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Sample records for adiposity predicts cognitive

  1. Adiposity predicts cognitive decline in older persons with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up.

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    Angela Marie Abbatecola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in older persons with Type 2 diabetes (DM remains unclear. We tested if adiposity parameters and body fat distribution could predict cognitive decline in older persons with DM vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODOLOGY: 693 older persons with no dementia were enrolled: 253 with DM in good metabolic control; 440 with NGT (age range:65-85 years. Longitudinal study comparing DM and NGT individuals according to the association of baseline adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC and total body fat mass to cognitive change (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a composite score of executive and attention functioning (CCS over time. FINDINGS: At baseline, in DM participants, MMSE correlated with WHR (beta = -0.240; p = 0.043, WC (beta = -0.264; p = 0.041 while CCS correlated with WHR (beta = -0.238; p = 0.041, WC (beta = -0.326; p = 0.013 after adjusting for confounders. In NGT subjects, no significant correlations were found among any adiposity parameters and MMSE, while CCS was associated with WHR (beta = -0.194; p = 0.036 and WC (beta = -0.210; p = 0.024. Participants with DM in the 3(rd tertile of total fat mass showed the greatest decline in cognitive performance compared to those in 1(st tertile (tests for trend: MMSE(p = 0.007, CCS(p = 0.003. Logistic regression models showed that 3(rd vs. 1(st tertile of total fat mass, WHR, and WC predicted an almost two-fold decline in cognitive function in DM subjects at 2(nd yr (OR 1.68, 95%IC 1.08-3.52. CONCLUSIONS: Total fat mass and central adiposity predict an increased risk for cognitive decline in older person with DM.

  2. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

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    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

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    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  4. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

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    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  5. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

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    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices.

  6. Predicting cognitive change within domains

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    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Moser, David J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized regression based (SRB) formulas, a method for predicting cognitive change across time, traditionally use baseline performance on a neuropsychological measure to predict future performance on that same measure. However, there are instances in which the same tests may not be given at follow-up assessments (e.g., lack of continuity of provider, avoiding practice effects). The current study sought to expand this methodology by developing SRBs to predict performance on different tests...

  7. Blinking predicts enhanced cognitive control

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    Bochove, M.E. van; Haegen, L. Van der; Notebaert, W.; Verguts, T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent models have suggested an important role for neuromodulation in explaining trial-to-trial adaptations in cognitive control. The adaptation-by-binding model (Verguts & Notebaert, Psychological review, 115(2), 518-525, 2008), for instance, suggests that increased cognitive control in response to

  8. Adverse associations between visceral adiposity, brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy elderly

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    Vivian eIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between central adiposity and cognition has been established by indirect measures such as BMI or waist-hip ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI quantification of central abdominal fat has been linked to elevated risk of cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular disease. However it is not known how quantification of visceral fat correlates with cognitive performance and measures of brain structure. We filled this gap by characterizing the relationships between MRI measures of abdominal adiposity, brain morphometry and cognition, in healthy elderly. Methods: A total of 184 healthy community dwelling elderly subjects without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardio-vascular risk, neuropsychological measurements as well as MRI of the brain and abdomen fat were obtained. Abdominal images were segmented into subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissue compartments. Brain MRI measures were analyzed quantitatively to determine total brain volume, hippocampal volume, ventricular volume and cortical thickness. Results: VAT showed negative association with verbal memory (r=0.21, p=0.005 and attention (r=0.18, p=0.01. Higher VAT was associated with lower hippocampal volume (F=5.39, p=0.02 and larger ventricular volume (F=6.07, p=0.02. The participants in the upper quartile of VAT had the lowest hippocampal volume even after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension and BMI (b=-0.28, p=0.005. There was a significant age by VAT interaction for cortical thickness in the left prefrontal region. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, elevated VAT is associated with negative effects on cognition, and brain morphometry.

  9. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

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    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic...

  10. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

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    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  11. Predictive coding as a model of cognition.

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    Spratling, M W

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that predictive coding can provide a detailed explanation of a very wide range of low-level perceptual processes. It is also widely believed that predictive coding can account for high-level, cognitive, abilities. This article provides support for this view by showing that predictive coding can simulate phenomena such as categorisation, the influence of abstract knowledge on perception, recall and reasoning about conceptual knowledge, context-dependent behavioural control, and naive physics. The particular implementation of predictive coding used here (PC/BC-DIM) has previously been used to simulate low-level perceptual behaviour and the neural mechanisms that underlie them. This algorithm thus provides a single framework for modelling both perceptual and cognitive brain function. PMID:27118562

  12. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

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    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  13. Factors Predicting Adhesion between Renal Capsule and Perinephric Adipose Tissue in Partial Nephrectomy.

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    Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Yuko; Wada, Koichiro; Sasaki, Katsumi; Araki, Motoo; Ebara, Shin; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-01-01

    In minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN), it is important to preoperatively predict the degree of difficulty of tumor resection. When severe adhesions occur between the renal capsule and perinephric adipose tissue, detachment can be difficult. Preoperative prediction of adhesion is thought to be useful in the selection of surgical procedure. Subjects were 63 patients of a single surgeon who had received MIPN between April 2008 and August 2013 at Okayama University Hospital. Of these patients, this study followed 47 in whom the presence or absence of adhesions between the renal capsule and perinephric adipose tissue was confirmed using intraoperative videos. Data collected included: sex, BMI, CT finding (presence of fi broids in perinephric adipose tissue), comorbidities and lifestyle. Adhesion was observed in 7 patients (14.9%). The mean operative time was 291.6 min in the adhesion group, and 226.3 min in the group without. The increased time in the adhesions group was significant (p<0.05). Predictive factors were a positive CT finding for fibroid structure and comorbidity of hypertension (p<0.05). In MIPN, difficulty of surgery can be affected by the presence of adhesion of the perinephric adipose tissue. Predicting such adhesion from preoperative CT is thus important.

  14. Which Psychosocial Factors Best Predict Cognitive Performance in Older Adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older cam...

  15. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

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    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  16. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.

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    Pascale eColé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, sixty second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures. Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results crucially constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading.

  17. Integrated data mining of transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to predict the secretome of adipose tissue and muscle in ruminants.

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    Bonnet, M; Tournayre, J; Cassar-Malek, I

    2016-08-16

    Adipose tissue and muscle are endocrine organs releasing signalling and mediator proteins termed adipokines and myokines, enabling functioning of the organism and its adaption to a wide range of different challenges such as starvation, overfeeding, stress and diseases. They also contribute to the "adipose-muscular" cross-talk for an integrated control of body mass composition. This article integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data available in ruminant species (mainly in bovine, and when available in ovine and caprine) to computationally predict the large-scale secretome of adipose tissues and muscles. For this purpose predictive bioinformatics algorithms were employed to identify proteins putatively secreted by tissues thanks to a signal peptide. We predicted 1749 secreted proteins that were found from adipose tissues and muscles, more than a half of them being already declared as secreted proteins in public repositories. We also identified 188 and 357 proteins in the predictive secretome of adipose tissues and muscles respectively, only a minor part (3-11%) of them being reported in the overlap of public repositories used for comparison. Functional analysis of these proteins highlights their involvement in biological pathways known to sustain tissue growth and functioning. This strategy allowed us to identify some known and putative novel adipomyokines, adipokines and myokines. However their role and their expression signature depending on rearing practices remain largely to be explored. PMID:27374837

  18. Cognitive improvement following transvenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

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    Dongfei Li; Chun Yang; Rongmei Qu; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation for the repair of traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The present study observed neurological functional changes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury following ADMSC transplantation via the tail vein.Cell transplants were observed in injured cerebral cortex, and expression of brain-derived nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the injured hippocampus following transplantation. Results demonstrated that transvenous ADMSC transplants migrated to the injured cerebral cortex and significantly improved cognitive function.

  19. Predicting Mass Media Effects: A Cognitive Approach.

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    Gordon, Thomas F.

    In this theoretical working paper, an attempt is made to pull together the two areas of cognitive information processing and emotional arousal, in order to provide a fuller framework for examining media effects. The development of a cognitive-behavioral index is proposed as a research tool resulting from this merger of areas, as are a number of…

  20. The pattern of cognitive symptoms predicts time to dementia onset.

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    Sacuiu, S.; Gustafson, D.; Johansson, B.; Thorvaldsson, V.; Berg, S.; Sjogren, J.M.C.; Guo, X.; Ostling, S.; Skoog, I.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether cognitive symptom patterns differ by age and length of time before dementia onset. Our objective was to investigate whether different patterns of cognitive symptoms at ages 70, 75, and 79 years predict short-term (< or =5 years) and long-term (>5 y

  1. How well do cognitive and environmental variables predict active commuting?

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    Godin Gaston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in theoretical studies integrating cognitions and environmental variables in the prediction of behaviour related to the obesity epidemic. This is the approach adopted in the present study in reference to the theory of planned behaviour. More precisely, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive and environmental variables in the prediction of active commuting to get to and from work or school. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 130 undergraduate and graduate students (93 females; 37 males. Environmental, cognitive and socio-demographic variables were evaluated at baseline by questionnaire. Two weeks later, active commuting (walking/bicycling to get to and from work or school was self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict intention and behaviour. Results The model predicting behaviour based on cognitive variables explained more variance than the model based on environmental variables (37.4% versus 26.8%; Z = 3.86, p p p Conclusion The results showed that cognitive variables play a more important role than environmental variables in predicting and explaining active commuting. When environmental variables were significant, they were mediated by cognitive variables. Therefore, individual cognitions should remain one of the main focuses of interventions promoting active commuting among undergraduate and graduate students.

  2. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

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    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  3. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's cognitive and social agency: Predicting first-grade cognitive functioning.

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    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms predict children's low social and cognitive agency-low motivation to initiate social interaction and actively engage in activities. When mothers' depressive symptoms were high in infancy, children displayed poor first-grade cognitive functioning due to (a) tendencies to become socially withdrawn by 36 months and low in mastery motivation by 54 months and (b) tendencies for children's low agency to predict declines in mothers' sensitivity and cognitive stimulation. Findings suggest that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine cognitive development through bidirectional processes centered on children's low motivation to engage in social interaction and initiate and persist at everyday tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389834

  4. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

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    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results: Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion: Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  5. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

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    Mariegold E. Wollam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013 when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms.

  6. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  7. Predicting Feelings of Cognitive Competence in Head Start Preschoolers

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    DiBiase, Rosemarie; Miller, Patrice M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about what predicts the budding sense of self-competence in preschoolers. This is particularly true of cognitive competence, which may have implications for later schooling. Based on previous research with older children, it was expected that feelings of self-competence would be influenced by attitudes of significant others as well…

  8. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

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    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  9. Applying quantitative adiposity feature analysis models to predict benefit of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients

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    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; More, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    How to rationally identify epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who will benefit from bevacizumab or other antiangiogenic therapies is a critical issue in EOC treatments. The motivation of this study is to quantitatively measure adiposity features from CT images and investigate the feasibility of predicting potential benefit of EOC patients with or without receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy treatment using multivariate statistical models built based on quantitative adiposity image features. A dataset involving CT images from 59 advanced EOC patients were included. Among them, 32 patients received maintenance bevacizumab after primary chemotherapy and the remaining 27 patients did not. We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (VFA) and visceral fat areas (SFA) and then extracted 7 adiposity-related quantitative features. Three multivariate data analysis models (linear regression, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression) were performed respectively to investigate the potential association between the model-generated prediction results and the patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results show that using all 3 statistical models, a statistically significant association was detected between the model-generated results and both of the two clinical outcomes in the group of patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab (pchemotherapy.

  10. Design of a cognitive neural predictive controller for mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Al‐Araji, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University In this thesis, a cognitive neural predictive controller system has been designed to guide a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot during continuous and non-continuous trajectory tracking and to navigate through static obstacles with collision-free and minimum tracking error. The structure of the controller consists of two layers; the first layer is a neural network system that controls the mo...

  11. Predicting contraceptive behaviour among adolescents : social, cognitive, and contextual influences

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Reports from Norway and other western countries show that many adolescents do not protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and sexual transmitted infections (STIs). The incidence of STIs such as chlamydia infections has increased in recent years in Norway and other European countries. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the social, cognitive, and contextual factors that predict adolescents’ decisions about whether or not to use contraception. The study population of this t...

  12. Adiposity to muscle ratio predicts incident physical limitation in a cohort of 3,153 older adults—an alternative measurement of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Auyeung, Tung Wai; Lee, Jenny Shun Wah; Leung, Jason; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, sarcopenia is defined by muscle mass and physical performance. We hypothesized that the disability caused by sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was related to the amount of adiposity or body weight bearing on a unit of muscle mass, or the adiposity to muscle ratio. We therefore examined whether this ratio could predict physical limitation by secondary analysis of the data in our previous study. We recruited 3,153 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and their body compositi...

  13. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  14. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sc......AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...

  15. Cognitive control predicts use of model-based reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A Ross; Skatova, Anya; Madlon-Kay, Seth; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-02-01

    Accounts of decision-making and its neural substrates have long posited the operation of separate, competing valuation systems in the control of choice behavior. Recent theoretical and experimental work suggest that this classic distinction between behaviorally and neurally dissociable systems for habitual and goal-directed (or more generally, automatic and controlled) choice may arise from two computational strategies for reinforcement learning (RL), called model-free and model-based RL, but the cognitive or computational processes by which one system may dominate over the other in the control of behavior is a matter of ongoing investigation. To elucidate this question, we leverage the theoretical framework of cognitive control, demonstrating that individual differences in utilization of goal-related contextual information--in the service of overcoming habitual, stimulus-driven responses--in established cognitive control paradigms predict model-based behavior in a separate, sequential choice task. The behavioral correspondence between cognitive control and model-based RL compellingly suggests that a common set of processes may underpin the two behaviors. In particular, computational mechanisms originally proposed to underlie controlled behavior may be applicable to understanding the interactions between model-based and model-free choice behavior. PMID:25170791

  16. Top-down predictions in the cognitive brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kveraga, Kestutis; Ghuman, Avniel S.; Bar, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    The human brain is not a passive organ simply waiting to be activated by external stimuli. Instead, it is proposed tat the brain continuously employs memory of past experiences to interpret sensory information and predict the immediately relevant future. This review concentrates on visual recognition as the model system for developing and testing ideas about the role and mechanisms of top-down predictions in the brain. We cover relevant behavioral, computational and neural aspects. These ideas are then extended to other domains. The basic elements of this proposal include analogical mapping, associative representations and the generation of predictions. Connections to a host of cognitive processes will be made and implications to several mental disorders will be proposed. PMID:17923222

  17. Adiposity and Pathogen Exposure Predict C-Reactive Protein in Filipino Women12

    OpenAIRE

    McDade, Thomas W.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Adair, Linda; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Obesity and infectious agents are both sources of inflammatory stimuli that result in increased production of C-reactive protein (CRP). Rates of overweight and obesity are increasing globally, but for many populations, gains in body fat are set against a backdrop of high levels of pathogen exposure. Our primary objective was to evaluate the extent to which adiposity and pathogenicity contribute to a double burden of inflammation in a population currently undergoing the nutrition transition. M...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid PKR level predicts cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Dumurgier

    Full Text Available The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of the proapoptotic kinase R (PKR and its phosphorylated PKR (pPKR are increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD, but whether CSF PKR concentrations are associated with cognitive decline in AD patients remain unknown. In this study, 41 consecutive patients with AD and 11 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from our Memory Clinic were included. A lumbar puncture was performed during the following month of the clinical diagnosis and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE evaluations were repeated every 6 months during a mean follow-up of 2 years. In AD patients, linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex were used to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MMSE scores and baseline CSF levels of Aβ peptide (Aβ 1-42, Tau, phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau 181, PKR and pPKR. The mean (SD MMSE at baseline was 20.5 (6.1 and MMSE scores declined over the follow-up (-0.12 point/month, standard error [SE] = 0.03. A lower MMSE at baseline was associated with lower levels of CSF Aβ 1-42 and p-Tau 181/Tau ratio. pPKR level was associated with longitudinal MMSE changes over the follow-up, higher pPKR levels being related with an exacerbated cognitive deterioration. Other CSF biomarkers were not associated with MMSE changes over time. In aMCI patients, mean CSF biomarker levels were not different in patients who converted to AD from those who did not convert.These results suggest that at the time of AD diagnosis, a higher level of CSF pPKR can predict a faster rate of cognitive decline.

  19. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-05-30

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  20. Predicting School Achievement from Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables in a Chinese Sample of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liping; Weber, Heike S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Shi, Jiannong

    2011-01-01

    The present study had two aims: First, to investigate the joint and specific roles of working memory (WM) and intelligence as predictors of school achievement. And second, to replicate and extend earlier findings (Spinath, Spinath, Harlaar, & Plomin, 2006) on the incremental validity of non-cognitive over cognitive abilities in the prediction of…

  1. Global connectivity of prefrontal cortex predicts cognitive control and intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Yarkoni, Tal; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan; Braver, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    Control of thought and behavior is fundamental to human intelligence. Evidence suggests a fronto-parietal brain network implements such cognitive control across diverse contexts. We identify a mechanism – global connectivity – by which components of this network might coordinate control of other networks. A lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) region’s activity was found to predict performance in a high control demand working memory task, and also to exhibit high global connectivity. Critically, global connectivity in this LPFC region, involving connections both within and outside the fronto-parietal network, showed a highly selective relationship with individual differences in fluid intelligence. These findings suggest LPFC is a global hub with a brain-wide influence that facilitates the ability to implement control processes central to human intelligence. PMID:22745498

  2. A Prediction Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a geriatric disease which has emerged as a serious social and economic problem in an aging society and early diagnosis is very important for it. Especially, early diagnosis and early intervention of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI which is the preliminary stage of dementia can reduce the onset rate of dementia. This study developed MCI prediction model for the Korean elderly in local communities and provides a basic material for the prevention of cognitive impairment. The subjects of this study were 3,240 elderly (1,502 males, 1,738 females in local communities over the age of 65 who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Aging (close conducted in 2012. The outcome was defined as having MCI and set as explanatory variables were gender, age, level of education, level of income, marital status, smoking, drinking habits, regular exercise more than once a week, monthly average hours of participation in social activities, subjective health, diabetes and high blood pressure. The random Forests algorithm was used to develop a prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree model. As the result of this study, significant predictors of MCI were age, gender, level of education, level of income, subjective health, marital status, smoking, drinking, regular exercise and high blood pressure. In addition, Random Forests Model was more accurate than the logistic regression model and decision tree model. Based on these results, it is necessary to build monitoring system which can diagnose MCI at an early stage.

  3. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  4. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  5. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. PMID:27427284

  6. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  7. Applicability of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) in predicting components of metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jéssica; Vogel, Patrícia; Eckhardt, Cristiane; Morelo, Simone Dal Bosco

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) es uno de los principales factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), y la identificación de sus componentes en los adultos jóvenes puede constituir una importante herramienta de prevención. Objetivo: Analizar la aplicabilidad del Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) para la predicción de componentes del SM en adultos jóvenes. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 444 individuos, edad 25,6 ± 6,5, 77,7% del sexo femenino. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura (CC), el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), glucemia, triglicéridos (TG), colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (HDL-c), colesterol LDL (LDL-c), y la presión arterial (PA), así como información sobre sus estilos de vida. Se calculó Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la proporción de cintura a la altura (PCA) y VAI. Mediciones de adiposidad se compararon con los componentes del SM, y por VAI, se determinó la capacidad predictiva de ocurrencia de los componentes de SM y el área a bajo la curva ROC. Resultados: VAI se correlaciona a la glucosa (r= 0,136), HDL-c (r=-436) y TG (r=0,825) en las mujeres y entre los hombres, se correlaciona a la glucosa (r=0,258), HDL-c (r=-0,550), TG (r=0,897), y la PAD (r= 0,290). Un aumento de VAI se asoció a un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal (OR=1,86), hipertrigliceridemia (OR=30,74), y bajo HDL-c (OR=3,95). Entre los indicadores de obesidad, VAI presentó una mayor área bajo la curva de aumento de triglicéridos y bajos niveles de HDL-c. Conclusión: VAI presentó una asociación a los componentes del SM en hombres, y em mujeres con un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal, hipertrigliceridemia y bajos niveles de HDL-c, demostrando ser un buen predictor de componentes de SM, incluso entre adultos jóvenes sanos.

  8. Cognitive Reactivity Versus Dysfunctional Cognitions and the Prediction of Relapse in Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueroa, Caroline A.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Koeter, Maarten W.; Spinhoven, Philip; Van der Does, Willem; Bockting, Claudi L.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a burdensome disease that has a high risk of relapse/recurrence. Cognitive reactivity appears to be a risk factor for relapse. It remains unclear, however, whether dysfunctional cognitions alone or the reactivity of such cognitions to mild states of sadn

  9. Prediction of adolescent and adult adiposity outcomes from early life anthropometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Gerds, Thomas A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and preschool BMI may help identify children at high risk of overweight as they are (1) similarly linked to adolescent overweight at different stages of the obesity epidemic, (2) linked to adult obesity and metabolic alterations, and (3......) easily obtainable in health examinations in young children. The aim was to develop early childhood prediction models of adolescent overweight, adult overweight, and adult obesity. METHODS: Prediction models at various ages in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1966 (NFBC1966) were developed...... a subgroup of children at very high risk of becoming overweight, which may be valuable in public health settings dealing with obesity prevention....

  10. Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…

  11. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey;

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined.......Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  12. Large Size Cells in the Visceral Adipose Depot Predict Insulin Resistance in the Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Morvarid; Stefanovski, Darko; Hsu, Isabel R.; Iyer, Malini; Woolcott, Orison O.; Zheng, Dan; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Kim, Stella P.; Lisa N Harrison; Ionut, Viorica; Lottati, Maya; Richard N Bergman; Richey, Joyce M.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte size plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance. We examined longitudinal changes in adipocyte size and distribution in visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat during obesity-induced insulin resistance and after treatment with CB-1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant (RIM) in canines. We also examined whether adipocyte size and/or distribution is predictive of insulin resistance. Adipocyte morphology was assessed by direct microscopy and analysis of digital images in pre...

  13. The Prospective Role of Cognitive Appraisals and Social Support in Predicting Children’s Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Ellis, Alicia A.; Williamson, Paul; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Although both social support and cognitive appraisals are strong predictors of children’s posttraumatic adjustment, understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited. We assessed whether cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between social support and symptom development, as predicted by cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ninety seven children (Mean age = 12.08 years) were assessed at one month and six months following a single incident trauma. We...

  14. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts cognitive performance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hala Darwish,1 Pia Zeinoun,2 Husam Ghusn,3,4 Brigitte Khoury,2 Hani Tamim,5 Samia J Khoury6 1Hariri School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Geriatrics Department, Ain Wazein Hospital, El Chouf, Lebanon; 5Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Vitamin D is an endogenous hormone known to regulate calcium levels in the body and plays a role in cognitive performance. Studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment in older adults. Lebanon has a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD deficiency prevalence across all age groups. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the cognitive performance and serum 25(OHD levels using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay in 254 older (>60 years as well as younger (30–60 years adults. Subjects’ characteristics, including age, years of education, wearing of veil, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise, were collected. Participants were screened for depression prior to cognitive screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Arabic version. Visuospatial memory was tested using the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial, and speed of processing was assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities test. Results: Pearson’s correlation and stepwise linear regression analyses showed that a low vitamin D level was associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment in older as well as younger adults. Conclusion: These findings suggest that correction of vitamin D needs to be explored as an intervention to prevent cognitive impairment. Prospective

  16. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L.; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emot...

  17. Posterior Beta and Anterior Gamma Oscillations Predict Cognitive Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Sandkühler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Pioneering neuroimaging studies on insight have revealed neural correlates of the emotional “Aha!” component of the insight process, but neural substrates of the cognitive component, such as problem restructuring (a key to transformative reasoning), remain a mystery. Here, multivariate electroencephalogram signals were recorded from human participants while they solved verbal puzzles that could create a small-scale experience of cognitive insight. Individuals responded as soon as they reached...

  18. Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: A scoping review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Lisette H.J.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Van Campen, Jos; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve acc

  19. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  20. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 20 October). Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance. Presentation given for the inter-faculty Data Science group at the Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  1. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs = −0.48; p < 0.05) and visual memory (rs = −0.46; p < 0.05). The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients. PMID:27516906

  2. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  3. Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Lisette H J; Vuillerme, Nicolas; van Campen, Jos P; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J

    2016-05-01

    Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve accuracy and specificity of these models because motor and cognitive functions share neuroanatomical structures and psychological processes. We reviewed the relationship between walking ability at one point of (mid) life and cognitive decline at follow-up. A systematic literature search identified 20 longitudinal studies. The average follow-up time was 4.5 years. Gait speed quantified walking ability in most studies (n=18). Additional gait measures (n=4) were step frequency, variability and step-length. Despite methodological weaknesses, results revealed that gait slowing (0.68-1.1 m/sec) preceded cognitive decline and the presence of dementia syndromes (maximal odds and hazard ratios of 10.4 and 11.1, respectively). The results indicate that measures of walking ability could serve as additional markers to predict cognitive decline. However, gait speed alone might lack specificity. We recommend gait analysis, including dynamic gait parameters, in clinical evaluations of patients with suspected cognitive decline. Future studies should focus on examining the specificity and accuracy of various gait characteristics to predict future cognitive decline. PMID:26861693

  4. Cognitive impairment as assessed by a short form of MMSE was predictive of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Kreiner, Svend;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores the association between cognitive impairment and mortality in late senescence. A specific purpose was to validate the ability of a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in predicting mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The cognition-mortality link......, as assessed by the original MMSE and D-MMSE (a subscale associated to dementia) was estimated on a community sample of 1,111 older people using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Impaired cognitive function as assessed by both the original MMSE and D-MMSE predicted mortality in older men and women over...

  5. Cognitive vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Sascha Y.; Groenewold, Nynke A.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the association of cognitive vulnerability to depression with changes in homogeneous measures of depressive symptoms. Methods: Baseline and 1-year follow-up data were obtained from 2981 participants of the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety. Multivariate regression a

  6. Dropout prediction in cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Kampman, M.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attempt to identify reliable factors associated with dropout risk in a sample of 161 panic disorder patients treated with manualized cognitive behavior therapy. Four possible predictors of dropout were selected from the literature: level of education, treatment motivatio

  7. Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (β=0.11, psocial image (β=0.10, p=Social image (β=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (β=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (β=0.15, pmediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

  8. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis but have mainly considered syndromal depression. In this prospective study thirty-two subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12 m

  9. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Suzuki

    Full Text Available Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2 = 0.676, P<0.0001; linear regression modeling, R(2 = 0.598, P<0.0001. Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  10. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  11. Goals reconfigure cognition by modulating predictive processes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    I applaud Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory that places goals at the center of cognition, and I discuss two ingredients missing from that theory. First, I argue that the brains of organisms much simpler than those of humans are already configured for goal achievement in situated interactions. Second, I propose a mechanistic view of the "reconfiguration principle" that links the theory with current views in computational neuroscience.

  12. Predictably irrational: assaying cognitive inflexibility in mouse models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of sophisticated, translatable mouse-based assays modeling the behavioral manifestations of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia has lagged the advances in molecular and genomic techniques. Our laboratory has made efforts to fill this gap by investing in the development of novel assays, including adapting a touchscreen-based method for measuring cognitive and executive functions for use in mice. As part of these efforts, a recent study by Brigman et al. (2009) inv...

  13. Multivariate Screening Model for Later Word Reading Achievement: Predictive Utility of Prereading Skills and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Heidi H.; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used multiple regression to determine the predictive value of Kindergarten phonemic awareness, rapid serial naming, letter knowledge, and cognitive ability for predicting first-grade word reading and fluency. Participants were 131 first-grade students from a mid-Atlantic school system. A combination of predictor variables was…

  14. Application of the PredictAD Software Tool to Predict Progression in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H; Mattila, Jussi; Hejl, Anne-Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The PredictAD tool integrates heterogeneous data such as imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and results from neuropsychological tests for compact visualization in an interactive user interface. This study investigated whether the software tool could assist physicians in the early...... diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Baseline data from 140 patients with mild cognitive impairment were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Study. Three clinical raters classified patients into 6 categories of confidence in the prediction of early Alzheimer's disease, in 4 phases...

  15. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  16. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  17. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  18. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  19. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  20. Does Cognition Predict Treatment Response and Remission in Psychotherapy for Late-Life Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Rideaux, Tiffany; O'Hara, Ruth; Arean, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify cognitive predictors of geriatric depression treatment outcome. Method Older participants completed baseline measures of memory and executive function, health, and baseline and posttreatment Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-D) in a 12-week trial comparing psychotherapies (problem-solving vs. supportive; n = 46). We examined cognitive predictors to identify treatment responders, i.e., HAM-D scores reduced by ≥50%, and remitters, i.e., posttreatment HAM-D score ≤ 10. Results Empirically-derived decision trees identified poorer performance on switching (i.e. Trails B), with a cut-score of ≥82” predicting psychotherapy responders. No other cognitive or health variables predicted psychotherapy outcomes in the decision trees. Conclusions Psychotherapies that support or improve the executive skill of switching may augment treatment response for older patients exhibiting executive dysfunction in depression. If replicated, Trails B has potential as a brief cognitive tool for clinical decision-making in geriatric depression. PMID:25441055

  1. Predicting Alzheimer's disease development: a comparison of cognitive criteria and associated neuroimaging biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Brandy L.; Ramirez, Joel; Berezuk, Courtney; Duchesne, Simon; Black, Sandra E.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The definition of “objective cognitive impairment” in current criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) varies considerably between research groups and clinics. This study aims to compare different methods of defining memory impairment to improve prediction models for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from baseline to 24 months. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of six methods of defining episodic memory impairment (< −1, −1.5 or −2 standard deviations [SD] on ...

  2. Specific Measures of Executive Function Predict Cognitive Decline in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lindsay R.; Schiehser, Dawn M.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Salmon, David P.; Delis, Dean C.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Decline in executive function has been noted in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may presage more global cognitive declines. In this prospective longitudinal study, five measures of executive function were used to predict subsequent global cognitive decline in initially nondemented older adults. Of 71 participants, 15 demonstrated significant decline over a 1-year period on the Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988) and the remaining participants remained stable. In the year ...

  3. SVM-Based Spectrum Mobility Prediction Scheme in Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Wang; Zhongzhao Zhang; Lin Ma; Jiamei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum mobility as an essential issue has not been fully investigated in mobile cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a novel support vector machine based spectrum mobility prediction (SVM-SMP) scheme is presented considering time-varying and space-varying characteristics simultaneously in mobile CRNs. The mobility of cognitive users (CUs) and the working activities of primary users (PUs) are analyzed in theory. And a joint feature vector extraction (JFVE) method is proposed based...

  4. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Calitri, R.; Pothos, E. M.; Tapper, K; Brunstrom, J M; Rogers, P J

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot pr...

  5. SVM-based spectrum mobility prediction scheme in mobile cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Ma, Lin; Chen, Jiamei

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum mobility as an essential issue has not been fully investigated in mobile cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a novel support vector machine based spectrum mobility prediction (SVM-SMP) scheme is presented considering time-varying and space-varying characteristics simultaneously in mobile CRNs. The mobility of cognitive users (CUs) and the working activities of primary users (PUs) are analyzed in theory. And a joint feature vector extraction (JFVE) method is proposed based on the theoretical analysis. Then spectrum mobility prediction is executed through the classification of SVM with a fast convergence speed. Numerical results validate that SVM-SMP gains better short-time prediction accuracy rate and miss prediction rate performance than the two algorithms just depending on the location and speed information. Additionally, a rational parameter design can remedy the prediction performance degradation caused by high speed SUs with strong randomness movements. PMID:25143975

  6. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    OpenAIRE

    Heiner Rindermann; Stefan Pichelmann

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups' (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods fo...

  7. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  8. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  9. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O.; Kraut, Michael A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n=25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomical regions compared to control participants who remained cognitively normal (n=96). Based on 8 years of annual MRI scans beginning an average of 11 years prior to onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared to controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the two study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe, and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  10. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  11. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  12. Measures and Models for Estimating and Predicting Cognitive Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Kochavi, Rebekah; Kubitz, Karla; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Rosipal, Roman; Matthews, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed EEG and ERPs in a fatiguing mental task and created statistical models for single subjects. Seventeen subjects (4 F, 18-38 y) viewed 4-digit problems (e.g., 3+5-2+7=15) on a computer, solved the problems, and pressed keys to respond (intertrial interval = 1 s). Subjects performed until either they felt exhausted or three hours had elapsed. Re- and post-task measures of mood (Activation Deactivation Adjective Checklist, Visual Analogue Mood Scale) confirmed that fatigue increased and energy decreased over time. We tested response times (RT); amplitudes of ERP components N1, P2, P300, readiness potentials; and amplitudes of frontal theta and parietal alpha rhythms for change as a function of time. For subjects who completed 3 h (n=9) we analyzed 12 15-min blocks. For subjects who completed at least 1.5 h (n=17), we analyzed the first-, middle-, and last 100 error-free trials. Mean RT rose from 6.7 s to 8.5 s over time. We found no changes in the amplitudes of ERP components. In both analyses, amplitudes of frontal theta and parietal alpha rose by 30% or more over time. We used 30-channel EEG frequency spectra to model the effects of time in single subjects using a kernel partial least squares classifier. We classified 3.5s EEG segments as being from the first 100 or the last 100 trials, using random sub-samples of each class. Test set accuracies ranged from 63.9% to 99.6% correct. Only 2 of 17 subjects had mean accuracies lower than 80%. The results suggest that EEG accurately classifies periods of cognitive fatigue in 90% of subjects.

  13. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an

  14. Cognitive strategies regulate fictive, but not reward prediction error signals in a sequential investment task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Kirk, Ulrich; Lohrenz, Terry M; Montague, P Read

    2014-08-01

    Computational models of reward processing suggest that foregone or fictive outcomes serve as important information sources for learning and augment those generated by experienced rewards (e.g. reward prediction errors). An outstanding question is how these learning signals interact with top-down cognitive influences, such as cognitive reappraisal strategies. Using a sequential investment task and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the reappraisal strategy selectively attenuates the influence of fictive, but not reward prediction error signals on investment behavior; such behavioral effect is accompanied by changes in neural activity and connectivity in the anterior insular cortex, a brain region thought to integrate subjective feelings with high-order cognition. Furthermore, individuals differ in the extent to which their behaviors are driven by fictive errors versus reward prediction errors, and the reappraisal strategy interacts with such individual differences; a finding also accompanied by distinct underlying neural mechanisms. These findings suggest that the variable interaction of cognitive strategies with two important classes of computational learning signals (fictive, reward prediction error) represent one contributing substrate for the variable capacity of individuals to control their behavior based on foregone rewards. These findings also expose important possibilities for understanding the lack of control in addiction based on possibly foregone rewarding outcomes.

  15. Illness cognitions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Predicting quality of life outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Scharloo (Margreet); R.J.B. de Jong; T.P.M. Langeveld (ton); E. van Velzen-Verkaik (Els); M.M. den Doorn-op den Akker (Margreet); A.A. Kaptein (Adrian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGoals of work: This paper presents an observational study of the longitudinal effects of cancer treatment on quality of life (QoL) in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and evaluated the contribution of patients' baseline illness cognitions to the predict

  16. The temporal stability and predictive validity of affect-based and cognition-based intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Putte, B. van den; Neijens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has revealed individual differences in the extent to which people base their intentions on affect and cognition. Two studies are presented that assess whether such differences predict the strength of individuals' intention-behaviour relationships. Participants completed measures of a

  17. Negative Affective Spillover from Daily Events Predicts Early Response to Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; Butler, Andrew C.; Parrish, Brendt P.; Wenze, Susan J.; Beck, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to…

  18. From the Perspective of Loneliness and Cognitive Absorption Internet Addiction as Predictor and Predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Vehbi; Yesilyurt, Etem; Korkmaz, Ozgen; Usta, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    In this research internet addiction has been dealt with as predictor and predicted variable, this situation has been analyzed from the perspectives of loneliness and cognitive absorption and a tangible model has been put forth. Participant group has been constituted by 338 teacher candidates. Research data were collected using loneliness scale…

  19. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic...

  20. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  1. A clinical index to predict progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment is often a precursor to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, but many patients with mild cognitive impairment never develop dementia. New diagnostic criteria may lead to more patients receiving a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To develop a prediction index for the 3-year risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia relying only on information that can be readily obtained in most clinical settings. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 382 participants diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, a multi-site, longitudinal, observational study. MAIN PREDICTORS MEASURES: Demographics, comorbid conditions, caregiver report of participant symptoms and function, and participant performance on individual items from basic neuropsychological scales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Progression to probable Alzheimer's disease. KEY RESULTS: Subjects had a mean (SD age of 75 (7 years and 43% progressed to probable Alzheimer's disease within 3 years. Important independent predictors of progression included being female, resisting help, becoming upset when separated from caregiver, difficulty shopping alone, forgetting appointments, number of words recalled from a 10-word list, orientation and difficulty drawing a clock. The final point score could range from 0 to 16 (mean [SD]: 4.2 [2.9]. The optimism-corrected Harrell's c-statistic was 0.71(95% CI: 0.68-0.75. Fourteen percent of subjects with low risk scores (0-2 points, n = 124 converted to probable Alzheimer's disease over 3 years, compared to 51% of those with moderate risk scores (3-8 points, n = 223 and 91% of those with high risk scores (9-16 points, n = 35. CONCLUSIONS: An index using factors that can be obtained in most clinical settings can predict progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to probable Alzheimer's disease and may help clinicians

  2. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  3. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between predictors and outcomes, and especially to identify predictors influencing the time trend in recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: We included 59 patients with mild head injury in a prospective study. They underwent comprehensive assessment...... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not....... There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....

  4. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  5. Cognitive agents - a procedural perspective relying on the predictability of Object-Action-Complexes (OACs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Agostino, A.; Krüger, Norbert;

    2009-01-01

    Embodied cognition suggests that complex cognitive traits can only arise when agents have a body situated in the world. The aspects of embodiment and situatedness are being discussed here from the perspective of linear systems theory. This perspective treats bodies as dynamic, temporally variable...... entities, which can be extended (or curtailed) at their boundaries. We show how acting agents can, for example, actively extend their body for some time by incorporating predictably behaving parts of the world and how this affects the transfer functions. We suggest that primates have mastered...

  6. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    predicted was the need for special living facilities and support at discharge from a rehabilitation hospital, as well as six months later; 53 stroke patients with age median 68 years were included in this prospective study. It was shown that a combination of Barthel Index and CT50 had a stronger predictive......The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...

  7. Everyday Cognition scale items that best discriminate between and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) starts as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, most IADL scales have not shown IADL alterations in clinically normal (CN) elderly. The objective of this study was to determine which of the IADL-related Everyday Cognition (ECog) scale items are most sensitive for detection of early functional changes. Methods We assessed 290 CN and 495 MCI participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed logistic regression analyses predicting the probability of CN vs. MCI diagnosis using only the 17 participant-based and 17 informant-based ECog items related to IADL. We then performed Cox regression analyses to predict progression from CN to MCI. All analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics. Results We found that worse performance on “remembering a few shopping items” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “remembering appointments” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “developing a schedule in advance of anticipated events” (participant-based p=0.007), “balancing checkbook” (participant-based p=0.02), and “keeping mail and papers organized” (informant-based p=0.002) best discriminated MCI from CN. We found that worse performance on “keeping mail and papers organized” (participant-based Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.27, p=0.07) marginally predicted greater hazard of progressing from CN to MCI. Conclusions Our results indicate that a few simple questions targeting early functional changes, addressed either to the individual or informant, can effectively distinguish between CN elderly and individuals with MCI. Additionally, one of the above questions related to organization suggested which CN individuals are likely to progress to MCI. PMID:25274110

  8. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  9. Early-stage white matter lesions detected by multispectral MRI segmentation predict progressive cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eJokinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WML are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a pre-visible stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65-84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%, intermediate (66%, or high (100% proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment.

  10. Relative roles of cognitive ability and practical intelligence in the prediction of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, G E; Hayes, B G; Cunningham, W R; Sivo, S A

    2001-06-01

    Initial investigations into the construct of practical intelligence have identified a new general factor of practical intelligence (gp), which is believed to be independent of general cognitive ability. This construct, gp, is also believed to be a better predictor of success than cognitive ability, personality, or any combination of variables independent of gp. The existence of this construct and its independence from Spearman's g is, however, under debate. The purpose of the present study is to investigate both the relationship between gp and g and the relative roles of practical intelligence and cognitive ability in the prediction of success. The participants included 197 college students. Each completed both the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery and Sternberg and Wagner's measure of practical intelligence in academic psychology. The results of structural equation modeling support Sternberg and Wagner's assertion that practical intelligence and general cognitive ability are relatively independent constructs. Results of regression analysis, however, do not support their contention that practical intelligence is related to success after controlling for general cognitive ability. Implications of these results for research and theory on practical intelligence are discussed. PMID:11508047

  11. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  12. The application of cognitive models to the evaluation and prediction of human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section of the paper provides a brief overview of a number of important principles relevant to human reliability modeling that have emerged from cognitive models, and presents a synthesis of these approaches in the form of a Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS). The next section illustrates the application of GEMS to some well known nuclear power plant (NPP) incidents in which human error was a major contributor. The way in which design recommendations can emerge from analyses of this type is illustrated. The third section describes the use of cognitive models in the classification of human errors for prediction and data collection purposes. The final section addresses the predictive modeling of human error as part of human reliability assessment in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  13. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-10-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed. PMID:24072946

  14. Toward an online cognitive and emotional battery to predict treatment remission in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evian Gordon,1 A John Rush,2 Donna M Palmer,3,4 Taylor A Braund,3 William Rekshan1 1Brain Resource, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Duke-NUS, Singapore; 3Brain Resource, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Brain Dynamics Center, Sydney Medical School – Westmead and Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a cognitive and emotional test battery in a representative sample of depressed outpatients to inform likelihood of remission over 8 weeks of treatment with each of three common antidepressant medications. Patients and methods: Outpatients 18–65 years old with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (17 sites were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR (extended release. Participants scored ≥12 on the baseline 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report and completed 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline test battery measured cognitive and emotional status. Exploratory multivariate logistic regression models predicting remission (16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report score ≤5 at 8 weeks were developed independently for each medication in subgroups stratified by age, sex, or cognitive and emotional test performance. The model with the highest cross-validated accuracy determined the participant proportion in each arm for whom remission could be predicted with an accuracy ≥10% above chance. The proportion for whom a prediction could be made with very high certainty (positive predictive value and negative predictive value exceeding 80% was calculated by incrementally increasing test battery thresholds to predict remission/non-remission. Results: The test battery, individually developed for each medication, improved identification of remitting and non-remitting participants by ≥10% beyond chance for 243 of 467 participants. The overall remission rates were escitalopram: 40.8%, sertraline: 30.3%, and

  15. Does Cognitive Ability Predict Mortality in the Ninth Decade? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Catherine; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether cognitive ability predicts survival from age 79 to 89 years data were collected from 543 (230 male) participants who entered the study at a mean age of 79.1 years. Most had taken the Moray House Test of general intelligence (MHT) when aged 11 and 79 years from which, in addition to intelligence measures at these two time points,…

  16. Prediction as a Humanitarian and Pragmatic Contribution from Human Cognitive Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrieli, John D. E.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has greatly enhanced the cognitive neuroscience understanding of the human brain and its variation across individuals (neurodiversity) in both health and disease. Such progress has not yet, however, propelled changes in educational or medical practices that improve people’s lives. We review neuroimaging findings in which initial brain measures (neuromarkers) are correlated with or predict future (1) education, learning, and performance in children and adults; (2) criminality; (3)...

  17. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  18. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  19. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the M...

  20. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gaser

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%. The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]. Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.

  1. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  2. Cognitive declines precede and predict functional declines in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Zahodne

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD. DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study. PARTICIPANTS: 3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia and 517 patients with AD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients. Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis. RESULTS: Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults.

  3. Conflict adaptation is predicted by the cognitive, but not the affective alexithymia dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel ede Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced response conflict (e.g., in Simon or Stroop tasks is often reduced after conflict trials—the Gratton effect. It is generally assumed that this effect is due to a strengthening of the representation of the current intention or goal, which in turn increases the degree of stimulus and/or response control. Recent evidence suggests that the motivational signal driving the Gratton effect might be affective in nature. If so, individual differences in either the strength of affective signals and/or the ability to interpret such signals might explain individual differences in cognitive-control adjustments as reflected in the Gratton effect. We tested this hypothesis by relating individual sizes of the Gratton effect in a Simon task to scores on the affective and the cognitive dimension of the Bermond/Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ—which we assumed to assess individual differences in affective-signal strength and ability to interpret affective signals, respectively. Results show that the cognitive, but not the affective dimension predicted control adjustment, while the accuracy of heartbeat detection was only (and only weakly related to online control. This suggests that the motivation to fine-tune one’s cognitive-control operations is mediated by, and may depend on one’s ability to interpret one’s own affective signals.

  4. Lateralization for speech predicts therapeutic response to cognitive behavioral therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon, Ronit; Abraham, Karen; Alschuler, Daniel M; Keilp, John G; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Bruder, Gerard E

    2015-08-30

    A prior study (Bruder, G.E., Stewart, J.W., Mercier, M.A., Agosti, V., Leite, P., Donovan, S., Quitkin, F.M., 1997. Outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression: relation of hemispheric dominance for verbal processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 138-144.) found left hemisphere advantage for verbal dichotic listening was predictive of clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. This study aimed to confirm this finding and to examine the value of neuropsychological tests, which have shown promise for predicting antidepressant response. Twenty depressed patients who subsequently completed 14 weeks of CBT and 74 healthy adults were tested on a Dichotic Fused Words Test (DFWT). Patients were also tested on the National Adult Reading Test to estimate IQ, and word fluency, choice RT, and Stroop neuropsychological tests. Left hemisphere advantage on the DFWT was more than twice as large in CBT responders as in non-responders, and was associated with improvement in depression following treatment. There was no difference between responders and non-responders on neuropsychological tests. The results support the hypothesis that the ability of individuals with strong left hemisphere dominance to recruit frontal and temporal cortical regions involved in verbal dichotic listening predicts CBT response. The large effect size, sensitivity and specificity of DFWT predictions suggest the potential value of this brief and inexpensive test as an indicator of whether a patient will benefit from CBT for depression.

  5. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine - Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent a

  6. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Rindermann

    Full Text Available The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000. The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups' (White average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic, and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic or 102 (pessimistic. The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ. Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ. Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed.

  7. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  8. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency Independently Predicts Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Hee Tay

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in 20-80% of SLE patients. Converging evidence has indicated the importance of vitamin D as a neuroimmunomodulator for cognitive function. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and cognitive dysfunction.Consecutive age- and gender-matched SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs were administered Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics in this cross-sectional study. The primary outcome was the total throughput score (TTS. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD3 and total 25(OHD] were measured using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.In total, 61 SLE patients and 61 HCs were studied. SLE patients scored significantly lower than HCs in the TTS (p = 0.004. There were no statistically significant differences in 25(OHD3 levels, total 25(OHD levels and total 25(OHD deficiency between SLE patients and HCs. However, more SLE patients had 25(OHD3 deficiency compared to HCs [12 (19.7% versus 2 (3.3%, p = 0.003]. Deficiency of 25(OHD3 (β = -63.667, SE = 27.456, p = 0.025, but not other vitamin D variables, independently predicted worse TTS after adjusting for age, education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, duration of SLE, SELENA-SLEDAI, SLICC/ACR Damage Index and cumulative steroid dose in SLE patients. Age (β = -4.261, SE = 0.866, p < 0.001 was the only predictor of TTS after adjusting for education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, vitamin D levels or status in HCs.Deficiency of 25(OHD3, a potentially modifiable risk factor, independently predicted cognitive impairment in SLE patients.

  9. Physical Activity, Sleep and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronymus eGijselaers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological lifestyle factors such as physical activity, sleep and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between biological lifestyle factors and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these biological lifestyle factors to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df=0.8, CFI=1.00, RMSEA<.001, SRMR=.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df=2.75, CFI=0.95, RMSEA<.056, SRMR=.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle aged adults.

  10. Mood Reactivity Rather than Cognitive Reactivity Is Predictive of Depressive Relapse: A Randomized Study with 5.5-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Hollon, Steven D.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT)…

  11. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  12. Predicting Mathematical Performance: The Effect of Cognitive Processes and Self-Regulation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Musso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of research studies have investigated the separate influence of working memory, attention, motivation, and learning strategies on mathematical performance and self-regulation in general. There is still little understanding of their impact on performance when taken together, understanding their interactions, and how much each of them contributes to the prediction of mathematical performance. With the emergence of new methodologies and technologies, such as the modelling with predictive systems, it is now possible to study these effects with approaches which use a wide range of data, including student characteristics, to estimate future performance without the need of traditional testing (Boekaerts and Cascallar, 2006. This research examines the different cognitive patterns and complex relations between cognitive variables, motivation, and background variables associated with different levels of mathematical performance using artificial neural networks (ANNs. A sample of 800 entering university students was used to develop three ANN models to identify the expected future level of performance in a mathematics test. These ANN models achieved high degree of precision in the correct classification of future levels of performance, showing differences in the pattern of relative predictive weight amongst those variables. The impact on educational quality, improvement, and accountability is highlighted.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment (part 2: biological markers for diagnosis and prediction of dementia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a critical review of publications reporting on the rationale and clinical implications of the use of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, limited to articles published in English between 1999 and 2012, and based on the following terms: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease OR dementia, biomarkers. We retrieved 1,130 articles, of which 175 were reviews. Overall, 955 original articles were eligible. Results: The following points were considered relevant for the present review: a rationale for biomarkers research in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; b usefulness of distinct biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; c the role of multimodality biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; d the role of biomarkers in clinical trials of patients with AD and MCI; and e current limitations to the widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings. Conclusion: Different biomarkers are useful for the early diagnosis and prediction of AD in at-risk subjects. Nonetheless, important methodological limitations need to be overcome for widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings.

  14. Hierarchical interactions model for predicting Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's Disease (AD conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    Full Text Available Identifying patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI who are likely to convert to dementia has recently attracted increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. An accurate prediction of conversion from MCI to AD can aid clinicians to initiate treatments at early stage and monitor their effectiveness. However, existing prediction systems based on the original biosignatures are not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose to fit the prediction models using pairwise biosignature interactions, thus capturing higher-order relationship among biosignatures. Specifically, we employ hierarchical constraints and sparsity regularization to prune the high-dimensional input features. Based on the significant biosignatures and underlying interactions identified, we build classifiers to predict the conversion probability based on the selected features. We further analyze the underlying interaction effects of different biosignatures based on the so-called stable expectation scores. We have used 293 MCI subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database that have MRI measurements at the baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our proposed method achieves better classification performance than state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we discover several significant interactions predictive of MCI-to-AD conversion. These results shed light on improving the prediction performance using interaction features.

  15. Fear recognition ability predicts differences in social cognitive and neural functioning in men

    OpenAIRE

    Corden, B.; & Critchley, H.D.; Skuse, D; Dolan, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    By testing the facial fear-recognition ability of 341 men in the general population, we show that 8.8% have deficits akin to those seen with acquired amygdala damage. Using psychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we tested the hypothesis that poor fear recognition would predict deficits in other domains of social cognition and, in response to socially relevant stimuli, abnormal activation in brain regions that putatively reflect engagement of the “social brain.” O...

  16. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness.

  17. Predicting Students' Skills in the Context of Scientific Inquiry with Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociodemographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger

    2015-06-01

    Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.

  18. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN and default mode network (DMN. Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation.

  19. Background rhythm frequency and theta power of quantitative EEG analysis: predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment post-cerebral infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zang, Da-Wei; Jin, Yan-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Hong-Yan; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Ji, Dong-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In clinical settings, cerebral infarct is a common disease of older adults, which usually increases the risk of cognitive impairment. This study aims to assess the quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a predictive biomarker for the development of cognitive impairment, post-cerebral infarcts, in subjects from the Department of Neurology. They underwent biennial EEG recording. Cerebral infarct subjects, with follow-up cognitive evaluation, were analyzed for qEEG measures of background rhythm frequency (BRF) and relative δ, θ, α, and β band power. The relationship between cognitive impairment and qEEG, and other possible predictors, was assessed by Cox regression. The results showed that the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment was 14 times higher for those with low BRF than for those with high BRF (P BRF, and relative power in θ band, are potential predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. These biomarkers might be valuable in early prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. PMID:24699438

  20. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  1. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  2. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  3. Predictive validity of five cognitive skills tests among women receiving engineering training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin; Hennix Sasse, Sharon; Giacomi, Jean

    This article addresses two sets of theoretical and practical issues related to increasing the percentage of women engineers. First, the measurement of women's aptitude for and changes in skills during engineering training was assessed. Five cognitive skills tests were administered in a one-group pretest-posttest design to 24 baccalaureate women enrolled in an eleven-month engineering training course. Significant increases in skills were shown on three of the five assessments. Scores on a mathematics anxiety scale and a measure of conservation of horizontality are also reported. Second, the relationship of academic and demographic information and cognitive skills to degree of success in the program is reported. Pretraining spatial visualization scores predicted posttraining GPA group membership. The results are compared and contrasted with those of studies of male undergraduates. Implications are drawn concerning the ways in which evaluations of such programs can contribute to our understanding of the changes in skills that occur with training in engineering and of the factors that predict success in such programs.

  4. Relative value of diverse brain MRI and blood-based biomarkers for predicting cognitive decline in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Ver Steeg, Greg; Daianu, Madelaine; Mezher, Adam; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Hua, Xue; Gutman, Boris A.; Galstyan, Aram; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline accompanies many debilitating illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In old age, brain tissue loss also occurs along with cognitive decline. Although blood tests are easier to perform than brain MRI, few studies compare brain scans to standard blood tests to see which kinds of information best predict future decline. In 504 older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we first used linear regression to assess the relative value of different types of data to predict cognitive decline, including 196 blood panel biomarkers, 249 MRI biomarkers obtained from the FreeSurfer software, demographics, and the AD-risk gene APOE. A subset of MRI biomarkers was the strongest predictor. There was no specific blood marker that increased predictive accuracy on its own, we found that a novel unsupervised learning method, CorEx, captured weak correlations among blood markers, and the resulting clusters offered unique predictive power.

  5. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  6. Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne

    2008-05-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of language, cognition, and working memory. Speed of spoken word recognition and vocabulary size at 25 months each accounted for unique variance in linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years, effects that were attributable to strong relations between both infancy measures and working memory. These findings suggest that processing speed and early language skills are fundamental to intellectual functioning, and that language development is guided by learning and representational principles shared across cognitive and linguistic domains. PMID:18466367

  7. Usefulness of the driveABLE cognitive assessment in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong Youl; Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the usefulness of the DriveABLE cognitive assessment tool (DCAT) in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients, and compared the cognitive and driving functions of two groups discriminated by DCAT. [Subjects and Methods] A total of forty-two stroke patients with a driver’s license participated in this study. Two participants with communication problems were excluded. DCAT was used to evaluate the risk potential to the driver, and the subjects were clas...

  8. Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of languag...

  9. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Philip; Carlbring, Per; Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment ga...

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the prediction of early conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro J. Modrego; Fayed, Nicolas; Sarasa, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of an amnestic type is a common condition in older people and highly predictive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, there is no clear consensus regarding the best antecedent biomarker to predict early conversion to AD. Objective The aim of the study is to demonstrate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in MCI patients may predict early conversion to dementia within the 2-year period after baseline assessment. Methods A cohort...

  11. Predicting condom use in adolescents: a test of three socio-cognitive models using a structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Espada, José P.; Morales, Alexandra; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Ballester, Rafael; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Background The theory of planned behavior (TPB), socio-cognitive model (SCM), and information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model are effective in predicting condom use. However, the adequacy of these three theoretical models in predicting the frequency of condom use (FCU) among young people has not been compared. This cross-sectional study tested the applicability and suitability of these three models in predicting the FCU, and analyzed the relationships among the postulated constructs....

  12. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a majorinterest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissuecells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteinswhose composition and remodeling is of crucial importancefor cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue inobesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygenand hypoxia development. Subsequent activation ofhypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocytedifferentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Therebyadipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglyceridesare stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes andhypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration andactivation which further aggravates adipose tissuefibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissuefibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction,both in rodentmodels and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin bothreduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulinresistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibroticdrugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1antagonists will improve adipose tissue function andthereby ameliorate metabolic diseases.

  13. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers in prediction of cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke: a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabian S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shima Mehrabian,1 Margarita Raycheva,1 Neli Petrova,2 Armina Janyan,3,4 Mariya Petrova,1 Latchezar Traykov1 1Clinic of Neurology, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Sofia, 2Clinic of Neurology, MHAT “Ruse”, Ruse, 3Research Center for Cognitive Science, Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 4Laboratory for Cognitive Studies in Language, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia Background: There are few longitudinal studies with controversial results examining delayed changes in cognition after ischemic stroke and predictive values of neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the delayed changes in cognition in poststroke patients and their relationship to the neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers measured during the acute poststroke phase. Methods: Eighty-five first-ever stroke inpatients (mean age 65.6±5.6 years without previous cognitive complaints were prospectively evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at the 5th day and the 1st, 6th, and 12th months. A wide range of clinical, radiological, and neuropsychological variables were examined. Results: Our results showed significantly poorer performance on mini–mental state examination, memory, attention/executive functions, and processing speed in patients with stroke in comparison with stroke-free cognitively intact controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hippocampal atrophy is the strongest predictor of delayed cognitive impairment. Secondary divided subgroups according to Isaacs Set Test (IST score showed that patients with IST score ≤28 had different patterns of cognitive and neurological impairment after 1 year. Baseline impairments in attention/executive functions and memory were associated with development of dementia in poststroke patients. Conclusion: Executive functioning deficit appears to have a predictive power

  14. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  15. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  16. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  17. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  18. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alexander M; Lawrence, Michael B; Shang, Hulan; Katz, Adam J; Peirce, Shayn M

    2009-02-01

    Intravenous delivery of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) is a promising option for the treatment of ischemia. After delivery, hASCs that reside and persist in the injured extravascular space have been shown to aid recovery of tissue perfusion and function, although low rates of incorporation currently limit the safety and efficacy of these therapies. We submit that a better understanding of the trafficking of therapeutic hASCs through the microcirculation is needed to address this and that selective control over their homing (organ- and injury-specific) may be possible by targeting bottlenecks in the homing process. This process, however, is incredibly complex, which merited the use of computational techniques to speed the rate of discovery. We developed a multicell agent-based model (ABM) of hASC trafficking during acute skeletal muscle ischemia, based on over 150 literature-based rules instituted in Netlogo and MatLab software programs. In silico, trafficking phenomena within cell populations emerged as a result of the dynamic interactions between adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, integrin affinity states, hemodynamics and microvascular network architectures. As verification, the model reasonably reproduced key aspects of ischemia and trafficking behavior including increases in wall shear stress, upregulation of key cellular adhesion molecules expressed on injured endothelium, increased secretion of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, quantified levels of monocyte extravasation in selectin knockouts, and circulating monocyte rolling distances. Successful ABM verification prompted us to conduct a series of systematic knockouts in silico aimed at identifying the most critical parameters mediating hASC trafficking. Simulations predicted the necessity of an unknown selectin-binding molecule to achieve hASC extravasation, in addition to any rolling behavior mediated by hASC surface expression of CD15s, CD34, CD62e, CD62p, or CD65. In

  19. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Bailey

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous delivery of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs is a promising option for the treatment of ischemia. After delivery, hASCs that reside and persist in the injured extravascular space have been shown to aid recovery of tissue perfusion and function, although low rates of incorporation currently limit the safety and efficacy of these therapies. We submit that a better understanding of the trafficking of therapeutic hASCs through the microcirculation is needed to address this and that selective control over their homing (organ- and injury-specific may be possible by targeting bottlenecks in the homing process. This process, however, is incredibly complex, which merited the use of computational techniques to speed the rate of discovery. We developed a multicell agent-based model (ABM of hASC trafficking during acute skeletal muscle ischemia, based on over 150 literature-based rules instituted in Netlogo and MatLab software programs. In silico, trafficking phenomena within cell populations emerged as a result of the dynamic interactions between adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, integrin affinity states, hemodynamics and microvascular network architectures. As verification, the model reasonably reproduced key aspects of ischemia and trafficking behavior including increases in wall shear stress, upregulation of key cellular adhesion molecules expressed on injured endothelium, increased secretion of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, quantified levels of monocyte extravasation in selectin knockouts, and circulating monocyte rolling distances. Successful ABM verification prompted us to conduct a series of systematic knockouts in silico aimed at identifying the most critical parameters mediating hASC trafficking. Simulations predicted the necessity of an unknown selectin-binding molecule to achieve hASC extravasation, in addition to any rolling behavior mediated by hASC surface expression of CD15s, CD34, CD62e, CD62p

  20. Mood reactivity rather than cognitive reactivity is predictive of depressive relapse : a randomized study with 5.5-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W J; Ruhe, Eric; Hollon, Steven D; Schene, Aart H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivi

  1. Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Dementia Using Clinical, MRI, and Plasma Biomarkers via Probabilistic Pattern Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O Korolev

    Full Text Available Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI have a substantially increased risk of developing dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study, we developed a multivariate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression at the individual patient level.Using baseline data from 259 MCI patients and a probabilistic, kernel-based pattern classification approach, we trained a classifier to distinguish between patients who progressed to AD-type dementia (n = 139 and those who did not (n = 120 during a three-year follow-up period. More than 750 variables across four data sources were considered as potential predictors of progression. These data sources included risk factors, cognitive and functional assessments, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, and plasma proteomic data. Predictive utility was assessed using a rigorous cross-validation framework.Cognitive and functional markers were most predictive of progression, while plasma proteomic markers had limited predictive utility. The best performing model incorporated a combination of cognitive/functional markers and morphometric MRI measures and predicted progression with 80% accuracy (83% sensitivity, 76% specificity, AUC = 0.87. Predictors of progression included scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Functional Activities Questionnaire, as well as volume/cortical thickness of three brain regions (left hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal cortex. Calibration analysis revealed that the model is capable of generating probabilistic predictions that reliably reflect the actual risk of progression. Finally, we found that the predictive accuracy of the model varied with patient demographic, genetic, and clinical characteristics and could be further improved by taking into account the confidence of the predictions.We developed an accurate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  3. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  4. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns. PMID:22421897

  5. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla;

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  6. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eWade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child’s birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children’s joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously-validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g. age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables, both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social

  7. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  8. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  9. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  10. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  11. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Festen; C.A. Hartman; S.M. Hogendoorn; E. de Haan; P.J.M. Prins; C.G. Reichart; H. Moorlag; M.H. Nauta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants w

  12. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy : The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants w

  13. Predicting the outcome of anomia therapy for people with aphasia post CVA: both language and cognitive status are key predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Snell, Claerwen; Fillingham, Joanne K; Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether it was possible to predict therapy gain from participants' performance on background tests of language and cognitive ability. To do this, we amalgamated the assessment and therapy results from 33 people with aphasia following cerebral vascular accident (CVA), all of whom had received the same anomia therapy (based on progressive phonemic and orthographic cueing). Previous studies with smaller numbers of participants had found a possible relationship between anomia therapy performance and some language and cognitive assessments. Because this study had access to a larger data set than previous studies, we were able to replicate the previous findings and also to verify two overarching factors which were predictive of therapy gain: a cognitive factor and a phonological factor. The status of these two domains was able to predict both immediate and longer-term therapy gain. Pre-treatment naming ability also predicted gain after the anomia therapy. When combined, both cognitive and language (naming or phonological) skills were found to be independent predictors of therapy outcome.

  14. Personal Contextual Characteristics and Cognitions: Predicting Child Abuse Potential and Disciplinary Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental…

  15. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  16. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  17. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared P. Schprechman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF. Methods. Older adults (N=119 with heart failure (69.84±9.09 years completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed.

  18. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Saed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140. Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MCQ-30, White Bear Suppression Inventory, and Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Questionnaires. For data analysis, discriminant analysis were used. Results: Negative meta-cognitive beliefs about worry, depression, and thought suppression were the most significant predictors of substance dependence disorder. Conclusion: Through meta-cognitive beliefs, thought suppression and negative emotion (especially depression, substance dependency disorder can be predicted. Based on this model can be used to take a substance dependency disorder prevention approach and psychotherapy approach (based on cognitive and meta-cognitive therapies. In addition, the findings of this research can be applied in clinical and counseling environments to help substance dependant clients.

  19. Does Self-perceived Mood Predict More Variance in Cognitive Performance Than Clinician-Rated Symptoms in Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sharma, Tonmoy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms are known to account for a small variance in some cognitive functions in schizophrenia, but the influence of self-perceived mood remains largely unknown. The authors examined the influence of subjective mood states, psychopathology, and depressive symptoms in cognitive performance in a single investigation in schizophrenia. A group of 40 stable medicated patients with schizophrenia (20 men, 20 women) and 30 healthy comparison subjects (15 men, 15 women) were assessed on neurocognitive measures of verbal abilities, attention, executive functioning, language, memory, motor functioning, and information processing. All subjects provided self-ratings of mood prior to cognitive testing. Patients were also rated on psychopathology and depressive symptoms. Patients performed worse than comparison subjects on most cognitive domains. Within the patient group, subjective feelings of depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion, and tension-anxiety predicted (controlling for symptoms) poor performance on measures of attention, executive function, and verbal memory. In the same group of patients, clinician-rated symptoms of psychopathology and depression predicted significantly poor performance only on tests of motor function. In comparison subjects, vigor related to better, and fatigue and inertia to worse, spatial motor performance. Self-perceived negative mood state may be a better predictor of cognitive deficits than clinician-rated symptoms in chronic schizophrenia patients. PMID:16760421

  20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 but Not Insulin Predicts Cognitive Decline in Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssov, Katia; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Cleret, Laurent; Bourhis, Marie-Laure; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Verny, Christophe; Morin, Françoise; Moutereau, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Maison, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Huntington's disease (HD) is one of several neurodegenerative disorders that have been associated with metabolic alterations. Changes in Insulin Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and/or insulin input to the brain may underlie or contribute to the progress of neurodegenerative processes. Here, we investigated the association over time between changes in plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin and the cognitive decline in HD patients. Methods We conducted a multicentric cohort study in 156 patients with genetically documented HD aged from 22 to 80 years. Among them, 146 patients were assessed at least twice with a follow-up of 3.5 ± 1.8 years. We assessed their cognitive decline using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale, and their IGF-1 and insulin plasmatic levels, at baseline and once a year during the follow-up. Associations were evaluated using a mixed-effect linear model. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline, higher levels of IGF-1 and insulin were associated with lower cognitive scores and thus with a higher degree of cognitive impairment. In the longitudinal analysis, the decrease of all cognitive scores, except the Stroop interference, was associated with the IGF-1 level over time but not of insulin. Conclusions IGF-1 levels, unlike insulin, predict the decline of cognitive function in HD. PMID:27627435

  1. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  2. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is More Predictive of Memory Abilities Than the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P < .001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At 1 year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  3. The interaction of affective states and cognitive vulnerabilities in the prediction of non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah N; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Jenkins, Abigail; Ong, Mian-Li; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious public health concern and remains poorly understood. This study sought to identify both cognitive and affective vulnerabilities to NSSI and examine their interaction in the prediction of NSSI. A series of regressions indicated that low levels of positive affect (PA) moderated the relationships between self-criticism and brooding and NSSI. The associations of self-criticism and brooding with greater frequency of NSSI were attenuated by higher levels of PA. The interaction of cognitive and affective vulnerabilities is discussed within the context of current NSSI theory.

  4. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Associated with Plaque Burden and Composition and Provides Incremental Value for the Prediction of Cardiac Outcome. A Clinical Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitsios Gitsioudis

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate the association of epicardial adipose tissue (eCAT volume with plaque burden, circulating biomarkers and cardiac outcomes in patients with intermediate risk for coronary artery disease (CAD.177 consecutive outpatients at intermediate risk for CAD and completed biomarker analysis including high-sensitive Troponin T (hs-TnT and hs-CRP underwent 256-slice cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA between June 2008 and October 2011. Patients with lumen narrowing ≥50% exhibited significantly higher eCAT volume than patients without any CAD or lumen narrowing 3 risk factors, presence of CAD, hs-CRP and hs-TnT.Epicardial adipose tissue volume is independently associated with plaque burden and maximum luminal narrowing by CCTA and may serve as an independent predictor for cardiac outcomes in patients at intermediate risk for CAD.

  5. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships. PMID:26362037

  6. Mild cognitive impairment predicts institutionalization among older men: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Gnjidic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence on the contribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to institutionalization in older adults. This study aimed to evaluate a range of risk factors including MCI of institutionalization in older men. METHODS: Men aged ≥70 years (n = 1705, participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, Sydney, Australia were studied. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires and underwent comprehensive clinical assessments during 2005-2007. Institutionalization was defined as entry into a nursing home facility or hostel at any time over an average of 5 years of follow-up. Cox regression analysis was conducted to generate hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: A total of 125 (7.3% participants were institutionalized. Piecewise Cox proportional models were generated and divided at 3.4 years (1250 days of follow-up due to violation of the proportional hazards assumption for the association between MCI and institutionalization (χ(2 = 6.44, p = 0.01. Dementia, disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, poor grip strength, few social interactions, being a Non-English speaking immigrant and age were predictive of institutionalization during both time periods, whereas MCI (HR = 4.39, 95%CI 2.17-8.87 only predicted institutionalization in the period beyond 3.4 years of follow-up. Being married (HR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.24-0.72 was protective only during the period after 3.4 years of follow-up. DISCUSSION: In this study, the strongest predictors of institutionalization were dementia, MCI, ADL and IADL disability. MCI was not a predictor of early institutionalization but became a significant predictor beyond 3.4 years of follow-up.

  7. Comparison of body mass index (BMI) with the CUN-BAE body adiposity estimator in the prediction of hypertension and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Vicente; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Castilla, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Soldevila, Nuria; Antonio J. Molina; Fernandez-Villa, Tania; ASTRAY, Jenaro; Castro, Ady; González-Candelas, Fernando; Mayoral, José María; Quintana, José María; Domínguez, Angela; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a world-wide epidemic whose prevalence is underestimated by BMI measurements, but CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator) estimates the percentage of body fat (BF) while incorporating information on sex and age, thus giving a better match. Our aim is to compare the BMI and CUN-BAE in determining the population attributable fraction (AFp) for obesity as a cause of chronic diseases. Methods We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient betwe...

  8. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Batista Miamoto; Luciano José Pereira; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-01-01

    Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI); lip competence...

  9. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Philip; Carlbring, Per; Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments. PMID:27114881

  10. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward: Clinical risk factors and prediction by bedside cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Koerner, Ejnar Alex; Schultz, Helga Holm; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2016-08-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious participants were CAM positive. Poor performance on the cognitive tests was associated with delirium. Medical records describing CNS metastases, benzodiazepine or morphine treatment were associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium is prevalent among cancer inpatients. The Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient profile for the detection of delirium. PMID:26882016

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  12. Can the Components of a Cognitive Model Predict the Severity of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michel J.; Savard, Pierre; Gaudet, Adrienne; Turcotte, Julie; Laugesen, Nina; Robichaud, Melisa; Francis, Kylie; Koerner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of well-controlled studies have supported the validity of a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that has four main components: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation, and cognitive avoidance. Although these studies have shown that the model components…

  13. White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, A; Madureira, S; Moleiro, C;

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently.......We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently....

  14. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  15. Adolescent Aggression and Social Cognition in the Context of Personality: Impulsivity as a Moderator of Predictions from Social Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fite, Jennifer E.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    This study asked how individual differences in social cognition and personality interact in predicting later aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between immediate response evaluations in social information processing (SIP) and later aggressive behavior would be moderated by impulsivity. In particular, the immediate positive evaluations of aggressive responses would be more strongly related to later aggressive behavior for high-impulsive than for low-impulsive indivi...

  16. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huibers, Marcus J. H.; Zachary D Cohen; Lemmens, Lotte H. J. M.; Arnoud Arntz; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Pim Cuijpers; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT) and inte...

  17. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Saed; Somayeh Purehsan; Jalil Aslani; Mohammad Zargar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140). Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MC...

  18. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  19. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  20. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  1. Cognitive model of trust dynamics predicts human behavior within and between two games of strategic interaction with computerized confederate agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gordon Collins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game’s optimal outcome as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game’s optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game. The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model’s a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model’s predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  2. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  3. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  4. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  5. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  6. Development of a Medical School Admissions Interview Phase 2: Predictive Validity of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Streyffeler, Lisa; Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; Kuperman, Samuel; Patrick, Luke E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interest in improving medical school admissions processes led to the development of a structured admissions interview to eliminate potential bias and provide valid information for selection. This article reports on the degree to which this interview, along with other admissions variables, predicted later student performance during medical school. Methods: All applicants considered for admission participated in the new interview. Interview scores and regular admissions data were co...

  7. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-10-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as "adipokines." Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues.

  8. Higher self-control capacity predicts lower anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examination...

  9. Onboard Interference Prediction for the Cognitive Medium Access in the LEO Satellite Uplink Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuochen Xie; Huijie Liu; Xuwen Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an efficient way to increase spectrum efficiency for the small low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication system. Due to the implementation difficulties, we focus on the CR in the uplink transmission. In CR, the cognitive medium access (CMA) is designed to enable the coexistence with the interferences from other systems. However, the CMA schemes designed for the terrestrial system cannot deal well with the global history of interferences in our system. Here, we desi...

  10. Parental Depression and Child Cognitive Vulnerability Predict Children’s Cortisol Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; SHEIKH, HAROON I.; Jordan, Patricia L.; Dozois, David J.A.; Singh, Shiva M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Badanes, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children’s cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnera...

  11. Age-correction of test scores reduces the validity of mild cognitive impairment in predicting progression to dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hessler

    Full Text Available A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education-norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated.Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test of dementia-free participants aged ≥65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1 age and education, (2 education only, (3 age only and (4 without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals.82 (15.3% of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p<0.001. Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (-2 log likelihood  = 840.90, model fit χ2 (1  = 144.27, HR  = 1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87 and the highest with education-corrected scores (-2 log likelihood  = 815.80, model fit χ2 (1  = 171.16, HR  = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88.The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia.

  12. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  13. Adipose tissue macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutens, Lily; Stienstra, Rinke

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation originating from the adipose tissue is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although a plethora of different immune cells shapes adipose tissue inflammation, this review is specifically foc

  14. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  15. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.

  16. Dynamic testing of learning potential in adults with cognitive impairments: A systematic review of methodology and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, Hileen; Bovend'Eerdt, Thamar J H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic testing includes procedures that examine the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-training change reflects patients' learning potential. The objective of this systematic review was to provide clinicians and researchers insight into the concept and methodology of dynamic testing and to explore its predictive validity in adult patients with cognitive impairments. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase/Medline. Of 1141 potentially relevant articles, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean methodological quality score was 4.6 of 8. Eleven different dynamic tests were used. The majority of studies used dynamic versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The training mostly consisted of a combination of performance feedback, reinforcement, expanded instruction, or strategy training. Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and categorical (groups) indices. In five of six longitudinal studies, learning potential significantly predicted rehabilitation outcome. Three of four studies supported the added value of dynamic testing over conventional testing in predicting rehabilitation outcome. This review provides preliminary support that dynamic tests can provide a valuable addition to conventional tests to assess patients' abilities. Although promising, there was a large variability in methods used for dynamic testing and, therefore, it remains unclear which dynamic testing methods are most appropriate for patients with cognitive impairments. More research is warranted to further evaluate and refine dynamic testing methodology and to further elucidate its predictive validity concerning rehabilitation outcomes relative to other cognitive and functional status indices.

  17. Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease based on bayesian data mining with ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Young, K; Chao, L L; Miller, B; Yaffe, K; Weiner, M W; Herskovits, E H

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of disease progress is of great importance to Alzheimer disease (AD) researchers and clinicians. Previous attempts at constructing predictive models have been hindered by undersampling, and restriction to linear associations among variables, among other problems. To address these problems, we propose a novel Bayesian data-mining method called Bayesian Outcome Prediction with Ensemble Learning (BOPEL). BOPEL uses a Bayesian-network representation with boosting, to allow the detection of nonlinear multivariate associations, and incorporates resampling-based feature selection to prevent over-fitting caused by undersampling. We demonstrate the use of this approach in predicting conversion to AD in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), based on structural magnetic-resonance and magnetic-resonance- spectroscopy data. This study includes 26 subjects with amnestic MCI: the converter group (n = 8) met MCI criteria at baseline, but converted to AD within five years, whereas the non-converter group (n = 18) met MCI criteria at baseline and at follow-up. We found that BOPEL accurately differentiates MCI converters from non-converters, based on the baseline volumes of the left hippocampus, the banks of the right superior temporal sulcus, the right entorhinal cortex, the left lingual gyrus, and the rostral aspect of the left middle frontal gyrus. Prediction accuracy was 0.81, sensitivity was 0.63 and specificity was 0.89. We validated the generated predictive model with an independent data set constructed from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and again found high predictive accuracy (0.75).

  18. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  19. Measuring working memory is all fun and games: a four-dimensional spatial game predicts cognitive task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Sharona M; Sprenger, Amber M; Colflesh, Gregory J H; Briner, Timothy L; Buchanan, Jacob B; Chavis, Sydnee E; Chen, Sy-Yu; Iannuzzi, Gregory L; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Dowling, Eamon; Harbison, J Isaiah; Bolger, Donald J; Bunting, Michael F; Dougherty, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel four-dimensional spatial task called Shapebuilder and used it to predict performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. In six experiments, we illustrate that Shapebuilder: (1) Loads on a common factor with complex working memory (WM) span tasks and that it predicts performance on quantitative reasoning tasks and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Experiment 1), (2) Correlates well with traditional complex WM span tasks (Experiment 2), predicts performance on the conditional go/no go task (Experiment 3) and N-back (Experiment 4), and showed weak or nonsignificant correlations with the Attention Networks Task (Experiment 5), and task switching (Experiment 6). Shapebuilder shows that it exhibits minimal skew and kurtosis, and shows good reliability. We argue that Shapebuilder has many advantages over existing measures of WM, including the fact that it is largely language independent, is not prone to ceiling effects, and take less than 6 min to complete on average.

  20. Measuring working memory is all fun and games: a four-dimensional spatial game predicts cognitive task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Sharona M; Sprenger, Amber M; Colflesh, Gregory J H; Briner, Timothy L; Buchanan, Jacob B; Chavis, Sydnee E; Chen, Sy-Yu; Iannuzzi, Gregory L; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Dowling, Eamon; Harbison, J Isaiah; Bolger, Donald J; Bunting, Michael F; Dougherty, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel four-dimensional spatial task called Shapebuilder and used it to predict performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. In six experiments, we illustrate that Shapebuilder: (1) Loads on a common factor with complex working memory (WM) span tasks and that it predicts performance on quantitative reasoning tasks and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Experiment 1), (2) Correlates well with traditional complex WM span tasks (Experiment 2), predicts performance on the conditional go/no go task (Experiment 3) and N-back (Experiment 4), and showed weak or nonsignificant correlations with the Attention Networks Task (Experiment 5), and task switching (Experiment 6). Shapebuilder shows that it exhibits minimal skew and kurtosis, and shows good reliability. We argue that Shapebuilder has many advantages over existing measures of WM, including the fact that it is largely language independent, is not prone to ceiling effects, and take less than 6 min to complete on average. PMID:24962121

  1. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  2. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  3. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory. Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait

  4. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  5. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a Theoretical Framework to Predict Smoking Relapse among Daily Smoking Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Nijhof, L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses,

  6. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  7. Longitudinal Prediction of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examination of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerry, J.D.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Virtually no longitudinal research has examined psychological characteristics or events that may lead to adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested a cognitive vulnerability-stress model as a predictor of NSSI trajectories. Clinically-referred adolescents (n = 143; 72% girls) compl

  8. Metacognitive capacity predicts severity of trauma-related dysfunctional cognitions in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louanne W; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Siegel, Alysia; Brustuen, Beth; Luedtke, Brandi; Vohs, Jennifer L; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-30

    Deficits in metacognition have been proposed as a barrier to adaptive responding to trauma. However, little is known about how different aspects of metacognitive capacity relate to responses to trauma and whether their potential link to such responses is independent of the overall level of psychopathology. To explore both issues, negative trauma-related cognitions about the self, the world, and self-blame, as measured by the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI), were correlated with concurrent measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and two forms of metacognition; the Metacognitions questionnaire (MCQ-30), which focuses on specific thoughts, and the Metacognition Assessment Scale Abbreviated (MAS-A) which focuses on the degree to which persons can form complex representations of self and other. Participants were 51 veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who had a PTSD diagnosis primarily involving a combat-related index trauma. Correlations revealed that being younger and more depressed were linked with greater levels of negative cognitions about self and the world. Lower levels of self-reflectivity on the MAS-A and higher levels of cognitive self-consciousness on the MCQ-30 were uniquely related to greater levels of self-blame even after controlling for age, level of depression, and PTSD. Implications for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26837477

  9. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  10. Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions…

  11. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  12. Therapist Competence in Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Predicting Subsequent Symptom Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Brotman, Melissa A.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression has been well established. Measures of the adequacy of therapists' delivery of treatment are critical to facilitating therapist training and treatment dissemination. While some studies have shown an association between CT competence and outcome, researchers have yet to address…

  13. Prediction of Response to Medication and Cognitive Therapy in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Shelton, Richard C.; Hollon, Steven D.; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Gallop, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial found nearly equivalent response rates for antidepressant medications and cognitive therapy in a sample of moderate to severely depressed outpatients. In this article, the authors seek to identify the variables that were associated with response across both treatments as well as variables that predicted…

  14. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  15. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P meals predicted feeling more confident, and less sluggish, hungry and thirsty (P meals increased glucose levels 90 min after breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P meals predicted better declarative-verbal memory (P = 0·03), and high-GI meals better vigilance (P < 0·03); observed GI effects were valid across GL groups. GI effects on cognition appear to be domain specific. On balance, it would appear that the low-GI high-GL breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast.

  16. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI.

  17. Predictive value of developmental testing in the second year for cognitive development at five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Sutcliffe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mixed evidence about the predictive validity of the Griffiths mental developmental scales. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of developmental assessments of children in their second year using the Griffiths mental development scales for neuro-developmental status at five years using the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R. In a longitudinal study 253 children were assessed in their second year of life using the Griffiths scales and again at five years using the WPPSI-R. The scores were compared and the predictability of the WPPSI-R outcome on the basis of Griffiths scores was assessed. The WPPSI-R full scale IQ and the performance IQ at age five could be predicted moderately by the Griffiths general quotient (GQ and by the personal/social scale. The Griffiths GQ was not a significant predictor of verbal IQ at age 5. The Griffiths performance scale predicted subsequent WPPSI-R performance IQ, and marginally the Full Scale IQ. For the early identification of children at risk for language delay, the Griffiths scales may not be suitable. However, a shortened form would be useful to predict overall cognitive development from the second year to school entry, focussing on the personal-social and performance scales.

  18. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini G. Ranasinghe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum − 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD.

  19. Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition: The Wisdom of Individuals or Crowds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Michael C.; Pashler, Harold; Homaei, Hadjar

    2008-01-01

    Griffiths and Tenenbaum (2006) asked individuals to make predictions about the duration or extent of everyday events (e.g., cake baking times), and reported that predictions were optimal, employing Bayesian inference based on veridical prior distributions. Although the predictions conformed strikingly to statistics of the world, they reflect…

  20. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments. PMID:26323054

  1. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

    OpenAIRE

    Julia eRahe; Jutta eBecker; Fink, Gereon R.; Josef eKessler; Juraj eKukolja; Andreas eRahn; Rosen, Jan B.; Florian eSzabados; Brunhilde eWirth; Elke eKalbe

    2015-01-01

    Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT) yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT). Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n = 20), CPT (n = 25), or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n = 23). Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and post-test. No interaction effects were found except for one ...

  2. Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Anna MacKay-Brandt; Yaakov Stern

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project) and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, an...

  3. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd A; Casey, B J

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI...

  4. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI; lip competence was assessed based on Ballard's description. The bio-psychosocial characteristics were assessed via a questionnaire and clinical exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of bruxism was 23%. There were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.970. Individuals with sucking habits (OR [95% CI] = 4.44 [1.5 to 13.0], posterior crossbite (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.2 to 7.5] and tooth wear facets (OR [95% CI] = 3.32 [1.2 to 8.7] had a greater chance of exhibiting SB. Sucking habits, posterior crossbite and tooth wear facets were identified as being directly associated with the clinical manifestations of bruxism.

  5. Impaired Activation in Cognitive Control Regions Predicts Reversal Learning in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreth, Adam J; Gold, James M; Cools, Roshan; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-03-01

    Reinforcement learning deficits have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ). However, the pathophysiology that gives rise to these abnormalities remains unclear. To address this question, SZ patients (N = 58) and controls (CN; N = 36) completed a probabilistic reversal-learning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During the task, participants choose between 2 stimuli. Initially, 1 stimulus was frequently rewarded (80%); the other was infrequently rewarded (20%). The reward contingencies reversed periodically because the participant learned the more rewarded stimulus. The results indicated that SZ patients achieved fewer reversals than CN, and demonstrated decreased winstay-loseshift decision-making behavior. On loseshift compared to winstay trials, SZ patients showed reduced Blood Oxygen Level Dependent activation compared to CN in a network of brain regions widely associated with cognitive control, and striatal regions. Importantly, relationships between group membership and behavior were mediated by alterations in the activity of cognitive control regions, but not striatum. These findings indicate an important role for the cognitive control network in mediating the use and updating of value representations in SZ. Such results provide biological targets for further inquiry because researchers attempt to better characterize decision-making neural circuitry in SZ as a means to discover new pathways for interventions. PMID:26049083

  6. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  7. Predicting rapid response to cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: the role of hippocampus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Andrea; Thilo, Kai; Filippini, Nicola; Croft, Alison; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-11-01

    Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective first-line intervention for anxiety disorders, treatments remain long and cost-intensive, difficult to access, and a subgroup of patients fails to show any benefits at all. This study aimed to identify functional and structural brain markers that predict a rapid response to CBT. Such knowledge will be important to establish the mechanisms underlying successful treatment and to develop more effective, shorter interventions. Fourteen unmedicated patients with panic disorder underwent 3 T functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before receiving four sessions of exposure-based CBT. Symptom severity was measured before and after treatment. During functional MRI, patients performed an emotion regulation task, either viewing negative images naturally, or intentionally down-regulating negative affect by using previously taught strategies of cognitive reappraisal. Structural MRI images were analysed including left and right segmentation and volume estimation. Improved response to brief CBT was predicted by increased pre-treatment activation in bilateral insula and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during threat processing, as well as increased right hippocampal gray matter volume. Previous work links these regions to improved threat processing and fear memory activation, suggesting that the activation of such mechanisms is crucial for exposure-based CBT to be effective.

  8. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  9. Predicting Optimal Outcomes in Cognitive Therapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Individuals Using the Personalized Advantage Index Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J H Huibers

    Full Text Available Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT.134 depressed patients completed the pre- and post-treatment BDI-II assessment. First, we identified baseline predictors and moderators. Second, individual treatment recommendations were generated by combining the identified predictors and moderators in an algorithm that produces the Personalized Advantage Index (PAI, a measure of the predicted advantage in one therapy compared to the other, using standard regression analyses and the leave-one-out cross-validation approach.We found five predictors (gender, employment status, anxiety, personality disorder and quality of life and six moderators (somatic complaints, cognitive problems, paranoid symptoms, interpersonal self-sacrificing, attributional style and number of life events of treatment outcome. The mean average PAI value was 8.9 BDI points, and 63% of the sample was predicted to have a clinically meaningful advantage in one of the therapies. Those who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment (either CT or IPT had an observed mean end-BDI of 11.8, while those who received their predicted non-optimal treatment had an end-BDI of 17.8 (effect size for the difference = 0.51.Depressed patients who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment fared much better than those randomized to their predicted non-optimal treatment. The PAI provides a great opportunity for formal decision-making to improve individual patient outcomes in depression. Although the utility of the PAI

  10. Exploring the knowledge behind predictions in everyday cognition: an iterated learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Rachel G; Dunn, John C; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Making accurate predictions about events is an important but difficult task. Recent work suggests that people are adept at this task, making predictions that reflect surprisingly accurate knowledge of the distributions of real quantities. Across three experiments, we used an iterated learning procedure to explore the basis of this knowledge: to what extent is domain experience critical to accurate predictions and how accurate are people when faced with unfamiliar domains? In Experiment 1, two groups of participants, one resident in Australia, the other in China, predicted the values of quantities familiar to both (movie run-times), unfamiliar to both (the lengths of Pharaoh reigns), and familiar to one but unfamiliar to the other (cake baking durations and the lengths of Beijing bus routes). While predictions from both groups were reasonably accurate overall, predictions were inaccurate in the selectively unfamiliar domains and, surprisingly, predictions by the China-resident group were also inaccurate for a highly familiar domain: local bus route lengths. Focusing on bus routes, two follow-up experiments with Australia-resident groups clarified the knowledge and strategies that people draw upon, plus important determinants of accurate predictions. For unfamiliar domains, people appear to rely on extrapolating from (not simply directly applying) related knowledge. However, we show that people's predictions are subject to two sources of error: in the estimation of quantities in a familiar domain and extension to plausible values in an unfamiliar domain. We propose that the key to successful predictions is not simply domain experience itself, but explicit experience of relevant quantities. PMID:25837024

  11. PREDICTION BASED CHANNEL-HOPPING ALGORITHM FOR RENDEZVOUS IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay Kumar; A. Magesh; U. Mohammed Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Most common works for rendezvous in cognitive radio networks deal only with two user scenarios involving two secondary users and variable primary users and aim at reducing the time-to-rendezvous. A common control channel for the establishment of communication is not considered and hence the work comes under the category of ‘Blind Rendezvous’. Our work deal with multi-user scenario and provides a methodology for the users to find each other in the very first time slot spent for rendezvous or o...

  12. Improving CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eFerreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer disease (AD is still suboptimal. Objective: By considering several confounding factors we aimed to identify in which situations these CSF biomarkers can be useful. Data sources: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and CRD (1990-2013. Eligibility criteria: 1 prospective studies of CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from MCI to AD/dementia; 2 inclusion of Aß42 and T-tau and/or p-tau. Several meta-analyses were performed. Results: Aß42/p-tau ratio had high capacity to predict conversion to AD in MCI patients younger than 70 years. P-tau had high capacity to identify MCI cases converting to AD in ≤24 months. Conclusions: Explaining how different confounding factors influence CSF biomarkers’ predictive performance is mandatory to elaborate a definitive map of situations where these CSF biomarkers are useful both in clinics and research.

  13. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Hare, Todd; Casey, B J

    2011-09-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using fMRI scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go/no-go task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for no-go versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during no-go versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subject ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy no-go versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence. PMID:20809855

  14. An evaluation of volume-based morphometry for prediction of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schmitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry from conventional T1-weighted images has proved effective to quantify Alzheimer's disease (AD related brain atrophy and to enable fairly accurate automated classification of AD patients, mild cognitive impaired patients (MCI and elderly controls. Little is known, however, about the classification power of volume-based morphometry, where features of interest consist of a few brain structure volumes (e.g. hippocampi, lobes, ventricles as opposed to hundreds of thousands of voxel-wise gray matter concentrations. In this work, we experimentally evaluate two distinct volume-based morphometry algorithms (FreeSurfer and an in-house algorithm called MorphoBox for automatic disease classification on a standardized data set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results indicate that both algorithms achieve classification accuracy comparable to the conventional whole-brain voxel-based morphometry pipeline using SPM for AD vs elderly controls and MCI vs controls, and higher accuracy for classification of AD vs MCI and early vs late AD converters, thereby demonstrating the potential of volume-based morphometry to assist diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. PMID:25535099

  16. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  17. Empathy and motivation for justice: Cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Why do people tend to care for upholding principles of justice? This study examined the association between individual differences in the affective, motivational and cognitive components of empathy, sensitivity to justice, and psychopathy in participants (N 265) who were also asked to rate the permissibility of everyday moral situations that pit personal benefit against moral standards of justice. Counter to common sense, emotional empathy was not associated with sensitivity to injustice for others. Rather, individual differences in cognitive empathy and empathic concern predicted sensitivity to justice for others, as well as the endorsement of moral rules. Psychopathy coldheartedness scores were inversely associated with motivation for justice. Moreover, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-focused and other-focused orientations toward justice had opposing influences on the permissibility of moral judgments. High scores on psychopathy were associated with less moral condemnation of immoral behavior. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the information processing mechanisms underlying justice motivation, and may guide interventions designed to foster justice and moral behavior. In order to promote justice motivation, it may be more effective to encourage perspective taking and reasoning than emphasizing emotional sharing with the misfortune of others.

  18. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482

  19. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24821509

  20. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  2. Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andy

    2013-06-01

    Brains, it has recently been argued, are essentially prediction machines. They are bundles of cells that support perception and action by constantly attempting to match incoming sensory inputs with top-down expectations or predictions. This is achieved using a hierarchical generative model that aims to minimize prediction error within a bidirectional cascade of cortical processing. Such accounts offer a unifying model of perception and action, illuminate the functional role of attention, and may neatly capture the special contribution of cortical processing to adaptive success. This target article critically examines this "hierarchical prediction machine" approach, concluding that it offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action. Sections 1 and 2 lay out the key elements and implications of the approach. Section 3 explores a variety of pitfalls and challenges, spanning the evidential, the methodological, and the more properly conceptual. The paper ends (sections 4 and 5) by asking how such approaches might impact our more general vision of mind, experience, and agency.

  3. Genetic predisposition to higher production of interleukin-6 through -174 G > C polymorphism predicts global cognitive decline in oldest-old with cognitive impairment no dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Fraga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulated in neurodegenerative contexts. The polymorphism IL-6 -174 G > C influences release levels of this cytokine. We aimed to evaluate the influence of IL-6 -174 G > C on global cognitive score of a group with cognitive impairment no dementia in one year of follow-up.Methods The subjects were categorized in two groups: short-term decline in global cognitive score and those with short-term stability or improvement. IL-6 174 G > C information were compared among these groups.Results We observed that individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia with GGlowergenotype were more frequent among global cognitive score non-decliners while carriers of at least one Chigherallele were more frequent in the group with global cognitive score decliners (p = 0.012; RR = 3.095 IC95%= 1.087-8.812.Conclusion These results suggest that the higher expression of IL-6 gene may be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline among individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia.

  4. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG p

  5. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  6. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  7. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  8. Developmental ethanol exposure-induced sleep fragmentation predicts adult cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Masiello, K; Lewin, M P; Hui, M; Smiley, J F; Saito, M

    2016-05-13

    Developmental ethanol (EtOH) exposure can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, and emotional dysregulation among other problems. In healthy adults, sleep plays an important role in each of these behavioral manifestations. Here we explored circadian rhythms (activity, temperature) and slow-wave sleep (SWS) in adult mice that had received a single day of EtOH exposure on postnatal day 7 and saline littermate controls. We tested for correlations between slow-wave activity and both contextual fear conditioning and hyperactivity. Developmental EtOH resulted in adult hyperactivity within the home cage compared to controls but did not significantly modify circadian cycles in activity or temperature. It also resulted in reduced and fragmented SWS, including reduced slow-wave bout duration and increased slow-wave/fast-wave transitions over 24-h periods. In the same animals, developmental EtOH exposure also resulted in impaired contextual fear conditioning memory. The impairment in memory was significantly correlated with SWS fragmentation. Furthermore, EtOH-treated animals did not display a post-training modification in SWS which occurred in controls. In contrast to the memory impairment, sleep fragmentation was not correlated with the developmental EtOH-induced hyperactivity. Together these results suggest that disruption of SWS and its plasticity are a secondary contributor to a subset of developmental EtOH exposure's long-lasting consequences. PMID:26892295

  9. The prediction of success in an ever-changing world : assessing cognitive flexibility through dynamic testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using tests to assess intellectual capability is seen as a double-edged sword. On one hand it is considered an instrument of perpetuating socio-economic injustice, on the other hand, as it turns out, intelligence tests are the most successful tools available to predict a range of relevant success criteria in education and vocation. It seems that practitioners and educators who are confronted with the challenge of providing professional judgements regarding individuals’ educational futur...

  10. Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard Chris M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB framework to predict leisure-time walking. Methods Participants were a random sample (N = 358 of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later. Results Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42 with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18. Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning. Conclusion Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.

  11. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (Pfitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  12. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  13. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  14. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  15. Functional Activities Questionnaire items that best discriminate and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) emerges in the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. Some IADL scales are sensitive to early deficits in MCI, but none have been validated for detecting subtle functional changes in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD. Methods Data from 624 subjects participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and 524 subjects participating in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, which are two large cohorts including CN elderly and MCI subjects, were used to determine which Functional Activities Questionnaire items best discriminate between and predict progression from CN to MCI. Results We found that “Remembering appointments” and “assembling tax records” best discriminated between CN and MCI subjects, while worse performance on “paying attention and understanding a TV program”, “paying bills/balancing checkbook”, and “heating water and turning off the stove” predicted greater hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of CN to MCI. Conclusions These results demonstrate that certain questions are especially sensitive in detecting the earliest functional changes in CN elderly at risk for AD. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, it is important to determine which IADL changes can be detected at that stage and track decline over time. PMID:26017560

  16. Prediction of attendance at fitness center : a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  17. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population. PMID:27235636

  18. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population.

  19. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Ehring; A. Ehlers; E. Glucksman

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their acciden

  20. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansson, K.N.; Frick, A.; Boraxbekk, C.J.; Marquand, A.F.; Williams, S.C.; Carlbring, P.; Andersson, G.; Furmark, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge.

  1. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Roehr; Tobias Luck; Kathrin Heser; Angela Fuchs; Annette Ernst; Birgitt Wiese; Jochen Werle; Horst Bickel; Christian Brettschneider; Alexander Koppara; Michael Pentzek; Carolin Lange; Jana Prokein; Siegfried Weyerer; Edelgard Mösch

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and...

  2. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  3. Using early change to predict outcome in cognitive behaviour therapy: exploring timeframe, calculation method, and differences of disorder-specific versus general measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibbye, Peter; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian; Kaldo, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Early change can predict outcome of psychological treatment, especially in cognitive behavior therapy. However, the optimal operationalization of "early change" for maximizing its predictive ability, and differences in predictive ability of disorder-specific versus general mental health measures has yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate how well early change predicted outcome depending on the week it was measured, the calculation method (regression slope or simple subtraction), the type of measures used, and the target disorder. During 10-15 weeks of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression, social anxiety disorder, or panic disorder, weekly ratings were collected through both disorder-specific measures and general measures (Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-10 (CORE-10)). With outcome defined as the disorder-specific measure, change at week four was the optimal predictor. Slope and subtraction methods performed equally well. The OQ-45 explained 18% of outcome for depression, 14% for social anxiety disorder, and 0% for panic disorder. Corresponding values for CORE-10 were 23%, 29%, and 25%. Specific measures explained 41%, 43%, and 34% respectively: this exceeded the ability of general measures also when they predicted themselves. We conclude that a simple calculation method with a disorder-specific measure at week four seems to provide a good choice for predicting outcome in time-limited cognitive behavior therapy. PMID:24959666

  4. Using early change to predict outcome in cognitive behaviour therapy: exploring timeframe, calculation method, and differences of disorder-specific versus general measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schibbye

    Full Text Available Early change can predict outcome of psychological treatment, especially in cognitive behavior therapy. However, the optimal operationalization of "early change" for maximizing its predictive ability, and differences in predictive ability of disorder-specific versus general mental health measures has yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate how well early change predicted outcome depending on the week it was measured, the calculation method (regression slope or simple subtraction, the type of measures used, and the target disorder. During 10-15 weeks of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression, social anxiety disorder, or panic disorder, weekly ratings were collected through both disorder-specific measures and general measures (Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45 and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-10 (CORE-10. With outcome defined as the disorder-specific measure, change at week four was the optimal predictor. Slope and subtraction methods performed equally well. The OQ-45 explained 18% of outcome for depression, 14% for social anxiety disorder, and 0% for panic disorder. Corresponding values for CORE-10 were 23%, 29%, and 25%. Specific measures explained 41%, 43%, and 34% respectively: this exceeded the ability of general measures also when they predicted themselves. We conclude that a simple calculation method with a disorder-specific measure at week four seems to provide a good choice for predicting outcome in time-limited cognitive behavior therapy.

  5. Task effects reveal cognitive flexibility responding to frequency and predictability: evidence from eye movements in reading and proofreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotter, Elizabeth R; Bicknell, Klinton; Howard, Ian; Levy, Roger; Rayner, Keith

    2014-04-01

    It is well-known that word frequency and predictability affect processing time. These effects change magnitude across tasks, but studies testing this use tasks with different response types (e.g., lexical decision, naming, and fixation time during reading; Schilling, Rayner, & Chumbley, 1998), preventing direct comparison. Recently, Kaakinen and Hyönä (2010) overcame this problem, comparing fixation times in reading for comprehension and proofreading, showing that the frequency effect was larger in proofreading than in reading. This result could be explained by readers exhibiting substantial cognitive flexibility, and qualitatively changing how they process words in the proofreading task in a way that magnifies effects of word frequency. Alternatively, readers may not change word processing so dramatically, and instead may perform more careful identification generally, increasing the magnitude of many word processing effects (e.g., both frequency and predictability). We tested these possibilities with two experiments: subjects read for comprehension and then proofread for spelling errors (letter transpositions) that produce nonwords (e.g., trcak for track as in Kaakinen & Hyönä) or that produce real but unintended words (e.g., trial for trail) to compare how the task changes these effects. Replicating Kaakinen and Hyönä, frequency effects increased during proofreading. However, predictability effects only increased when integration with the sentence context was necessary to detect errors (i.e., when spelling errors produced words that were inappropriate in the sentence; trial for trail). The results suggest that readers adopt sophisticated word processing strategies to accommodate task demands.

  6. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  7. Prefrontal neuronal integrity predicts symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia and is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M.; Heguy, Adriana; Harroch, Sheila; Mazgaj, Robert; Rothman, Karen; Berns, Adam; Hasan, Sumya; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Chao, Moses V.; Gonen, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically complex syndrome with substantial inter-subject variability in multiple domains. Person-specific measures to resolve its heterogeneity could focus on the variability in prefrontal integrity, which this study indexed as relative rostralization within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Twenty-two schizophrenia cases and 11 controls underwent rigorous diagnostic procedures, symptom assessments (PANSS, Deficit Syndrome Scale) and intelligence testing. All underwent multivoxel MRSI at 3 T to measure concentrations of the neuronal-specific biomarker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in all of the voxels of the ACC. The concentrations of NAA were separately calculated and then compared across the rostral and caudal subregions to generate a rostralization ratio, which was examined with respect to the study measures and to which cases carried a missense coding polymorphism in PTPRG, SCL39A13, TGM5, NTRK1 or ARMS/KIDINS220. Rostralization significantly differed between cases and controls (χ2 = 18.40, p < .0001). In cases, it predicted verbal intelligence (r = .469, p = .043) and trait negative symptoms (diminished emotional range (r = −.624, p = .010); curbed interests, r = −.558, p = .025). Rostralization was similar to controls for missense coding variants in TGM5 and was significantly greater than controls for the PTPRG variant carrier. This is the first study examining the utility of MRS metrics in describing pathological features at both group and person-specific levels. Rostralization predicted core illness features and differed based on which signaling genes were disrupted. While future studies in larger populations are needed, ACC rostralization appears to be a promising measure to reduce the heterogeneity of schizophrenia for genetic research and selecting cases for treatment studies. PMID:26925801

  8. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct microanatomical, functional, morphogenetic, and molecular profiles. Furthermore, the two compartments derive from different lineages; whereas adult adipose progenitors fate-map from an SMA+ mural lineage, developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the developmental cells and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide a discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity.

  9. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  10. Prefrontal neuronal integrity predicts symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia and is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M; Heguy, Adriana; Harroch, Sheila; Mazgaj, Robert; Rothman, Karen; Berns, Adam; Hasan, Sumya; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Chao, Moses V; Gonen, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically complex syndrome with substantial inter-subject variability in multiple domains. Person-specific measures to resolve its heterogeneity could focus on the variability in prefrontal integrity, which this study indexed as relative rostralization within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Twenty-two schizophrenia cases and 11 controls underwent rigorous diagnostic procedures, symptom assessments (PANSS, Deficit Syndrome Scale) and intelligence testing. All underwent multivoxel MRSI at 3T to measure concentrations of the neuronal-specific biomarker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in all of the voxels of the ACC. The concentrations of NAA were separately calculated and then compared across the rostral and caudal subregions to generate a rostralization ratio, which was examined with respect to the study measures and to which cases carried a missense coding polymorphism in PTPRG, SCL39A13, TGM5, NTRK1 or ARMS/KIDINS220. Rostralization significantly differed between cases and controls (χ(2)=18.40, ppredicted verbal intelligence (r=.469, p=.043) and trait negative symptoms (diminished emotional range (r=-.624, p=.010); curbed interests, r=-.558, p=.025). Rostralization was similar to controls for missense coding variants in TGM5 and was significantly greater than controls for the PTPRG variant carrier. This is the first study examining the utility of MRS metrics in describing pathological features at both group and person-specific levels. Rostralization predicted core illness features and differed based on which signaling genes were disrupted. While future studies in larger populations are needed, ACC rostralization appears to be a promising measure to reduce the heterogeneity of schizophrenia for genetic research and selecting cases for treatment studies. PMID:26925801

  11. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  12. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannehl K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Dannehl,1 Winfried Rief,1 Markus J Schwarz,2 Annika Hennings,1 Sabine Riemer,1 Verena Selberdinger,3 Theresa Stapf,3 Frank Euteneuer11Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, GermanyContext: Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 over 4 weeks. Methods: Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results: Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05 compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years

  13. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  15. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  16. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  17. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  18. Bioengineering beige adipose tissue therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eTharp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of UCP1-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable brown adipose tissues for human therapeutic purposes at this time.Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit WAT derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of beige adipose tissue implants and their potential for the metabolic

  19. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419.

  20. Integration and relative value of biomarkers for prediction of MCI to AD progression: Spatial patterns of brain atrophy, cognitive scores, APOE genotype and CSF biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the individual, as well as relative and joint value of indices obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI patterns of brain atrophy (quantified by the SPARE-AD index, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers, APOE genotype, and cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog in progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD within a variable follow-up period up to 6 years, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1. SPARE-AD was first established as a highly sensitive and specific MRI-marker of AD vs. cognitively normal (CN subjects (AUC = 0.98. Baseline predictive values of all aforementioned indices were then compared using survival analysis on 381 MCI subjects. SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog were found to have similar predictive value, and their combination was significantly better than their individual performance. APOE genotype did not significantly improve prediction, although the combination of SPARE-AD, ADAS-Cog and APOE ε4 provided the highest hazard ratio estimates of 17.8 (last vs. first quartile. In a subset of 192 MCI patients who also had CSF biomarkers, the addition of Aβ1–42, t-tau, and p-tau181p to the previous model did not improve predictive value significantly over SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog combined. Importantly, in amyloid-negative patients with MCI, SPARE-AD had high predictive power of clinical progression. Our findings suggest that SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog in combination offer the highest predictive power of conversion from MCI to AD, which is improved, albeit not significantly, by APOE genotype. The finding that SPARE-AD in amyloid-negative MCI patients was predictive of clinical progression is not expected under the amyloid hypothesis and merits further investigation.

  1. Integration and relative value of biomarkers for prediction of MCI to AD progression: spatial patterns of brain atrophy, cognitive scores, APOE genotype and CSF biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xiao; Toledo, Jon B; Zee, Jarcy; Wolk, David A; Xie, Sharon X; Ou, Yangming; Shacklett, Amanda; Parmpi, Paraskevi; Shaw, Leslie; Trojanowski, John Q; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the individual, as well as relative and joint value of indices obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of brain atrophy (quantified by the SPARE-AD index), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, APOE genotype, and cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog) in progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) within a variable follow-up period up to 6 years, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1). SPARE-AD was first established as a highly sensitive and specific MRI-marker of AD vs. cognitively normal (CN) subjects (AUC = 0.98). Baseline predictive values of all aforementioned indices were then compared using survival analysis on 381 MCI subjects. SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog were found to have similar predictive value, and their combination was significantly better than their individual performance. APOE genotype did not significantly improve prediction, although the combination of SPARE-AD, ADAS-Cog and APOE ε4 provided the highest hazard ratio estimates of 17.8 (last vs. first quartile). In a subset of 192 MCI patients who also had CSF biomarkers, the addition of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p to the previous model did not improve predictive value significantly over SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog combined. Importantly, in amyloid-negative patients with MCI, SPARE-AD had high predictive power of clinical progression. Our findings suggest that SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog in combination offer the highest predictive power of conversion from MCI to AD, which is improved, albeit not significantly, by APOE genotype. The finding that SPARE-AD in amyloid-negative MCI patients was predictive of clinical progression is not expected under the amyloid hypothesis and merits further investigation.

  2. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved…

  3. Physical activity, sleep, and nutrition do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Barberà, Elena; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisc

  4. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  5. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Edo; Ben A. Schmand; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. Design Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. Participants Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=181) ...

  6. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Richard; Schmand, B.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Gool, van, A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=1...

  7. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV. Predictors included initial symptom severities; variables estab...

  8. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  9. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  10. Self-synthesized extracellular matrix contributes to mature adipose tissue regeneration in a tissue engineering chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Weiqing; Chang, Qiang; Xiao, Xiaolian; Dong, Ziqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The development of an engineered adipose tissue substitute capable of supporting reliable, predictable, and complete fat tissue regeneration would be of value in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For adipogenesis, a tissue engineering chamber provides an optimized microenvironment that is both efficacious and reproducible; however, for reasons that remain unclear, tissues regenerated in a tissue engineering chamber consist mostly of connective rather than adipose tissue. Here, we describe a chamber-based system for improving the yield of mature adipose tissue and discuss the potential mechanism of adipogenesis in tissue-chamber models. Adipose tissue flaps with independent vascular pedicles placed in chambers were implanted into rabbits. Adipose volume increased significantly during the observation period (week 1, 2, 3, 4, 16). Histomorphometry revealed mature adipose tissue with signs of adipose tissue remolding. The induced engineered constructs showed high-level expression of adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ), chemotactic (stromal cell-derived factor 1a), and inflammatory (interleukin 1 and 6) genes. In our system, the extracellular matrix may have served as a scaffold for cell migration and proliferation, allowing mature adipose tissue to be obtained in a chamber microenvironment without the need for an exogenous scaffold. Our results provide new insights into key elements involved in the early development of adipose tissue regeneration.

  11. Parent-Teacher Concordance in Rating Preschooler Difficulties in Behavioural and Cognitive Functioning and Their Dyadic Predicting of Fluid Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orylska Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present research examined children’s behavioural and cognitive functioning by using data from a screening study based on reports given by parents and teachers, and investigated the strongest predictors of children’s fluid intelligence.

  12. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy eAir; Michael James Weightman; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition ...

  13. Negative Cognitive Styles Synergistically Predict Suicidal Ideation in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: A Three-Year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Burke, Taylor A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; O’Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Seligman, Nicole D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Sevent...

  14. Does Self-perceived Mood Predict More Variance in Cognitive Performance Than Clinician-Rated Symptoms in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Halari, Rozmin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sharma, Tonmoy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms are known to account for a small variance in some cognitive functions in schizophrenia, but the influence of self-perceived mood remains largely unknown. The authors examined the influence of subjective mood states, psychopathology, and depressive symptoms in cognitive performance in a single investigation in schizophrenia. A group of 40 stable medicated patients with schizophrenia (20 men, 20 women) and 30 healthy comparison subjects (15 men, 15 women) were assessed on neurocognitiv...

  15. CSF β-Amyloid 1-42 Predicts Progression to Cognitive Impairment in Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrelonge, Mark; Marder, Karen S; Weintraub, Daniel; Alcalay, Roy N

    2016-01-01

    Low CSF β-amyloid 1-42 has been associated with cognitive decline in advanced Parkinson's disease; data from a single cohort suggest β-amyloid 1-42 may be an early marker of cognitive impairment. Newly diagnosed Parkinson's participants (mean duration, 6.9 months) in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (n = 341) were assessed at baseline (untreated state) and followed for 2 years. CSF β-amyloid 1-42, α-synuclein, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 were collected at baseline. Participants were classified as having cognitive impairment (CI) if scores on two of six cognitive tests were 1.5 standard deviations below the standardized mean based on published norms in healthy controls. Multivariable regression analyses were used to determine the association between baseline CSF markers with cognitive impairment, defined by neuropsychological testing performance at 2-year follow-up. Fifty-five participants (16.1 %) had CI at baseline and were not included in further analyses. Thirty-seven of the 286 participants without CI at baseline (12.9 %) developed CI at 2 years. Participants with CI at 2 years had significantly lower mean baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 levels than non-CI participants (343.8 vs. 380.4 pg/mL, p onset is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330275

  16. Brain beta-amyloid measures and magnetic resonance imaging atrophy both predict time-to-progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Wiste, Heather J; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Weigand, Stephen D; Senjem, Matthew L; Zeng, Guang; Bernstein, Matt A; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Pankratz, Vernon S; Aisen, Paul S; Weiner, Michael W; Petersen, Ronald C; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Knopman, David S

    2010-11-01

    Biomarkers of brain Aβ amyloid deposition can be measured either by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 or Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of Aβ load and neurodegenerative atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging to predict shorter time-to-progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia and to characterize the effect of these biomarkers on the risk of progression as they become increasingly abnormal. A total of 218 subjects with mild cognitive impairment were identified from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The primary outcome was time-to-progression to Alzheimer's dementia. Hippocampal volumes were measured and adjusted for intracranial volume. We used a new method of pooling cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures to produce equivalent measures of brain Aβ load from either source and analysed the results using multiple imputation methods. We performed our analyses in two phases. First, we grouped our subjects into those who were 'amyloid positive' (n = 165, with the assumption that Alzheimer's pathology is dominant in this group) and those who were 'amyloid negative' (n = 53). In the second phase, we included all 218 subjects with mild cognitive impairment to evaluate the biomarkers in a sample that we assumed to contain a full spectrum of expected pathologies. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, amyloid positive subjects with mild cognitive impairment were much more likely to progress to dementia within 2 years than amyloid negative subjects with mild cognitive impairment (50 versus 19%). Among amyloid positive subjects with mild cognitive impairment only, hippocampal atrophy predicted shorter time-to-progression (P mild cognitive impairment were combined (amyloid positive and negative), hippocampal atrophy and Aβ load predicted shorter time-to-progression with comparable power (hazard ratio for an inter

  17. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  18. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  19. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  20. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1 the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2 determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  1. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL.

  2. Pre-cue fronto-occipital alpha phase and distributed cortical oscillations predict failures of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jordan P; Dyckman, Kara A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-05-16

    Cognitive control is required for correct performance on antisaccade tasks, including the ability to inhibit an externally driven ocular motor response (a saccade to a peripheral stimulus) in favor of an internally driven ocular motor goal (a saccade directed away from a peripheral stimulus). Healthy humans occasionally produce errors during antisaccade tasks, but the mechanisms associated with such failures of cognitive control are uncertain. Most research on cognitive control failures focuses on poststimulus processing, although a growing body of literature highlights a role of intrinsic brain activity in perceptual and cognitive performance. The current investigation used dense array electroencephalography and distributed source analyses to examine brain oscillations across a wide frequency bandwidth in the period before antisaccade cue onset. Results highlight four important aspects of ongoing and preparatory brain activations that differentiate error from correct antisaccade trials: (1) ongoing oscillatory beta (20-30 Hz) power in anterior cingulate before trial initiation (lower for error trials); (2) instantaneous phase of ongoing alpha/theta (7 Hz) in frontal and occipital cortices immediately before trial initiation (opposite between trial types); (3) gamma power (35-60 Hz) in posterior parietal cortex 100 ms before cue onset (greater for error trials); and (4) phase locking of alpha (5-12 Hz) in parietal and occipital cortices immediately before cue onset (lower for error trials). These findings extend recently reported effects of pre-trial alpha phase on perception to cognitive control processes and help identify the cortical generators of such phase effects.

  3. Hippocampal Aβ expression, but not phosphorylated tau, predicts cognitive deficits following repeated peripheral poly I:C administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J D; Eimerbrink, M J; Hayes, H B; Hardy, A; Van Enkevort, E A; Peterman, J L; Chumley, M J; Boehm, G W

    2016-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease is marked by the accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, and increases in phosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein, tau. Changes in these proteins are considered responsible, in part, for the progressive neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits seen in AD. We examined the effect of repeated consecutive peripheral poly I:C injections on cognitive deficits, central Aβ, and phosphorylated tau accumulation, following three treatment durations: 7, 14, and 21 days. Forty-eight hours after the final injection, animals were trained in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm, and tested 24h later. Immediately after testing, the hippocampus was collected to quantify Aβ and phosphorylated tau accumulation. Results showed that, although poly I:C-induced Aβ was significantly elevated at all time points examined, poly I:C only disrupted cognition after 14 and 21 days of administration. Moreover, elevations in phosphorylated tau were not seen until the 14-day time point. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau expression then declined at the 21-day time point. Finally, we demonstrated that Aβ levels are a stronger predictor of cognitive dysfunction, explaining 37% of the variance, whereas phosphorylated tau levels only accounted for 0.2%. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that inflammation-induced elevation in Aβ disrupts cognition, independently of phosphorylated tau, and suggest that long-term administration of poly I:C may provide a model to investigate the contribution of long-term inflammation toward the development of Alzheimer's-like pathology. PMID:27449203

  4. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. PMID:26890439

  5. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002 and women (P for trend = 0.0001. In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24 after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines.

  6. Orthostatic intolerance predicts mild cognitive impairment: incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia from the Swedish general population cohort Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sölve Elmståhl, Elisabet Widerström Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Contradictory results have been reported on the relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Objective: To study the incidence of MCI and dementia and their relationship to OH and subclinical OH with orthostatic symptoms (orthostatic intolerance.Study design and setting: This study used a prospective general population cohort design and was based on data from the Swedish Good Aging in Skåne study (GÅS-SNAC, they were studied 6 years after baseline of the present study, with the same study protocol at baseline and at follow-up. The study sample comprised 1,480 randomly invited subjects aged 60 to 93 years, and had a participation rate of 82% at follow-up. OH test included assessment of blood pressure and symptoms of OH. Results: The 6-year incidence of MCI was 8%, increasing from 12.1 to 40.5 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.9 to 16.9 per 1,000 person-years for women aged 60 to >80 years. The corresponding 6-year incidence of dementia was 8%. Orthostatic intolerance during uprising was related to risk for MCI at follow-up (odds ratio [OR] =1.84 [1.20–2.80][95% CI], adjusted for age and education independently of blood pressure during testing. After stratification for hypertension (HT, the corresponding age-adjusted OR for MCI in the non-HT group was 1.71 (1.10–2.31 and 1.76 (1.11–2.13 in the HT group. Among controls, the proportion of those with OH was 16%; those with MCI 24%; and those with dementia 31% (age-adjusted OR 1.93 [1.19–3.14]. Conclusion: Not only OH, but also symptoms of OH, seem to be a risk factor for cognitive decline and should be considered in the management of blood pressure among the elderly population. Keywords: orthostatic blood pressure, epidemiology, elderly

  7. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  8. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  9. Dopamine D1 Sensitivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts General Cognitive Abilities and is Modulated by Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…

  10. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  11. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  12. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  13. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA.

  14. The many faces of precision (Replies to commentaries on "Whatever next? Neural prediction, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andy

    2013-01-01

    An appreciation of the many roles of "precision-weighting" (upping the gain on select populations of prediction error units) opens the door to better accounts of planning and "offline simulation," makes suggestive contact with large bodies of work on embodied and situated cognition, and offers new perspectives on the "active brain". Combined with the complex affordances of language and culture, and operating against the essential backdrop of a variety of more biologically basic ploys and stratagems, the result is a maximally context-sensitive, restless, constantly self-reconfiguring architecture.

  15. Effects of Prior Knowledge and Piagetian Cognitive Development on the Process Skill of Prediction in the Learning Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Derrick R.

    This study examined the science process skill of prediction problem solving using naturalistic research methodology and information-processing theory. The think-aloud interview led to the identification of several specific program exploration and prediction behaviors. A total of 14 high school biology students made predictions concerning the…

  16. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  17. Evidence that the blood biomarker SNTF predicts brain imaging changes and persistent cognitive dysfunction in mild TBI patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSiman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, or concussion, is not typically associated with abnormalities on computed tomography (CT, it nevertheless causes persistent cognitive dysfunction for many patients. Consequently, new prognostic methods for mTBI are needed to identify at-risk cases, especially at an early and potentially treatable stage. Here, we quantified plasma levels of the neurodegeneration biomarker calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF from 38 participants with CT-negative mTBI, orthopedic injury (OI and normal uninjured controls (age range 12-30 years, and compared them with findings from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI and long-term cognitive assessment. SNTF levels were at least twice the lower limit of detection in 7 of 17 mTBI cases and in 3 of 13 OI cases, but in none of the uninjured controls. An elevation in plasma SNTF corresponded with significant differences in fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient in the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus measured by DTI. Furthermore, increased plasma SNTF on the day of injury correlated significantly with cognitive impairment that persisted for at least 3 months, both across all study participants and also among the mTBI cases by themselves. The elevation in plasma SNTF in the subset of OI cases, accompanied by corresponding white matter and cognitive abnormalities, raises the possibility of identifying undiagnosed cases of mTBI. These data suggest that the blood level of SNTF on the day of a CT-negative mTBI may identify a subset of patients at risk of white matter damage and persistent disability. SNTF could have prognostic and diagnostic utilities in the assessment and treatment of mTBI.

  18. Nondeclarative learning in children with specific language impairment: predicting regularities in the visuomotor, phonological, and cognitive domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor-Dubois, C; Zesiger, P; Van der Linden, M; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-01-01

    Ullman (2004) suggested that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) results from a general procedural learning deficit. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated children with SLI via procedural learning tasks exploring the verbal, motor, and cognitive domains. Results showed that compared with a Control Group, the children with SLI (a) were unable to learn a phonotactic learning task, (b) were able but less efficiently to learn a motor learning task and (c) succeeded in a cognitive learning task. Regarding the motor learning task (Serial Reaction Time Task), reaction times were longer and learning slower than in controls. The learning effect was not significant in children with an associated Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and future studies should consider comorbid motor impairment in order to clarify whether impairments are related to the motor rather than the language disorder. Our results indicate that a phonotactic learning but not a cognitive procedural deficit underlies SLI, thus challenging Ullmans' general procedural deficit hypothesis, like a few other recent studies. PMID:23062060

  19. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  20. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  1. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  2. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  3. Preadipocyte and adipose tissue differentiation in meat animals: influence of species and anatomical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, G J; Basu, U; Wei, S; Hausman, D B; Dodson, M V

    2014-02-01

    Early in porcine adipose tissue development, the stromal-vascular (SV) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot-dependent manner. The vasculature and collagen matrix differentiate before overt adipocyte differentiation. In the fetal pig, subcutaneous (SQ) layer development is predictive of adipocyte development, as the outer, middle, and inner layers of dorsal SQ adipose tissue develop and maintain layered morphology throughout postnatal growth of SQ adipose tissue. Bovine and ovine fetuses contain brown adipose tissue but SQ white adipose tissue is poorly developed structurally. Fetal adipose tissue differentiation is associated with the precocious expression of several genes encoding secreted factors and key transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein. Identification of adipocyte-associated genes differentially expressed by age, depot, and species in vivo and in vitro has been achieved using single-gene analysis, microarrays, suppressive subtraction hybridization, and next-generation sequencing applications. Gene polymorphisms in PPARγ, cathepsins, and uncoupling protein 3 have been associated with back fat accumulation. Genome scans have mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) predictive of adipose tissue-deposition phenotypes in cattle and pigs.

  4. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013 predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Fox

    Full Text Available The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1 testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2 applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  5. Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Luchsinger, José A.; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic evidence linking the continuum of adiposity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanisms relating adiposity and T2D to AD may include hyperinsulinemia, advanced products of glycosilation, cerebrovascular disease, and products of adipose tissue metabolism. Elevated adiposity in middle age is related to a higher risk of AD but the data on this association in old age is conflicting. Several studies ha...

  6. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  7. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and physical activity maintenance theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko eJekauc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processes of physical activity (PA maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9 over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for exercise maintenance. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  8. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  9. Assessment for the Model Predicting of the Cognitive and Language Ability in the Mild Dementia by the Method of Data-Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of cognitive and verbal functions are widely used as screening tests to detect early dementia. This study developed an early dementia prediction model for Korean elderly based on random forest algorithm and compared its results and precision with those of logistic regression model and decision tree model. Subjects of the study were 418 elderly (135 males and 283 females over the age of 60 in local communities. Outcome was defined as having dementia and explanatory variables included digit span forward, digit span backward, confrontational naming, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT copy score, RCFT immediate recall, RCFT delayed recall, RCFT recognition true positive, RCFT recognition false positive, Seoul Verbal Learning Test (SVLT immediate recall, SVLT delayed recall, SVLT recognition true positive, SVLT recognition false positive, Korean Color Word Stroop Test (K-CWST color reading correct, and K-CWST color reading error. The Random Forests algorithm was used to develop prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree based on chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID. As the result of the study, the tests with high level of predictive power in the detection of early dementia were verbal memory, visuospatial memory, naming, visuospatial functions, and executive functions. In addition, the random forests model was more accurate than logistic regression and CHIAD. In order to effectively detect early dementia, development of screening test programs is required which are composed of tests with high predictive power.

  10. Body adiposity index and incident hypertension: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G.; España Romero, Vanesa; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim The body adiposity index (BAI) has been recently proposed as a new method to estimate the percentage of body fat. The association between BAI and hypertension risk has not been investigated yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of BAI to predict hypertension in males and females compared with traditional body adiposity measures. Methods and results The present follow-up analysis comprised 10,309 individuals (2259 females) free of hypertension fro...

  11. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D; Eddy, Sarah L; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom's level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom's level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students. PMID:27252299

  12. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D; Eddy, Sarah L; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom's level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom's level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students.

  13. Predicting Children’s Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia W Chu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of preschool, we assessed a broad range of quantitative abilities for 100 (43 boys children, as well as their preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of two years of preschool and at the end of kindergarten, and word reading achievement was also assessed at the end of kindergarten. We identified the core quantitative competencies, such as children’s understanding of the cardinal value of number words, that predict later achievement, the domain-general abilities that predicted growth in these competencies across two years of preschool, and the domain-general and domain-specific abilities that predicted mathematics achievement growth across the preschool years. We also identified similarities in the early domain-general abilities and differences in the domain-specific knowledge that predict mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten.

  14. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H. Huibers; Z.D. Cohen; L.H.J.M. Lemmens; A. Arntz; F.P.M.L. Peeters; P. Cuijpers; R.J. DeRubeis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works b

  15. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous......-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue areas using abdominal computed tomography at 18 to 20 years of age. RESULTS: The main finding in the present study was that subjects with increases in BMI Z score of more than 1 SD during adolescence had, independent of prepubertal BMI, both larger subcutaneous (+138%; P ....001) and visceral adipose tissue areas (+91%; P adipose tissue (+83%; P

  16. Adipose tissues as endocrine target organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2014-08-01

    In the context of obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration result in the production of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines inducing insulin resistance locally but also in distant organs and contributing to low grade inflammatory status associated with the metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a prominent role. Brown and beige adipose tissues are capable of energy dissipation, but also of cytokine production and their role in dysmetabolic syndrome is emerging. This review focuses on metabolic and inflammatory changes in these adipose depots and contribution to metabolic syndrome. Also we will review surgical and pharmacological procedures to target adiposity as therapeutic interventions to treat obesity-associated disorders.

  17. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  18. Adipose Cell Size and Regional Fat Deposition as Predictors of Metabolic Response to Overfeeding in Insulin-Resistant and Insulin-Sensitive Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Craig, Colleen; Liu, Li-Fen; Perelman, Dalia; Allister, Candice; Spielman, Daniel; Cushman, Samuel W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but significant variability exists between similarly obese individuals, pointing to qualitative characteristics of body fat as potential mediators. To test the hypothesis that obese, insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals possess adaptive adipose cell/tissue responses, we measured subcutaneous adipose cell size, insulin suppression of lipolysis, and regional fat responses to short-term overfeeding in BMI-matched overweight/obese individuals classified as IS or insulin resistant (IR). At baseline, IR subjects exhibited significantly greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid (IHL), plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell diameter, and percentage of small adipose cells. With weight gain (3.1 ± 1.4 kg), IR subjects demonstrated no significant change in adipose cell size, VAT, or insulin suppression of lipolysis and only 8% worsening of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Alternatively, IS subjects demonstrated significant adipose cell enlargement; decrease in the percentage of small adipose cells; increase in VAT, IHL, and lipolysis; 45% worsening of IMGU; and decreased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Smaller baseline adipose cell size and greater enlargement with weight gain predicted decline in IMGU, as did increase in IHL and VAT and decrease in insulin suppression of lipolysis. Weight gain in IS humans causes maladaptive changes in adipose cells, regional fat distribution, and insulin resistance. The correlation between development of insulin resistance and changes in adipose cell size, VAT, IHL, and insulin suppression of lipolysis highlight these factors as potential mediators between obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26884438

  19. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  20. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  1. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    of about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  2. Adipose tissue, diet and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Age related increase in body fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (AT), and ectopic fat deposition are strongly related to worse health conditions in the elderly. Moreover, with aging higher inflammation in adipose tissue may be observed and may contribute to inflammaging. Aging may significantly affect AT function by modifying the profile of adipokines produced by adipose cells, reducing preadipocytes number and their function and increasing AT macrophages infiltration. The initiating events of the inflammatory cascade promoting a greater AT inflammatory profile are not completely understood. Nutrients may determine changes in the amount of body fat, in its distribution as well as in AT function with some nutrients showing a pro-inflammatory effect on AT. Evidences are sparse and quite controversial with only a few studies performed in older subjects. Different dietary patterns are the result of the complex interaction of foods and nutrients, thus more studies are needed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and changes in adipose tissue structure, distribution and function in the elderly.

  3. Hypothalamic control of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, A; Wiedmann, N M; Adler, E S; Oldfield, B J

    2014-10-01

    A detailed appreciation of the control of adipose tissue whether it be white, brown or brite/beige has never been more important to the development of a framework on which to build therapeutic strategies to combat obesity. This is because 1) the rate of fatty acid release into the circulation from lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) is integrally important to the development of obesity, 2) brown adipose tissue (BAT) has now moved back to center stage with the realization that it is present in adult humans and, in its activated form, is inversely proportional to levels of obesity and 3) the identification and characterization of "brown-like" or brite/beige fat is likely to be one of the most exciting developments in adipose tissue biology in the last decade. Central to all of these developments is the role of the CNS in the control of different fat cell functions and central to CNS control is the integrative capacity of the hypothalamus. In this chapter we will attempt to detail key issues relevant to the structure and function of hypothalamic and downstream control of WAT and BAT and highlight the importance of developing an understanding of the neural input to brite/beige fat cells as a precursor to its recruitment as therapeutic target.

  4. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  5. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  6. Perceived facial adiposity conveys information about women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinlin, Rowan M; Watkins, Christopher D; Welling, Lisa L M; DeBruine, Lisa M; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-05-01

    Although several prominent theories of human facial attractiveness propose that some facial characteristics convey information about people's health, empirical evidence for this claim is somewhat mixed. While most previous research into this issue has focused on facial characteristics such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, a recent study reported that ratings of facial adiposity (i.e., perceptions of fatness in the face) were positively correlated with indices of poor physical condition in a sample of young adults (i.e., reported past health problems and measures of cardiovascular fitness). These findings are noteworthy, since they suggest that perceived adiposity is a potentially important facial cue of health that has been overlooked by much of the previous work in this area. Here, we show that ratings of young adult women's facial adiposity are (1) better predicted by their body weight than by their body shape (Studies 1 and 2), (2) correlated with a composite measure of their physical and psychological condition (Study 2), and (3) negatively correlated with their trait (i.e., average) salivary progesterone levels (Study 3). Together, these findings present further evidence that perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, conveys potentially important information about women's actual health. PMID:23560669

  7. Waves of adipose tissue growth in the genetically obese Zucker fatty rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer MacKellar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals, calories ingested in excess of those used are stored primarily as fat in adipose tissue; consistent ingestion of excess calories requires an enlargement of the adipose tissue mass. Thus, a dysfunction in adipose tissue growth may be a key factor in insulin resistance due to imbalanced fat storage and disrupted insulin action. Adipose tissue growth requires the recruitment and then the development of adipose precursor cells, but little is known about these processes in vivo. METHODOLOGY: In this study, adipose cell-size probability distributions were measured in two Zucker fa/fa rats over a period of 151 and 163 days, from four weeks of age, using micro-biopsies to obtain subcutaneous (inguinal fat tissue from the animals. These longitudinal probability distributions were analyzed to assess the probability of periodic phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue growth in this strain of rat exhibits a striking temporal periodicity of approximately days. A simple model is proposed for the periodicity, with PPAR signaling driven by a deficit in lipid uptake capacity leading to the periodic recruitment of new adipocytes. This model predicts that the observed period will be diet-dependent.

  8. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  9. Prediction of Vigilant Attention and Cognitive Performance Using Self-Reported Alertness, Circadian Phase, Hours since Awakening, and Accumulated Sleep Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B Bermudez

    Full Text Available Sleep restriction causes impaired cognitive performance that can result in adverse consequences in many occupational settings. Individuals may rely on self-perceived alertness to decide if they are able to adequately perform a task. It is therefore important to determine the relationship between an individual's self-assessed alertness and their objective performance, and how this relationship depends on circadian phase, hours since awakening, and cumulative lost hours of sleep. Healthy young adults (aged 18-34 completed an inpatient schedule that included forced desynchrony of sleep/wake and circadian rhythms with twelve 42.85-hour "days" and either a 1:2 (n = 8 or 1:3.3 (n = 9 ratio of sleep-opportunity:enforced-wakefulness. We investigated whether subjective alertness (visual analog scale, circadian phase (melatonin, hours since awakening, and cumulative sleep loss could predict objective performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT, an Addition/Calculation Test (ADD and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST. Mathematical models that allowed nonlinear interactions between explanatory variables were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. Subjective alertness was the single best predictor of PVT, ADD, and DSST performance. Subjective alertness alone, however, was not an accurate predictor of PVT performance. The best AIC scores for PVT and DSST were achieved when all explanatory variables were included in the model. The best AIC score for ADD was achieved with circadian phase and subjective alertness variables. We conclude that subjective alertness alone is a weak predictor of objective vigilant or cognitive performance. Predictions can, however, be improved by knowing an individual's circadian phase, current wake duration, and cumulative sleep loss.

  10. Prediction of Vigilant Attention and Cognitive Performance Using Self-Reported Alertness, Circadian Phase, Hours since Awakening, and Accumulated Sleep Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Eduardo B; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Czeisler, Charles A; Cohen, Daniel A; Wyatt, James K; Phillips, Andrew J K

    2016-01-01

    Sleep restriction causes impaired cognitive performance that can result in adverse consequences in many occupational settings. Individuals may rely on self-perceived alertness to decide if they are able to adequately perform a task. It is therefore important to determine the relationship between an individual's self-assessed alertness and their objective performance, and how this relationship depends on circadian phase, hours since awakening, and cumulative lost hours of sleep. Healthy young adults (aged 18-34) completed an inpatient schedule that included forced desynchrony of sleep/wake and circadian rhythms with twelve 42.85-hour "days" and either a 1:2 (n = 8) or 1:3.3 (n = 9) ratio of sleep-opportunity:enforced-wakefulness. We investigated whether subjective alertness (visual analog scale), circadian phase (melatonin), hours since awakening, and cumulative sleep loss could predict objective performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), an Addition/Calculation Test (ADD) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Mathematical models that allowed nonlinear interactions between explanatory variables were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Subjective alertness was the single best predictor of PVT, ADD, and DSST performance. Subjective alertness alone, however, was not an accurate predictor of PVT performance. The best AIC scores for PVT and DSST were achieved when all explanatory variables were included in the model. The best AIC score for ADD was achieved with circadian phase and subjective alertness variables. We conclude that subjective alertness alone is a weak predictor of objective vigilant or cognitive performance. Predictions can, however, be improved by knowing an individual's circadian phase, current wake duration, and cumulative sleep loss. PMID:27019198

  11. Mothers' Cognitive References to 2-Year-Olds Predict Theory of Mind at Ages 6 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Devine, Rory T.; Marks, Alex; Hughes, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' mental-state references predict individual differences in preschoolers' false-belief (FB) understanding; less is known about the origins of corresponding variation in school-age children. To address this gap, 105 children completed observations with their mothers at child ages 2 and 6, three FB tasks and a verbal comprehension…

  12. CT-demonstration of adipose tissue of the sinus cavernosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose bodies of the sinus cavernosus - the only genuine intracranial adipose tissue - can be demonstrated well by CT. They appear as polymorph well defined hypodense objects in unilateral or bilateral manifestation. Adipose bodies most frequently show a size between 4 and 9 mm and densities about -20 to -40 HE. Occasionally the adipose bodies directly lead into the adipose tissue of the orbit. (orig.)

  13. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  14. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  15. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes.

  16. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  17. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

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    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  18. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  19. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  20. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  1. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: the contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners' nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (i.e., arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation) assessed 1 year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms. PMID:24772098

  2. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: The contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHornung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.

  3. The adipose organ at a glance

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    Saverio Cinti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ – a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ’s plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that ‘browning’ of the adipose organ curbs these disorders.

  4. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  5. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

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    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  6. Adipose Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arti; Mehta, Nehal; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiposity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of adipose inflammation, because these may represent therapeutic targets for insulin resistance and for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The initial insult in adipose inflammation and insulin resistance, mediated by macrophage recruitment and endogenous ligand ac...

  7. Characterization and comparison of adipose tissue-derived cells from human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Mito; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Lin, Konghua; Sugimachi, Keizou; Furue, Masutaka

    2009-10-01

    Different fat depots contribute differently to disease and function. These differences may be due to the regional variation in cell types and inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. To address the differences of cell types in the adipose tissue from different depots, the phenotypes of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived cells (ATDCs) from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues were compared using flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(+) population, containing vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, was specifically defined in the SC adipose tissue while no such population was observed in OM adipose tissue. On the other hand, CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(-) population, which is an undefined cell population, were found solely in OM adipose tissue. Overall, the SC adipose tissue contained more ATDCs than OM adipose tissue, while OM adipose tissue contained more blood-derived cells. Regarding to the inherent properties of fat cell progenitors from the two depots, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SC had higher capacity to differentiate into both adipogenic and osteogenic lineages than those from OM, regardless of that the proliferation rates of ADSCs from both depots were similar. The higher differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SC adipose tissue suggests that SC tissue is more suitable cell source for regenerative medicine than OM adipose tissue.

  8. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness:An integrative perspective derived from reactive versus predictive control systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie eTops

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we will apply the Predictive And Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the default mode network (DMN and anterior insula (AI as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness versus the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a 1st person vs. a 3rd person perspective. PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self.

  9. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  10. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.

  11. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  12. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

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    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  13. Conscientiousness, the transtheoretical model of change, and exercise: a neo-socioanalytic integration of trait and social-cognitive frameworks in the prediction of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim

    2008-07-01

    Relationships between conscientiousness-related traits and transtheoretical model (TTM) of change constructs, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise behavior were examined in college and community samples (N=566). Measures of the conscientiousness-related traits of conventionality and industriousness were expected to show positive relations with measures of exercise behavior stage location, processes of exercise behavior change, endorsing the benefits of exercise behavior (i.e., decisional balance), exercise self-efficacy, and self-reported exercise behavior. In addition, based on Neo-Socioanalytic Theory (Roberts & Wood, 2006) an intervening role was predicted for TTM constructs and exercise self-efficacy in the relationship between conscientiousness-related traits and exercise behavior stage location. The results showed industriousness (being hardworking) to be the most robust conscientiousness-related predictor of stage location, processes of change, endorsing the benefits of exercise behavior, and exercise self-efficacy. Mediation analyses showed the relationship between industriousness and exercise behavior stage location to be fully accounted for by select processes of change and exercise self-efficacy scales. The results are discussed in terms of a useful integration of trait and social-cognitive approaches to exercise behavior, with an emphasis on the role of industriousness as an important individual difference factor therein.

  14. Imaging white adipose tissue with confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents.

  15. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was studied in vivo by Fick's arteriovenous (a-v) principle using either calculated (microdialysis) or directly measured (catheterization) adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. We compared results during steady-state (rest and prolonged continuous...... exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. Despite several methodological limitations inherent to both techniques, the results strongly suggest that microdialysis and catheterization provide similar estimates of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in steady-state experimental settings like rest...

  16. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  17. P15.08NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AFTER MICROSURGICAL RESECTION OF BRAIN TUMORS: THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF COGNITIVE BACKGROUND, AGE AND EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sindorio, C.; Abbritti, R.V.; Otera, R.; Quattropani, M.C.; Germanò, A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychological assessment of patients suffering from brain tumors provides a functional map of cognitive impairment regarding memory, attention, visuospatial and visuo-constructive abilities related to the tumor's location. Several studies reported the clinical and prognostic value of pre and post-operative cognitive and behavioral assessment in neuroncology. Some authors demonstrated that age, education and gender may influence the cognitive functions, while others argued t...

  18. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  19. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Lyonne NL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS, some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatric comorbidity are redirected from treatment for UPS into treatment for mental health problems. To explore whether this selection and allocation are appropriate, we explored whether CBT outcomes in UPS could be predicted by variables assessed at baseline and used in routine-practice assessments. Methods Patients (n=162 with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder were followed up until one year after they had attended a CBT group training. The time-points of the follow-up were at the end of CBT (immediate outcome, three months after CBT (short-term outcome, and one year after CBT (long-term outcome. CBT outcome was measured using the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36, which was the primary outcome measure in the randomized controlled trial that studied effectiveness of the CBT group training. Predictors were: 1. psychological symptoms (global severity score of SCL-90, 2. personality-disorder characteristics (sum of DSM-IV axis II criteria confirmed, 3. psychiatric history (past presence of DSM-IV axis I disorders, and 4. health-related quality of life in the mental domain (mental component summary of SF-36. The effect of this predictor set was explored using hierarchical multiple regression analyses into which these predictors had been entered simultaneously, after control for: a. pretreatment primary outcome scores, b. age, c. gender, d. marital status, and e. employment. Results The predictor set was significant only for short-term CBT outcome, where it explained 15% of the variance. A better outcome was predicted by more psychological symptoms, fewer personality-disorder characteristics, the presence of a psychiatric

  20. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  1. Infant Reactivity and Reliance on Mother during Emotion Challenges: Prediction of Cognition and Language Skills in a Low-Income Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, JoAnn L.; Acevedo, Marcela C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between infants' emotional reactivity and reliance on mother and cognitive and language development at 2 years. Found that infants with high reactivity and reliance on mother during emotion challenges had higher cognitive and language skills than infants with low reactivity and reliance. Poor developmental outcomes were…

  2. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P; Granneman, James G

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodeling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  3. Predicting Outcome in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Major Depression: A Large Cohort Study of Adult Patients in Routine Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Svanborg, Cecilia; Kaldo, Viktor; Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for treating depression has been well documented, knowledge of outcome predictors and risk factors associated with lower treatment response is limited, especially when the treatment has been conducted within a naturalistic clinical setting. Identification of such factors is important for clinicians when making treatment recommendations. Methods Data from a large cohort (N = 1738) of adult outpatients having been treated with ICBT for depression at an outpatient psychiatric clinic were analysed. A multilevel modelling approach was used to identify patient and treatment variables associated with the speed of recovery during treatment using weekly measurements of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Self-Rated (MADRS-S). Outcomes Adhering to the treatment, perceiving it as credible and working full-time emerged as predictors of a faster pace of recovery and were also associated with a lower level of depression at the end of treatment. Higher pre-treatment depression and sleep problems were associated with a greater improvement rate, but predicted higher depression after treatment. Having a history of psychotropic medication was associated with both slower improvement and higher post-treatment depression. Conclusion Perceived credibility of ICBT is a strong predictor of treatment response. Assessing patient beliefs and expectations may be a useful aid for clinicians when identifying those who are more or less likely to benefit from ICBT. Helping patients improve expectations prior to treatment may be an important goal for clinicians during the initial assessment phase. PMID:27618548

  4. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  5. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  6. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  7. Macro fat and micro fat: insulin sensitivity and gender dependent response of adipose tissue to isocaloric diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28 individuals, separated into 4 subgroups according to gender and insulin sensitivity/resistance. Adipose cell-size distribution changes in each individual are simulated with a dynamic model and parameters corresponding to lipid turnover and cell growth rates are determined for each subgroup to match the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive to changes in energy intake and diet composition than insulin sensitive subjects. The different cell-size distribution changes of adipose cells of various sizes in different subject groups further suggest distinct modulations of adipose cell dynamics. PMID:26451281

  8. Macro fat and micro fat: insulin sensitivity and gender dependent response of adipose tissue to isocaloric diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28 individuals, separated into 4 subgroups according to gender and insulin sensitivity/resistance. Adipose cell-size distribution changes in each individual are simulated with a dynamic model and parameters corresponding to lipid turnover and cell growth rates are determined for each subgroup to match the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive to changes in energy intake and diet composition than insulin sensitive subjects. The different cell-size distribution changes of adipose cells of various sizes in different subject groups further suggest distinct modulations of adipose cell dynamics.

  9. Immunological contributions to adipose tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpirito, Joanna R; Mathis, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of many functionally and developmentally distinct cell types, the metabolic core of which is the adipocyte. The classification of "adipocyte" encompasses three primary types - white, brown, and beige - with distinct origins, anatomic distributions, and homeostatic functions. The ability of adipocytes to store and release lipids, respond to insulin, and perform their endocrine functions (via secretion of adipokines) is heavily influenced by the immune system. Various cell populations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system can resist or exacerbate the development of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we discuss these interactions, with a focus on their consequences for adipocyte and adipose tissue function in the setting of chronic overnutrition. In addition, we will review the effects of diet composition on adipose tissue inflammation and recent evidence suggesting that diet-driven disruption of the gut microbiota can trigger pathologic inflammation of adipose tissue.

  10. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  11. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products...... secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well...... as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors...

  12. Does neuropsychological test performance predict outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and what is the role of underperformance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Goedendorp; S.P. van der Werf; G. Bleijenberg; M. Tummers; H. Knoop

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A subgroup of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has cognitive impairments, reflected by deviant neuropsychological test performance. However, abnormal test scores can also be caused by suboptimal effort. We hypothesized that worse neuropsychological test performance and underpe

  13. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V;

    2004-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels of this...... adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29......, circulating resistin levels are proportional to the degree of adiposity, but not the degree of insulin resistance. We unexpectedly found that high serum resistin levels do predict future increases in percent body fat. Our data suggest that resistin promotes obesity but not obesity-associated insulin...

  14. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  15. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  16. Changes in white and brown adipose tissue microRNA expression in cold-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cong; Huang, Shujuan; Wang, Yajun; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Desheng; Wang, Yanfang; Li, Kui

    2015-07-31

    There are two classic adipose tissues in mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). It has been well known that browning of WAT can be induced by cold exposure. In this study, to identify the novel cold responsive key miRNAs that are involved in browning, mice were housed at 6 °C for 10 days, and deep sequencing of the miRNAs of WAT and BAT was performed. Our data showed that WAT and BAT displayed distinct expression profiles due to their different locations, morphology and biological function. A total of 27 BAT and 29 WAT differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in response to cold stimulation, respectively (fold change >2 and false discovery rate (FDR) adipose tissues. Furthermore, the potential target genes of the DE miRNAs from BAT and WAT were predicted computationally, and the KEGG pathway analysis revealed the enrichment pathways in cold stimulated adipose tissues. The expression pattern of miR-144-3p/Bmpr1b/Phlda1 and miR-146a-5p/Sphk2 were further measured by qPCR. Finally, we found that miR-146a-5p was significantly induced during the primary adipogenesis caused by BAT differentiation, whereas miR-144-3p was decreased. Our study identifies for the first time the novel miRNAs involved in browning of WAT by sequencing and expands the therapeutic approaches for combating metabolic diseases.

  17. Body segment inertial parameters and low back load in individuals with central adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Robert; Kriellaars, Dean

    2014-09-22

    There is a paucity of information regarding the impact of central adiposity on the inertial characteristics of body segments. Deriving low back loads during lifting requires accurate estimate of inertial parameters. The purpose was to determine the body segment inertial parameters of people with central adiposity using a photogrammetric technique, and then to evaluate the impact on lumbar spine loading. Five participants with central adiposity (waist:hip ratio>0.9, waist circumference>102 cm) were compared to a normal BMI group. A 3D wireframe model of the surface topography was constructed, partitioned into 8 body segments and then body segment inertial parameters were calculated using volumetric integration assuming uniform segment densities for the segments. Central adiposity dependent increases in body segment parameters ranged from 12 to 400%, varying across segments (greatest for trunk) and parameters. The increase in mass distribution to the trunk was accompanied by an anterior and inferior shift of the centre of mass. A proximal shift in centre of mass was detected for the extremities, along with a reduction in mass distribution to the lower extremity. L5/S1 torques (392 vs 263 Nm) and compressive forces (5918 vs 3986 N) were substantially elevated in comparison to the normal BMI group, as well as in comparison to torques and forces predicted using published BSIP equations. Central adiposity resulted in substantial but non-uniform increases in inertial parameters resulting in task specific increases in torque and compressive loads arising from different inertial and physical components.

  18. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  19. 奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对细胞因子和认知功能损伤的影响%Effects of glucose metabolic disorder on adipose-derived cytokine and cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提热厦提·吐尔逊; 马晓洁; 张文惠; 夏小龙; 桂学萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the adipose-derived cytokine changes and aggravate cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats caused by glucose metabolic disorder.Methods 20 rats fed with ordinary fodder were used as normal control group,olanzapine group of 20 rats fed with olanzapine(1.2 mg · kg-1) and ordinary fodder for 4 weeks.Successfully established experimental model rats induced by olanzapine after 4 weeks.Serum tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukins 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contents were measured by Elisa.Serum glucose contents were determined by biochemical colorimetric method and blood lipid contents determined with automatic biochemical analyzer.Learning,memory capacity and escape latency were detected with Maze test.Results After administration 4 weeks,the levels of body weight,blood glucose and blood lipid in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group.The serum TNF-α((1.57±0.04) ng/ml),IL-6((127.47±11.38) pg/ml) and CRP ((2.68±0.06) mg/ml) in olanzapine group rised,compared with control group ((0.59±0.03) ng/ml,(96.58± 8.77) pg/ml and (1.86±0.04) mg/ml respectively),the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Electric shocks and escape latency in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05).The FBS had positive correlation with hs-CRP,IL-6 and TNF-α respectively (r=0.385,0.260,1.280; all P<0.05).Conclusion Olanzapine can induce metabolic disturbance of blood glucose,blood hpid,and the increase of serum TNF-α,IL-6 and CRP levels in rats.Positive correlation is showed between TNF-of and FBS.Hyperglycemia can promote cell toxicity and leads to cognitive dysfunction in rats.%目的 观察奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对脂肪源性细胞因子影响和认知功能损伤实验研究.方法 40只大鼠随机分为对照组和实验组,每组20只.对照组大鼠进行普通饲料喂养,实验组在普通饲粮喂养基础上行奥氮平(1.2 mg·kg-1)灌胃4周

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g−1 lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue. - Highlights: • PCBs/PBDEs were detected in the pregnant women from Wenling, China. • Exposure from e-waste recycling activities might considerably contribute to the elevated levels. • The adipose-serum partitioning ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted. • Maternal exposure to PCBs may be associated with lower TSH during pregnancy. - The congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted in humans, and association of PCBs/PBDEs exposure was examined with THs levels

  1. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMondini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.

  2. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alvarez-Sabín

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients’ quality of life (QoL. The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into parallel arms. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after stroke, and QoL was measured using the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire at 2 years. 163 patients were followed during 2 years. The mean age was 67.5 years-old, and 50.9% were women. Age and absence of citicoline treatment were independent predictors of both utility and poor quality of life. Patients with cognitive impairment had a poorer QoL at 2 years (0.55 vs. 0.66 in utility, p = 0.015. Citicoline treatment improved significantly cognitive status during follow-up (p = 0.005. In conclusion, treatment with long-term citicoline is associated with a better QoL and improves cognitive status 2 years after a first ischemic stroke.

  3. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sabín, Jose; Santamarina, Estevo; Maisterra, Olga; Jacas, Carlos; Molina, Carlos; Quintana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into parallel arms. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after stroke, and QoL was measured using the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire at 2 years. 163 patients were followed during 2 years. The mean age was 67.5 years-old, and 50.9% were women. Age and absence of citicoline treatment were independent predictors of both utility and poor quality of life. Patients with cognitive impairment had a poorer QoL at 2 years (0.55 vs. 0.66 in utility, p = 0.015). Citicoline treatment improved significantly cognitive status during follow-up (p = 0.005). In conclusion, treatment with long-term citicoline is associated with a better QoL and improves cognitive status 2 years after a first ischemic stroke. PMID:26999113

  4. In vivo determination of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Ruda, L; Wenning, P; von Stemm, C-I; Pfarrer, C; Huber, K; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonography was used as a noninvasive method for quantitative estimation of the subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in dairy cattle. The prediction model was created and validated with a total of 29 German Holstein cows; 6 were in early lactation (≤100 d in milk [DIM]) and 16 were in advanced lactation (101 to 292 DIM). Seven cows were nonpregnant and nonlactating and had been off milk for 350 to 450 d. Transcutaneous assessment of the thickness of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was done at 16 sites on the body surface of all cows. After completion of the ultrasonographic measurements, the cows were slaughtered and the adipose depots were separately weighed. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of the ultrasonographic variables was performed to estimate the slaughter weights of the different fat depots. Slaughter weights of the fat depots ranged from 5.0 to 43.0 kg for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), from 13.7 to 98.8 kg for abdominal adipose tissue (AAT), from 3.4 to 30.3 kg for retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), from 5.2 to 39.6 kg for omental adipose tissue (OMAT), and from 4.0 to 35.8 kg for mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). The relationship between calculated amount of fat and slaughter weight of fat had coefficients of determination () and root mean square errors (kg) of 0.88 and 3.4, respectively, for SCAT; 0.94 and 6.1, respectively, for AAT; 0.94 and 1.7, respectively, for RPAT; 0.83 and 3.2, respectively, for OMAT; and 0.95 and 1.6, respectively, for MAT. The accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the different fat depots appears sufficient for the quantitative assessment of internal and subcutaneous fat stores in cows. This method is noninvasive and therefore allows safe and repeated monitoring of the amount of stored fat in different adipose tissue depots of German Holsteins cows.

  5. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes adult neurogenesis in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufang Yan; Tuo Ma; Kai Gong; Qiang Ao; Xiufang Zhang; Yandao Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the hippo-campi of APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the number of newly generated (BrdU+) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus was signiifcantly higher in Alzheimer’s disease mice after adipose-de-rived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and there was also a significant increase in the number of BrdU+/DCX+neuroblasts in these animals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhanced neurogenic activity in the subventricular zone as well. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation reduced oxidative stress and alleviated cognitive impairment in the mice. Based on these ifndings, we propose that adipose-derived mes-enchymal stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous neurogenesis in both the subgranular and subventricular zones in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice, thereby facilitating functional recovery.

  6. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Cognitive Problems? Page reviewed by Dr. Joash Lazarus, NPF Movement Disorders Fellow, Department of Neurology at ... What Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes ...

  7. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  8. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Sabín, Jose; Santamarina, Estevo; Maisterra, Olga; Jacas, Carlos; Molina, Carlos; Quintana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients’ quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into paralle...

  9. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.

  10. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  11. Music Training, Cognition, and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigall, Kathleen A.; E. Glenn eSchellenberg; Nicole M. Misura

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants...

  12. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  13. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  14. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  15. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  16. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  17. Adipose tissue mTORC2 regulates ChREBP-driven de novo lipogenesis and hepatic glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuefeng; Wallace, Martina; Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Hsiao, Wen-Yu; Li, Huawei; Lee, Peter L.; Vernia, Santiago; Metallo, Christian M.; Guertin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis (DNL) positively influences insulin sensitivity, is reduced in obesity, and predicts insulin resistance. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms controlling adipose tissue DNL could lead to therapies for type 2 diabetes. Here, we report that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) functions in white adipose tissue (WAT) to control expression of the lipogenic transcription factor ChREBPβ. Conditionally deleting the essential mTORC2 subunit Rictor in mature adipocytes decreases ChREBPβ expression, which reduces DNL in WAT, and impairs hepatic insulin sensitivity. Mechanistically, Rictor/mTORC2 promotes ChREBPβ expression in part by controlling glucose uptake, but without impairing pan-AKT signalling. High-fat diet also rapidly decreases adipose tissue ChREBPβ expression and insulin sensitivity in wild-type mice, and does not further exacerbate insulin resistance in adipose tissue Rictor knockout mice, implicating adipose tissue DNL as an early target in diet-induced insulin resistance. These data suggest mTORC2 functions in WAT as part of an extra-hepatic nutrient-sensing mechanism to control glucose homeostasis. PMID:27098609

  18. Study and classification of the abdominal adiposity throughout the application of the two-dimensional predictive equation Garaulet et al., in the clinical practice Estudio y clasificación de la adiposidad abdominal mediante la aplicación de la ecuación predictiva bidimensional de Garaulet et al., en la práctica clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M.ª Piernas Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The excess of visceral abdominal adipose tissue is one of the major concerns in obesity and its clinical treatment. Objective: To apply the two-dimensional predictive equation proposed by Garaulet et al. to determine the abdominal fat distribution and to compare the results with the body composition obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (M-BIA. Subjects/methods: We studied 230 women, who underwent anthropometry and M-BIA. The predictive equation was applied. Multivariate lineal and partial correlation analyses were performed with control for BMI and % body fat, using SPSS 15.0 with statistical significance P Introducción: El exceso de tejido adiposo abdominal visceral es una de las mayores preocupaciones en la obesidad y su tratamiento clínico. Objetivo: Aplicar la ecuación predictiva bidimensional propuesta por Garaulet et al., para determinar la distribución de la grasa abdominal y comparar los resultados con la composición corporal obtenida mediante el análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica multi-frecuencia (M-BIA. Sujetos/métodos: Estudiamos a 230 mujeres a las que se sometió a antropometría y M-BIA. Se aplicó la ecuación predicitiva. Se realizaron correlaciones lineales multivariadas y parciales controlando el IMC y el % de grasa corporal, utilizando SPSS 15.0 con significación estadística P < 0,05. Resultados: En global, se consideró que las mujeres tenían una distribución subcutánea de la grasa abdominal. La grasa troncal, regional y la masa muscular se asociaron negativamente con VA/SApredicted, mientras que le índice visceral obtenido mediante M-BIA se correlacionó positivamente con VA/SApredicted. Discusión/conclusión: La ecuación predictiva puede ser útil en la práctica clínica para obtener una clasificación segura, barata y precisa de la obesidad abdominal.

  19. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  20. The Power of Selected Cognitive, Social/Emotional, Physical Motor, and Language Tests in Predicting Development Levels of Mentally Handicapped Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBay, Michael J.; Anderson, Nels M.

    Results of the research reported in this paper suggest that the development of mentally handicapped preschool children may not be measurable in distinct cognitive, social/emotional, physical motor, and language areas. This research further indicates that a testing instrument designed to measure the generalized factors of intelligence and social…

  1. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models.

  2. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  3. Using baseline cognitive severity for enriching Alzheimer's disease clinical trials: How does Mini-Mental State Examination predict rate of change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard E.; Cutter, Gary R.; Wang, Guoqiao; Schneider, Lon S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Post hoc analyses from clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease suggest more cognitively impaired participants respond differently from less impaired on cognitive outcomes. We examined pooled clinical trials data to assess the utility of enriching trials using baseline cognition. Methods We included 2,882 participants with mild to moderate AD in 7 studies from a meta-database. We used mixed effects models to estimate rate of decline in ADAS-cog scores among MMSE groups. Findings Baseline MMSE category was associated with baseline scores and rate of decline on the ADAS-cog, adjusting for age and education (both p<0.001). Greater baseline cognitive impairment was associated with more rapid progression. Interpretations Although we found significant differences in rate of decline, the majority of differences between individuals were from baseline ADAS-cog values. Enrichment based on MMSE would reduce the recruitment pool while adding only slightly to detecting differences in rate of progression and is not advised.

  4. The Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour and College Grades: The Role of Cognition and Past Behaviour in the Prediction of Students' Academic Intentions and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Cameron, David Lansing; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes influencing college students' academic achievement represents an important goal of educational research. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the relative influence of cognitive processes and measures of past behaviour in the prediction…

  5. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  6. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  7. Serum Ghrelin Is Associated with Verbal Learning and Adiposity in a Sample of Healthy, Fit Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bellar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between serum ghrelin concentrations, adiposity, and verbal learning in a group of healthy, fit older adults. Participants were 28 healthy older adults (age: yrs, BMI: . Participants reported to the laboratory and basic anthropometric data were collected, followed by a blood draw to quantify serum ghrelin. Participants then underwent cognitive testing that included the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT, as well as the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE. The results of the MMSE test revealed that the volunteers were cognitively intact (MMSE . A significant correlation emerged between serum ghrelin concentrations, 2 trials of the HVLT (Trial 1: , ; Trial 2: , , and the sum of three-site skinfold analysis (. Based upon the aforementioned relationships, it appears that fasting levels of serum ghrelin are related to both verbal learning and adiposity in healthy, fit older adults.

  8. Fundamental Cycles of Cognitive Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John

    Over recent years, various theories have arisen to explain and predict cognitive development in mathematics education. We focus on an underlying theme that recurs throughout such theories: a fundamental cycle of growth in the learning of specific concepts, which we frame within broader global theories of individual cognitive growth. Our purpose is…

  9. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  10. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  11. [Use of adipose tissue in regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteilla, L; Planat-Benard, V; Bourin, P; Laharrague, P; Cousin, B

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue is abundant and well known for its involvement in obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Its uses in regenerative medicine recently attracted many investigators, as large amounts of this tissue can be easily obtained using liposuction and it contains several populations of immature cells. The largest pool of such cells corresponds to immature stromal cells, called adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). These cells are purified after proteolytic digestion of adipose tissue and selection by an adherent step. ADSCs display many common features with mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, including paracrine activity, but with some specific features, among which a greater angiogenic potential. This potential is now investigating at clinical level to treat critical ischemic hindlimb by autologous cells. Other potentials are also investigated and the treatment of fistula associated or not with Crohn's disease is reaching now phase III level.

  12. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  13. Progress on Brown Adipose Tissue and Beige Adipose Tissue%棕色脂肪和米黄色脂肪研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 李戡; 刘文忠; 张建新; 任有蛇; 张春香; 赵俊星

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue is recognized not only as the energy storage site,but also as an important en-docrine organ that plays important role in whole body energy homeostasis.According to their appearance, adipose tissues can be divided into white adipose tissue (WAT),brown adipose tissue (BAT)and Beige ad-ipose tissue.The main function of WAT is for energy storage,while the BAT is mainly responsible for heat generation.Under certain environmental stress,WAT may convert into BAT-like adipocytes,named Beige cells.In present review,we summarized the functions and differentiation mechanisms of both BAT and WAT,and predict their application in husbandry industry.%脂肪组织不仅是机体能量储存的主要场所,也是重要的内分泌器官。根据脂肪颜色的不同,动物脂肪组织可分为白色脂肪(WAT)、棕色脂肪(BAT)和米黄色脂肪(Beige)。WAT 以甘油三酯的形式储存能量,而 BAT 是动物非颤抖性产热的主要场所。在一定外界环境刺激下,WAT 可以生成一种与 BAT 功能类似的细胞,称之为 Beige 细胞。论文对棕色脂肪和米黄色脂肪的功能、增殖与分化机制进行了综述,并对其在畜牧业中的应用进行了展望。

  14. [New insights into adipose cell biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcelin, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Our research focuses on the molecular mechanisms controlling glycemia in healthy and diabetic individuals. Diabetes is now considered as a worldwide epidemic by WHO, and is predicted to affect several hundred million people in the near future. Current therapies have failed to prevent or control hyperglycemia, as well as the deleterious cardiovascular consequences of the disease have increased. New paradigms are thus needed to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Over the last 15 years, we have been studying the intestine as a major regulator of the integrated cross-talk between the brain, liver, pancreas, muscles and blood vessels required for glycemic control. As a first example, we identified that during a meal the glucose transporter GLUT2 and the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are involved in glucose detection by the entero-portal system. This was done using highly innovative experimental techniques in the awake free moving mouse. We then found that the enteric-vagal nervous system transmits this nutritional information towards the brain stem and hypothalamus, where leptin, neuropeptide Y and GLP-1 relay the enteric signal to control the endocrine pancreas (insulin-glucagon secretion), the liver (glycogen metabolism), the vascular system (vasodilation, arterial flow), and muscle metabolism. This "anticipatory metabolic reflex " is altered during diabetes and might thus represent a new pharmacological target. Subsequently, while investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating this new physiological pathway, we discovered that a fat-rich diabetogenic diet alters the intestinal microbiota and permeability. This leads to an increase in the concentration of plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which causes metabolic endotoxemia responsible for the induction of low-grade inflammation that characterizes type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, adipose tissue development and hepatic lipid storage. We then showed that bacteria can be

  15. Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue accounts for approximately 20% (lean) to >50% (in extreme obesity) of body mass and is biologically active through its secretion of numerous peptides and release and storage of nutrients such as free fatty acids. Studies in rodents and humans have revealed that body fat distribution, including visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous (SC) fat and ectopic fat are critical for determining the risk posed by obesity. Specific depletion or expansion of the VF depot using genetic or surgical strategies in animal models has proven to have direct effects on metabolic characteristics and disease risk. In humans, there is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity most strongly predicts mortality risk, while in rats, surgical removal of VF improves mean and maximum life span. There is also growing evidence that fat deposition in ectopic depots such as skeletal muscle and liver can cause lipotoxicity and impair insulin action. Conversely, expansion of SC adipose tissue may confer protection from metabolic derangements by serving as a 'metabolic sink' to limit both systemic lipids and the accrual of visceral and ectopic fat. Treatments targeting the prevention of fat accrual in these harmful depots should be considered as a primary target for improving human health span and longevity. PMID:20703052

  16. Telomere length as a biomarker for adiposity changes after a multidisciplinary intervention in overweight/obese adolescents: the EVASYON study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia García-Calzón

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Telomeres are biomarkers of biological aging. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased adiposity in adults. However, this relationship remains unclear in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between telomere length (TL and adiposity markers in overweight/obese adolescents after an intensive program. We hypothesize that greater TL at baseline would predict a better response to a weight loss treatment. DESIGN SETTING PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: The EVASYON is a multidisciplinary treatment program for adolescents with overweight and obesity that is aimed at applying the intervention to all possibly involved areas of the individual, such as dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive and psychological profiles. Seventy-four participants (36 males, 38 females, 12-16 yr were enrolled in the intervention program: 2 months of an energy-restricted diet and a follow-up period (6 months. MAIN OUTCOME: TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 2 months; meanwhile, anthropometric variables were also assessed after 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS: TL lengthened in participants during the intensive period (+1.9±1.0, p<0.001 being greater in overweight/obese adolescents with the shortest telomeres at baseline (r = -0.962, p<0.001. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that higher baseline TL significantly predicted a higher decrease in body weight (B = -1.53, p = 0.005; B = -2.25, p = 0.047 and in standard deviation score for body mass index (BMI-SDS (B = -0.22, p = 0.010; B = -0.47, p = 0.005 after the intensive and extensive period treatment respectively, in boys. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that a weight loss intervention is accompanied by a significant increase in TL in overweight/obese adolescents. Moreover, we suggest that initial longer TL could be a potential predictor for a better weight loss response.

  17. Attitudes towards ads and age. A study in seniors. The combination of chronological and cognitive age as an effective predictive criterion of attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Tena, Miguel Ángel; Estrada Guillén, Marta; Monferrer Tirado, Diego; Sánchez García, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Older adults make up one of the markets with the greatest potential in the future. It is essential that businesses take the diversity within this group into account, and perform segmentation in order to obtain a favorable attitude towards the ad. The potential for segmentation by chronological age has been called into question in recent years, with cognitive age emerging as the main alternative. This research aims to analyses the relationship between the variables of attitude towards the ad, ...

  18. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students From Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and ...

  19. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  20. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  1. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... antidepressant, has significant precognitive effects in MDD unrelated to mood improvement. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was shown to alleviate executive dysfunction in an RCT of adults after full or partial remission of MDD. Preliminary evidence also indicates that erythropoietin may alleviate cognitive...

  2. Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Pae, Munkyong; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Eberlé, Delphine; Shimada, Takeshi; Kamei, Nozomu; Park, Hee-Sook; Sasorith, Souphatta; Woo, Ju Rang; You, Jia; Mosher, William; Brady, Hugh J M; Shoelson, Steven E; Lee, Jongsoon

    2016-04-12

    Obesity-induced inflammation mediated by immune cells in adipose tissue appears to participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We show that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet (HFD) increases NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. When NK cells were depleted either with neutralizing antibodies or genetic ablation in E4bp4(+/-) mice, obesity-induced insulin resistance improved in parallel with decreases in both adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) numbers, and ATM and adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, expansion of NK cells following IL-15 administration or reconstitution of NK cells into E4bp4(-/-) mice increased both ATM numbers and adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated HFD-induced insulin resistance. These results indicate that adipose NK cells control ATMs as an upstream regulator potentially by producing proinflammatory mediators, including TNFα, and thereby contribute to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  3. Proteomic characterization of adipose tissue constituents, a necessary step for understanding adipose tissue complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Juan R; Pardo, María; de la Rosa, Olga; Malagón, Maria M

    2012-02-01

    The original concept of adipose tissue as an inert storage depot for the excess of energy has evolved over the last years and it is now considered as one of the most important organs regulating body homeostasis. This conceptual change has been supported by the demonstration that adipose tissue serves as a major endocrine organ, producing a wide variety of bioactive molecules, collectively termed adipokines, with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine activities. Adipose tissue is indeed a complex organ wherein mature adipocytes coexist with the various cell types comprising the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF), including preadipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells, perivascular cells, and blood cells. It is known that not only mature adipocytes but also the components of SVF produce adipokines. Furthermore, adipokine production, proliferative and metabolic activities and response to regulatory signals (i.e. insulin, catecholamines) differ between the different fat depots, which have been proposed to underlie their distinct association to specific diseases. Herein, we discuss the recent proteomic studies on adipose tissue focused on the analysis of the separate cellular components and their secretory products, with the aim of identifying the basic features and the contribution of each component to different adipose tissue-associated pathologies.

  4. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  5. Relation of adipose tissue to metabolic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Lauren M.; Ukropcova, Barbara; Smith, Jana; Pasarica, Magdalena; Hymel, David; Xie, Hui; Bray, George A.; Miles, John M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for skeletal muscle to shift reliance between lipids and glucose during fasting or in response to insulin. We hypothesized that body fat, adipose tissue characteristics, e.g. larger adipocytes, presence of inflammatory gene markers and impaired suppression of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) during insulin infusion might be related to metabolic flexibility.

  6. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity.

  7. Injectable biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. (paper)

  8. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José;

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification...

  9. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects.

  10. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  11. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ursula A; Tchoukalova, Yourka D

    2014-03-01

    Obesity, characterized by excessive adiposity, is a risk factor for many metabolic pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies have shown that adipose tissue distribution may be a greater predictor of metabolic health. Upper-body fat (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal) is commonly associated with the unfavorable complications of obesity, while lower-body fat (gluteal-femoral) may be protective. Current research investigations are focused on analyzing the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, in order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate fat distribution in both men and women. This review will highlight the adipose tissue depot- and sex-dependent differences in white adipose tissue function, including adipogenesis, adipose tissue developmental patterning, the storage and release of fatty acids, and secretory function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  12. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jane J.; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M. Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Part...

  13. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  14. The structure research of predictability conditions under cognitive perspective%认知视阈下可预测性条件结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹霞

    2015-01-01

    This paper,based on construction grammar and mental space theory,gives a cognitive analysis of the predicative conditionals,trying to explore the form-meaning relations and the alternativity of mental spaces in the predicative conditionals.%以构式语法和心理空间理论为依据,对英语中可预测性条件句进行语言的认知分析,探讨可预测性条件结构的形式—意义关系及其心理空间的可选择性。

  15. Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Hand LE, Usan P, Cooper GJS, Xu LY, Ammori B, Cunningham PS, Aghamohammadzadeh R, Soran H, Greenstein A, Loudon ASI, Bechtold DA, Ray DW

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverbα exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverbα−/− mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting ...

  16. Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action, and insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Hanson, K;

    2001-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine produced and released in part by adipose tissue, are elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because recent studies suggest that markers of inflammation predict the development of type 2 diabetes, we examined w...... whether circulating plasma IL-6 concentrations were related to direct measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction in Pima Indians, a population with high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  17. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  18. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  19. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children.

  20. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children. PMID:22227395

  1. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  2. A COGNITIVE AND MEMETIC SCIENCE APPROACH TO ANALYZE THE HUMAN FACTORS IN PREDICTING THE EVOLUTION OF PAPER TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTS IN THE 21sT CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FumihikoONABE

    2004-01-01

    Predicting the future of paper industry is conventionally conducted from the technological and market-oriented aspects as well as a variety of constraints lying ahead of the industry such as resource, energy, and environmental issues.

  3. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality. PMID:23641225

  4. Music training, cognition, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Corrigall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  5. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  6. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  7. Forkhead box A3 mediates glucocorticoid receptor function in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinran; Xu, Lingyan; Mueller, Elisabetta

    2016-03-22

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely prescribed anti-inflammatory agents, but their chronic use leads to undesirable side effects such as excessive expansion of adipose tissue. We have recently shown that the forkhead box protein A3 (Foxa3) is a calorie-hoarding factor that regulates the selective enlargement of epididymal fat depots and suppresses energy expenditure in a nutritional- and age-dependent manner. It has been demonstrated that Foxa3 levels are elevated in adipose depots in response to high-fat diet regimens and during the aging process; however no studies to date have elucidated the mechanisms that control Foxa3's expression in fat. Given the established effects of GCs in increasing visceral adiposity and in reducing thermogenesis, we assessed the existence of a possible link between GCs and Foxa3. Computational prediction analysis combined with molecular studies revealed that Foxa3 is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in preadipocytes, adipocytes, and adipose tissues and is required to facilitate the binding of the GR to its target gene promoters in fat depots. Analysis of the long-term effects of dexamethasone treatment in mice revealed that Foxa3 ablation protects mice specifically against fat accretion but not against other pathological side effects elicited by this synthetic GC in tissues such as liver, muscle, and spleen. In conclusion our studies provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that Foxa3 is a direct target of GC action in adipose tissues and point to a role of Foxa3 as a mediator of the side effects induced in fat tissues by chronic treatment with synthetic steroids.

  8. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  9. Adipose tissues differentiated by adipose-derived stemcells harvested from transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng; GAO Jian-hua; Rei Ogawa; Hiroshi Mizuro; Hiki Hykusoku

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To induce adipocyte differentiation in vitro by adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) harvested from transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)and assess the possibility of constructing adipose tissues via attachment of ASCs to type Ⅰ collagen scaffolds.Methods: Inguinal fat pads from GFP transgenic mice were digested by enzymes for isolation of ASCs (primary culture). After expansion to three passages of ASCs, the cells were incubated in an adipogenic medium for two weeks, and the adipocyte differentiation by ASCs in vitro was assessed by morphological observation and Oil Red O staining. Then they were attached to collagen scaffolds and co-cultured for 12 hours, followed by hypodermic implantation to the dorsal skin of nude mice for 2 months. The newly-formed tissues were detected by HE staining.Results: The cultured primary stem cells were fibroblast-like and showed active proliferation. After being incubated in an adipocyte differentiation medium, the lipid droplets in the cytoplasm accumulated gradually and finally developed into mature adipocytes, which showed positive in Oil Red O staining. A 0.5-cm3 new tissue clot was found under the dorsal skin of the nude mice and it was confirmed as mature adipose tissues by fluorescent observation and HE staining.Conclusions: ASCs can successfully differentiate adipose tissues into mature adipocytes, which exhibit an adipocyte-like morphology and express as intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. It is an efficient model of adipose tissues engineered with ASCs and type Ⅰ collagen scaffolds.

  10. NPY antagonism reduces adiposity and attenuates age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjoon; Fujishita, Chika; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-12-01

    An orexigenic hormone, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plays a role not only in the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, but also in the peripheral regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by NPY to regulate lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we report that NPY deficiency reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism in mice. Gene expression involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis was found to decrease, whereas proteins involved in lipolysis increased in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of NPY-knockout mice. These changes were associated with an activated SIRT1- and PPARγ-mediated pathway. Moreover, the age-related decrease of de novo lipogenesis in gWAT and thermogenesis in inguinal WAT was inhibited by NPY deficiency. Further analysis using 3T3-L1 cells showed that NPY inhibited lipolysis through the Y1 receptor and enhanced lipogenesis following a reduction in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and SIRT1 protein expression. Therefore, NPY appears to act as a key regulator of adipose tissue metabolism via the CREB-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, NPY deficiency reduces adiposity and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism, suggesting that antagonism of NPY may be a promising target for drug development to prevent age-related metabolic diseases.

  11. Intraindividual Variability in Domain-Specific Cognition and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI for an average of 5.3 years using a standardized protocol. Proportional hazards regression showed that lower baseline domain-specific cognitive scores significantly predicted MCI (N=74, probable dementia (N=45, and MCI or probable dementia combined (N=101 and that verbal and figural memory predicted each outcome independently of all other cognitive domains. The baseline intraindividual standard deviation across test scores (IAV Cognitive Domains significantly predicted probable dementia and this effect was attenuated by interindividual differences in verbal episodic memory. Slope increases in IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions (IAV Time explained additional risk for MCI and MCI or probable dementia, beyond that accounted for by interindividual differences in multiple cognitive measures, but risk for probable dementia was attenuated by mean decreases in verbal episodic memory slope. These findings demonstrate that within-person variability across cognitive domains both at baseline and longitudinally independently accounts for risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in support of the predictive utility of within-person variability.

  12. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed......AIMS: There is increasing evidence of cross-talk between the heart, body metabolism, and adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have recently emerged as the prime candidate for a mediator. In patients with heart failure (HF), infusion of NPs...... 5574 randomly selected men and women from the community without ischaemic heart disease or HF. Plasma adiponectin and proBNP were measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (interquartile range 8.0-9.1 years). During follow-up 271 participants developed symptomatic HF. Plasma...

  13. SVM-based prediction of spectrum idle rate in cognitive radio systems%认知无线电中基于支持向量机的频谱空闲度预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红岩

    2015-01-01

    研究认知无线系统中的频谱小时空闲度预测问题,针对GSM系统的载频小时空闲度时间序列的非线性特点,提出一种基于支持向量机的预测模型构建方法。为提高模型的预测精度,在GSM系统小时空闲度时间序列特征分析的基础上,利用序列的节假日特性和日周期特性,对数据序列进行了重构。仿真结果表明,与采用基于神经网络的预测模型相比,该预测方法对工作日和周末均具有较高的预测精度,其预测绝对百分比误差在4以内。%A construction method of SVM⁃based prediction model for the spectrum idle rate in cognitive radio systems is proposed according to the non⁃linear characteristics of carrier frequency idle rate time sequence of GSM system. To enhance the prediction accuracy of the model,the data sequence is reconstructed according to the holiday and daily⁃cycle properties,and feature analysis of the idle rate time sequence of GSM system. The simulation results show that the proposed model has more ac⁃curate prediction in workday and weekend than the prediction model based on neural network. The absolute percentage error of its prediction is within 4.

  14. Predictive value of breast cancer cognitions and attitudes toward genetic testing on women’s interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bengel, Jürgen; Barth, Jürgen; Reitz, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    In the past years advances in genetic technologies have led to an increased interest in predictive genetic testing for breast cancer risk. Studies in the US and UK reported an increasing interest among women of the general public in genetic testing for breast cancer risk, although the benefit of such a test is questionable for low risk women. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that predict interest in genetic testing of German women in the general public. Women with neither ...

  15. Cognitive Reserve in Dementia: Implications for Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Madella, Ileana; Zangrossi, Andrea; Bigolin, Angela; Tomasi, Claudia; Michieletto, Marta; Villani, Daniele; Di Giovanni, Giuseppina; Mapelli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CR on a cognitive training (CT) in a group of patients with dementia. Eighty six participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the CR Index questionnaire (CRIq) and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition mini mental state examination (MMSE) was obtained before (T0) and after (T1) the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia. PMID:27199734

  16. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Donohoe Claire L; Doyle Suzanne L; Reynolds John V

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods: Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles...

  17. Epicardial adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2014-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. PMID:24648445

  18. Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-09-01

    Progress in understanding cognition requires a quantitative, theoretical framework, grounded in the other natural sciences and able to bridge between implementational, algorithmic and computational levels of explanation. I review recent results in neuroscience and cognitive biology that, when combined, provide key components of such an improved conceptual framework for contemporary cognitive science. Starting at the neuronal level, I first discuss the contemporary realization that single neurons are powerful tree-shaped computers, which implies a reorientation of computational models of learning and plasticity to a lower, cellular, level. I then turn to predictive systems theory (predictive coding and prediction-based learning) which provides a powerful formal framework for understanding brain function at a more global level. Although most formal models concerning predictive coding are framed in associationist terms, I argue that modern data necessitate a reinterpretation of such models in cognitive terms: as model-based predictive systems. Finally, I review the role of the theory of computation and formal language theory in the recent explosion of comparative biological research attempting to isolate and explore how different species differ in their cognitive capacities. Experiments to date strongly suggest that there is an important difference between humans and most other species, best characterized cognitively as a propensity by our species to infer tree structures from sequential data. Computationally, this capacity entails generative capacities above the regular (finite-state) level; implementationally, it requires some neural equivalent of a push-down stack. I dub this unusual human propensity "dendrophilia", and make a number of concrete suggestions about how such a system may be implemented in the human brain, about how and why it evolved, and what this implies for models of language acquisition. I conclude that, although much remains to be done, a

  19. Physical and Cognitive Functioning After 3 Years Can Be Predicted Using Information From the Diagnostic Process in Recently Diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Uitdehaag, Bernard M.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Minneboo, Arjan; Heymans, Martijn W.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Polman, Chris H.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To predict functioning after 3 years in patients with recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS). Design Inception cohort with 3 years of follow-up. At baseline, predictors were obtained from medical history taking, neurologic examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Setting Ne

  20. Adiposity in British secondary school children: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Odoki, Katherine Helen

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Adiposity is defined as the property of containing fat. Excessive adiposity is a cause of both morbidity and mortality in adults. Important consequences include increased risks of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, (particularly through the increased risks of high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance associated with adiposity), osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and some cancers (particularly endometrial, breast, and colon). There is...