the important role of the level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression that is associated with the degree of progression of skin photoaging processes. Minimal MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded even in grades III-IV photoaging and in the foci of actinic keratosis. Intense MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was detected in malignant skin epithelial neoplasms as different clinicomorphological types of basal cell carcinoma.

  6. Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two

  7. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Caterina [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Federico, Giovanni [Unità di Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Diabete, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O{sub 2}{sup −}; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX{sup +} cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents

  8. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A scoping review protocol to map the research foci trends in tobacco control over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Gayle; Schultz, Annette S H; Rothney, Janet; Goertzen, Leah; Wener, Pamela; Katz, Alan

    2015-01-28

    Tobacco dependence and smoke exposure have been global epidemics with health consequences recognised by the US Surgeon General since the 1960s and 1970s, respectively. During this period, a vast body of research evidence has emerged including many reviews of primary research studies targeting various tobacco control strategies. Published review studies synthesise primary evidence, providing a rich source for mapping the broad range of topics and research foci along with revealing areas of evidence deficits. In this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review published review articles specific to tobacco control and primary prevention over the last 10 years. Using Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology as a guide, our scoping review of published reviews begins by searching several databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo and the Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC). Our multidisciplinary team has formulated search strategies and two reviewers will independently screen eligible studies for final study selection. Bibliographic data and abstract content will be collected and analysed using a tool developed iteratively by the research team. A scoping review of published review articles is a novel approach for examining the breadth of literature regarding tobacco control strategies and, as a secondary analysis, does not require ethics approval. We anticipate results will identify research gaps as well as novel ideas for primary prevention research specific to tobacco control strategies concerning intervention, programming and policy. Although this is our first step in establishing a foundation for a research agenda, we will be disseminating results through journals and conferences targeting primary care providers and tobacco control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  10. Molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Asadi, Mina; Mahmodi, Mohamad Reza; Amraei, Kamyar; Mirzaei, Asad

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in Iran. In the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with Leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in Golestan, Esfahan, Yazd, Fars, Khuzestan and Ilam provinces. A total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as Rhombomys opimus (n = 325), Meriones libycus (n = 171), Meriones persicus (n = 27), Tatera indica (n = 37), Nesokia indica (n = 12), Rattus rattus (n = 13) and Mus musculus (n = 8). Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained smears showed that 108 out of 593 (18.2%) rodents were infected with Leishmania spp., whereas infection of 186 out of 593 (31.4%) rodents with Leishmania was then confirmed by ITS1-PCR. The highest rate of infection was found in R. opimus (prevalence of 35%) and M. libycus (31%). Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), 145 (78%) of 186 samples detected as Leishmania DNA were identified as L. major, 8 (4%) samples as L. turanica and 33 (18%) as mixed infection (L. major and L. turanica). Samples from infected rodents were inoculated subcutaneously at tail base of BALB/c mice. In 35 of them, nodules and ulcers containing amastigotes appeared at the inoculation site. The samples prepared from infected rodents were cultured in NNN medium and only two samples werepositive. Rhombomys opimus, M. libycus, M. persicus, T. indica and N. indica were confirmed as reservoir hosts of ZCL in the studied regions. Leishmania major infection was usually accompanied L. turanica in naturally infected gerbils (R. opimus and M. libycus) in Golestan, Esfahan and Fars provinces.

  11. Development of experimental stand for research of foci of self-heating in free-flowing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko D. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For study the conditions of occurrence and rules of the development of foci of self-heating in friable media, including cacked, a pilot booth for identifying mutual correlation of thermo-physical characteristics of the investigated medium and external parameters has been elaborated. The stand allows managing processes in the test environment: to provoke the emergence of self-heating hearths and vary the intensity of their development, and to record the spatial-temporal distributions of temperature and humidity which restore interesting features of the environment. Capacity for studying the granular medium is a vertical cylinder where the axisymmetric problem is implemented due to emergence of self-heating chamber in the thickness of the medium being studied – on the axis of the container symmetry. The center is created at the specified location by the granular medium of delivery of moisture by the special channel and heating the given place to the desired value. Heat removing from the source of self-heating is carried out at the expense of transfer of heat the coolant located in the heat taking tube. The heat taking tube is placed inside the heat sink system which is a sectional tube that is installed in the thickness of granular material under study. To eliminate uncontrolled flows of heat from self-heating chamber for heat removal system the pipe section located outside the chamber provoking self-heating are made of material with low thermal conductivity. The section located in the focal zone is made of high thermal conductivity material. To improve the thermal contact between the tube and the inner heat taking surface thermally conductive heat sink section the intermediate coolant system has been used. Contact of intermediate coolant in the space between heat taking tube and the inner surface of the thermally conductive heat sink section of the system is automatic when removal from the source of self-heating heat is necessary.

  12. Senescent mouse cells fail to overtly regulate the HIRA histone chaperone and do not form robust Senescence Associated Heterochromatin Foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders Greg H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular senescence is a permanent growth arrest that occurs in response to cellular stressors, such as telomere shortening or activation of oncogenes. Although the process of senescence growth arrest is somewhat conserved between mouse and human cells, there are some critical differences in the molecular pathways of senescence between these two species. Recent studies in human fibroblasts have defined a cell signaling pathway that is initiated by repression of a specific Wnt ligand, Wnt2. This, in turn, activates a histone chaperone HIRA, and culminates in formation of specialized punctate domains of facultative heterochromatin, called Senescence-Associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF, that are enriched in the histone variant, macroH2A. SAHF are thought to repress expression of proliferation-promoting genes, thereby contributing to senescence-associated proliferation arrest. We asked whether this Wnt2-HIRA-SAHF pathway is conserved in mouse fibroblasts. Results We show that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and mouse skin fibroblasts, do not form robust punctate SAHF in response to an activated Ras oncogene or shortened telomeres. However, senescent MEFs do exhibit elevated levels of macroH2A staining throughout the nucleus as a whole. Consistent with their failure to fully activate the SAHF assembly pathway, the Wnt2-HIRA signaling axis is not overtly regulated between proliferating and senescent mouse cells. Conclusions In addition to the previously defined differences between mouse and human cells in the mechanisms and phenotypes associated with senescence, we conclude that senescent mouse and human fibroblasts also differ at the level of chromatin and the signaling pathways used to regulate chromatin. These differences between human and mouse senescence may contribute to the increased propensity of mouse fibroblasts (and perhaps other mouse cell types to become immortalized and transformed, compared to human cells.

  13. The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation

  14. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Plant tannins inhibit the induction of aberrant crypt foci and colonic tumors by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali-Muhtasib, H U; Younes, I H; Karchesy, J J; el-Sabban, M E

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that naturally occurring tannins possess antitumor promotion activity in mouse skin. In the present investigation, we studied the ability of a hydrolyzable tannin, gallotannin (GT), and a condensed tannin extracted from red alder (RA) bark to inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in Balb/c mice. In addition, we determined the ability of GT to inhibit the proliferation and to induce apoptosis in a human colon cancer cell line (T-84). Mice were given tannins by intraperitoneal injections, by gavage, or in drinking water before treatment with DMH for 24 weeks. Alternatively, mice were given tannins by intraperitoneal injection or gavage for only 2 weeks before DMH administration, then tannin administration was discontinued and mice were treated with DMH for 24 weeks. The multiplicity, size, and distribution of ACF and tumors were significantly inhibited by GT and RA in the above treatment regimens. The most effective treatments included GT by gavage, RA bark extract by intraperitoneal injection, and either tannin dissolved in drinking water. Extent of inhibition of ACF and tumors was gender independent. In cell culture experiments, GT treatment for three days inhibited the growth of T-84 cells, with a concentration resulting in half-maximal inhibition estimated to be 20 micrograms/ml. The treatment was not cytotoxic to cells at 1-40 micrograms/ml. Interestingly, at 10 micrograms/ml, GT induced apoptosis in T-84 cells as determined by the Hoechst DNA staining technique. Collectively, these findings support a potential role for tannins as chemopreventive agents against colon cancer.

  16. Nested PCRs and sequencing of nuclear ITS-rDNA fragments detect three Leishmania species of gerbils in sandflies from Iranian foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, P; Ready, P D

    2008-09-01

    To identify and understand the natural transmission cycles of Leishmania in Iranian sandflies. Nested PCR protocols were developed to amplify two regions of the ribosomal RNA amplicon of Leishmania (ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene, and a microsatellite DNA region of ITS2), which were species-specific by DNA sequence or fragment size. The PCR assays detected in Iranian sandflies not only Leishmania major but also for the first time L. turanica and L. gerbilli sensu lato, two other parasites of the great gerbil. All three parasites were found in the northeast and centre of Iran, in two foci of rural Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by L. major. Fifty infections were detected in common sandfly species: at least six geographically differentiated haplotypes of L. major in four to five sandfly species; one strain of L. gerbilli s.l. in five to six sandfly species and one strain of L. turanica in one sandfly species. Past conclusions about the transmission cycles of L. major in Iran should be treated with caution. Careful molecular eco-epidemiological investigations are essential for modelling the roles of different sandfly species in maintaining and spreading ZCL foci. Even if non-pathogenic to humans, frequent inoculations of L. turanica by sandflies might alter the efficacy of vaccines against L. major. Phlebotomus papatasi is probably the key vector in many ZCL foci because of its abundance and high infection rates with both L. major and L. turanica.

  17. Capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci for differentiation between large hepatocellular carcinoma (≥5 cm) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma on gadoxetic acid MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Min, Ji Hye; Jeong, Woo Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seo-Youn [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soohyun; Ahn, Hyeon Seon [Research Institute for Future Medicine, Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the added value of capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci for differentiating large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; ≥ 5 cm) from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) using gadoxetic acid MRI. The study included 116 patients (94 men, 22 women; mean age, 56.8 years) with surgically confirmed HCCs (n = 87, 5.0-18.0 cm) or ICCs (n = 29, 5.0-14.0 cm) who underwent gadoxetic acid MRI. Three observers independently reviewed MRIs in two sessions, examining enhancement patterns only and then adding capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci. Reviewers used a five-point scale to score accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. A significant increase was observed in accuracy when ancillary features (96.1-98.3%) were added compared to enhancement pattern only (83.6-88.4%; p ≤ 0.02). Sensitivity was significantly increased with combined reading (97.1-98.3%) compared to enhancement features only (81.6-88.5%; p ≤ 0.006) for two observers, with no difference in specificity (84.5-89.7% vs. 86.2-98.3%; p > 0.05). We found substantial to excellent interobserver agreement for ancillary features (0.598-0.976). Adding capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci to enhancement patterns for gadoxetic acid MRI increased diagnostic performance for characterizing large HCC by differentiating it from ICC. (orig.)

  18. p53 is involved in clearance of ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci in a human colon cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orre, Lukas M.; Stenerloew, Bo; Dhar, Sumeer; Larsson, Rolf; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lehtioe, Janne

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated p53-related differences in cellular response to DNA damaging agents, focusing on p53s effects on RAD51 protein level and sub-cellular localization post exposure to ionizing radiation. In a human colon cancer cell line, HCT116 and its isogenic p53-/- subcell line we show here p53-independent RAD51 foci formation but interestingly the resolution of RAD51 foci showed clear p53 dependence. In p53 wt cells, but not in p53-/- cells, RAD51 protein level decreased 48 h post irradiation and fluorescence immunostaining showed resolution of RAD51 foci and relocalization of RAD51 to nucleoli at time points corresponding to the decrease in RAD51 protein level. Both cell lines rejoined DNA double strand breaks efficiently with similar kinetics and p53 status did not influence sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. We suggest that p53 has a role in RAD51 clearance post DSB repair and that nucleoli might be sites of RAD51 protein degradation

  19. Suppression of transformed foci, induced by alpha radiation of C3H 10T1/2 cells, by untransformed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.; Henning, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The C3H 10T1/2 CL8 cell line obtained from a mouse embryo has been widely used for screening chemical carcinogens. Transformed foci are easily distinguishable in this system as crisscrossed, piled-up cells which stain more deeply than the surrounding untransformed cells. When these foci are ringcloned and subcultured, they have been shown to give rise to malignant tumors in C3H immunodepressed mice. Previous work showed that such malignant transformations, which occurred with a dose dependent frequency, could be induced by alpha particle irradiation. The present study, in turn, demonstrates that the expression of these transformations can be completely suppressed by co-cultivating the transformed cells with a large number of untransformed cells. The precise ratio of the number of untransformed cells to transformed cells to give complete suppression was found to vary in different experiments. Maximum effects were seen when a small number of transformed cells in low passage were used. These experiments may provide at least a partial explanation for the greatly increased frequency of transformations per cell irradiated in vitro, compared with the number of tumors observed after irradiation of the same number of cells in vivo. In addition, if conditions could be optimized whereby transformed foci could reproducibly be eliminated by the use of a known number of untransformed cells, this might have important applications in the prevention and treatment of certain human cancers

  20. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  1. Mechanical interactions between adjacent airways in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Bates, Jason H T

    2014-03-15

    The forces of mechanical interdependence between the airways and the parenchyma in the lung are powerful modulators of airways responsiveness. Little is known, however, about the extent to which adjacent airways affect each other's ability to narrow due to distortional forces generated within the intervening parenchyma. We developed a two-dimensional computational model of two airways embedded in parenchyma. The parenchyma itself was modeled in three ways: 1) as a network of hexagonally arranged springs, 2) as a network of triangularly arranged springs, and 3) as an elastic continuum. In all cases, we determined how the narrowing of one airway was affected when the other airway was relaxed vs. when it narrowed to the same extent as the first airway. For the continuum and triangular network models, interactions between airways were negligible unless the airways lay within about two relaxed diameters of each other, but even at this distance the interactions were small. By contrast, the hexagonal spring network model predicted that airway-airway interactions mediated by the parenchyma can be substantial for any degree of airway separation at intermediate values of airway contraction forces. Evidence to date suggests that the parenchyma may be better represented by the continuum model, which suggests that the parenchyma does not mediate significant interactions between narrowing airways.

  2. Cryogun cryotherapy for oral leukoplakia and adjacent melanosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hung-Pin; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study has shown that cryogun cryotherapy is a good and effective treatment modality for oral leukoplakia. In this study, we used cryogun cryotherapy to treat 72 oral leukoplakia and adjacent smoking-induced melanosis (OLM) lesions on the buccal mucosae. Of 72 OLM lesions, 14 had epithelial hyperplasia with parakeratosis, 24 had epithelial hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, 26 had mild dysplasia, seven had moderate dysplasia, and one had severe dysplasia. Complete regression was achieved in all 72 OLM lesions after a mean of 3.3 ± 1.3 cryogun cryotherapy treatments. We found that OLM lesions in patients without smoking habit, with the greatest diameter cryotherapy treatment to achieve complete regression than those OLM lesions in patients with smoking habit, with the greatest diameter ≥ 2.8 cm, without epithelial dysplasia, or with a surface keratin thickness > 50 μm (all P-values cryotherapy treatment number (all P-values cryotherapy treatment required to achieve complete regression of the OLM lesion by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Cryogun cryotherapy is an effective treatment modality for OLM lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Repeated adjacent-segment degeneration after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important sequelae affecting long-term results is adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Although several reports have described the incidence rate, there have been no reports of repeated ASD. The purpose of this report was to describe 1 case of repeated ASD after PLIF. A 62-year-old woman with L-4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent PLIF at L4-5. At the second operation, L3-4 PLIF was performed for L-3 degenerative spondylolisthesis 6 years after the primary operation. At the third operation, L2-3 PLIF was performed for L-2 degenerative spondylolisthesis 1.5 years after the primary operation. Vertebral collapse of L-1 was detected 1 year after the third operation, and the collapse had progressed. At the fourth operation, 3 years after the third operation, vertebral column resection of L-1 and replacement of titanium mesh cages with pedicle screw fixation between T-4 and L-5 was performed. Although the patient's symptoms resolved after each operation, the time between surgeries shortened. The sacral slope decreased gradually although each PLIF achieved local lordosis at the fused segment.

  4. Flow and edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor U.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bøgelund, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on edge scour adjacent to a stone cover laid on a sandy bed. The three-dimensional flow over the edge of the stone layer has been investigated by the use of particle image velocimetry. The flow measurements show a significant amount...... of turbulence in the primary flow near the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed and the formation of complex secondary-flow structures. The results show that the flow and the edge scour process in a steady current are governed by the size of the roughness elements and to some extent the side slope...... of the berm. The edge scour is caused by the combined action of the primary flow and the secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up the sediment and puts it into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming...

  5. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano

    2001-09-01

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  6. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd

    2017-12-01

    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  7. Characterization of adjacent breast tumors using oligonucleotide microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Meredith A; Rishi, Mazhar; Clemmer, Virginia B; Hartman, Jennifer L; Keiper, Elizabeth A; Greshock, Joel D; Chodosh, Lewis A; Liebman, Michael N; Weber, Barbara L

    2001-01-01

    Current methodology often cannot distinguish second primary breast cancers from multifocal disease, a potentially important distinction for clinical management. In the present study we evaluated the use of oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis in determining the clonality of tumors by comparing gene expression profiles. Total RNA was extracted from two tumors with no apparent physical connection that were located in the right breast of an 87-year-old woman diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The RNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Genome U95A Gene Chip ® (12,500 known human genes) and analyzed using the Gene Chip Analysis Suite ® 3.3 (Affymetrix, Inc, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and JMPIN ® 3.2.6 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC, USA). Gene expression profiles of tumors from five additional patients were compared in order to evaluate the heterogeneity in gene expression between tumors with similar clinical characteristics. The adjacent breast tumors had a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.987, and were essentially indistinguishable by microarray analysis. Analysis of gene expression profiles from different individuals, however, generated a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.710. Transcriptional profiling may be a useful diagnostic tool for determining tumor clonality and heterogeneity, and may ultimately impact on therapeutic decision making

  8. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  9. IFN-gamma signaling in the central nervous system controls the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis independently of the localization and composition of inflammatory foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for multiple sclerosis, presents typically as ascending paralysis. However, in mice in which interferon-gamma (IFNγ signaling is disrupted by genetic deletion, limb paralysis is accompanied by atypical deficits, including head tilt, postural imbalance, and circling, consistent with cerebellar/vestibular dysfunction. This was previously attributed to intense cerebellar and brainstem infiltration by peripheral immune cells and formation of neutrophil-rich foci within the CNS. However, the exact mechanism by which IFNγ signaling prohibits the development of vestibular deficits, and whether the distribution and composition of inflammatory foci within the CNS affects the course of atypical EAE remains elusive. Methods We induced EAE in IFNγ-/- mice and bone marrow chimeric mice in which IFNγR is not expressed in the CNS but is intact in the periphery (IFNγRCNSKO and vice versa (IFNγRperiKO. Blood-brain barrier permeability was determined by Evans blue intravenous administration at disease onset. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the CNS were quantified by flow cytometry. CNS tissues isolated at various time points after EAE induction, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for composition of inflammatory foci and patterns of axonal degeneration. Results Incidence and severity of atypical EAE were more pronounced in IFNγRCNSKO as compared to IFNγRperiKO mice. Contrary to what we anticipated, cerebella/brainstems of IFNγRCNSKO mice were only minimally infiltrated, while the same areas of IFNγRperiKO mice were extensively populated by peripheral immune cells. Furthermore, the CNS of IFNγRperiKO mice was characterized by persistent neutrophil-rich foci as compared to IFNγRCNSKO. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CNS of IFNγ-/- and IFNγR chimeric mice revealed that IFNγ protective actions are exerted through microglial STAT1

  10. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  11. Adjacent level disease following lumbar spine surgery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Instrumented lumbar spine surgery is associated with an increased risk of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Multiple studies have explored the various risk factors contributing to ASD that include; fusion length (especially, three or more levels), sagittal malalignment, facet injury, advanced age, and prior cephalad degenerative disease. Methods: In this selective review of ASD, following predominantly instrumented fusions for lumbar degenerative disease, patients typically underwent open versus minimally invasive surgery (MIS), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs), posterior lumbar interbody fusions (PLIFs), or rarely posterolateral lumbar instrumented or noninstrumented fusions (posterolateral lumbar fusion). Results: The incidence of ASD, following open or MI lumbar instrumented fusions, ranged up to 30%; notably, the addition of instrumentation in different series did not correlate with improved outcomes. Alternatively, in one series, at 164 postoperative months, noninstrumented lumbar fusions reduced the incidence of ASD to 5.6% versus 18.5% for ASD performed with instrumentation. Of interest, dynamic instrumented/stabilization techniques did not protect patients from ASD. Furthermore, in a series of 513 MIS TLIF, there was a 15.6% incidence of perioperative complications that included; a 5.1% frequency of durotomy and a 2.3% instrumentation failure rate. Conclusions: The incidence of postoperative ASD (up to 30%) is greater following either open or MIS instrumented lumbar fusions (e.g., TLIF/PLIF), while decompressions with noninstrumented fusions led to a much smaller 5.6% risk of ASD. Other findings included: MIS instrumented fusions contributed to higher perioperative complication rates, and dynamic stabilization did not protect against ASD. PMID:26693387

  12. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length bet...... adjacent to non-submerged implants without oral hygiene than were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants with oral hygiene in the initial healing period....

  13. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure m...

  14. KAMG: A Tool for Converting Blood Ties and Affinity Ties into Adjacency Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship Adjacency Matrix Generator (KAMG is a browser-based software for creating adjacency matrices using the information of kinship ties. Specifically, it is capable of converting the family trees in the format of GEDCOM files into adjacency matrices of blood relationship. With the data of intermarriages between different families, it can further create the adjacency matrix of affinity relationship for the families. The outcomes can be directly used to create networks. KAMG is written in JavaScript and implemented on web browsers. It is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub.

  15. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m-2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2012-09-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higurashi Takuma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF, defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. Methods This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral

  19. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  20. Crustal stress pattern in China and its adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingping; Zang, Arno; Heidbach, Oliver; Cui, Xiaofeng; Xie, Furen; Chen, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    During the update of the World Stress Map (WSM) database, we integrated the China stress database by strictly using the internationally developed quality ranking scheme for each individual stress data record. This effort resulted in a comprehensive and reliable dataset for the crustal stress of China and its adjacent areas with almost double the amount of data records from the WSM database release 2008, i.e., a total of 8228 data records with reliable A-C qualities in the region of 45-155° East and 0-60° North. We use this dataset for an analysis of the stress pattern for the orientation of maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). In contrast to earlier findings that suggested that the mean SHmax orientation would be aligned with the direction of plate motion, we clearly see from our results that the plate boundary forces, as well as topography and faulting, are important control factors for the overall stress pattern. Furthermore, the smoothing results indicate that the SHmax orientation in China rotates clockwise from the west to the east, which results in a fan-shaped crustal stress pattern for the continental scale. The plate boundary forces around China, which are the Indian-Eurasian plate collision in the west and the Pacific plate subduction and the push from the Philippine plate in the east, can still be seen as the key driving processes and the first-order controls for the crustal stress pattern. The South-North seismic zone can be seen as the separation zone for the western and eastern plate boundary forces. Topographic variation and faulting activity, however, provide second-order changes, and lead to local variations and different inhomogeneity scales for the stress pattern. Due to differences in these factors, Northeast China and the central part of the Tibetan plateau have notably homogeneous stress patterns, while the South-North seismic zone, the Hindu Kush-Pamir region, and the Taiwan region have extremely inhomogeneous stress patterns

  1. Impact of body mass index on adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chien-Yu; Lee, Tao-Chen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease is an important complication after fusion of degenerative lumbar spines. However, the role of body mass index (BMI) in adjacent segment disease has been addressed less. To examine the relationship between BMI and adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. For this retrospective study, we enrolled 190 patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery for degeneration. BMI at admission was documented. Adjacent segment disease was defined by integration of the clinical presentations and radiographic criteria based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Adjacent segment disease was identified in 13 of the 190 patients, accounting for 6.8%. The interval between surgery and diagnosis as adjacent segment disease ranged from 21 to 66 months. Five of the 13 patients required subsequent surgical intervention for clinically relevant adjacent segment disease. In the logistic regression model, BMI was a risk factor for adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.21; P disease rate by 67.6%. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups based on BMI, and up to 11.9% of patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m were diagnosed as having adjacent segment disease at the last follow-up. BMI is a risk factor for adjacent segment disease in patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. Because BMI is clinically objective and modifiable, controlling body weight before or after surgery may provide opportunities to reduce the rate of adjacent segment disease and to improve the outcome of fusion surgery.

  2. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...

  3. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  4. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  5. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken into c...

  6. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut...

  7. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A [Naval Anchorage]. The...

  8. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken...

  9. Large subarticular cysts (geodes) adjacent to the knee-joint in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A R; Liyanage, S P

    1975-10-01

    Two patients with rheumatoid arthritis are described, who developed very large bone cysts or geodes adjacent to the knee-joint. The existence of cysts adjacent to joints involved by rheumatoid arthritis is well recognised, but the occurrence of very large cysts is unusual and may present diagnostic difficulties. Possible aetiological factors are discussed.

  10. Treatment Outcome and Patient Satisfaction with Two Adjacent Implant-Supported Restorations in the Esthetic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymstra, Nynke; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters as well as the esthetic outcome of two adjacent implant-supported restorations and the surrounding peri-implant mucosa in the maxillary esthetic zone. Ten patients were treated with two adjacent implants in the

  11. Early increase of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in a human Ku70/80 knockdown cell line characterized by an enhanced radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair after exposure to ionizing radiation represents a research priority aimed at improving the outcome of clinical radiotherapy. Because of the close association with DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, phosphorylation of the histone H2AX protein (γH2AX), quantified by immunodetection, has recently been used as a method to study DSB induction and repair at low and clinically relevant radiation doses. However, the lack of consistency in literature points to the need to further validate the role of H2AX phosphorylation in DSB repair and the use of this technique to determine intrinsic radiosensitivity. In the present study we used human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells, characterized by a radiosensitive phenotype due to reduced levels of the Ku70 and Ku80 repair proteins, and investigated whether this repair-deficient cell line displays differences in the phosphorylation pattern of H2AX protein compared to repair-proficient MCF10A cells. This was established by measuring formation and disappearance of γH2AX foci after irradiating synchronized cell populations with 60 Co γ-rays. Our results show statistically significant differences in the number of γH2AX foci between the repair-deficient and -proficient cell line, with a higher amount of γH2AX foci present at early times post-irradiation in the Ku-deficient cell line. However, the disappearance of those differences at later post-irradiation times questions the use of this assay to determine intrinsic radiosensitivity, especially in a clinical setting. (author)

  12. Ictal 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging: localization of seizure foci and correlation with semiology in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung; Ma, Hyeo Il; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Jung Kyo; Kang, Joong Koo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ictal 99m Tc-ECD brain SPECT in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients for presurgical localization of seizure foci, and to correlate ictal SPECT patterns with the semiology of seizure. ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was performed in 23 TLE patients whose MRI showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy (18 patients), other focal temporal lesions (4 patients) and normal finding (1 patient). Under CCTV monitoring, injection was done during ictal period in all patients with the mean delay of 38.5±17.3 sec (mean seizure duration : 90.5±35.9 sec). Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was visually analysed by three blinded observers. All patients underwent temporal lobectomy with a minimum 3 months follow-up (range 3-29 months) ; all had good post-surgical seizure control (Engel's calssification class I). Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed unilateral temporal hyperperfusion concordant with epileptic foci in 22/23 (95.7%), whereas non-lateralization in 1/23 (4.3%). The hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral basal ganglia was present in 72.7% (16/22) of patients with dystonic/tonic posture of the contralateral hand. The contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was observed in the 7/22 (32%). The group with secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTC) had brain stem and bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion in 4/7 (57.1%) while the group without secondary GTC had the same hyperperfusion in 1/16 (6.3%). There was statistically significant difference in brain stem and bilateral thalamic perfusion between two groups. Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT is a useful modality in pre-surgical localization of the epileptic foci and well correlated with the semiology of seizure

  13. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa. PMID:23029586

  14. In vitro studies for the introduction of γ-H2AX foci as an indicator of radiation damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandina, Tania; Garcia, Omar; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Voisin, Pascale; Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Biological indicators are used for assessing DNA damage and repair in cells exposed to ionising radiation. DNA Double-strand breaks (DSBs) have been known as one of the most significant lesion producing lethal and mutagenic effects in irradiated cells. A new biological marker for DSBs is the presence of γ-H2AX foci in cells nucleus after exposure to ionising radiation. γ-H2AX formation was analysed in human lymphocytes. The blood was obtained from a same donor in three different occasions and exposed to doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.5 Gy of gamma rays with a dose-rate of 1.2 Gy/min. After blood irradiation the lymphocytes were incubated 30 minutes at 37 C degrees, isolated, fixed with paraformaldehyde, and spread on a microscope slide using a Cytospin. The slides were stored at -20 C degrees and immuno-stained the next day and 14, 16, 27 and 37 days after irradiation to test the influence of the storage time on results. The number of foci per cell was scored automatically, in about 200 cells per dose using HISTOLAB and CARTOGRAPH software. The mean of number of foci/cell for samples was as follow 0 Gy= 0.15 ± 0.04, 0.2 Gy =2.06 ± 0.25 and 0.5 Gy=5.21 ± 0.36 without appreciable effect of the storage time on the final results. Nevertheless some aspects require additional research, particularly the background values of the assay. A higher variability of DNA damage was observed for control samples, than for exposed ones. The influence of the number of cells scored on this variability should be tested. (author)

  15. Seroprevalence and spatial distribution dynamics of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats from plague foci in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Larissa Leão Ferrer de; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais de; Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva de; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores), which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies. This study aimed to characterize the circulation dynamics and spatial distribution of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats in plague foci areas of Ceará. An ecological study was conducted to analyze the temporal series and spatial distribution of secondary data obtained from domestic carnivore serum surveillance in Ceará's plague areas from 1990 to 2014. Joinpoint analysis revealed that the overall trend was a reduction in antibody-positive animals. The mean proportion of antibody-positivity during the whole study period was 1.5% (3,023/203,311) for dogs, and 0.7% (426/61,135) for cats, with more than 4% antibody-positivity in dogs in 1997 and 2002. Antibody titers ranging from 1/16 to 1/64 were frequent. Despite fluctuations and a significant reduction, in recent years, there were antibody-positive animals annually throughout the study period, and the localities containing antibody-positive animals increased in number. Yersinia pestis is actively circulating in the study areas, posing a danger to the human population.

  16. Seroprevalence and spatial distribution dynamics of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats from plague foci in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Leão Ferrer de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores, which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies. This study aimed to characterize the circulation dynamics and spatial distribution of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats in plague foci areas of Ceará. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted to analyze the temporal series and spatial distribution of secondary data obtained from domestic carnivore serum surveillance in Ceará’s plague areas from 1990 to 2014. RESULTS: Joinpoint analysis revealed that the overall trend was a reduction in antibody-positive animals. The mean proportion of antibody-positivity during the whole study period was 1.5% (3,023/203,311 for dogs, and 0.7% (426/61,135 for cats, with more than 4% antibody-positivity in dogs in 1997 and 2002. Antibody titers ranging from 1/16 to 1/64 were frequent. Despite fluctuations and a significant reduction, in recent years, there were antibody-positive animals annually throughout the study period, and the localities containing antibody-positive animals increased in number. CONCLUSION: Yersinia pestis is actively circulating in the study areas, posing a danger to the human population.

  17. Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT imaging: localization of seizure foci and correlation with semiology in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung; Ma, Hyeo Il; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Jung Kyo; Kang, Joong Koo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients for presurgical localization of seizure foci, and to correlate ictal SPECT patterns with the semiology of seizure. ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was performed in 23 TLE patients whose MRI showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy (18 patients), other focal temporal lesions (4 patients) and normal finding (1 patient). Under CCTV monitoring, injection was done during ictal period in all patients with the mean delay of 38.5{+-}17.3 sec (mean seizure duration : 90.5{+-}35.9 sec). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was visually analysed by three blinded observers. All patients underwent temporal lobectomy with a minimum 3 months follow-up (range 3-29 months) ; all had good post-surgical seizure control (Engel's calssification class I). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed unilateral temporal hyperperfusion concordant with epileptic foci in 22/23 (95.7%), whereas non-lateralization in 1/23 (4.3%). The hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral basal ganglia was present in 72.7% (16/22) of patients with dystonic/tonic posture of the contralateral hand. The contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was observed in the 7/22 (32%). The group with secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTC) had brain stem and bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion in 4/7 (57.1%) while the group without secondary GTC had the same hyperperfusion in 1/16 (6.3%). There was statistically significant difference in brain stem and bilateral thalamic perfusion between two groups. Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT is a useful modality in pre-surgical localization of the epileptic foci and well correlated with the semiology of seizure.

  18. Breath-hold and free-breathing F-18-FDG-PET/CT in malignant melanoma?detection of additional tumoral foci and effects on quantitative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    B?rwolf, Robert; Zirnsak, Mariana; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During PET/CT acquisition, respiratory motion generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which may impair lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. This observational study was undertaken to verify whether breath-hold F-18-FDG-PET/CT (bhPET) detects additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET) in cases of malignant melanoma, and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and metabolic isocontoured volume (mVic40). Thirty-f...

  19. Residual γH2AX foci induced by low dose x-ray radiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells do not cause accelerated senescence in the progeny of irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovalova, Margarita; Astrelina, Тatiana A; Grekhova, Anna; Vorobyeva, Natalia; Tsvetkova, Anastasia; Blokhina, Taisia; Nikitina, Victoria; Suchkova, Yulia; Usupzhanova, Daria; Brunchukov, Vitalyi; Kobzeva, Irina; Karaseva, Тatiana; Ozerov, Ivan V; Samoylov, Aleksandr; Bushmanov, Andrey; Leonov, Sergey; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry; Osipov, Andreyan N

    2017-11-21

    Mechanisms underlying the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (IR) exposure (10-100 mGy) remain unknown. Here we present a comparative study of early (less than 24h) and delayed (up to 11 post-irradiation passages) radiation effects caused by low (80 mGy) vs intermediate (1000 mGy) dose X-ray exposure in cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We show that γН2АХ foci induced by an intermediate dose returned back to the control value by 24 h post-irradiation. In contrast, low-dose irradiation resulted in residual γН2АХ foci still present at 24 h. Notably, these low dose induced residual γН2АХ foci were not co-localized with рАТМ foci and were observed predominantly in the proliferating Кi67 positive (Кi67+) cells. The number of γН2АХ foci and the fraction of nonproliferating (Кi67-) and senescent (SA-β-gal+) cells measured at passage 11 were increased in cultures exposed to an intermediate dose compared to unirradiated controls. These delayed effects were not seen in the progeny of cells that were irradiated with low-dose X-rays, although such exposure resulted in residual γН2АХ foci in directly irradiated cells. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the low-dose IR induced residual γH2AХ foci do not play a role in delayed irradiation consequences, associated with cellular senescence in cultured MSCs.

  20. Yersinia pestis strains of ancient phylogenetic branch 0.ANT are widely spread in the high-mountain plague foci of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, Galina A; Nosov, Nikita Yu; Krasnov, Yaroslav M; Oglodin, Yevgeny G; Kukleva, Lyubov M; Guseva, Natalia P; Kuznetsov, Alexander A; Abdikarimov, Sabyrzhan T; Dzhaparova, Aigul K; Kutyrev, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Fifty six Yersinia pestis strains, isolated over the period of more than 50 years in three high-mountain foci of Kyrgyzstan (Tien Shan, Alai, and Talas), have been characterized by means of PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing methods. Seven of these strains were also characterized by means of whole genome sequencing and genome-wide SNP phylogenetic analysis. It was found that forty two strains belong to 0.ANT2, 0.ANT3 and 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branches. From these, strains of 0.ANT2 and 0.ANT3 branches were earlier detected in China only, whereas 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branch was identified for Y. pestis phylogeny for the first time. According to the results of genome-wide SNP analysis, 0.ANT5 strains are ones of the most closely related to Y. pestis strain responsible for the Justinianic Plague. We have also found out that four of the studied strains belong to the phylogenetic branch 2.MED1, and ten strains from Talas high-mountain focus belong to the phylogenetic branch 0.PE4 (sub-branch 0.PE4t). Established diversity of Y. pestis strains and extensive dissemination of the strains pertaining to the 0.ANT branch confirm the antiquity of the mentioned above plague foci and suggest that strains of the 0.ANT branch, which serve as precursors for all highly virulent Y. pestis strains, had their origin in the Tien Shan mountains.

  1. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  2. Persistence of Gamma-H2AX Foci in Irradiated Bronchial Cells Correlates with Susceptibility to Radiation Associated Lung Cancer in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Donasian O.; Sharif, Rabab; Bedford, Joel S.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Fallgren, Christina M.; Demant, Peter; Costes, Sylvain V.; Weil, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in their ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks resulting from radiation exposure. We phenotyped mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA double strand breaks during protracted radiation exposures. We monitored persistent gamma-H2AX radiation induced foci (RIF) 24 hours after exposure to chronic gamma-rays as a surrogate marker for repair deficiency in bronchial epithelial cells for 17 of the CcS/Dem strains and the BALB/cHeN founder strain. We observed a very strong correlation R2 = 79.18%, P cancer percent incidence measured in the same strains. Interestingly, spontaneous levels of foci in non-irradiated strains also showed good correlation with lung cancer incidence (R2=32.74%, P =0.013). These results suggest that genetic differences in DNA repair capacity largely account for differing susceptibilities to radiation-induced lung cancer among CcS/Dem mouse strains and that high levels of spontaneous DNA damage is also a relatively good marker of cancer predisposition. In a smaller pilot study, we found that the repair capacity measured in peripheral blood leucocytes also correlated well with radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility, raising the possibility that such phenotyping assay could be used to detect radiogenic lung cancer susceptibility in humans.

  3. An ImageJ-based algorithm for a semi-automated method for microscopic image enhancement and DNA repair foci counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klokov, D.; Suppiah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Proper evaluation of the health risks of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure heavily relies on the ability to accurately measure very low levels of DNA damage in cells. One of the most sensitive methods for measuring DNA damage levels is the quantification of DNA repair foci that consist of macromolecular aggregates of DNA repair proteins, such as γH2AX and 53BP1, forming around individual DNA double-strand breaks. They can be quantified using immunofluorescence microscopy and are widely used as markers of DNA double-strand breaks. However this quantification, if performed manually, may be very tedious and prone to inter-individual bias. Low-dose radiation studies are especially sensitive to this potential bias due to a very low magnitude of the effects anticipated. Therefore, we designed and validated an algorithm for the semi-automated processing of microscopic images and quantification of DNA repair foci. The algorithm uses ImageJ, a freely available image analysis software that is customizable to individual cellular properties or experimental conditions. We validated the algorithm using immunolabeled 53BP1 and γH2AX in normal human fibroblast AG01522 cells under both normal and irradiated conditions. This method is easy to learn, can be used by nontrained personnel, and can help avoiding discrepancies in inter-laboratory comparison studies examining the effects of low-dose radiation. (author)

  4. Multiparametric MR imaging of prostate cancer foci: assessing the detectability and localizability of Gleason 7 peripheral zone cancers based on image contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Gaed, Mena; Hrinivich, Thomas; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Romagnoli, Cesare; Mandel, Jonathan; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Cool, Derek W.; Ghoul, Suha; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L.; Crukley, Cathie; Bauman, Glenn S.; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) supports detection and staging of prostate cancer, but the image characteristics needed for tumor boundary delineation to support focal therapy have not been widely investigated. We quantified the detectability (image contrast between tumor and non-cancerous contralateral tissue) and the localizability (image contrast between tumor and non-cancerous neighboring tissue) of Gleason score 7 (GS7) peripheral zone (PZ) tumors on MPMRI using tumor contours mapped from histology using accurate 2D-3D registration. Methods: MPMRI [comprising T2-weighted (T2W), dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and contrast transfer coefficient images] and post-prostatectomy digitized histology images were acquired for 6 subjects. Histology contouring and grading (approved by a genitourinary pathologist) identified 7 GS7 PZ tumors. Contours were mapped to MPMRI images using semi-automated registration algorithms (combined target registration error: 2 mm). For each focus, three measurements of mean +/- standard deviation of image intensity were taken on each image: tumor tissue (mT+/-sT), non-cancerous PZ tissue Results: T2W images showed the strongest detectability, although detectability |D|>=1 was observed on either ADC or DCE images, or both, for all foci. Localizability on all modalities was variable; however, ADC images showed localizability |L|>=1 for 3 foci. Conclusions: Delineation of GS7 PZ tumors on individual MPMRI images faces challenges; however, images may contain complementary information, suggesting a role for fusion of information across MPMRI images for delineation.

  5. Adjacent segment mobility after rigid and semirigid instrumentation of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Balkan; Carazzo, Charles; Schmidt, René; Mattes, Thomas; Reichel, Heiko; Käfer, Wolfram

    2009-05-20

    Retrospective radiographic analysis of lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) after monosegmental fusion and posterior dynamic stabilization at the level L4-L5. Comparison of segmental ROM at the index level and the cranial and caudal adjacent levels and of global lumbar spine ROM after monosegmental fusion and posterior dynamic stabilization. The postulated advantage of nonfusion technology compared with fusion is based on the assumption that preservation of motion at the treated segment reduces the incidence of adjacent segment effects. Therefore, it is imperative to provide evidence that dynamic stabilization devices avoid hypermobility at the adjacent segments because this might substantiate a protective effect on the adjacent segments. Twenty-six patients with low back pain and claudication due to degenerative instability at the level L4-L5 with concomitant spinal stenosis were treated either with decompression and Dynesys (n = 11) or with decompression and fusion (n = 15). All patients underwent flexion/extension radiographs before surgery and at latest follow-up. ROM was assessed at the index level (L4-L5), the cranial/caudal adjacent levels (L3-L4/L5-S1), and at the lumbar spine from L2 to S1. There was a significant reduction of the global ROM of the lumbar spine (L2-S1) and the segmental ROM at the index level (L4-L5) in the fusion group, whereas adjacent level ROM did not change significantly. In the Dynesys group, no significant changes of global lumbar spine ROM (L2-S1) and segmental ROM (index level and cranial/caudal adjacent levels) were seen. This study shows that neither monosegmental instrumented fusion nor monosegmental posterior dynamic stabilization with Dynesys alter the ROM of the cranial and caudal adjacent levels. Consequently, monosegmental posterior dynamic stabilization with Dynesys has no effect with regard to adjacent segment mobility compared with monosegmental fusion.

  6. Do in vivo kinematic studies provide insight into adjacent segment degeneration? A qualitative systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakoutian, Masoud; Volkheimer, David; Street, John; Dvorak, Marcel F; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Oxland, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    While much evidence suggests that adjacent segment degeneration is merely a manifestation of the natural degenerative process unrelated to any spine fusion, a significant body of literature supports the notion that it is a process due in part to the altered biomechanics adjacent to fused spine segments. The purpose of this study was to review and critically analyze the published literature that investigated the in vivo kinematics of the adjacent segments and entire lumbar spine in patients receiving spinal fusion or motion-preserving devices. A systematic review of the PubMed database was conducted, initially identifying 697 studies of which 39 addressed the in vivo kinematics of the segments adjacent to spinal implants or non-instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine articles studied fusion, of which three reported a decrease in range of motion of the caudal adjacent segment post-fusion. Examining the rostral adjacent segment, twelve studies observed no change, nine studies found a significant increase, and three studies reported a significant decrease in sagittal plane range of motion. Of the six studies that analyzed motion for the entire lumbar spine as a unit, five studies showed a significant decrease and one study reported no change in global lumbar spine motion. Kinematics of the segment rostral to a total disc replacement was investigated in six studies: four found no change and the results for the other two showed dependence on treatment level. Fifteen studies of non-fusion posterior implants analyzed the motion of the adjacent segment with two studies noting an increase in motion at the rostral level. There appears to be no overall kinematic changes at the rostral or caudal levels adjacent to a fusion, but some patients (~20-30%) develop excessive kinematic changes (i.e., instability) at the rostral adjacent level. The overall lumbar ROM after fusion appears to decrease after a spinal fusion.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characterizations of Yersinia pestis isolates from Kazakhstan and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Zhansarina, Aigul; Yockey, Brook; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Atshabar, Bakyt; Nekrassova, Larissa; Tashmetov, Rinat; Kenghebaeva, Kuralai; Chu, May C; Kosoy, Michael; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in characterizing infectious agents associated with bioterrorism has resulted in the development of effective pathogen genotyping systems, but this information is rarely combined with phenotypic data. Yersinia pestis, the aetiological agent of plague, has been well defined genotypically on local and worldwide scales using multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), with emphasis on evolutionary patterns using old isolate collections from countries where Y. pestis has existed the longest. Worldwide MLVA studies are largely based on isolates that have been in long-term laboratory culture and storage, or on field material from parts of the world where Y. pestis has potentially circulated in nature for thousands of years. Diversity in these isolates suggests that they may no longer represent the wild-type organism phenotypically, including the possibility of altered pathogenicity. This study focused on the phenotypic and genotypic properties of 48 Y. pestis isolates collected from 10 plague foci in and bordering Kazakhstan. Phenotypic characterization was based on diagnostic tests typically performed in reference laboratories working with Y. pestis. MLVA was used to define the genotypic relationships between the central-Asian isolates and a group of North American isolates, and to examine Kazakh Y. pestis diversity according to predefined plague foci and on an intermediate geographical scale. Phenotypic properties revealed that a large portion of this collection lacks one or more plasmids necessary to complete the blocked flea/mammal transmission cycle, has lost Congo red binding capabilities (Pgm-), or both. MLVA analysis classified isolates into previously identified biovars, and in some cases groups of isolates collected within the same plague focus formed a clade. Overall, MLVA did not distinguish unique phylogeographical groups of Y. pestis isolates as defined by plague foci and indicated higher genetic diversity among older biovars.

  8. MRI of the normal brain from early childhood to middle age. Pt. 1. Appearances on T2- and proton density-weighted images and occurrence of incidental high-signal foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Vanhanen, S.L.; Kallio, M.; Santavuori, P.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic resonance images of 67 healthy subjects aged 4-50 years were studied for differences in general signal intensity between the different brain structures, the frequency of focal intensity changes in the brain, and variations in size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. In adults over 25 years of age the thalamus gave lower signal than the putamen or caudate nucleus. Definite periventricular high signal was found in the white matter of one third of subjects of all ages. Small (< 5 mm in diameter) high signal foci were found in the cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images in 27 % of subjects (20 % of healthy children and adolescents and 34 % of adults). They gave high signal on both short and long echoes in 11 % of children and adolescents and in 22 % of adults; 51 % of all foci gave high signal with both echoes. This does not support the hypothesis that they are caused mainly by enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces. Of the high signal foci on T2-weighted images, 86 % were in watershead areas. Two foci were found in one subject in the periventricular watershed area (beside the tips of the frontal horns) and they were never seen in the other deep white matter regions. In healthy, relatively young subjects with no known risk factors, high signal foci other than Virchow-Robin spaces, were common; neither their prevalence nor their number correlated with age in this series. A few slightly large sulci were found in some adults. (orig.)

  9. Risk factors for adjacent segment disease after posterior lumbar interbody fusion and efficacy of simultaneous decompression surgery for symptomatic adjacent segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikata, Tomohiro; Kamata, Michihiro; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    A retrospective study. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) increases mechanical stress and can cause degenerative changes at the adjacent segment. However, the precise causes of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after PLIF are not known, and it is unclear whether simultaneous decompression surgery for symptomatic ASD is effective. To study, radiographically and symptomatically, the risk factors for adjacent segment disease (ASD) in the lumbar spine after L4/5 PLIF and to examine whether decompression surgery for the adjacent segment (L3/4) reduces the occurrence of symptomatic ASD. Fifty-four patients who underwent L4/5 PLIF for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis and could be followed up for at least 2 years were included. Of these, 37 were treated simultaneously with decompression surgery at L3/4. We measured radiographic changes and assessed symptoms from the cranial adjacent segment. Thirty-one patients (57.4%) met radiologic criteria for ASD. The length of follow-up (P=0.004) and simultaneous decompression surgery at L3/4 (P=0.009) were statistically significant factors for radiologic diagnosis of ASD. Seven patients (13.0%) had symptomatic ASD: 6 in the decompression group (16.2%) and 1 in the PLIF-only group (5.9%). Simultaneous decompression surgery did not reduce the incidence of symptomatic ASD (P=0.256). Local lordosis at the fused segment (P=0.005) and the sagittal angle of the facet joint at L3/4 (P=0.024) were statistically significant predictors of symptomatic ASD, which was accompanied by postoperative anterior listhesis above the fused segment (S group, 8.4%±8.0%; nonsymptomatic group: -0.7%±5.0%, P=0.024). Patients whose facet joint at the adjacent segment had a more sagittal orientation had postoperative anterior listhesis, which caused symptomatic ASD. Simultaneous decompression surgery without fusion at the adjacent level was not effective for these patients, but rather, there was a possibility that it induced symptomatic ASD.

  10. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with random transverse grooved concrete pavements. Upon completion, residents living adjacent to the reconstruct...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  12. Incidence of root canal treatment of second molars following adjacent impacted third molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Oguz

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the incidence is minimal, iatrogenic subluxation injuries occurring during the surgical removal of impacted third molars can lead to pulpal complications and a requirement for root canal treatment of adjacent second molars.

  13. Prophylactic vertebroplasty can decrease the fracture risk of adjacent vertebrae: An in vitro cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquarius, R.; Homminga, Jasper Johan; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Tanck, E.

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent level vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic wedge fractures, but can theoretically be prevented with prophylactic vertebroplasty. Previous tests on prophylactic vertebroplasties have been performed under axial loading, while in vivo changes in spinal alignment likely

  14. Prophylactic vertebroplasty can decrease the fracture risk of adjacent vertebrae: an in vitro cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquarius, R.; Homminga, J.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Tanck, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent level vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic wedge fractures, but can theoretically be prevented with prophylactic vertebroplasty. Previous tests on prophylactic vertebroplasties have been performed under axial loading, while in vivo changes in spinal alignment likely

  15. Prophylactic adjacent-segment vertebroplasty following kyphoplasty for a single osteoporotic vertebral fracture and the risk of adjacent fractures: a retrospective study and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin C; Spross, Christian; Ewers, Alexander; Mayer, Ryan; Külling, Fabrice A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the benefit of prophylactic vertebroplasty of the adjacent vertebrae in single-segment osteoporotic vertebral body fractures treated with kyphoplasty. METHODS All patients treated with kyphoplasty for osteoporotic single-segment fractures between January 2007 and August 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The patients received either kyphoplasty alone (kyphoplasty group) or kyphoplasty with additional vertebroplasty of the adjacent segment (vertebroplasty group). The segmental kyphosis with the rate of adjacent-segment fractures (ASFs) and remote fractures were studied on plain lateral radiographs preoperatively, postoperatively, at 3 months, and at final follow-up. RESULTS Thirty-seven (82%) of a possible 45 patients were included for the analysis, with a mean follow-up of 16 months (range 3-54 months). The study population included 31 women, and the mean age of the total patient population was 72 years old (range 53-86 years). In 21 patients (57%), the fracture was in the thoracolumbar junction. Eighteen patients were treated with additional vertebroplasty and 19 with kyphoplasty only. The segmental kyphosis increased in both groups at final follow-up. A fracture through the primary treated vertebra (kyphoplasty) was found in 4 (22%) of the vertebroplasty group and in 3 (16%) of the kyphoplasty group (p = 0.6). An ASF was found in 50% (n = 9) of the vertebroplasty group and in 16% (n = 3) of the kyphoplasty group (p = 0.03). Remote fractures occurred in 1 patient in each group (p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic vertebroplasty of the adjacent vertebra in patients with single-segment osteoporotic fractures as performed in this study did not decrease the rate of adjacent fractures. Based on these retrospective data, the possible benefits of prophylactic vertebroplasty do not compensate for the possible risks of an additional cement augmentation.

  16. Kinetic magnetic resonance imaging analysis of lumbar segmental motion at levels adjacent to disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Daubs, Michael D; Takahashi, Shinji; Lord, Elizabeth L; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Zhong, Guibin; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective radiographic study was carried out to analyze the effect of lumbar disc herniation on the kinetic motion of adjacent segments. A total of 162 patients with low back pain or radicular pain in the lower limbs without a prior history of surgery were evaluated using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging. Translational motion, angular variation, and disc height were measured at each segment from L1-L2 to L5-S1. Other factors including the degree of disc degeneration, age, gender, and vertebral segment location were analyzed to determine any predisposing risk factors for segmental instability adjacent to disc herniations. Spinal levels above the disc herniation exhibited, on average, a 6.4 % increase in translational motion per mm of disc herniation (P = 0.496) and a 21.4 % increase in angular motion per mm herniation (P = 0.447). Levels below the herniation demonstrated a 5.2 % increase in translational motion per mm of disc herniation (P = 0.428) and a decrease of 10.7 % in angular motion per mm (P = 0.726). The degree of disc degeneration had no significant correlation with adjacent level motion. Similarly, disc herniation was not significantly correlated with disc height at adjacent levels, although there was a significant relationship between gender and adjacent segment disc height. Although disc height, translational motion, and angular variation are significantly affected at the level of a disc herniation, no significant changes are apparent in adjacent segments. Our results indicate that herniated discs have no effect on range of motion at adjacent levels regardless of the degree of disc degeneration or the size of disc herniation, suggesting that the natural progression of disc degeneration and adjacent segment disease may be separate, unrelated processes within the lumbar spine.

  17. Local adjacency metric dimension of sun graph and stacked book graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulisda Badri, Alifiah; Darmaji

    2018-03-01

    A graph is a mathematical system consisting of a non-empty set of nodes and a set of empty sides. One of the topics to be studied in graph theory is the metric dimension. Application in the metric dimension is the navigation robot system on a path. Robot moves from one vertex to another vertex in the field by minimizing the errors that occur in translating the instructions (code) obtained from the vertices of that location. To move the robot must give different instructions (code). In order for the robot to move efficiently, the robot must be fast to translate the code of the nodes of the location it passes. so that the location vertex has a minimum distance. However, if the robot must move with the vertex location on a very large field, so the robot can not detect because the distance is too far.[6] In this case, the robot can determine its position by utilizing location vertices based on adjacency. The problem is to find the minimum cardinality of the required location vertex, and where to put, so that the robot can determine its location. The solution to this problem is the dimension of adjacency metric and adjacency metric bases. Rodrguez-Velzquez and Fernau combine the adjacency metric dimensions with local metric dimensions, thus becoming the local adjacency metric dimension. In the local adjacency metric dimension each vertex in the graph may have the same adjacency representation as the terms of the vertices. To obtain the local metric dimension of values in the graph of the Sun and the stacked book graph is used the construction method by considering the representation of each adjacent vertex of the graph.

  18. Hedgerows enhance beneficial insects on adjacent tomato fields in an intensive agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Morandin, LA; Long, RF; Kremen, C

    2014-01-01

    Within-farm habitat enhancements such as hedgerows could aid pest control in adjacent crops; however, there is little information on whether small-scale restoration impacts pests and natural enemies, and crop damage, and how far effects may extend into fields. We compared restored, California native perennial hedgerows to unenhanced field edges consisting of commonly occurring semi-managed, non-native weeds. Pest and natural enemy communities were assessed in both edge types and into adjacent...

  19. Adjacent level disk disease--is it really a fusion disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Teija; Oxland, Thomas R

    2011-10-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) is a relatively common phenomenon after spinal fusion surgery. Whether ASD is a consequence of the previous fusion or an individual's predisposition to continued degeneration remains unsolved to date. This article summarizes the existing biomechanical and clinical literature on the causes and clinical impact of ASD, as well as possible risk factors. Further, the theoretical advantage of motion-preserving technologies that aim to preserve the adjacent segment is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adjacent segment disease after instrumented fusion for adult lumbar spondylolisthesis: Incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Deviren, Vedat; Tay, Bobby; Burch, Shane; Berven, Sigurd H

    2017-05-01

    A potential long-term complication of lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD), which may necessitate second surgery and adversely affect outcomes. The objective of this is to determine the incidence of ASD following instrumented fusion in adult patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis and to identify the risk factors for this complication. We retrospectively assessed adult patients who had undergone decompression and instrumented fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis between January 2006 and December 2012. The incidence of ASD was analyzed. Potential risk factors included the patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and radiographic variables such as sagittal alignment, preexisting disc degeneration and spinal stenosis at the adjacent segment. A total of 154 patients (mean age, 58.4 years) were included. Mean duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. Eighteen patients (11.7%) underwent a reoperation for ASD; 15 patients had reoperation at cranial ASD and 3 at caudal ASD. The simultaneous decompression at adjacent segment (p=0.002) and preexisting spinal stenosis at cranial adjacent segment (p=0.01) were identified as risk factors for ASD. The occurrence of ASD was not affected by patient-related factors, the types, grades and levels of spondylolisthesis, surgical approach, fusion procedures, levels of fusion, number of levels fused, types of bone graft, use of bone morphogenetic proteins, sagittal alignment, preexisting adjacent disc degeneration and preexisting spinal stenosis at caudal adjacent segments. Our findings suggest the overall incidence of ASD is 11.7% in adult patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis after decompression and instrumented fusion at a mean follow-up of 28.6 months, the simultaneous decompression at the adjacent segment and preexisting spinal stenosis at cranial adjacent segment are risk factors for ASD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    between submerged and non-loaded non-submerged titanium implants. The infrabony defects around some of the implants on the radiographs were significantly correlated to the histological measurements. Qualitatively, a greater number of gingival inflammation cells and a longer junctional epithelium were seen...... adjacent to non-submerged implants without oral hygiene than were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants with oral hygiene in the initial healing period....

  2. Correlation between sagittal plane changes and adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Malhar; Baklanov, Andrei; Chopin, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion remains a widely acknowledged problem, but there is insufficient knowledge regarding the factors that contribute to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between abnormal sagittal plane configuration of the lumbar spine and the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent lumbar fusion for degenerative disc disease were reviewed retrospectively. Patients ...

  3. Gas explosion in a room with a window and passage to an adjacent room

    OpenAIRE

    Polandov Yuri; Korolchenko Aleksandr; Dobrikov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Some publications describe an effect, produced during a physical model experiment, when an adjacent gas-free room influences the gas explosion pressure in a room with a window. The explosion pressure in this case significantly exceeds (2.5 times) the explosion pressure in a room without an adjacent room. This result has been confirmed by our studies. Based on other available information about the influence of the ignition point location on the explosion pressure in one room, it was suggested ...

  4. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Borges

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. RESULTS: Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13 in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75 was statistically larger (P < 0.001. Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  5. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  6. Adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine following different treatment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Kristen E; Kepler, Christopher K; Jakoi, Andre; Sidhu, Gursukhman S; Rihn, Jeffrey; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2013-10-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is symptomatic deterioration of spinal levels adjacent to the site of a previous fusion. A critical issue related to ASD is whether deterioration of spinal segments adjacent to a fusion is due to the spinal intervention or due to the natural history of spinal degenerative disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent clinical literature on adjacent segment disease in light of the natural history, patient-modifiable risk factors, surgical risk factors, sagittal balance, and new technology. This review will evaluate the recent literature on genetic and hereditary components of spinal degenerative disease and potential links to the development of ASD. After a meticulous search of Medline for relevant articles pertaining to our review, we summarized the recent literature on the rate of ASD and the effect of various interventions, including motion preservation, sagittal imbalance, arthroplasty, and minimally invasive surgery. The reported rate of ASD after decompression and stabilization procedures is approximately 2% to 3% per year. The factors that are consistently associated with adjacent segment disease include laminectomy adjacent to a fusion and a sagittal imbalance. Spinal surgical interventions have been associated with ASD. However, whether such interventions may lead to an acceleration of the natural history of the disease remains questionable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diffusion-Weighted MRI Assessment of Adjacent Disc Degeneration After Thoracolumbar Vertebral Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noriega, David C., E-mail: dcnoriega1970@gmail.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Spine Department (Spain); Marcia, Stefano, E-mail: stemarcia@gmail.com [SS. Trinità Hospital ASL 8 Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy); Ardura, Francisco, E-mail: fardura@ono.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Spine Department (Spain); Lite, Israel Sanchez, E-mail: israelslite@hotmail.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Radiology Department (Spain); Marras, Mariangela, E-mail: mariangela.marrasmd@gmail.com [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology (Italy); Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to assess, by the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), if a relationship exists between disc ADC and MR findings of adjacent disc degeneration after thoracolumbar fractures treated by anatomic reduction using vertebral augmentation (VAP).Materials and MethodsTwenty non-consecutive patients (mean age 50.7 years; range 45–56) treated because of vertebral fractures, were included in this study. There were 10 A3.1 and 10 A1.2 fractures (AO classification). Surgical treatment using VAP was applied in 14 cases, and conservative in 6 patients. MRI T2-weighted images and mapping of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the intervertebral disc adjacent to the fractured segment were performed after a mean follow-up of 32 months. A total of 60 discs, 3 per patient, were analysed: infra-adjacent, supra-adjacent and a control disc one level above the supra-adjacent.ResultsNo differences between patients surgically treated and those following a conservative protocol regarding the average ADC values obtained in the 20 control discs analysed were found. Considering all discs, average ADC in the supra-adjacent level was lower than in the infra-adjacent (1.35 ± 0.12 vs. 1.53 ± 0.06; p < 0.001). Average ADC values of the discs used as a control were similar to those of the infra-adjacent level (1.54 ± 0.06). Compared to surgically treated patients, discs at the supra-adjacent fracture level showed statistically significant lower values in cases treated conservatively (p < 0.001). The variation in the delay of surgery had no influence on the average values of ADC at any of the measured levels.ConclusionsADC measurements of the supra-adjacent discs after a mean follow-up of 32 months following thoracolumbar fractures, showed that restoration of the vertebral collapse by minimally invasive VAP prevents posttraumatic disc degeneration.

  8. Influence of a Dietary Fiber on Development of Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in archived colon tissue from animals in a previous study was examined. The animals were fed a semisynthetic casein-based diet in which the carbohydrate pool was substituted with a dietary beet fiber (Fibeta) as the only source of fiber. Oral doses...... between duration of intake of high-fiber diet and number of animals with ACF, as well as the total number of ACF and number of small A CF (1-3 crypts) per affected animal. The previously reported data showed no protective effect of the dietary fiber at any stage of the colorectal carcinogenic process...... of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a week for 10 weeks were used as initiator. The rats were fed different levels of the fiber in a preinitiation period, during initiation, or in a postinitiation period. In general, the results showed a statistically significant inverse relation...

  9. Endometriosis and carcinosarcoma--a hypothetical correlation or a proven pathogenetic pathway? Colon carcinosarcoma with origin in endometriotic foci--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, Maria; Suzin, Jacek; Stawerski, Paweł; Kowalczyk-Amico, Katarzyna; Duechler, Markus

    2015-07-01

    We present the first case of a patient with a synchronic occurrence of three neoplasms: non-small cell lung cancer serous cancer of the ovary and carcinosarcoma of the colon. Moreover, the possible origin of the carcinosarcoma is an endometriotic focus, which is an extremely rare occurrence, especially in women with no history of endometriotic treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of the carcinosarcoma was positive for CD10, estrogen receptors and desmin--typical markers for endometriotic foci. The growth of endometriosis depends on estrogen, which is produced at reduced levels after menopause. However, in some cases endometriosis could be diagnosed de novo in postmenopausal women. On the basis of the reported patient we discuss possible correlations between endometriosis and carcinosarcoma, as well as treatment methods of carcinosarcoma.

  10. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  11. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  12. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)- induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A.M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon...

  13. Recruitment of activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to herpes simplex virus ICP0 nuclear foci: Potential role in blocking IFN-β induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroe, Gregory T.; Silva, Lindsey; Schaffer, Priscilla A.; Knipe, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription of genes promoted by interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), including interferon beta (IFN-β), and that the immediate-early ICP0 protein is sufficient for this function. However, the exact mechanism by which ICP0 blocks IRF-3 activity has yet to be determined. Unlike some other viral proteins that inhibit IRF-3 activity, ICP0 does not appear to affect phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3. Here, we show that a portion of activated IRF-3 co-localizes with nuclear foci containing ICP0 at early times after virus infection. Co-localization to ICP0-containing foci is also seen with the IRF-3-binding partners and transcriptional co-activators, CBP and p300. In addition, using immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates, we can immunoprecipitate a complex containing ICP0, IRF-3, and CBP. Thus we hypothesize that ICP0 recruits activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to nuclear structures, away from the host chromatin. This leads to the inactivation and accelerated degradation of IRF-3, resulting in reduced transcription of IFN-β and an inhibition of the host response. Therefore, ICP0 provides an example of how viruses can block IFN-β induction by sequestration of important transcription factors essential for the host response

  14. [A foci of Schistosomiasis mekongi rediscovered in Northeast Cambodia: cultural perception of the illness; description and clinical observation of 20 severe cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biays, S; Stich, A H; Odermatt, P; Long, C; Yersin, C; Men, C; Saem, C; Lormand, J D

    1999-10-01

    In 1992 a foci of Schistosomiasis mekongi was rediscovered in the province of Kracheh in Northeast Cambodia. Severe clinical signs due to portal hypertension, which were frequently observed in this population, allowed the discovery of this 'forgotten' focus. Elements of the perception of the population and clinical observations of 20 severe cases due to S. mekongi infections are presented. Interviews with patients and villagers of the area of Kracheh showed severe psychosocial impact including fear from death, infirmity and invalidity. The symptoms of schistosomiasis were well known by the population and were reported to have increased in frequency in the last two decades. They have received traditional names and specific traditional treatment. The description of the clinical cases illustrates the severe pathology, which was observed in the hospital of Sambour, in the north of the province of Kracheh. It shows the pathogenic potential of S. mekongi in all age groups (from 7 to 58 years old): cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, stunting and retardation of puberty, decompensation of portal hypertension with ascites and rupture of oesophagual varicies. The efficacy of the treatment in the severe stages varies. A follow-up after 30 months showed that 5 patients died, 5 initially improved but then relapsed, 3 remained unchanged and only 5 patients clearly improved. Two patients could not be followed-up. The clinical observations and interviews show severe pathology with impact at both individual and community level. The infection with S. mekongi is the main factor but additional concomitant factors are responsible for this fact. At a certain stage of the disease the prognosis for successful treatment is very low. These observations show the importance of the foci in the Province of Kracheh, Cambodia and underline the need for a long-term global intervention.

  15. DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci as putative biomarkers to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, Aniele R; Bazo, Ana P; Ribeiro, Lúcia R; Salvadori, Daisy M F

    2005-04-04

    Chemoprevention opens new perspectives in the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases. Use of target-organ biological models at the histological and genetic levels can markedly facilitate the identification of such potential chemopreventive agents. Colon cancer is one of the highest incidence rates throughout the world and some evidences have indicated carotenoids as possible agents that decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of annatto (Bixa orellana L.), a natural food colorant rich in carotenoid, on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rat colon. Further, we investigate, the effect of annatto on DMH-induced DNA damage, by the comet assay. Male Wistar rats were given s.c. injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body wt.) twice a week for 2 weeks to induce ACF. They also received experimental diets containing annatto at 20, 200 or 1000 ppm for five 5 weeks before (pre-treatment), or 10 weeks after (post-treatment) DMH treatment. In both protocols the rats were sacrificed on week 15th. For the comet assay, the animals were fed with the same experimental diets for 2 weeks. Four hours before the sacrifice, the animals received an s.c. injection of DMH (40 mg/kg body wt.). Under such conditions, dietary administration of 1000 ppm annatto neither induce DNA damage in blood and colon cells nor aberrant crypt foci in rat distal colon. Conversely, annatto was successful in inhibiting the number of crypts/colon (animal), but not in the incidence of DMH-induced ACF, mainly when administered after DMH. However, no antigenotoxic effect was observed in colon cells. These findings suggest possible chemopreventive effects of annatto through their modulation of the cryptal cell proliferation but not at the initiation stage of colon carcinogenesis.

  16. Palliative Care Research--A Systematic Review of foci, designs and methods of research conducted in Sweden between 2007 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Carlander, Ida; Holm, Maja; James, Inger; Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne; Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Lind, Susanne; Sandgren, Anna; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-03-01

    In 2007, a literature review was undertaken of palliative care research from Sweden during the 1970s-2006, paving the way for a follow-up study to explore the recent developments. The aim was to systematically examine palliative care research from Sweden between 2007 and 2012, with special attention to methods, designs and research foci. A literature review was undertaken. The databases Academic search elite, Age line, Ahmed, Cinahl, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Soc abstracts, Web of science and Libris were reviewed for Swedish palliative care research studies published from 2007 to 2012, applying the search criteria 'palliative care OR palliative medicine OR end-of-life care OR terminal care OR hospice care OR dying OR death'. A total of 263 papers met the inclusion criteria, indicating an increased volume of research compared to the 133 articles identified in the previous review. Common study foci were symptom assessment and management, experiences of illness and care planning. Targeting non-cancer-specific populations and utilisation of population-based register studies were identified as new features. There was continued domination of cross-sectional, qualitative and mono-disciplinary studies, not including ethnic minority groups, nonverbally communicable people or children research has expanded in volume from 2007 to 2012 compared to during the 1970s to 2006, with increasing participation of non-cancer-specific populations. A domination of qualitative approaches and small, cross-sectional studies with few interventions is still characteristic. Still more strategies are needed to expand the knowledge development of palliative care to respond to demographical, epidemiological, therapeutic and healthcare structure changes. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Urinary enzymatic markers (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase) in assessing the tubulointerstitial compartment in chronic glomerulonephritis related to odontogenic foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velciov, Silvia; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Timar, Romulus; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Petrica, Ligia; Bob, Flaviu; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Pricop, Marius; Gluhovschi, Adrian; Cornianu, Marioara; Potencz, Elena; Timar, Bogdan; Kaycsa, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis is related to focus infection. Odontogenic foci are frequently involved in glomerulonephritis. The relationship with the odontogenic focus infection can be demonstrated by the occurrence or aggravation of the symptoms of glomerulonephritis: proteinuria, haematuria, high blood pressure and oedema. Glomerular impairment in glomerulonephritis occurs together with inflammatory alterations of the tubulointerstitial compartment that can play an important part in the evolution of the disease. Tubular urinary markers can indicate the activation of this compartment during an infection of a focus, an odontogenic focus in our study.The paper aims at demonstrating the relationship between the odontogenic focus infection and tubulointerstitial lesions, assessed by a tubular urinary marker, N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase (NAG).We investigated the urinary N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase of 20 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis who presented odontogenic focus infections, comparing them with patients with chronic glomerulonephritis without odontogenic foci and of 20 controls, clinically healthy persons.Chronic glomerulonephritis patients with odontogenic focus infection presented clearly increased values as compared to clinically healthy control persons of urinary N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase.These patients underwent surgical intervention on the odontogenic focus under antibacterial prophylactic treatment. In 75% cases, the values of N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase diminished, indicating the favourable effect of the treatment of the odontogenic focus on the tubulointerstitial compartment in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. In 25% cases this therapeutic treatment was associated with an increase of the values of urinary N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase, expressing its unfavourable effect on chronic glomerulonephritis.Urinary N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase indicated an etiopathogenetic relationship between the odontogenic focus and the

  18. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  19. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Young Yeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  20. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  1. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  2. In vitro performance of the DIAGNOcam for detecting proximal carious lesions adjacent to composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Askar, Haitham; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Reda, Seif; Al-Abdi, Allam; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk

    2018-03-08

    To assess the accuracy of near-infrared-light transillumination (DIAGNO) compared to visual-tactile (VT) and radiographic (RA) evaluation of proximal carious lesions adjacent to composite restorations in vitro. Two hundred extracted posterior permanent human teeth with occluso-proximal composite restorations were allocated to 50 groups of four posterior teeth, and mounted in a pilot-tested diagnostic model in a dummy head. Teeth were independently assessed by two examiners. Transverse microradiography and visual assessment served as reference tests to detect any lesions (prevalence 24%) and cavitated lesions (18%), respectively, adjacent to restorations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) were calculated. To detect any proximal carious lesions adjacent to composite, the mean sensitivity/specificity were 0.63/0.95 for DIAGNO, 0.70/0.88 for RA when lesions radiographically extending into enamel and dentin were considered, 0.26/0.98 for RA when only lesions extending into dentin were considered, and 0.31/0.96 for VT. For cavitated lesions adjacent to proximal composite restorations, these values were RA (enamel and dentin) 0.84/0.88, RA (dentin) 0.34/0.99, DIAGNO 0.69/0.94 and VT 0.40/0.97. AUC did not differ significantly between RA and DIAGNO, while VT showed significantly lower values (p alternative to RA for detecting carious lesions adjacent to composite restorations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  4. Capsulated Metallic Debris Tumor Mass Mimicking Adjacent Segment Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-12-01

    A case report. To inform the spine surgeons another cause of late complications after instrumented spinal fusion surgery. Posterior lumbar instrumented fusion has been widely applied as an effective procedure for treating patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease. The development of pathology at the mobile segment adjacent to the lumbar spinal fusion has been termed as adjacent segment disease. Most patients with adjacent segment disease present with recurrent back pain, sciatica, intermittent claudication, or even muscle weakness. Herein, we report the case of a 58-year-old man with posterior lumbar instrumented fusion at L4-L5 who complained of recurrent neurological symptoms mimicking adjacent instability and stenosis. In addition to severe adjacent stenosis at L3-L4, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed an intraspinal extradural tumor-like mass with compression of the neurological elements. The well-capsulated tumor mass was gently dissected and meticulously excised without injury to the adhesive dura or nerve roots. The tumor specimen was fixed in formalin, and then decalcified and tinted using several special stains, which conformed metallic wear debris, resulting in foreign body reaction. The metallic wear particulates may initiate a cascade of immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, attention should be paid to patients who are found to have loosening of the implants at the metal-metal or metal-bone interface.

  5. Gas explosion in a room with a window and passage to an adjacent room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polandov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some publications describe an effect, produced during a physical model experiment, when an adjacent gas-free room influences the gas explosion pressure in a room with a window. The explosion pressure in this case significantly exceeds (2.5 times the explosion pressure in a room without an adjacent room. This result has been confirmed by our studies. Based on other available information about the influence of the ignition point location on the explosion pressure in one room, it was suggested that this could be true for an explosion in two rooms. In our studies we used a test unit with two connected chambers, each having a volume of 1.125 m3. It turned out that this influence of the adjacent volume was not so unambiguous as it was described in those publications. It was found out that the maximum effect of explosion pressure amplification by the adjacent room is achieved, when the igniter is located in the chamber filled with a gas-air mixture in the area between the center of the chamber and the window (maximum amplification by more than 3 times. This effect is lower directly by the window (1.8 times and is practically absent in case of ignition within the area near the passage connecting the chamber with the adjacent room. This suggests that the effect discovered earlier is a special case of the general dependence of the gas explosion pressure in two chambers on the igniter location.

  6. Characteristics of changes in the number of yH2AX and Rad51 protein foci in human skin fibroblasts after prolonged exposure to low-dose rate X-ray radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozerov I.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare the repair process of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells after acute versus prolonged exposure to X-ray irradiation with different dose rates. Material and methods. Studies were performed on primary human fibroblasts isolated from skin biopsies of healthy volunteers (women, 29 and 30 years. Cells were irradiated using an X-ray machine RUB RUST-M1 (JSC "Ruselectronics", Moscow, Russia at 37°C temperature with a dose rate of 400 mGy/min (200 kV, 2*2.4 mA, a filter of 1.5mm AI or 4 mGy/min (50 kV, 2*0.4 mA, a filter of 1.5 mm AI. Immuno-cytochemical protein staining was utilized for yH2AX and Rad51 foci analysis. Results. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (yH2AX and the key protein of homologous recombination Rad51 foci formation and disappearance kinetics were investigated simultaneously in primary human dermal fibroblasts after acute and prolonged exposure to X-ray radiation at a same dose. It was shown that the relative yield of yH2AX foci per dose reduces with decrease in dose rate, while the relative yield of Rad51 foci conversely increases. Conclusion. Our findings suggest the fundamental differences in the ratio of non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair in acute versus prolonged irradiated cells.

  7. Transformations of C3H 10T1/2 cells by Benzo(a)pyrene and subsequent attempts at suppression of transformed foci by untransformed cells and Vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The mouse embryo cell line (C3H 10T1/2 CL8) has been shown here, in agreement with findings by others, to be transformed by benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Transformation studies were carried out at two different concentrations (0.25 μg BP/ml and 2.5 μg BP/ml) and two different cell densities (200 and 1000 cells/60 mm dish). Transformation frequencies per surviving cell were found to be greatest when the higher concentration of BP was used with the lower cell density. A comparison of these results with earlier alpha-irradiation experiments demonstrated the greater effectiveness of BP as a transforming agent in this cell system, although the foci produced by the two agents were morphologically similar. Attempts made to eliminate the expression of BP transformed foci by two different techniques were unsuccessful, although one of these had previously been shown to be effective with cells transformed by alpha particle irradiation. The two systems tested were treatment with retinyl acetate, a common nutritional form of Vitamin A and the previously successful technique - growth of transformed cells with large numbers of untransformed cells. The differences between the BP-induced transformations and those induced by alpha particle irradiation may result from intrinsic differences in the mechanism of action of the two carcinogenic agents, differences in the number of cell generations between the induction of the transformed foci and the subsequent treatment of the cells, or genetic differences between different foci

  8. Benign Lesions in Mucosa Adjacent to Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Vivanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to wood dust is a strong risk factor for the development of intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC; however, knowledge on possible precursor lesions or biomarkers is limited. Fifty-one samples of tumor-adjacent mucosa and 19 control samples of mucosa from the unaffected fossa of ITAC patients were evaluated for histological changes and p53 protein expression. Mild dysplasia was observed in 14%, cuboidal metaplasia in 57%, intestinal metaplasia in 8%, squamous metaplasia in 24%, and cylindrocellular hyperplasia in 53% of cases. P53 immunopositivity was generally weak occurring most frequently in squamous metaplasia. Wood dust etiology did not appear of influence on the histological changes, but p53 showed a tendency for higher positivity. Dysplasia adjacent to tumor was indicative of subsequent development of recurrence. In conclusion, precursor lesions do occur in mucosa adjacent to ITAC. This is clinically important, because it may justify the screening of high-risk individuals such as woodworkers.

  9. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodont....... Conclusion. Daily intake of fluoridated milk may aid remineralization of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic...... treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same...

  10. Mean frequency and relative fluorescence intensity measurement of γ-H2AX foci dose response in PBL exposed to γ-irradiation: An inter- and intra-laboratory comparison and its relevance for radiation triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Raavi; Tamizh, Selvan G; Bhavani, Manivannan; Kumar, Arun; Alok, Amit; Karthik, Kanagaraj; Kalra, Namita; Vijayalakshmi, J; Paul, Solomon F D; Chaudhury, N K; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of γ-H2AX protein changes in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation is a simple, sensitive, and rapid assay for radiation triage and early marker of dose estimation. The qualitative and quantitative measurements of the protein changes were examined using flow cytometry and microscopy. Whole blood and isolated lymphocytes were exposed in vitro between 0.1 and 5 Gy doses of (60) Co γ-radiation at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min. Radiation induced γ-H2AX foci frequency (n = 3) and relative fluorescence intensity (n = 7) in PBL was measured at 0.5 and 2 hrs postexposure. The observed dose response for γ-H2AX foci frequency at both time points, for whole blood and isolated lymphocytes did not show any significant (P > 0.05) differences. However, when compared with γ-H2AX foci frequency scored manually (microscopy), the semiautomated analysis (captured images) showed a better correlation (r(2) = 0.918) than that obtained with automated (Metafer) scoring (r(2) = 0.690). It is noteworthy to mention that, the γ-H2AX foci frequency quantified using microscopy showed a dose dependent increase up to 2 Gy and the relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) measured with flow cytometry revealed an increase up to 5 Gy in the PBL exposed in vitro. Moreover, a better correlation was observed between the γ-H2AX foci frequency obtained by manual scoring and RFI (r(2) = 0.910). Kinetic studies showed that the γ-H2AX foci remain more or less unchanged up to 4 hrs and reduces gradually over 48 hrs of postexposure at 37°C. Further, inter and intra-laboratory comparisons showed consistency in the scoring of γ-H2AX foci frequency by manual and semiautomated scoring. The overall results suggest that measurement of γ-H2AX (microscopy and flow cytometry) should be employed within 4 to 6 hrs for a reliable dosimetry either by sharing the work load between the laboratories or investing more manpower; however, triage can be possible even up

  11. Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Versus the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Suo-Zhou; Di, Jun; Shen, Yong

    2017-06-02

    BACKGROUND Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an established treatment for degenerative disease of the cervical disc, but adjacent segment degeneration or instability may develop long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF compared with the use of the Bryan artificial disc for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective comparative study included 93 patients who underwent ACDF or CDA with the Bryan artificial cervical disc between 2002 and 2004, and who had more than eight years of follow-up. There were 29 cases in the CDA group and 39 cases in ACDF group, with a follow-up rate of 73.12%. Clinical results and imaging data were assessed before and after surgery. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the two groups in radiographic parameters at each follow-up time point. There were 19 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (48.72%) in the ACDF group, and 13 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (44.83%) in the CDA group, with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Univariate analysis showed that advanced age (OR 1.271, 95% CI 1.005-1.607), low preoperative overall lordosis (OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786-0.936) and low preoperative segmental lordosis (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.086-1.193) were significantly correlated with adjacent segment degeneration. CONCLUSIONS Equally good clinical outcomes were achieved with both the ACDF and the Bryan CDA. Increasing patient age was associated with adjacent segment degeneration in both patient groups.

  12. Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Versus the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Suo-Zhou; Di, Jun; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an established treatment for degenerative disease of the cervical disc, but adjacent segment degeneration or instability may develop long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF compared with the use of the Bryan artificial disc for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Material/Methods A prospective comparative study included 93 patients who underwent ACDF or CDA with the Bryan artificial cervical disc between 2002 and 2004, and who had more than eight years of follow-up. There were 29 cases in the CDA group and 39 cases in ACDF group, with a follow-up rate of 73.12%. Clinical results and imaging data were assessed before and after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in radiographic parameters at each follow-up time point. There were 19 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (48.72%) in the ACDF group, and 13 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (44.83%) in the CDA group, with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Univariate analysis showed that advanced age (OR 1.271, 95% CI 1.005–1.607), low preoperative overall lordosis (OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786–0.936) and low preoperative segmental lordosis (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.086–1.193) were significantly correlated with adjacent segment degeneration. Conclusions Equally good clinical outcomes were achieved with both the ACDF and the Bryan CDA. Increasing patient age was associated with adjacent segment degeneration in both patient groups. PMID:28574978

  13. Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.

    2010-08-01

    A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.

  14. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Clinical characteristics and reoperation of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration postoperation of lumbar fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao-lin; Li, Chun-de; Liu, Xian-yi; Yi, Xiao-dong; Liu, Hong; Lu, Hai-lin; Li, Hong; Yu, Zheng-rong; Zhao, Shuo

    2012-12-18

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and reoperation of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration postoperation of lumbar fusion. In the study, 28 cases of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration postoperation of lumbar fusion from May 2007 to April 2012 were retrospectively reviewed,with an average age of (64.3±8.7) years. The mean period between reoperation and primary fusion surgery was (47.5±30.8) months. Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration located in cephalic segments in 12 cases, in caudal segments in 14 cases and in both segments in 2 cases. Of all the 28 patients, 12 suffered from lumbar stenosis, other 13 from lumbar disc herniation and still other 3 from both lumbar stenosis and disc herniation, of whom 11 were together with segment instability. Localization diagnoses of 19 cases were clear and other 9 received diagnostic nerve root block. The cases were divided into two groups by the type of reoperation,of which 8 cases were in adjacent degenerative segment nonfusion group and the other 20 cases in adjacent degenerative segment fusion group. The clinical results were assessed by lumbar pain visual analog score (VAS) and lower limber pain VAS,lumbar Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Prolo functional score before operation and in the final follow-up. In adjacent degenerative segment nonfusion group, the average operation time was (86.3±17.1) min and average blood volume was (125.0 ±37.8) mL of reoperation and 1 case with dural injury; and in adjacent degenerative segment fusion group, the average operation time was (201.6 ±71.0) min and average blood volume was (313.6±218.9) mL of revision surgery and 4 cases with dural injury. The average follow-up period was 25.5 months. In the final follow-up,lumbar pain VAS,lower limber pain VAS,lumbar JOA score and Prolo functional score of adjacent degenerative segment nonfusion group were 2.4±1.2, 2.8±1.4,23.5±4.2 and 8.2±1.5,which were better than preoperation 5.5±2.9, 6.8±2

  16. The study of trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in two human African trypanosomiasis foci of Côte d'Ivoire identifies pigs and cattle as potential reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’Djetchi, Martial Kassi; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Koffi, Mathurin; Kaboré, Jacques; Kaboré, Justin Windingoudi; Kaba, Dramane; Courtin, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Fauret, Pierre; Kouakou, Lingué; Ravel, Sophie; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry; Bucheton, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background Important control efforts have led to a significant reduction of the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Côte d’Ivoire, but the disease is still present in several foci. The existence of an animal reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense may explain disease persistence in these foci where animal breeding is an important source of income but where the prevalence of animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in both Bonon and Sinfra HAT endemic foci. Methodology/Principal findings 552 domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle and sheep) were included. Blood samples were tested for trypanosomes by microscopic observation, species-specific PCR for T. brucei sl, T. congolense, T. vivax and subspecies-specific PCR for T. b. gambiense and T. b. gambiense immune trypanolysis (TL). Infection rates varied significantly between animal species and were by far the highest in pigs (30%). T. brucei s.l was the most prevalent trypanosome species (13.7%) followed by T. congolense. No T. b. gambiense was identified by PCR while high TL positivity rates were observed using T. b. gambiense specific variants (up to 27.6% for pigs in the Bonon focus). Conclusion This study shows that domestic animals are highly infected by trypanosomes in the studied foci. This was particularly true for pigs, possibly due to a higher exposure of these animals to tsetse flies. Whereas T. brucei s.l. was the most prevalent species, discordant results were obtained between PCR and TL regarding T. b. gambiense identification. It is therefore crucial to develop better tools to study the epidemiological role of potential animal reservoir for T. b. gambiense. Our study illustrates the importance of “one health” approaches to reach HAT elimination and contribute to AAT control in the studied foci. PMID:29045405

  17. The study of trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in two human African trypanosomiasis foci of Côte d'Ivoire identifies pigs and cattle as potential reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djetchi, Martial Kassi; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Koffi, Mathurin; Kaboré, Jacques; Kaboré, Justin Windingoudi; Kaba, Dramane; Courtin, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Fauret, Pierre; Kouakou, Lingué; Ravel, Sophie; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Important control efforts have led to a significant reduction of the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Côte d'Ivoire, but the disease is still present in several foci. The existence of an animal reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense may explain disease persistence in these foci where animal breeding is an important source of income but where the prevalence of animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in both Bonon and Sinfra HAT endemic foci. 552 domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle and sheep) were included. Blood samples were tested for trypanosomes by microscopic observation, species-specific PCR for T. brucei sl, T. congolense, T. vivax and subspecies-specific PCR for T. b. gambiense and T. b. gambiense immune trypanolysis (TL). Infection rates varied significantly between animal species and were by far the highest in pigs (30%). T. brucei s.l was the most prevalent trypanosome species (13.7%) followed by T. congolense. No T. b. gambiense was identified by PCR while high TL positivity rates were observed using T. b. gambiense specific variants (up to 27.6% for pigs in the Bonon focus). This study shows that domestic animals are highly infected by trypanosomes in the studied foci. This was particularly true for pigs, possibly due to a higher exposure of these animals to tsetse flies. Whereas T. brucei s.l. was the most prevalent species, discordant results were obtained between PCR and TL regarding T. b. gambiense identification. It is therefore crucial to develop better tools to study the epidemiological role of potential animal reservoir for T. b. gambiense. Our study illustrates the importance of "one health" approaches to reach HAT elimination and contribute to AAT control in the studied foci.

  18. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  19. Species composition of sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic foci, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, Samia; Kahime, Kholoud; Samy, Abdallah M; Salem, Abdelkrim Ben; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-02-02

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in Morocco. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the main culprits identified in all endemic foci across the country. These two etiological agents are transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, the two most prevalent sand fly species in Morocco. Previous studies reflected gaps of knowledge regarding the environmental fingerprints that affect the distribution of these two potential vectors across Morocco. The sand flies were collected from 48 districts across Morocco using sticky paper traps. Collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol for further processing and identification. Male and female densities were calculated in each site to examine their relations to the environmental conditions across these sites. The study used 19 environmental variables including precipitation, aridity, elevation, soil variables and a composite representing maximum, minimum and mean of day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A total of 11,717 specimens were collected during this entomological survey. These specimens represented 11 species of two genera; Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Correlations of the sand fly densities with the environmental variables were estimated to identify the variables which influence the distribution of the two potential vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, associated with all CL endemic foci across the country. The density of P. papatasi was most affected by temperature changes. The study showed a significant positive correlation between the densities of both sexes of P. papatasi and night-time temperatures. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti showed a negative correlation with aridity, but, such correlation was only significant in case of P. papatasi. NDVI showed a positive correlation only with densities of P. sergenti, while, soil PH and soil water stress were negatively correlated with the

  20. Biomechanical effect of interspinous dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion on range of motion of the transition segment and the adjacent segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chao; Lu, Shibao; Hai, Yong; Zang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous biomechanical studies have been carried out on dynamic stabilizers, there is very little information on their hybrid application, especially when combined interspinous dynamic stabilization with single-level fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the biomechanical effect of interspinous dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion on range of motion of the transition segment and the adjacent segment. Six fresh lumbosacral spines (L2-S1) were tested in the following sequence: 1) intact (Construct A); 2) fusion in L5/S1 and intact in L4/5 (Construct B); 3) fusion in L5/S1 and unstable state in L4/5 (Construct C); 4) fusion in L5/S1 and Coflex in L4/5 (Construct D). Range of motion (at L3/4 and L4/5) was recorded and calculated. Range of motion in L3/4 in the four constructs showed no difference under all motion states. Under flexion/extension, the range of motion of L4/5 in Construct B and Construct C increased, while the range of motion of L4/5 in Construct D decreased compared with Construct A. Compared with Construct D, the range of motion of L4/5 in Constructs B and C showed a significant increase. Under lateral bending and axial rotation, Construct A showed similar range of motion of L3/4 compared with other constructs. Fusion combined with Coflex is able to stabilize the transition segment and restrict flexion and extension in that segment, while having no significant effect on the range of motion of the adjacent segment or the range of motion of the transition segment under lateral bending and axial rotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  2. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  3. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The expected adjacency and modularity matrices in the degree corrected stochastic block model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasino Dario

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices that can be written as the Hadamard product of a block partitioned matrix with constant blocks and a rank one matrix. Such matrices arise as the expected adjacency or modularity matrices in certain random graph models that are widely used as benchmarks for community detection algorithms.

  5. Regional Spectral Model simulations of the summertime regional climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Teng Lee; Ming-Chin Wu; Shyh-Chin Chen

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional spectral model (RSM) version 97 was used to investigate the regional summertime climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas for June-July-August of 1990 through 2000. The simulated sea-level-pressure and wind fields of RSM1 with 50-km grid space are similar to the reanalysis, but the strength of the...

  6. Preliminary assessment of illegal hunting by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using

  7. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  8. Health and function assessments in two adjacent Danish birth cohorts of centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from measures of functional ability, cognitive and physical performance from two adjacent birth cohorts of 100-year-old adults, we aimed to elucidate the possible impact of difference in participation rates, design, and interviewer mode. Participants were birth cohort members born...... in DK-1910 (66.9 % (273/408)) (p home was significantly lower (44 vs. 54 %, respectively). Higher...

  9. The costs of living with elephants in the areas adjacent to Marsabit National Park and Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, S.M.; Omondi, P.

    2008-01-01

    Crop raiding by elephants is a serious management problem around protected areas in Kenya. This is because of changes in the land use systems in these areas, with crop farming occurring in areas where it did not previously. Crop raiding by elephants was monitored in the area adjacent to Marsabit

  10. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  11. International comparison calculations for a BWR lattice with adjacent gadolinium pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, C.; Wydler, P.

    1984-09-01

    The results of burnup calculations for a simplified BWR fuel element with two adjacent gadolinium rods are presented and discussed. Ten complete solutions were contributed by Denmark, France, Italy (3), Japan (3), Switzerland and the UK. Partial results obtained from Poland and the USA are included in an Appendix. (Auth.)

  12. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. * * * * * (b) * * * (1) * * * (v... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Corps... Zones for Marine Corps Operations AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Final rule...

  13. Post-frontier forest change adjacent to Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa

    2006-01-01

    Effective biodiversity conservation in national parks depends to a large extent on adjacent forest cover. While deforestation and forest fragmentation as a result of colonization and agriculture have been widespread in neotropical countries over the past few decades, in some places agricultural intensification, wage labor, and rural to urban migration are becoming the...

  14. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  15. 76 FR 74585 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... workplace safety to further reduce the risk of serious injury or death to roadway workers performing work... impression that adjacent-track on-track safety was in effect, but it was not, due to a miscommunication. Of... suffer preventable serious injuries and death. The petitioners asserted that FRA should require railroads...

  16. Stem and leaf hydraulics of congeneric tree species from adjacent tropical savanna and forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang You Hao; William A. Hoffmann; Fabian G. Scholz; Sandra J. Bucci; Frederick C. Meinzer; Augusto C. Franco; Kun Fang Cao; Guillermo Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    Leaf and stem functional traits related to plant water relations were studied for six congeneric species pairs, each composed of one tree species typical of savanna habitats and another typical of adjacent forest habitats, to determine whether there were intrinsic differences in plant hydraulics between these two functional types. Only individuals growing in savanna...

  17. Species richness and distribution of chondrichthyan fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynghammar, A.; Christiansen, J. S.; Mecklenburg, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The sea ice cover decreases and human activity increases in Arctic waters. Fisheries and bycatch issues, shipping and petroleum exploitation (pollution issues) make it imperative to establish biological baselines for the marine fishes inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS). Species...

  18. Non-adjacent dependency learning in infants at familial risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.; de Bree, E.; de Klerk, M.; Wijnen, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder

  19. Can posterior dynamic stabilization reduce the risk of adjacent segment deterioration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Jie; Xia, Ping; Zhao, Xing; Fang, Xiang-Qian; Zhao, Feng-Dong; Fan, Shun-Wu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the relevant literature to develop a benchmark for the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDis) following the posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) procedure and to investigate whether conclusions can be made with regard to the isolated PDS procedure in reducing the risk of ASDeg and ASDis compared with fusion, and with regard to the role of additional PDS devices implanted adjacent to fusion in protecting from ASDeg and ASDis caused by the neighboring fusion. We retrieved electronic databases of Medline, Ovid and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, combined with a supplemental hand search. Thirty-one articles met our inclusion criteria. The pooled incidence of ASDeg and ASDis following PDS procedure was 16.4% and 5.5% respectively. Data from comparative studies showed a significantly lower incidence of ASDeg and nonsignificantly lower incidence of ASDis following PDS than following fusion surgery. Further, the additional PDS devices implanted adjacent to fusion could significantly reduce the risk of ASDeg and nonsignificantly decrease that of ASDis caused by fusion. These results suggested relative success of the PDS procedure in protecting against ASDeg and ASDis.

  20. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture adjacent to lumbar instrumented circumferential fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Hung-Shu; Kao, Yu-Hsien; Ma, Ching-Hou; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Chung, Kao-Chi

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty for patients with symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures adjacent to lumbar instrumented circumferential fusion. Between January 2005 and June 2010, eighteen patients in the authors' institution with lumbar instrumented circumferential fusion had adjacent symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The patients received percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate bone cement augmentation. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were used. The visual analog pain scale and modified Brodsky's criteria were used to compare clinical outcomes pre- and postoperatively. Minimum follow-up was 18 months. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan confirmed osteoporosis in all patients. The average interval between fusion surgery and sustaining osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was 24.8 months. The average interval between sustaining osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty was 49.3 days. One-level percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed in 13 patients, and 2 levels were performed in 5 patients. The patients' visual analog pain scale scores improved by an average of 53 points postoperatively. Fifteen patients returned to preinjury activities of daily living. The average restoration of the fractured vertebral body height was 12.1%. No major surgery-related complications, occurred except asymptomatic cement leakage in 3 patients. Elderly patients undergoing lumbar instrumented fusion surgery should be aware of the possibility of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive and effective procedure to treat such adjacent segment disease. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. An annotated checklist of Dolichopodidae (Diptera of Israel and adjacent territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist of the Dolichopodidae of Israel and adjacent territories (Golan Heights and West Bank is presented. A total of 108 species belonging to 34 genera are listed alphabetically. The references, type locality and general distribution are provided for each species.

  2. Distribution of molecular markers in sporadic colorectal cancer, adjacent and distant mucosa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frič, P.; Sovová, Vlasta; Roth, Z.; Šloncová, Eva; Kocna, P.; Jirásek, A.; Čermák, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2004), s. 62-71 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205; GA MZd IZ4217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : colorectal cancer * molecular markers * adjacent and distant mucosa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Ten-year survival rates of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, S A; Shugars, D A; Bader, J D; White, B A

    2001-05-01

    Failure to replace a single missing posterior tooth may lead to a variety of dental problems, which may ultimately result in tooth loss. However, little is known about the fate of the adjacent teeth if a missing posterior tooth is not replaced. This retrospective study evaluated the survival of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces. Data were obtained from electronic treatment records from the Kaiser Permanente Dental Care Program, Portland, Ore. A final sample of 317 patients who met the study inclusion criteria was identified. Each bounded edentulous space was placed in 1 of 3 treatment categories: untreated, restored with a fixed partial denture, or restored with a removable partial denture. Subsequent treatment and the status of the teeth adjacent to the bounded edentulous space were followed through December 1999. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each treatment group, and differences in survival were evaluated with the log-rank chi-square test (alpha=.05). There was a significant difference in survival among the 3 treatment categories (P=.005). Spaces restored with a fixed partial denture had longer 10-year survival estimates (92%) than those that remained untreated (81%). Spaces restored with a removable partial denture had the poorest 10-year survival rate (56%). Under the conditions and selection bias associated with this retrospective study, the survival of teeth adjacent to a single posterior edentulous space was negatively associated with removable partial denture placement compared with no treatment or the use of a fixed partial denture.

  4. The Ribosomal RNA Genes on Neurospora crassa Mitochrondrial DNA Are Adjacent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, P.; Holtrop, M.

    1977-01-01

    Hybridization of separated 24 S and 17 S ribosomal RNA from Neurospora crassa mitochondrial ribosomes to restriction fragments of mitochondrial DNA leads to the conclusion that the large and small ribosomal RNA are adjacent on the restriction endonuclease cleavage map of the DNA. The distance

  5. Prognostic Value of Lordosis Decrease in Radiographic Adjacent Segment Pathology After Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Li, Na; Wei, Wei; Deng, Jing; Hu, Yuequn; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-31

    While cervical lordosis alteration is not uncommon after anterior cervical arthrodesis, its influence on radiological adjacent segment pathology (RASP) is still unclear. Biomechanical changes induced by arthrodesis may contribute to ASP onset. To investigate the correlation between cervical lordosis decrease and RASP onset after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) and to determine its biomechanical effect on adjacent segments after surgery, 80 CSM patients treated with ACCF were retrospectively studied, and a baseline finite element model of the cervical spine as well as post-operation models with normal and decreased lordosis were established and validated. We found that post-operative lordosis decrease was prognostic in predicting RASP onset, with the hazard ratio of 0.45. In the FE models, ROM at the adjacent segment increased after surgery, and the increase was greater in the model with decreased lordosis. Thus, post-operative cervical lordosis change significantly correlated with RASP occurrence, and it may be of prognostic value. The biomechanical changes induced by lordosis change at the adjacent segments after corpectomy may be one of the mechanisms for this phenomenon. Restoring a well lordotic cervical spine after corpectomy may reduce RASP occurrence and be beneficial to long-term surgical outcomes.

  6. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  7. Tourist preferences for ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park: A choice experiment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Selomane, A.O.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism

  8. Effects of ecological compensation meadows on arthropod diversity in adjacent intensively managed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Obrist, M.K.; Müller, C.; Schüpbach, B.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of ecological compensation areas (ECAs) is to increase biodiversity in adjacent intensively managed farmland and the agricultural landscape at large. We tested whether this goal can be achieved in the case of the agri-environmental restoration scheme implemented for Swiss grassland

  9. Temperature and Soil Moisture Regimes In and Adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry T. Crews; Linton Wright

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevation, aspect, ambient air temperature, and soil moisture on soil temperature were examined in and adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to determine the extent of frigid soils. The mean annual temperature of frigid soils ranges from 1? to 7?C at a depth of 50 cm; the difference between mean winter and mean summer temperatures...

  10. Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations and to find a reliable method to design and monitor deep excavations in urban areas with soft soil conditions. The research focuses on typical Dutch conditions. The

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  12. Description of major vegetation categories in and adjacent to the Fynbos biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moll, EJ

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available A scheme of major categories of the vegetation in and adjacent to the fynbos biome is given as a second approximation after Acocks1 Veld Types (1953). A four tier hierarchy is presented with nineteen categories of vegetation. The major subdivisions...

  13. Load rate of facet joints at the adjacent segment increased after fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-04-20

    The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  14. The Interspinous Spacer: A New Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Concept for Prevention of Adjacent Segment Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nachanakian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior Dynamic stabilization using the interspinous spacer device is a known to be used as an alternative to rigid fusion in neurogenic claudication patients in the absence of macro instability. Actually, it plays an important in the management of adjacent segment disease in previously fused lumbar spine. Materials and Method. We report our experience with posterior dynamic stabilization using an interspinous spacer. 134 cases performed in our institution between September 2008 and August 2012 with different lumbar spine pathologies. The ages of our patients were between 40 and 72 years, with a mean age of 57 years. After almost 4 years of follow up in our patient and comparing their outcome to our previous serious we found that in some case the interspinous distracter has an important role not only in the treatment of adjacent segment disease but also in its prevention. Results and Discussion. Clinical improvement was noted in ISD-treated patients, with high satisfaction rate. At first, radicular pain improves with more than 3/10 reduction of the mean score on visual analog scale (VAS. In addition, disability score as well as disc height and lordotic angle showed major improvement at 3 to 6 months post operatively. And, no adjacent segment disease was reported in the patient operated with interspinous spacer. Conclusion. The interspinous spacer is safe and efficient modality to be used not only as a treatment of adjacent segment disease but also as a preventive measure in patients necessitating rigid fusion.

  15. Gleaning Structure from Sound: The Role of Prosodic Contrast in Learning Non-Adjacent Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Ileana C.; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Wijnen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. between "a" and "b" in "aXb") in spoken input may support the acquisition of morpho-syntactic dependencies (e.g. "The princess 'is' kiss'ing' the frog"). Functional morphemes in morpho-syntactic dependencies are often marked by perceptual cues that render…

  16. TP53 mutations in clinically normal mucosa adjacent to oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, C; Bilde, A; Von Buchwald, C

    2010-01-01

    products were separated by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis. Fragments with a deviant DGEE pattern were sequenced. RESULTS: TP53 mutations were found in six of 18 tumours. Fourteen specimens contained histologically normal mucosa adjacent to the tumour; 13 of these showed small clusters of p53...

  17. Validating an Algorithm to Predict Adjacent Musculoskeletal Infections in Pediatric Patients With Septic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Benjamin D; Haruno, Lee S; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2018-01-01

    Septic arthritis is frequently associated with adjacent infections including osteomyelitis and subperiosteal and intramuscular abscesses. While often clinically indiscernible from isolated septic arthritis, the diagnosis of adjacent infections is important in determining the need for additional surgical intervention. MRI has been used as the diagnostic gold standard for assessing adjacent infection. Routine MRI, however, can be resource-intensive and delay surgical treatment. In this context, there is need for additional diagnostic tools to assist clinicians in determining when to obtain preoperative MRI in children with septic arthritis. In a previous investigation by Rosenfeld et al., an algorithm, based on presenting laboratory values and symptoms, was derived to predict adjacent infections in septic arthritis. The clinical applicability of the algorithm was limited, however, in that it was built from and applied on the same population. The current study was done to address this criticism by evaluating the predictive power of the algorithm on a new patient population. (1) Can a previously created algorithm used for predicting adjacent infection in septic arthritis among pediatric patients be validated in a separate population? Records for all pediatric patients (1-18 years old) surgically treated for suspected septic arthritis during a 3-year period were retrospectively reviewed (109 patients). Of these patients, only those with a diagnosis of septic arthritis confirmed by synovial fluid analysis were included in the study population. Patients without confirmation of septic arthritis via synovial fluid analysis, Gram stain, or culture were excluded (34 patients). Patients with absence of MRI, younger than 1 year, insufficient laboratory tests, or confounding concurrent illnesses also were excluded (18 patients), resulting in a total of 57 patients in the study population. Five variables which previously were shown to be associated with risk of adjacent infection

  18. Impacted maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent teeth: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, R; Cavallini, C; Vernucci, R; Vichi, M; Leonardi, R; Barbato, E

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of impacted maxillary canine is reported to be between 1% and 3%. The lack of monitoring and the delay in the treatment of the impacted canine can cause different complications such as: displacement of adjacent teeth, loss of vitality of neighbouring teeth, shortening of the dental arch, follicular cysts, canine ankylosis, recurrent infections, recurrent pain, internal resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, external resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, combination of these factors. An appropriate diagnosis, accurate predictive analysis and early intervention are likely to prevent such undesirable effects. The objective is to evaluate, by means of a retrospective observational study, the possibility of carrying out a predictive analysis of root resorption adjacent to the impacted canines by means of orthopantomographs, so as to limit the prescription of additional 3D radiography. 120 subjects with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canine were examined and 50 patients with 69 impacted maxillary canine (22 male, 28 female; mean age: 11.7 years) satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. These patients were subjected to a basic clinical and radiographic investigation (orthopantomographs and computerized tomography). All panoramic films were viewed under standardized conditions for the evaluation of two main variables: maxillary canine angulations (a, b, g angles) and the overlapping between the impacted teeth and the lateral incisor (Analysis of Lindauer). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of resorbed lateral incisors depending on sector location and angle measurements. Results indicated that b angle has the greatest influence on the prediction of root resorption (predictive value of b angle = 76%). If β angle <18° and Lindauer = I, the probability of resorption is 0.06. Evaluation of b angle and superimposition lateral incisor/impacted canine analysed on orthopantomographs could be one of

  19. Prognostic significance of the tumour-adjacent tissue in head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenska, Martina; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Gumulec, Jaromir; Fojtu, Michaela; Polanska, Hana; Balvan, Jan; Feith, Marek; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Even with significant advances in operative skills and adjuvant therapies, the overall survival of patients suffering with head and neck squamous cancers (HNSCC) is unsatisfactory. Accordingly, no clinically useful prognostic biomarkers have been found yet for HNSCC. Many studies analysed the expression of potential markers in tumour tissues compared to adjacent tissues. Nevertheless, due to the sharing of the same microenvironment, adjacent tissues show molecular similarity to tumour tissues. Thus, gene expression patterns of 94 HNSCC tumorous tissues were compared with 31 adjacent tissues and with 10 tonsillectomy specimens of non-cancer individuals. The genes analysed at RNA level using quantitative RT-PCR and correlated with clinico-pathological conditions were as follows: EGF, EGFR, MKI67, BCL2, BAX, FOS, JUN, TP53, VEGF, FLT1, MMP2, MMP9, MT1A and MT2A. The elevated MT2A, BAX, EGF and JUN expression was associated with the influence of tumour cells on the rearrangement of healthy tissues, as well as a significant shift in the BAX/BCL2 ratio. Our investigation also indicated that adjacent tissues play an important role in cancerogenesis by releasing several tumour-supporting factors such as EGF. A gradual increase in the metallothionein expression, from the lowest one in tonsillectomy samples to the highest ones in tumour samples, suggests that MT expression might be tissue reaction to the presence of tumour cells. The results of this study confirmed the significance of metallothionein in tumori-genesis and gave evidences for its use as a potential HNSCC biomarker. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of histologically normal tumour-adjacent tissue in prediction of HNSCC progress.

  20. Symptomatic adjacent segment pathology after posterior lumbar interbody fusion for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified significant risk factors for symptomatic ASP. We retrospectively studied records of 40 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan. The patients were followed for ≥ 4 years. Patients' medical records were retrospectively examined for evidence of symptomatic ASP. Age at time of surgery, sex, fusion level, whole lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, preexisting laminar inclination angle, and facet tropism at the cranial fusion segment were analyzed to identify risk factors for symptomatic ASP. Four patients (ASP group) developed symptomatic ASP at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fusion level, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, or facet tropism at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion between the ASP and the non-ASP groups. In contrast, laminar inclination angle at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was significantly higher in the ASP group than in the non-ASP group. Four patients (10%) developed symptomatic ASP after PLIF with transpedicular fixation for adult low-grade IS. Preexisting laminar horizontalization at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was a significant risk factor for symptomatic ASP.

  1. The Relationship Between Morphology of Lumbar Disc Herniation and MRI Changes in Adjacent Vertebral Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Hamed Reyhani; Keykhosravi, Ehsan; Mirkazemi, Masoud; Ehsaei, Mohammad R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intervertebral disc herniation has two common types, extrusion and protrusion, which may affect the adjacent vertebrae.In addition, it is associated with significant signal changes in T1 MRI (short TR/TE) and T2 MRI (long TR/TE). Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analytic one, in which sampling was performed retrospectively. Cases were randomly selected from the patients undergoing discectomy in our department in a one-year period. Before surgery, MRI images, T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal cuts were interpreted by an expert radiologist. Signal intensity of the upper and the lower adjacent vertebra and the operated herniated disc were compared with the normal discs, both in T1-weighted and T2-weighted. Changes in signal intensity were recorded in qualitative variables. Statistical analysis was then performed between two groups. Results: In the present study, we have evaluated 170 patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery, which included 97 protruded and 86 extruded discs. The patients’ age ranged from 21 to 78 years old, with an average of 43.03 ±11.4 years. Evaluating the type of discopathy with the presence of signal changes (hypo or hyper signal changes) demonstrated more signal changes in upper adjacent vertebrae in T2-weighted MRI (45.3%). However, patients with protruded discs showed less changes (30.9%). It showed that the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Extruded discs are associated with increased signal in T1-weighted MRI (short TR/TE) in the upper adjacent vertebrae. Signal changes in T2-weighted MRI (long TR/TE) in upper adjacent vertebrae are significantly more common in extruded discs, in comparison with protruded discs. PMID:25207294

  2. Molecular Individual-Based Approach on Triatoma brasiliensis: Inferences on Triatomine Foci, Trypanosoma cruzi Natural Infection Prevalence, Parasite Diversity and Feeding Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Faucher, Leslie; Lavina, Morgane; Costa, Jane; Harry, Myriam

    2016-02-01

    We used an individual-based molecular multisource approach to assess the epidemiological importance of Triatoma brasiliensis collected in distinct sites and ecotopes in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. In the semi-arid zones of Brazil, this blood sucking bug is the most important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi--the parasite that causes Chagas disease. First, cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite markers were used for inferences on the genetic structure of five populations (108 bugs). Second, we determined the natural T. cruzi infection prevalence and parasite diversity in 126 bugs by amplifying a mini-exon gene from triatomine gut contents. Third, we identified the natural feeding sources of 60 T. brasiliensis by using the blood meal content via vertebrate cytb analysis. Demographic inferences based on cytb variation indicated expansion events in some sylvatic and domiciliary populations. Microsatellite results indicated gene flow between sylvatic and anthropic (domiciliary and peridomiciliary) populations, which threatens vector control efforts because sylvatic population are uncontrollable. A high natural T. cruzi infection prevalence (52-71%) and two parasite lineages were found for the sylvatic foci, in which 68% of bugs had fed on Kerodon rupestris (Rodentia: Caviidae), highlighting it as a potential reservoir. For peridomiciliary bugs, Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae) was the main mammal feeding source, which may reinforce previous concerns about the potential of this animal to link the sylvatic and domiciliary T. cruzi cycles.

  3. Aberrant crypt foci and AgNORs as putative biomarkers to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of pronyl-lysine in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Jayabal; Aranganathan, Selvaraj; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2008-12-01

    Chemoprevention opens new perspectives in the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases. Use of target-organ biological models at the histological and genetic levels can markedly facilitate the identification of potential chemopreventive agents. Our aim was to study the chemopreventive efficacy of pronyl-lysine, a key antioxidant present in bread crust by evaluating, the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), their distributions, dysplastic ACF, colonic tumor incidence and the expression of cell proliferation biomarker such as the argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region-associated proteins (AgNORs) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups, group 1 were control rats, group 2 received pronyl-lysine (2 mg/kg body weight p.o. everyday), rats in groups 3-7 were administered DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) in the groin for 15 weeks. In addition, group 4 (pre-initiation), 5 (initiation), 6 (post-initiation), and 7 (entire period) received pronyl-lysine (2 mg/kg body weight p.o) everyday. At the end of 34 weeks, pronyl-lysine supplementation showed markedly reduced tumor incidence, ACF development and also lowered number of AgNORs. Overall, these findings confirm that pronyl-lysine has a positive beneficial effect against chemically induced colonic preneoplastic progression in rats.

  4. Novel mucilage fraction of Sinapis alba L. (mustard) reduces azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 and Zucker obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, N A M; Raju, J; Bird, R P

    2007-08-01

    Seeds of Sinapis alba Linn. (commonly called yellow or white mustard) and their components have been reported to possess anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel mucilaginous fraction of mustard seeds in inhibiting colonic preneoplastic changes in animal models of sporadic and obesity-associated colon cancer. In two separate studies, male Sprague-Dawley or female Zucker obese rats, injected with azoxymethane (15 or 10 mg/kg body wt. once a week for 2 weeks, respectively), were fed AIN-93G diets with or without 5% mustard mucilage (MM) (w/w) for 8 weeks. Our aim was to measure the ability to modulate the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions of the colon. The data were classified into total numbers of ACF and large ACF (crypt multiplicity of 4 or more). We report here that 5% MM significantly (peffect on fasting plasma cholesterol or triglyceride levels. These results demonstrate the possible role of MM as a functional food against sporadic and obesity-associated colon cancer, and provide impetus to conduct research to understand the underlying mechanism(s) of action.

  5. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-08-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

  6. Synbiotic preparation with Lactic acid bacteria and inulin as a functional food: In vivo evaluation of microbial activities, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract Host microbiome and metabolome are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, one of the major health problems in developed countries. The pro and prebiotic supplementation helps to improve the host health. Inulin is one such prebiotic used for the enhancement of naïve probiotic bacterial population. This paper explains the impact of inulin (PRE extracted from Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Lactobacillus plantarum HII11 (PRO, and synbiotic (SYN; inulin + L. plantarum HII11 preparation on Azoxymethane mediated CC induced rat model with respect to changes in microbial load, microbial enzymes, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci. The results suggested that the PRE and SYN supplementation effectively reduced the selected pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli, microbial enzymes and increased the probiotic load. The intervention of SYN significantly reduced the colonic ACF in CC model. The study results revealed that the supplementation of SYN diet (inulin and L. plantarum HII11 protects the AOM-mediated colon cancer induced host.

  7. Evaluation of natural foci of Panstrongylus megistus in a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Panstrongylus megistus is commonly found in wild environments of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the network of refuges used by triatomine in a forest fragment of Porto Alegre and to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection, associated hosts and the epidemiological importance of both hosts and triatomines. Methods Techniques including the spool-and-line method and active searching (transects were used to identify natural foci. Results The food source for each triatomine was determined using the precipitin test, and the infection of marsupials was determined by xenodiagnosis. A total of 33 adults (domestic environment and 27 nymphs (wild environment of P. megistus were found in addition to 43 Didelphis albiventris specimens. The infection rates of triatomine adults, triatomine nymphs and opossums with T. cruzi I were 64%, 73% and 69%, respectively. Birds, rodents and opossums were the main resources used by triatomine. Conclusions This work presents the first characterization of a natural focus of P. megistus in Rio Grande do Sul. The natural characteristics of this focus and its implication in the transmission of T. cruzi are discussed.

  8. γH2AX/53BP1 foci as a potential pre-treatment marker of HNSCC tumors radiosensitivity - preliminary methodological study and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Horakova, Zuzana; Svobodova, Marketa; Masarik, Michal; Kopecna, Olga; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Depes, Daniel; Bacikova, Alena; Falkova, Iva; Binkova, Hana

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve patients' post-treatment quality of life, a shift from surgery to non-surgical (chemo)radio-treatment is recognized in head and neck oncology. However, about half of HNSCC tumors are resistant to irradiation and an efficient marker of individual tumor radiosensitivity is still missing. We analyzed whether various parameters of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair determined in vitro can predict, prior to clinical treatment initiation, the radiosensitivity of tumors. We compared formation and decrease of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 48 h after irradiating tumor cell primocultures with 2 Gy of γ-rays. To better understand complex tumor behavior, three different cell type primocultures - CD90-, CD90+, and a mixed culture of these cells - were isolated from 1 clinically radioresistant, 2 radiosensitive, and 4 undetermined HPV-HNSCC tumors and followed separately. While DSB repair was delayed and the number of persisting DSBs increased in the radiosensitive tumors, the results for the radioresistant tumor were similar to cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Hence, DSB repair kinetics/efficiency may correlate with clinical response to radiotherapy for a subset of HNSCC tumors but the size (and therefore practical relevance) of this subset remains to be determined. The same is true for contribution of different cell type primocultures to tumor radioresistance.

  9. Human herpesvirus 6B U19 protein is a PML-regulated transcriptional activator that localizes to nuclear foci in a PML-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) contains an IE-B domain spanning open reading frames U16/17-U19, based on homology with human cytomegalovirus. Here, the protein product, U19, of the HHV-6B U19 gene is identified as a 47 kDa transcriptional activator. HHV-6B infection or overexpression of U19...... transactivated the RANTES promoter. Mutational analysis of the promoter indicated that transactivation was not critically dependent on the promoter sites CRE, NF-kappaB, ISRE or NF-IL6. ND10 are nuclear substructures that are involved in several cellular regulatory pathways, including those controlling gene...... structure, U19 also localized to the centre of ND10. Knockdown of PML by small interfering RNA did not prevent U19 localization to ND10-like foci, but instead led to a fourfold increase in U19-induced transcription from the RANTES promoter. Generation of four truncated U19 proteins indicated that the N...

  10. Chemopreventive effect of myrtenal on bacterial enzyme activity and the development of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar Booupathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer remains as a serious health problem around the world despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Dietary fibers are considered to reduce the risk of colon cancer as they are converted to short chain fatty acids by the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the intestine, but imbalanced diet and high fat consumption may promote tumor formation at different sites, including the large bowel via increased bacterial enzymes activity. The present study was conducted to characterize the inhibitory action of myrtenal on bacterial enzymes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Experimental colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is histologically, morphologically, and anatomically similar to human colonic epithelial neoplasm. Discrete microscopic mucosal lesions such as ACF and malignant tumors function as important biomarkers in the diagnosis of colon cancer. Methylene blue staining was carried out to visualize the impact of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and myrtenal. Myrtenal-treated animals showed decreased levels of bacterial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and mucinase. Characteristic changes in the colon were noticed by inhibiting ACF formation in the colon. In conclusion, treatment with myrtenal provided altered pathophysiological condition in colon cancer-bearing animals with evidence of decreased crypt multiplicity and tumor progression.

  11. A Motor Imagery During Blind Action is Guided by the Same Foci of Attention as Actual Performance in a Sample Comprising Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Khalaf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that focussing on the goal of an action improves performance relative to focussing on the concrete motor behaviours. The current study tests whether blind action guided by imagery relies on the same foci of attention. Thirty female participants took part in an experiment. In each condition there were 20 trials, they were asked to close their eyes and draw a straight line between two landmarks on a graphics tablet. We instructed them, in three conditions, to focus on (1 mental imagery of the goal landmark (external focus of attention, (2 drawing a straight line with the fingers (internal focus, or (3 without a specific focus of attention (control. We tested to what extent these attention instructions affected drawing performance, in terms of both deviations of the participants’ lines from an ideal straight line, and the time it took to complete the line. The study revealed that the manipulation specifically affected the deviation measure and that an external focus of attention was better than an internal focus and the control condition. These findings reveal that that mental imagery during blind action relies on same processes as actual performance. These data give perceptual representations of a direct role in motor control. They will be related to current theories of action control (constrained action hypothesis, ideomotor theories, and dual task accounts.

  12. [Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbosacral fusion in spondylolisthesis: a retrospective radiological and clinical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencica, P; Chaloupka, R; Hladíková, J; Krbec, M

    2010-04-01

    Whereas the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) technique with pedicle screw fixation has shown satisfactory clinical results, solid fusion has been reported to accelerate degenerative changes at adjacent unfused levels, especially at the cranial level. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate a group of patients with adjacent segment disease (ASD) developed after 360-degrees lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis performed by PLIF with transpedicular fixation and posterolateral fusion (PLF).Radiographic examinations were focused on the origin or progression of degenerative changes at the adjacent segments after the operation, with statistical evaluation of some parameters. Clinical evaluations included back pain or neurologic symptomatology which emerged later in the post-operative period in patients with adjacent segment degeneration. The authors performed a retrospective analysis on a group of 91 patients (49 females, 42 males) with isthmic, degenerative or dysplastic spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level who had undergone the PLIF technique on L4/L5 or L5/S1 with transpedicular fixation surgery and PLF in the period from 1990 to 2001. Isthmic spondylolisthesis was observed in 70 patients, degenerative or dysplastic forms were found in 14 and 7 patients, respectively.The patients were operated on at 40.8 years on average, and were followed-up for an average of 6.1 years. Seven patients had isthmic, two had degenerative and one had dysplastic spondylolisthesis. The data for the patients with ASD were obtained retrospectively, based on radiographic examinations and clinical sequential follow-up examinations. The radiographs were analysed with regard to degeneration at the adjacent levels pre- operatively, immediately after surgery and at the time of the last follow-up visit. The origin or progression of L3-L4, L4-5 or L5-S1 segment degeneration was defined, as a condition giving rise to segmental instability (defined by White and Panjabi), significant

  13. Fusionless instrumentation in growing spine and adjacent segment problems: an experimental study in immature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilgor, Caglar; Demirkiran, H Gokhan; Aritan, Serdar; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Daglioglu, Kenan; Isikhan, Selen Yilmaz; Yazici, Muharrem

    2013-12-01

    Experimental study. To compare the effects of fusionless instrumentation (FI) and instrumented fusion (IF) on the adjacent segment in an immature pig model. Observations reveal proximal junctional kyphosis after FI. Possible reasons are stress concentration, repeated distractive forces, and/or soft tissue damage done in the index surgery. It was speculated that FI can decrease stressors to the junctional area by preserving the spinal mobility in some manner; however, this has not been proven to date. Thirteen piglets of 10- to 14-week age were used. FI and IF were performed on 7 and 3 piglets, respectively, and 3 piglets formed the control group. Control piglets did not undergo any surgical procedures. T11-L4 instrumentation, decortication, and grafting were applied to IF piglets. In FI groups, however, L1-L2 was left uninstrumented and unfused using T11-T12 and L3-L4 levels as anchors to the growing construct. A total of 4 lengthening procedures were performed: 1 in the index operation and 3 more, once in each lengthening procedure monthly, for 3 months. Four months after the index operations, all piglets were killed and the adjacent segment motion capabilities, disc, and facets were evaluated with radiographical, magnetic resonance imaging, biomechanical, and histological analyses. Comparison of proximal junctional Cobb angles of the postindex (mean: 21, range: 17-27) and presacrification (mean: 21, range: 11-31) radiographs in the FI group revealed no difference (P> 0.05). In magnetic resonance imaging, both surgical group proximal adjacent discs showed degeneration to some degree that was statistically indifferent (P = 0.903). Biomechanical evaluation revealed restriction of adjacent segment motion in all directions for both groups; however, this negative effect was significantly less in FI group (P < 0.01). Degeneration observed in histological evaluation in adjacent discs and facets of FI group was significantly lower (P = 0.00). In this quadruped straight

  14. Treatment of Osteomyelitis: A Case for Disruption of the Affected Adjacent Periosteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John W; Daly, Austin P; Foster, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the response of mandibular osteomyelitis treated by surgical decortication with disruption of the affected adjacent periosteum in concert with long-term targeted antibiotic therapy. The hypothesis is that, by removing the buccal cortical plate and disrupting the hypertrophically inflamed adjacent periosteum, the medullary bone will be brought in contact with bleeding tissue and circulating immunologic factors and antibiotics, which will promote definitive resolution. A retrospective review was conducted of 7 patient charts with associated radiographs from November 2010 to August 2016 treated by the first author at the University of Tennessee Medical Center (Knoxville, TN). Patients with chronic suppurative or nonsuppurative osteomyelitis of the mandible without condylar involvement or pathologic fracture were selected and treated with decortication with periosteal disruption in combination with long-term targeted antibiotic therapy. Seven patients (3 women and 4 men; mean age, 60 yr) underwent decortication with periosteal disruption of the affected area and received at least 6 weeks of targeted intravenous antibiotics. Computed tomography was performed preoperatively and a repeat study was performed after completion of antibiotics. In each case, post-treatment imaging showed definitive resolution after treatment with decortication in concert with disruption of the inflamed hypertrophic periosteum and intravenous antibiotics. Debridement of the infected cortical bone with restoration of the blood supply through disruption of the adjacent periosteum provided definitive resolution of mandibular osteomyelitis in the 7 patients treated. The hypothesis is that disruption of the affected adjacent periosteum reintroduces an immune-mediated response in concert with improved antibiotic delivery to and penetrance of the diseased mandible, aiding in definitive resolution. Decortication with periosteal disruption allows for preservation of the inferior alveolar

  15. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    Several risk factors and causes of adjacent segment disease have been debated; however, no quantitative relationship to spino-pelvic parameters has been established so far. A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate spino-pelvic alignment in patients with adjacent segment disease compared to a control group. 45 patients (ASDis) were identified that underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease after on average 49 months (7-125), 39 patients were selected as control group (CTRL) similar in the distribution of the matching variables, such as age, gender, preoperative degenerative changes, and numbers of segments fused with a mean follow-up of 84 months (61-142) (total n = 84). Several radiographic parameters were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs, including lumbar lordosis measured (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence (PI), and tilt. Significant differences between ASDis and CTRL groups on preoperative radiographs were seen for PI (60.9 ± 10.0° vs. 51.7 ± 10.4°, p = 0.001) and LL (48.1 ± 12.5° vs. 53.8 ± 10.8°, p = 0.012). Pelvic incidence was put into relation to lumbar lordosis by calculating the difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (∆PILL = PI-LL, ASDis 12.5 ± 16.7° vs. CTRL 3.4 ± 12.1°, p = 0.001). A cutoff value of 9.8° was determined by logistic regression and ROC analysis and patients classified into a type A (∆PILL adjacent segment disease, whereas 78.3 % of patients classified as type B alignment had revision surgery. Classification of patients into type A and B alignments yields a sensitivity for predicting adjacent segment disease of 71 %, a specificity of 81 % and an odds ratio of 10.6. In degenerative disease of the lumbar spine a high pelvic incidence with diminished lumbar lordosis seems to predispose to adjacent segment disease. Patients with such pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch exhibit a 10-times higher risk for undergoing revision surgery than controls if

  16. Biomechanical study on the effect of cervical spine fusion on adjacent-level intradiscal pressure and segmental motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jason C; Humphreys, S Craig; Lim, Tae-Hong; Jeong, Soon Tack; Kim, Jesse G; Hodges, Scott D; An, Howard S

    2002-11-15

    A biomechanical study was performed using cadaveric cervical spine specimens. To determine the effect of cervical spine fusion on adjacent-level intradiscal pressure. Clinical studies have reported that patients with spinal fusion are at greater risk of pathology and early disc degeneration at adjacent levels. It is hypothesized that eliminating motion at one level leads to hypermobility and increased forces at adjacent levels, thus increasing the rate of disc degeneration. Six cadaveric cervical spine specimens were tested. Specimens were stabilized at T1 and loaded at C3 to 20 degrees of flexion and 15 degrees of extension. Intradiscal pressures and segmental motion at C4-C5 and C6-C7 were recorded first on intact specimens, and then after anterior cervical plating at C5-C6. Changes in intradiscal pressure and segmental motion were calculated and statistically analyzed using a paired Student t test. Intradiscal pressures were significantly increased during flexion at both adjacent levels. The pressure increased by 73.2% at C4-C5 (P = 0.002), and by 45.3% at C6-C7 (P = 0.006). Intradiscal pressures increased at both adjacent levels during extension, but not significantly. During flexion, segmental motion increased at both adjacent levels, with greater increases at C4-C5. During extension, segmental motion increased at both adjacent levels, with greater increases at C6-C7. Clinical studies have reported increased rates of disc degeneration at levels adjacent to fusion. It is believed that eliminating motion through fusion shifts the load to the adjacent levels, causing earlier disc degeneration. This study has shown that significant increases in intradiscal pressure and segmental motion occur at levels adjacent to fusion during normal range of motion. These results may partially explain the mechanism of early disc degeneration at levels adjacent to cervical spine fusion.

  17. Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information

  18. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Q Souki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction.

  19. Prose and Poetry Classification and Boundary Detection Using Word Adjacency Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Ranzivelle Marianne; Tapang, Giovanni

    Word adjacency networks constructed from written works reflect differences in the structure of prose and poetry. We present a method to disambiguate prose and poetry by analyzing network parameters of word adjacency networks, such as the clustering coefficient, average path length and average degree. We determine the relevant parameters for disambiguation using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the effect size criterion. The accuracy of the method is 74.9 ± 2.9% for the training set and 73.7 ± 6.4% for the test set which are greater than the acceptable classifier requirement of 67.3%. This approach is also useful in locating text boundaries within a single article which falls within a window size where the significant change in clustering coefficient is observed. Results indicate that an optimal window size of 75 words can detect the text boundaries.

  20. Marginal tissue response adjacent to Astra Dental Implants supporting overdentures in the mandible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Holm, B; Sewerin, I

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal tissue response adjacent to implant supported overdentures. Twenty edentulous patients had 2 Astra Dental Implants placed in the canine region of the lower jaw. New overdentures were retained by individual ball attachments in 11 patients...... and by a bar attachment in 9 patients. Periodontal registrations were recorded 0 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after the overdentures were inserted. One of the 40 fixtures was lost at the stage of abutment connection. No fixtures were lost during the 2- to 4-year observation period and no fixtures...... showed any periodontal signs of failure. At the 2-year examination, no pocket depths adjacent to the implants exceeded 4 mm and no bone loss exceeded 3 mm. The mean annual bone loss was less than 0.2 mm during the first 2 years. The preliminary results from this limited study were promising and showed...

  1. Marginal tissue response adjacent to Astra Dental Implants supporting overdentures in the mandible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Holm, B; Sewerin, I

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal tissue response adjacent to implant supported overdentures. Twenty edentulous patients had 2 Astra Dental Implants placed in the canine region of the lower jaw. New overdentures were retained by individual ball attachments in 11 patients...... that two osseointegrated Astra Dental Implants could successfully retain an overdenture in the lower jaw. However, long-term observation is needed for a definitive evaluation of this treatment concept....... showed any periodontal signs of failure. At the 2-year examination, no pocket depths adjacent to the implants exceeded 4 mm and no bone loss exceeded 3 mm. The mean annual bone loss was less than 0.2 mm during the first 2 years. The preliminary results from this limited study were promising and showed...

  2. The dynamics of innovation through the expansion in the adjacent possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tria, F.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of something new is part of our daily life. At different scales, innovation is also a crucial feature of many biological, technological and social systems. Recently, large databases witnessing human activities allowed the observation that novelties —such as the individual process of listening a song for the first time— and innovation processes —such as the fixation of new genes in a population of bacteria— share striking statistical regularities. We here indicate the expansion into the adjacent possible as a very general and powerful mechanism able to explain such regularities. Further, we will identify statistical signatures of the presence of the expansion into the adjacent possible in the analyzed datasets, and we will show that our modeling scheme is able to predict remarkably well these observations.

  3. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  4. Flexible Connection Elastomeric Rubber as a Pounding Resisting Element between Two Adjacent Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuskar Lase

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve pounding problem of two adjacent buildings, structural designer usually employs a dilatation between the structures or make the two structures as a monolith structure. Other alternative is by using an elastomeric rubber as a pounding resisting element between the two structures. Effectiveness in applying elastomeric rubber component as flexible connection of two adjacent structures is the main focus of this paper. Various simulations such as structure models, earthquake excitations and openings in gap element are studied. Observation of maximum structural responses will be performed for structure model with elastomeric rubber in comparison with (1 monolith structure model and (2 structure model with rigid element (steel element. Simulation results show that application of elastomeric rubber component to prevent structures from pounding problem provides advantages especially in reducing internal forces in the shorter building. However, it slightly increases displacement of both structures.

  5. Ligamentum Flavum Hematoma in the Adjacent Segment after a long Level Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Lee, Sung Myung; Shin, Ho

    2011-01-01

    Ligamentum flavum hematoma (LFH) is a very rare condition of dural compression; most are observed in the mobile cervical and lumbar spine regions. A 67-year-old man who had a long level interbody fusion at L3-S1 four years ago presented with symptoms suggestive of dural compression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a posterior semicircular mass located at the adjacent L2-L3 level. After decompression of the spinal canal and removal of the mass lesion, pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma within the ligamentum. The patient fully recovered to normal status after surgery. Here, we report our experience with a LFH in the adjacent segment after a long level fusion procedure and discuss the possible associated mechanisms. PMID:21494365

  6. Cortical bone trajectory screws fixation in lumbar adjacent segment disease: A technique note with case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Huang, Hsieng-Ming; Chen, Der-Cherng; Wu, Chih-Ying; Lee, Han-Chun; Cho, Der-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Lumbar adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion surgery often requires surgical intervention. However, subsequent surgical treatment often needs to expose and remove all of the previous instruments. This additional surgery leads to significant post-operative pain, muscular fibrosis, poor wound healing and infection, etc. From October 2015 to March 2016, we collected six cases underwent cortical bone trajectory screws fixation with minimal invasive inter-body cage fusion for lumbar adjacent segment disease. Patients in the study all had improvement after surgery without recurrence or instruments failure during follow-up. The technique negates removal of pre-existing instruments and when combined with minimal invasive fusion surgery, the wound length, blood loss and soft tissue damage could be reduced compared with traditional surgery. We introduce the surgical procedures in detail and wish this technique could be an option for spine surgeons who encounter a similar situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  8. The Impact of a Shopping Centre on the Value of Adjacent Residential Properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Sale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the South African retail landscape over the past few decades is the increase in the number and size of retail shopping centres situated in, or close to, residential areas. These shopping centres have the potential to generate both positive and negative externalities which may, in turn, be capitalised into adjacent residential property prices. However, policy makers are still unsure as to the effect of commercial land uses such as shopping centres on surr...

  9. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan, Tayfun; G?rcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain ...

  10. Experimental study on brain injury in Beagle dogs caused by adjacent cabin explosion in warship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-teng LI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog, to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario, then speculate on the mechanisms of injury. Methods  Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship. Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion, from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast, the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast. The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin, subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast. The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure. Following blast treatment, the serum levels of IL -6, IL -8, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed. Results  Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast. All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05. Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results. Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain, some neurons had karyopycnosis, karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli, and the cell boundaries were blurred. The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%, but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries. Conclusions  Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries. Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.11

  11. The Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) of Norway and adjacent waters. A taxonomic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tore Høisæter

    2014-01-01

    This monograph gives a taxonomic treatment of all 54 ‘species’ of Pyramidellidae reported from Norwegian and adjacent waters. Two species, Parthenina wikanderi n.sp.and Eulimella frielei n.sp., are described as new and three are ‘resurrected’ from synonymy. Nine previously described species are reported as new records for Norway, while three species are removed from the Norwegian fauna list. All species are illustrated with LM photographs (and, in a few cases, SEM photographs), and drawings o...

  12. An implant periapical lesion associated with an endodontic-periodontic lesion of an adjacent molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-An Chou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent natural teeth with untreated pulpal or periodontal pathology may be a potential risk for implant infection. We report a rare case of an implant periapical lesion (IPL possibly caused by direct extension of a periradicular lesion of an adjacent tooth. A 40-year-old female patient, who had previously received three implants on the edentulous areas of teeth 16, 36 and 46, had a recurrent infection over the lower left second molar area for 2 years. A periapical radiograph revealed incomplete root canal treatment and an infrabony defect on the mesial side of the lower left second molar; the defect extended to the apical third of the adjacent implant on tooth 36. Open flap debridement was performed 1 year after implant placement, but pain and swelling persisted for another year. Therefore, the second molar was extracted at the patient's request. The patient was unable to seek earlier and prompt treatment as she was abroad; therefore, we were able to observe the progression of severity in the IPL. One year after the extraction, the symptoms had subsided, and a periapical radiograph showed that the radiolucent lesion had decreased in size. She was followed for another 1.5 years and showed marked improvement. In this case, the IPL probably originated from the endodontic-periodontic problem of the adjacent molar, and the infected implant was saved by removing the infection source. We also discuss the treatment and prognosis of IPLs. To prevent the occurrence of an IPL, it is important to evaluate the pulpal and periodontal status of the teeth near the implant site when making a comprehensive treatment plan for an implant.

  13. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Pathology after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Adult Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified s...

  14. Risk factors for predicting symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration requiring surgery in patients after posterior lumbar fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jinqian; Dong, Yulei; Zhao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Although measures to reduce and treat degenerative changes after fusion are discussed, these are still controversial. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive series of 3,799 patients who underwent posterior lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar disease between January 1999 and January 2009. A total of 28 patients with symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration surgery were identified. Another group of 56 matched patients with degenerative lumbar disease without ...

  15. Survivorship Analysis of Clinical Adjacent-Segment Pathology After Single-Level Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingde; Ma, Qinghua; Yu, Kunlun; Cao, Junming; Wang, Linfeng; Shen, Yong

    2017-10-25

    BACKGROUND Clinical adjacent-segment pathology (CASP) is an important problem after anterior cervical surgery. The purpose of this study was to predict prevalence of CASP and determine the possible risk factors for CASP after single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed a series of patients who underwent single-level cervical discectomy and fusion surgery (ACDF). Both basic and radiographic data of patients were collected. Life-table method and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to calculate prevalence of CASP and disease-free survival rate. Cox analysis was performed to determine the predictive factors for it. RESULTS A total of 256 patients were included in this study. The mean length of follow-up was 70.64 months. Among them, 31 patients were diagnosed as having CASP during follow-up. Nineteen of them were at the cephalad adjacent segment, and the other 12 were at the caudal segment. After ACDF procedures, 10.01% of patients developed new symptoms of CASP within 5 years, and the incidence increased to 23.89% after 10 years. The incidence rate of CASP was an average of 2.46% per year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that congenital stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 3.250; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.538-6.867) and degeneration of adjacent segment (HR, 2.681; 95% CI, 1.259-5.709) were correlated with the incidence of CASP. CONCLUSIONS Patients with congenital stenosis and pre-existing degenerative changes of adjacent segments had a higher risk of developing CASP after single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

  16. Species richness and distribution of chondrichthyan fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynghammar, A.; Christiansen, J. S.; Mecklenburg, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The sea ice cover decreases and human activity increases in Arctic waters. Fisheries and bycatch issues, shipping and petroleum exploitation (pollution issues) make it imperative to establish biological baselines for the marine fishes inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS). Species...... richness, zoogeographic affiliations and Red List statuses among chondrichthyan fishes (Chondrichthyes) were examined across 16 AOAS regions as a first step towards credible conservation actions. Published literature and museum vouchers were consulted for presence/absence data. Although many regions...

  17. Core-adjacent instrumentation systems for pebble bed reactors for process heat application - state of planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Hecker, R.; Brixy, H.; Serpekian, T.

    1982-06-01

    Planning and theoretical/experimental development work for core surveillance instrumentation systems is being performed to meet requirements of pebble bed reactors for process heat application. Detailed and proved instrumentation concepts are now available for the core-adjacent instrumentation systems. The current work and the results of neutron flux measurements at high temperatures are described. Operation devices for long-term accurate gas outlet temperature measurements up to approximately 1423 deg. K will also be discussed. (author)

  18. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  19. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Christoph; Jung, Ernst Michael; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Trabold, Benedikt [Department of Anaesthesia, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Haimerl, Michael; Schreyer, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures.

  20. Comparative cytogenetics of Hoplias malabaricus (Pisces, Erythrinidae): a population analysis in adjacent hydrographic basins

    OpenAIRE

    Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The chromosomes of specimens from four Hoplias malabaricus populations from headwaters of adjacent river basins at Ponta Grossa, southern Brazil, were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, AgNO3 and CMA3) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number in representatives of all four populations was invariably 2n = 42, with karyotypes composed of 12 pairs of metacentrics and 9 pairs of submetacentrics, without heterom...

  1. Risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after surgical correction of degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-yong Ha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis surgery can lead to development of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after lumbar or thoracolumbar fusion. Its incidence, risk factors, morbidity and correlation between radiological and clinical symptoms of ASD have no consensus. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and certain imperative parameters. Materials and Methods: 98 patients who had undergone surgical correction and lumbar/thoracolumbar fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation for degenerative lumbar scoliosis with a minimum 5 year followup were included in the study. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and imperative patient parameters like age at operation, sex, body mass index (BMI, medical comorbidities and bone mineral density (BMD. The radiological parameters taken into consideration were Cobb′s angle, angle type, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, intercristal line, preoperative existence of an ASD on plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and surgical parameters were number of the fusion level, decompression level, floating OP (interlumbar fusion excluding L5-S1 level and posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Visual Analogue Score (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Results: ASD was present in 44 (44.9% patients at an average period of 48.0 months (range 6-98 months. Factors related to occurrence of ASD were preoperative existence of disc degeneration (as revealed by MRI and age at operation ( P = 0.0001, 0.0364. There were no statistically significant differences between radiological adjacent segment degeneration and clinical results (VAS, P = 0.446; ODI, P = 0.531. Conclusions: Patients over the age of 65 years and with preoperative disc degeneration (as revealed by plain radiograph and MRI were at a higher risk of developing ASD.

  2. Repeated adjacent segment diseases and fractures in osteoporotic patients: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle screw instrumentation for treating spinal disorder is becoming increasingly widespread. Many studies have advocated its use to facilitate rigid fixation for spine; however, adjacent segmental disease is a known complication. Instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spines remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. Prophylactic vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebra has been reported to reduce the complications of junctional compression fractures but has raised a new problem of vertebral subluxation. This case report is a rare and an extreme example with many surgical complications caused by repeated instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spine in a single patient. This patient had various complications including adjacent segmental disease, vertebral subluxation, and junctional fractures on radiographs and magnetic resonance images. An 81-year-old Taiwanese woman underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of L4-L5 in Taiwan 10 years ago. Due to degenerative spinal stenosis of L3-L4 and L2-L3, she had decompression with instrumented fusion from L5 to L1 at the previous hospital. However, catastrophic vertebral subluxations with severe neurologic compromise occurred, and she underwent salvage surgeries twice with prolonged instrumented fusion from L5 to T2. The surgeries did not resolve her problems of spinal instability and neurologic complications. Eventually, the patient remained with a Frankel Grade C spinal cord injury. Adjacent segmental disease, junctional fracture, and vertebral subluxation are familiar complications following instrumented spinal fusion surgeries for osteoporotic spines. Neurologic injuries following long instrumentation are often serious and difficult to address with surgery alone. Conservative treatments should always be contemplated as an alternative method for patients with poor bone stock.

  3. Removal of fixation construct could mitigate adjacent segment stress after lumbosacral fusion: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Tsuang, Fon-Yih; Wu, Lien-Chen; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chiang, Chang-Jung

    2017-03-01

    Combined usage of posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transpedicular fixation has been extensively used to treat the various lumbar degenerative disc diseases. The transpedicular fixator aims to increase stability and enhance the fusion rate. However, how the fused disc and bridged vertebrae respectively affect adjacent-segment diseases progression is not yet clear. Using a validated lumbosacral finite-element model, three variations at the L4-L5 segment were analyzed: 1) moderate disc degeneration, 2) instrumented with a stand-alone cage and pedicle screw fixators, and 3) with the cage only after fusion. The intersegmental angles, disc stresses, and facet loads were examined. Four motion tests, flexion, extension, bending, and twisting, were also simulated. The adjacent-segment disease was more severe at the cephalic segment than the caudal segment. After solid fusion and fixation, the increase in intersegmental angles, disc stresses and facet loads of the adjacent segments were about 57.6%, 47.3%, and 59.6%, respectively. However, these changes were reduced to 30.1%, 22.7%, and 27.0% after removal of the fixators. This was attributed to the differences between the biomechanical characteristics of the fusion and fixation mechanisms. Fixation superimposes a stiffer constraint on the mobility of the bridged segment than fusion. The current study suggested that the removal of spinal fixators after complete fusion could decrease the stress at adjacent segments. Through a minimally invasive procedure, we could reduce secondary damage to the paraspinal structures while removing the fixators, which is of utmost concern to surgeons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower preoperative Hounsfield unit measurements are associated with adjacent segment fracture after spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Dennis S; Schreiber, Joseph J; Taher, Fadi; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To determine the association of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements with adjacent segment fractures after spinal fusion. Adjacent segment fracture is a potentially devastating complication after spinal fusion surgery in osteoporotic patient. Recently, a technique for assessing bone mineral density using HU measurements from computed tomography was described and correlated with both dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-assessed bone mineral density and compressive strength in an osseous model. Patients with adjacent segment fractures after spinal fusion were identified from a prospectively collected patient database and matched 1:1 with nonfracture controls on the basis of age, sex, and fusion construct. Minimum follow-up was 6 months. Patients with metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis or those taking medications known to negatively alter bone strength were excluded. HU assessment was done according to the previously published protocol using the preoperative computed tomography. Twenty patients had complete imaging data and could be matched to nonfracture controls. The groups were well matched with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and number of levels fused. Following the index surgical procedure, the fracture group had more positive sagittal balance than the control group (10.7 cm vs. 9.1 cm). Analysis of HU values at the fracture level showed a significantly lower value in the fracture group than in the controls (145.6 vs. 199.4, P = 0.006). Similarly, global assessment of HU across the thoracic and lumbar spines was significantly lower in the fracture group (139.9 vs. 170.1, P = 0.032). HU was significantly lower both locally and globally in the fracture cohort. Because computed tomographic scans are frequently part of preoperative planning for spinal fusion, this information should be incorporated in preoperative planning. Studies to prospectively validate HU as a predictor of adjacent segment fracture risk and to

  5. Long Term Effect on Adjacent Segment Motion after Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tack Geun; Park, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective Posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) is a motion-preserving surgical technique. The objective was to determine whether PCF alter cervical motion as a long-term influence. Methods Thirty one patients who followed up more than 36 months after PCF for cervical radiculopathy from January 2004 to September 2008 were enrolled in this study. The range of motion (ROM) of whole cervical spine, the operated segment, the cranial and the caudal adjacent segment were obtained. The clinical result and the change of ROMs were compared with those in the patients performed anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) during the same period. Results In PCF group, the ROM of whole cervical spine had no significant difference in statistically at preoperative and last follow up. The operated segment ROM was significantly decreased from 11.02±5.72 to 8.82±6.65 (padjacent segment was slightly increased from 10.42±5.13 to 11.02±5.41 and the ROM of caudal adjacent segment was decreased from 9.44±6.26 to 8.73±5.92, however these data were not meaningful statistically. In ACDF group, the operated ROM was decreased and unlike in PCF group, especially the ROM of caudal adjacent segment was increased from 9.39±4.21 to 11.33±5.07 (padjacent segment did not increase after PCF. PCF, by maintaining the motion of the operated segment, imposes less stress on the adjacent segments. This may be one of its advantages. PMID:24891864

  6. Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandin, Lora A; Kremen, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, restoration within farms could enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination by native pollinators. Although governments and conservation groups are promoting small-scale restoration on working farms, there are few studies that assess whether these practices enhance pollinator communities in restored areas. Further, there is no information on whether floral enhancements will deplete pollinators in adjacent fields by concentrating ambient populations or whether they result in a net increase in abundance in adjacent farm fields. We investigated whether field edges restored with native perennial plants in California's Central Valley agricultural region increased floral abundance and potential bee nesting sites, and native bee and syrphid fly abundance and diversity, in comparison to relatively unmanaged edges. Native bees and syrphid flies collected from flowers were more abundant, species-rich, and diverse at hedgerow sites than in weedy, unmanaged edges. Abundance of bees collected passively in pan traps was negatively correlated with floral abundance, was significantly different from communities captured by net sampling from flowers, and did not distinguish between site types; we therefore focused on the results of net samples and visual observations. Uncommon species of native bees were sevenfold more abundant on hedgerow flowers than on flowers at weedy, unmanaged edges. Of the species on flowers at hedgerows, 40% were exclusive to hedgerow sites, but there were no species exclusively found on flowers at control sites. Hedgerows were especially important for supporting less-common species of native bees in our intensive agricultural landscape. Hedgerows did not concentrate ambient native bee, honey bee, or syphid fly populations, and they acted as net exporters of native bees into adjacent fields. Within-farm habitat restoration such as hedgerow creation may be essential for enhancing native pollinator

  7. Senescence-associated heterochromatin foci are dispensable for cellular senescence, occur in a cell type- and insult-dependent manner, and follow expression of p16 (ink4a)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košař, Martin; Bartkova, J.; Hubáčková, Soňa; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lukas, J.; Bartek, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 457-468 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/1418; GA ČR GA301/08/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : genotoxic and replicative stress * senescence-associated heterochromatin foci * DNA damage response Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.359, year: 2011

  8. Head-to-Head Comparison of 68Ga-Citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection of Infectious Foci in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

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    Soile P. Salomäki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the potential of 68Ga-citrate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT for the detection of infectious foci in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by comparing it with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods. Four patients admitted to hospital due to S. aureus bacteraemia underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate whole-body PET/CT scans to detect infectious foci. Results. The time from hospital admission and the initiation of antibiotic treatment to the first PET/CT was 4–10 days. The time interval between 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate PET/CT was 1–4 days. Three patients had vertebral osteomyelitis (spondylodiscitis and one had osteomyelitis in the toe; these were detected by both 18F-FDG (maximum standardised uptake value [SUVmax] 6.0±1.0 and 68Ga-citrate (SUVmax  6.8±3.5, P=0.61. Three patients had soft tissue infectious foci, with more intense 18F-FDG uptake (SUVmax  6.5±2.5 than 68Ga-citrate uptake (SUVmax  3.9±1.2, P=0.0033. Conclusions. Our small cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteraemia revealed that 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is comparable to 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of osteomyelitis, whereas 18F-FDG resulted in a higher signal for the detection of soft tissue infectious foci.

  9. Role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer: Quantitative analysis of imaging contour compared to whole-mount histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Mekhail; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Jung, Adam J.; Noworolski, Susan M.; Simko, Jeffry P.; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack; Carroll, Peter R.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining the contour of treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer, since targeted therapy requires accurate target volume definition. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified 20 patients with prostate cancer who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging prior to radical prostatectomy and subsequent creation of detailed histopathological tumor maps from whole-mount step sections. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all MR images and electronically contoured all suspected treatable (⩾0.5 cm 3 ) tumor foci. Deformable co-registration in MATLAB was used to calculate the margin of error between imaging and histopathological contours at both capsular and non-capsular surfaces and the treatment margin required to ensure at least 95% tumor coverage. Results: Histopathology showed 17 treatable tumor foci in 16 patients, of which 8 were correctly identified by both readers and an additional 2 were correctly identified by reader 2. For all correctly identified lesions, both readers accurately identified that tumor contacted the prostatic capsule, with no error in contour identification. On the non-capsular border, the median distance between the imaging and histopathological contour was 1.4 mm (range, 0–12). Expanding the contour by 5 mm at the non-capsular margin included 95% of tumor volume not initially covered within the MR contour. Conclusions: Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging can be used to accurately contour treatable intraprostatic tumor foci; adequate tumor coverage is achieved by expanding the treatment contour at the non-capsular margin by 5 mm

  10. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL PROLIFERATIVE CHANGES IN ADJACENT AREAS OF BREAST CANCER

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    Rema Nair Sarkar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer remains a global health problem with an increasing incidence. Proliferative breast diseases are recognised as one of the risk factors in the development of carcinoma. This study was undertaken to know the frequency of proliferative lesions and other lesions in association with breast carcinomas in mastectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 cases of excised carcinoma breast sent to the Department of Pathology for a three-year period at tertiary care centre was thoroughly examined and changes adjacent to the tumour was recorded and tissue was subjected for histopathological examination and results tabulated. RESULTS Infiltrating duct cell carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS type was present in 89% of cases. Among the associated lesions, nonproliferative lesions constituted 16%, proliferative breast disease without atypia 29%, proliferative breast disease with atypia 10% and others 45%. Fibrocystic disease constituted 14% of cases, epithelial hyperplasia 15%, sclerosing adenosis 12% and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 10% of cases. Other types of associated lesions were duct carcinoma in situ in 4 cases. CONCLUSION Proliferative lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast were seen in 39% of cases. Fibrocystic disease, epithelial hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis and atypical ductal hyperplasia being the commonest lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast in the present study.

  11. Correction of thickness measurement errors for two adjacent sheet structures in MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuanzhi; Wang Shuguo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Nishii, Takashi; Tamura, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the thickness of two adjacent sheet structures in MR images. In the hip joint, in which the femoral and acetabular cartilages are adjacent to each other, a conventional measurement technique based on the second derivative zero crossings (called the zero-crossings method) can introduce large underestimation errors in measurements of cartilage thickness. In this study, we have developed a model-based approach for accurate thickness measurement. We model the imaging process for two adjacent sheet structures, which simulate the two articular cartilages in the hip joint. This model can be used to predict the shape of the intensity profile along the sheet normal orientation. Using an optimization technique, the model parameters are adjusted to minimize the differences between the predicted intensity profile and the actual intensity profiles observed in the MR data. The set of model parameters that minimize the difference between the model and the MR data yield the thickness estimation. Using three phantoms and one normal cadaveric specimen, the usefulness of the new model-based method is demonstrated by comparing the model-based results with the results generated using the zero-crossings method. (author)

  12. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  13. fMRI Evidence of Acupoints Specificity in Two Adjacent Acupoints

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    Hua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong and ST44 (Neiting, and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII, contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints.

  14. Differential transcriptional profiling of damaged and intact adjacent dorsal root ganglia neurons in neuropathic pain.

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    A K Reinhold

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and "bystanders," thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG.

  15. Effect of traps' adjacency on the electric field dependence of mobility in organic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yun; Chen Xiao-Qing; Hou Xiao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In some organic materials, varying the finite distance between adjacent carrier traps modifies the Coulomb potential around each trap, resulting in a more complex field-dependence of mobility, differing from (but not incompatible with) the usually considered relationship of ln μ ∝ √E, a relationship which has been successfully explained by the Poole—Frenkel effect. To investigate the influence of the adjacency of traps, a model system is proposed, which consists of two traps separated by distance α. Our numerical calculation shows that with increasing α, the dependence of mobility on the electric field changes from linear to exponential. Moreover, beyond a certain large α, i.e., as the distance to the nearest trap approaches infinity, the proposed model is essentially the same as the Poole—Frenkel effect. The proposed model accounts for the effect of the energy barrier shape, especially the effect of the location of the potential-energy maximum, a phenomenon which is not accommodated in the Poole—Frenkel model. Because the model assumes the Coulomb interaction between the adjacent traps, it applies to those charged traps which may exist in organic materials for various reasons. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  17. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

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    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence