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Sample records for adiposity measures 6-year

  1. Predictive performances of lipid accumulation product vs. adiposity measures for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, 8.6-year follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Fereidoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the most commonly used marker for evaluating obesity related risks, however, central obesity measures have been proposed to be more informative. Lipid accumulation product (LAP is an alternative continuous index of lipid accumulation. We sought in this study to assess if LAP can outperform BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR, or waist-to-hip-ratio (WHpR in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD or all-cause mortality. Results Among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 6,751 participants (2,964 men, aged ≥ 30 years, were followed for a median of 8.6 years. We observed 274 deaths (men: 168 and 447 CVD events (men: 257. Levels of common CVD risk factors significantly increased across LAP quartiles. Mortality rates did not differ by LAP quartiles. Among participants free of CVD at baseline [6331 (2,741 men], CVD incident rates per 1000 person increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing LAP quartile values in both men (from 6.9 to 17.0 and women (from 1.3 to 13.0, (Ps Among women, a 1-SD increment in log-LAP conferred a 41% increased risk for CVD (HR 1.41, 95% CIs 1.02-1.96. Among men, however, LAP was not observed to be independently associated with increased risk of CVD; except in a sub-group of men assigned to the lifestyle modification interventions, where, LAP predicted CVD risk. After adjustment with CVD risk factors LAP turned to be inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR, men 0.74, 95% CIs 0.61-0.90; women, 0.94 95% CIs 0.74-1.20. Among women, magnitude of increased risk of CVD due to LAP was not different from those of anthropometric measures. Among men, however, WHpR was observed to be more strongly associated with increased risk of CVD than was LAP. Among neither men nor women were the predictive performances (discrimination, calibration, goodness-of-fit of the LAP better than those of different anthropometric measures were. Conclusions If LAP is to be

  2. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  3. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  4. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among local residents measured 6years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

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    Kim, Jung-Ah; Noh, Su Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon; Park, Myung-Sook; Chu, Yeonhee; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-02-15

    In December 2007, the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred on the west coast of South Korea. Association between crude oil exposure and the levels of urinary oxidative stress biomarkers was reported among the local residents, 1.5years after the accident. The aim of this study was to follow-up possible longer-term effects of the oil spill among the residents near the oil spill. Six years after the accident, urinary oxidative stress biomarkers of the residents were associated with surrogates of oil exposure. The target subjects were divided into two groups based on the distance of their residence to the spill site, i.e., those near the spill site ('Near' group, n=476), and those far from the spill ('Far' group, n=152). A questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers or self-reporting, and demographic information and other parameters of the participants, such as socioeconomic status, smoking and drinking behaviors, disease history, and duration of clean-up activities after the spill, were collected. The participants' levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in 12 h urine samples were measured as indicators of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. A general linear model was used for statistical analysis. Urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels measured from 'Near' group, i.e., geometric mean of 2.19μmol/g creatinine, and 5.41μg/g creatinine, respectively, were higher than those of 'Far' group. Especially, urinary 8-OHdG levels in the 'Near' group were significantly higher than those of 'Far' after adjusting relevant covariates. In addition, the duration of clean-up activities showed a significant association with both urinary 8-OHdG and MDA levels. Even 6years after the oil spill, positive associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and surrogates of oil exposure were evident. While the present study design lacks biomarkers of exposure, the results of this study suggest that the consequences of oil pollution may last

  5. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  6. The relationship between measures of executive function, motor performance and externalising behaviour in 5- and 6-year-old children.

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    Livesey, David; Keen, Jennifer; Rouse, Jane; White, Fiona

    2006-02-01

    In his cognitive-energetic model of information processing Sergeant [Sergeant, J. (2000). The cognitive-energetic model: An empirical approach to ADHD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 7-12] links executive function (EF) to motor behaviour. This link has been supported by evidence from a number of sources including studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Little is known developmentally about this association. Given the rapid change in both motor proficiency and EF that takes place in the pre-school years, this appears an important time to look for the emergence of the link between these factors. In this study we tested 5- and 6-year-old children on motor tasks from the movement assessment battery for children and on measures of response inhibition (Stroop and stop-signal task) and examined the relationship between scores on these measures. Additionally, in order to relate this behaviour to everyday function, the Rowe behavioural rating inventory (RBRI), a teachers' behavioural rating of externalising behaviour, was also gathered and this related to EF and motor performance. It was found that motor performance correlated significantly with RBRI scores (better motor performance with lower externalising behaviour) and with Stroop performance. The relationship between motor performance and stop-signal task performance was in the expected direction but failed to reach significance and there was no clear association between performance on the stop-signal task and either Stroop or RBRI scores. The results are discussed in relation to different aspects of response inhibition (inhibition of a pre-potent response, interference control) and how these might relate to motor control.

  7. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

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    Miroslav Šram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1 the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2 determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  8. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

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    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  9. Is directly measured physical activity related to adiposity in preschool children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the association between directly assessed physical activity and adiposity in preschool children (age 1.5-6 years). It includes 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that were published between January 1999 and February 2010. The association between physical activity and

  10. Prospective associations between measures of adiposity and periodontal disease.

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    Jimenez, Monik; Hu, Frank B; Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2012-08-01

    Obesity induced inflammation may promote periodontal tissue destruction and bone resorption inducing tooth loss. We examined the association between measures of adiposity and self-reported periodontal disease, using data from 36,910 healthy male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who were free of periodontal disease at baseline and followed for ≤20 years (1986-2006). Self-reported height, weight, and periodontal disease data were collected at baseline, weight and periodontal disease were additionally collected on biennial follow-up questionnaires and waist and hip circumference were self-reported in 1987. These self-reported measures have been previously validated. The multivariable adjusted associations between BMI (kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and first report of periodontal disease diagnosis were evaluated using time-varying Cox models. We observed 2,979 new periodontal disease diagnoses during 596,561 person-years of follow-up. Significant associations and trends were observed between all measures of adiposity and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, smoking, race, dental profession, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and diabetes status at baseline. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with greater risk of periodontal disease (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.45). Elevated WC and WHR were significantly associated with a greater risk of periodontal disease (HR for extreme quintiles: WC = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11-1.46; WHR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.17-1.54). The associations of BMI and WC were significant even among nondiabetics and never smokers. Given the high prevalence of overweight, obesity, and periodontal disease this association may be of substantial public health importance.

  11. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared.

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    Wang, Yu; Yang, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5-11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  12. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass...

  13. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

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    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  14. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Hoogduin, J M

    2016-01-01

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and subcutan

  15. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Hoogduin, J M

    2016-01-01

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 25 adult patients with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease. MRI fat fraction measurements were made under ambient temperature conditions using a vendor supplied mDixon chemical-shift water-fat multi-echo pulse sequence at 1.5 T field strength. Supraclavicular fat fraction reliability (intraclass correlation coefficientagreement , ICCagreement ) was 0.97 for test-retest, 0.95 for intra-observer and 0.56 for inter-observer measurements, which increased to 0.88 when ICCconsistency was estimated. Supraclavicular fat fraction agreement displayed mean differences of 0.5% (limit of agreement (LoA) -1.7 to 2.6) for test-retest, -0.5% (LoA -2.9 to 2.0) for intra-observer and 5.6% (LoA 0.4 to 10.8) for inter-observer measurements. Median fat fraction in supraclavicular adipose tissue was 82.5% (interquartile range (IQR) 78.6-84.0) and 89.7% (IQR 87.2-91.5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (p fat MRI has good reliability and agreement to measure adipose tissue fat fraction in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease. These findings enable research on determinants of fat fraction and enable longitudinal monitoring of fat fraction within adipose tissue depots. Interestingly, even in adult patients with manifest cardiovascular disease, supraclavicular adipose tissue has a lower fat fraction compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue, suggestive of distinct morphologic characteristics, such as brown adipose tissue.

  16. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

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    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG. For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  17. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise determined by arteriovenous measurements in older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the lipolytic response in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in older women to endurance exercise.......To characterize the lipolytic response in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in older women to endurance exercise....

  18. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  19. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

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    Tuomo T Tompuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  20. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  1. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.;

    2016-01-01

    and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the "Healthy Start" study. Linear regression analysis was used......, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children's adiposity measures. RESULTS: HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0...... to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise...

  2. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

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    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ≥ 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels.

  3. Habilidades auditivas e medidas da imitância acústica em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade Auditory abilities and acoustic immittance measures in children from 4 to 6 year old

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    Rafaela Della Giacoma Prado Toscano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho em habilidades auditivas e as condições de orelha média de crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade. MÉTODO: foram aplicados os testes de detecção sonora (audiômetro pediátrico em 20dBNA, a Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e as medidas de imitância acústica (handtymp com tom de 226Hz em 61 crianças com média de idade de 5,65 anos. Para comparar os resultados das provas de habilidades auditivas e das medidas da imitância acústica foi aplicado o teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of auditory abilities and conditions in the middle ear of children from 4 to 6 year old. METHOD: we applied the tests in order to detect sound (pediatric audiometer in 20dBHL, the Simplified Assessment of Auditory Processing (SAAP and the acoustic immittance measures (handtymp with a probe of 226Hz. In order to compare the results from the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic impedance we applied Fisher's exact test with significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS: the study involved 61 children with a mean age of 5.65 years. There was some alteration in at least one of the investigated auditory skills in 24.6% of the children. Tympanometry was altered in 34.4% of the children and 64% were classified on the "fail" criterion for the measure of ipsilateral acoustic reflex. Younger children had higher incidence of middle ear disorders, but with no significant statistical difference between different ages as for the tests. CONCLUSION: younger children showed a higher occurrence of alterations in the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic immittance. Research and monitoring programs for the conditions of the middle ear and auditory skills in preschool and school age can eliminate or minimize events that would alter the socio-linguistic development.

  4. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...... Children's Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (

  5. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Du, Huaidong;

    2010-01-01

    Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI))", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess...

  6. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Huaidong, D.U.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.L.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype “waist circumference for a given body mass index (WCBMI)”, a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to

  7. X-ray attenuation of adipose breast tissue: in-vitro and in-vivo measurements using spectral imaging

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    Fredenberg, Erik; Erhard, Klaus; Berggren, Karl; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cederström, Björn; Johansson, Henrik; Lundqvist, Mats; Moa, Elin; Homan, Hanno; Willsher, Paula; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Wallis, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    The development of new x-ray imaging techniques often requires prior knowledge of tissue attenuation, but the sources of such information are sparse. We have measured the attenuation of adipose breast tissue using spectral imaging, in vitro and in vivo. For the in-vitro measurement, fixed samples of adipose breast tissue were imaged on a spectral mammography system, and the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation was measured in terms of equivalent thicknesses of aluminum and poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). For the in-vivo measurement, a similar procedure was applied on a number of spectral screening mammograms. The results of the two measurements agreed well and were consistent with published attenuation data and with measurements on tissue-equivalent material.

  8. Regression models for near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hao, Dongmei; Shi, Jingbin; Yang, Zeqiang; Jin, Liu; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Bin, Guangyu; Zeng, Yanjun; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is often associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness for acquiring the distribution of body fat. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate different model-based methods for SAT thickness measurement using an SATmeter developed in our laboratory. Near-infrared signals backscattered from the body surfaces from 40 subjects at 20 body sites each were recorded. Linear regression (LR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were established to predict SAT thickness on different body sites. The measurement accuracy was evaluated by ultrasound, and compared with results from a mechanical skinfold caliper (MSC) and a body composition balance monitor (BCBM). The results showed that both LR- and SVR-based measurement produced better accuracy than MSC and BCBM. It was also concluded that by using regression models specifically designed for certain parts of human body, higher measurement accuracy could be achieved than using a general model for the whole body. Our results demonstrated that the SATmeter is a feasible method, which can be applied at home and in the community due to its portability and convenience.

  9. Measurements of pericardial adipose tissue using contrast enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography—comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Lønborg, Jacob; Rasmussen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) located in close vicinity to the epicardial coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. PAT has primarily been measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) or with non...... tested, and the smallest difference in PAT was noted when -30 to -190 HU were used in MDCT measures. The median difference between MDCT and CMRI for the assessment of PAT was 9 ml (SD 50) suggesting a reasonable robust method for the assessment of PAT in a large-scale study. Pericardial adipose tissue...... and CMRI scans were performed. The optimal fit for measuring PAT using contrast MDCT was developed and validated by the corresponding measures on CMRI. The median for PAT volume in patients was 175 ml (SD 68) and 153 ml (SD 60) measured by MDCT and CMRI respectively. Four different attenuation values were...

  10. Relationship of Plasma IL-6 to the Metabolic Measures associated with Insulin Resistance due to Adiposity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryoyu Takeda; Isamu Miyamori; WU Pingsheng (吴平生); Yoshihiro Takayama; Yuji Ito; Takaharu Masunaga; Takahiro Zenda; Satoshi Asaka; Hisanori Oiwake; Kimihide Shinozaki; Yoshiyu Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To elucidate the relationship of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) to the metabolic measures associated with insulin resistance (IR) due to adiposity. Methods For a cross-sectional study, eighty normotensive men with and without obesity were enrolled consecutively in our health examination center. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma immunoreactive insulin (FIRI), HOMA-R (Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance Index), plasma lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein(CRP) were measured. Results Plasma levels of FIRI, triglyceride (TG), DHEA-S,CRP and HOMA-R were significantly higher in obese group with BMI over 25 than non-obese group,whereas HDL-C was significantly lower in obese group. BMI was positively correlated with FIRI, TG,hsCRP and HOMA-R, whereas negatively with HDLC. BMI was positively correlated with plasma DHEAS levels but not with cortisol. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively correlated with FIRI, TG, CRP and HOMA-R but in a multiple regression analysis with IL-6, only HOMA-R and TG remained explainable variables. Conclusions Each of commonly used measures of inflammatory reaction, CRP and IL-6, showed a significantly positive correlation with either FIRI or HOMA-R, suggesting associations between subclinical inflammation and obesity as the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of different measures of adiposity to distinguish between low/high motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the ability of different measures of adiposity to discriminate between low/high motor coordination and to evaluate the relationship between different measures of adiposity and motor coordination. METHODS: This study included 596 elementary school children aged 9 to 12 years (218 females - 47.1%. Weight, height, and waist circumference were objectively measured by standardized protocols. Body fat percentage was estimated by bioelectric impedance. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were computed. Motor coordination was assessed by the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. A questionnaire was used to assess the maternal educational level. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic performance of body fat percentage in females and waist circumference in males presented a slightly better discriminatory accuracy than body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in predicting low motor coordination. After adjustments, logistic regression analyses showed that body mass index (ß = 2.155; 95% CI: 1.164-3.992; p = 0.015 for girls; ß = 3.255; 95% CI: 1.740-6.088; p < 0.001 for males, waist circumference (ß = 2.489; 95% CI: 1.242-4.988; p = 0.010 for girls; ß = 3.296; 95% CI: 1.784-6.090; p < 0.001 for males, body fat percentage (ß = 2.395; 95% CI: 1.234-4.646; p = 0.010 for girls; ß = 2.603; 95% CI: 1.462-4.634; p < 0.001 for males and waist-to-height ratio (ß = 3.840; 95% CI: 2.025-7.283; p < 0.001 for males were positively and significantly associated with motor coordination in both sexes, with the exception of waist-to-height ratio in girls (ß = 1.343; 95% CI: 0.713-2.528; p = 0.381. CONCLUSION: Body fat percentage and waist circumference showed a slightly better discriminatory accuracy in predicting low motor coordination for females and for males

  12. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  13. Myocardial Integrated Backscatter in Obese Adolescents: Associations with Measures of Adiposity and Left Ventricular Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Xie

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis has been proposed to play an important pathogenetic role in left ventricular (LV dysfunction in obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that calibrated integrated backscatter (cIB as a marker of myocardial fibrosis is altered in obese adolescents and explored its associations with adiposity, LV myocardial deformation, and metabolic parameters.Fifty-two obese adolescents and 38 non-obese controls were studied with conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography. The average cIB of ventricular septum and LV posterior wall was measured. In obese subjects, insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and glucose tolerance were determined. Compared with controls, obese subjects had significantly greater cIB of ventricular septum (-16.8±7.8 dB vs -23.2±7.8 dB, p<0.001, LV posterior wall (-20.5±5.6 dBvs -25.0±5.1 dB, p<0.001 and their average (-18.7±5.7 dB vs -24.1±5.0 dB, p<0.001. For myocardial deformation, obese subjects had significantly reduced LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (SR (p = 0.045 and early diastolic SR (p = 0.015, and LV circumferential systolic strain (p = 0.008, but greater LV longitudinal late diastolic SR (p<0.001, and radial early (p = 0.037 and late (p = 0.002 diastolic SR than controls. For the entire cohort, myocardial cIB correlated positively with body mass index (r = 0.45, p<0.001 and waist circumference (r = 0.45, p<0.001, but negatively with LV circumferential systolic strain (r = -0.23, p = 0.03 and systolic SR (r = -0.25, p = 0.016. Among obese subjects, cIB tended to correlate with HOMA-IR (r = 0.26, p = 0.07.Obese adolescents already exhibit evidence of increased myocardial fibrosis, which is associated with measures of adiposity and impaired LV circumferential myocardial deformation.

  14. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  15. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  16. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  17. Performance of different adiposity measures for predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Bovet, Pascal; Ma, Chuanwei; Xi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors in US adolescents. A total of 3621 adolescents (boys: 49.9%) aged 12–17 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012) were included in this study. Measured CV risk factors included systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. The AUC of BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score to predict at least three CV risk factors were similar (~0.85), irrespective of criteria used to define abnormal levels of CV risk factors. A 1-SD increase in any of three indices to predict CV risk was also similar for the three adiposity scores. For instance, a 1-SD increase risk in BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score was 3.32 (95%CI 2.53–4.36), 3.43 (95%CI 2.64–4.46), and 3.45 (95%CI 2.64–4.52), respectively, in the total population using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In addition, the most efficient WHtR cut-off for screening CV risk was ~0.50 in US adolescents. In summary, BMI, WC and WHtR performed similarly well to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors among US adolescents. PMID:28262726

  18. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  19. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. Methods: A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each interv...

  20. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002 and women (P for trend = 0.0001. In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24 after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines.

  1. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  2. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products correlates inversely with measures of adiposity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Imrhan, Victorine

    2014-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may promote inflammation by interacting with the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a form of receptor for advanced glycation end products thought to mediate AGE's inflammatory properties, is decreased in diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Evidence in older adults suggests that sRAGE is depressed in individuals without current disease who are obese; however, 2 studies have failed to find this correlation. We hypothesized that sRAGE would be inversely correlated with adiposity and positively correlated with inflammation, even in apparently healthy, young adults. By considering adults of body mass index (BMI) varying from normal weight to overweight and obese, we aimed to define how closely AGEs and sRAGE correlate with adiposity and other indicators of metabolic stress. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained from participants (n = 69). Sera were analyzed for sRAGE, n-epsilon carboxy-methyl-lysine, a measure of AGEs, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. High molecular weight adiponectin, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol were also assessed (n = 32). Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate the relationship among indicators of adiposity and biochemical indicators of metabolic health and inflammation. Factors inversely correlated with sRAGE include weight (Rs = -0.397; P = .001), waist circumference (-0.291; P = .015), and BMI (-0.3338; P = .004). High molecular weight adiponectin was positively correlated with sRAGE, and predictors of sRAGE included BMI and total cholesterol. This is the first time these associations have been found in a diverse population of young adults.

  3. Correlations between genetic variance and adiposity measures, and gene × gene interactions for obesity in postmenopausal Vietnamese women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tran Quang Binh; Yutaka Nakahori; Vu Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen Cong Khan; Nguyen Thi Lam; Le Bach Mai; Shigeru Yamamoto

    2011-04-01

    Although environmental factors are important, there is considerable evidence that genes also have a significant role in the pathogenesis of obesity. We conducted a population-based study to investigate the relationship between candidate genes for obesity (UCP1, UCP2, ADRA2B, ADRB3, LEPR, VDR and ESR1) and adiposity measures (body mass index, body fat percentage, weight, waist circumference and waist–hip ratio) in terms of individual gene and gene × gene interaction in models unadjusted and adjusted for covariates (age, years since menopause, educational level and total energy intake). Postmenopausal women with TC genotype of ESR1 gene had higher body fat percentage than those with TT genotype in the models unadjusted and adjusted for the covariates ($P = 0.006$ in adjusted model). In multiple logistic regression analysis, BsmI and ApaI SNPs of VDR genes were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The UCP2–VDR ApaI interaction to susceptibility of overweight and obesity was first observed from logistic regression analysis, and then confirmed in the multifactor dimensionality reduction method unadjusted and adjusted for the covariates. This interaction had 69.09% prediction accuracy for overweight and obesity ($P = 0.001$, sign test). In conclusion, the study suggests the significant association of ESR1 and VDR genes with adiposity measures and the UCP2–VDR ApaI interaction to susceptibility to being overweight and obesity in postmenopausal Vietnamese women.

  4. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  5. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT.

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    Ho Cheol Hong

    Full Text Available Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored.We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR, the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP, whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001, whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003.This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles.

  6. Routine clinical measures of adiposity as predictors of visceral fat in adolescence: a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Visceral fat (VF increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (waist, predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years. Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height. RESULTS: In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.

  7. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was studied in vivo by Fick's arteriovenous (a-v) principle using either calculated (microdialysis) or directly measured (catheterization) adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. We compared results during steady-state (rest and prolonged continuous...

  8. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  9. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  10. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  11. Measurement site and the association between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue with metabolic risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and metabolic risk may be influenced by measurement site. The aim of this study was to compare the strength of the associations between VAT and ASAT, as assessed by a cross-sectional image (area) or total volume, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS). We also examined the association between changes in abdominal AT area and volume with concomitant changes in metabolic risk. Abdominal AT volume and areas were derived using ~35 continuous computed tomography (CT) images from T10-T11 to L5-S1 in overweight or obese postmenopausal women before (n = 67) and after (n = 39) a 6-month exercise intervention. At baseline, measurement site did not influence the inter-relationship between ASAT area and total volume, and between ASAT and MetS. Conversely, VAT areas at L1-L2 and L2-L3 were stronger correlates of VAT volume at baseline (L1-L2 (r = 0.94), L2-L3 (r = 0.95), L4-L5 (r = 0.89)) and changes therein (L1-L2 (r = 0.77), L2-L3 (r = 0.75), L4-L5 (r = 0.55)) as compared to L4-L5, but were not significantly better predictors of MetS as compared to L4-L5 or the total volume (L2-L3: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68 (1.6-4.4), L1-L2: OR = 1.88 (1.2-3.0), L4-L5: OR = 2.56 (1.6-4.1), volume: OR = 2.07 (1.1-3.8)). Changes in VAT and ASAT were not associated with changes in MetS (P > 0.10). Although measurement site has an impact on the prediction of VAT volume, this does not translate into an improved prediction for the MetS. Thus, there is not enough evidence to support changing the current research practice of assessing VAT volume or at L4-L5 for the prediction of metabolic risk.

  12. Adiposity Trajectory and Its associations with Plasma Adipokine Levels in Children and Adolescents – A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Liu, Rong; Arguelles, Lester; Wang, Guoying; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the associations of longitudinal adiposity measures with two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, and their ratio in children and adolescents. Methods A total of 953 children and adolescents participated in a 6-year longitudinal study. Body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), and fat mass index (FMI) were used to assess adiposity status. Results After adjusting for possible confounders, our regression models revealed that BMI, %BF, and FMI, in both the baseline and follow-up survey, were independently associated with a higher level of leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio at the follow-up survey, whereas the significant association with adiponectin only partly existed in adiposity measures at the follow-up visit. Moreover, the longitudinal change in adiposity measures was found to be a significant predictor for follow-up plasma adipokine levels. Compared with the low→low group, the medium→medium group, up-trend group, and high→high group all showed a significantly increased level of leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio. The up-trend group and high→high group also had significantly decreased adiponectin levels. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of adiposity surveillance and the utility of adipokines as biomarkers for adverse metabolic consequences of childhood adiposity. PMID:26704698

  13. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinica

  14. Adiposity indices in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E; Péquignot-Guggenbuhl, F; Fautrad, V

    1982-07-01

    On the basis of a longitudinal study of growth in French children, we attempted to find a valid index for estimating adiposity, and to specify the optimal conditions for its use. The Quetelet index was found suitable for application to children, but as with all methods, a certain lack of precision proved unavoidable because of the different stages of growth observed at a given age. For use by clinicians, we provide charts, based on the Quetelet index and on age, permitting estimation of adiposity in any child on the basis of longitudinal study measurements. For use by epidemiologists, we give standard values for studying groups of subjects, even when a reference population is not available. Body adiposity may be expressed independently of age and sex.

  15. Measures of Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Stroke:A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Chong Ke; ZHONG Xiao Yan; XU Tan; ZHANG Yong Hong

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWaist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio, which are the indicators or measures of abdominal adiposity, have long been hypothesized to increase therisk of stroke; yet evidence accumulated till date is not conclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize evidences of the association between these measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke. MethodsPubMed and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Two investigators independently conducted the study selection and data extraction. Dose-response relationships were assessed by the generalized least squares trend estimation, while the summaryeffect estimates were evaluated by the use of fixed- or random-effect models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential sources of heterogeneity and the robustness of the pooled estimation. Publication biasof the literaturewas evaluated usingBegg’s and Egger’s test. ResultsAltogether 15 prospective cohort studies were identified in this study. The summary of relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus the lowest categories was 1.28 (1.18-1.40) for waist circumference, 1.32 (1.21-1.44) for waist-to-hip ratio, and 1.49 (1.24-1.78) for waist-to-height ratio. For a 10-cm increase in waist circumference, the relative risk of stroke increased by 10%; for a 0.1-unit increase in waist-to-hip ratio, the relative risk increased by 16%; and for a 0.05-unit increase in waist-to-height ratio, the relative risk increased by 13%. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between waist-to-hip ratio and stroke risk,Pnonlinearity=0.028. ConclusionFindings from our meta-analysis indicated that waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were positively associated with the risk of stroke, particularly ischemic stroke.

  16. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, p<0.001), third (B=8.25, p=0.004) and fourth (B=7.66, p=0.030) quartiles of poverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to

  17. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Metzinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR. Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues.

  18. The Effect of a Lifestyle Modification Education on Adiposity Measures in Overweight and Obese Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arman; Askari, Gholamreza; Golshiri, Parastoo; Feizi, Awat; Hekmatnia, Ali; Iraj, Bijan; Nourian, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasingly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and weight loss through a combination of dietary modifications and increased physical activity is a primary goal of therapy in this disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle modification education on adiposity measures, physical activity, and total calorie intake in overweight and obese NAFLD patients. Methods: During 8 weeks, 82 obese patients were randomly assigned into either an intervention group (n = 41) receiving a lifestyle modification education or to a control group (n = 41) receiving usual care. Total calorie intake, physical activity, and body composition indices were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Thirty-six patients in intervention group and 33 in control group completed the study. The analysis of body composition variables did not show any significant reduction for percent of body fat, abdominal circumference, waist to hip ratio, visceral fat area, age matched of body, and soft lean mass (SLM) of the trunk (P > 0.05). On the other hand, a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, mass of body fat (MBF), SLM, and MBF of the trunk was observed after 2 months of intervention compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant reduction was observed in total calorie intake of intervention group as compared to the control group. Physical activity status did not show any significant improvements after 2 months of intervention. Conclusions: Our lifestyle modification education and its guidelines could be used in obese patients with NAFLD to improve their body composition measurements and to lose weight. This could result in significant long-term benefits in NAFLD patients.

  19. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  20. No Association of PTPN1 Polymorphisms With Macronutrient Intake and Measures of Adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Florianne; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Niehoff, Anne G.; Elbers, Clara C.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type1 (PTPN1) gene encodes for the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which suppresses the signaling pathway of leptin. Variations of the PTPN1 gene may lead to changes in leptin sensitivity and thereby influence eating behavior and measures of obesity. Thi

  1. Spirometry in an unselected group of 6-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    This study presents reference equations for spirometric parameters in 6-year-old children and evaluates the ability of spirometry to discriminate healthy children from children with asthma. Baseline spirometry and respiratory symptoms were assessed in 404 children participating in a longitudinal...... in Delta FEV1(mean) between healthy children and children with asthma (3.1% vs. 6.1%, P Spirometry including bronchodilator measurements was demonstrated...... to be feasible in 6-year-old children and reference values were determined. Spirometry aids the diagnosis of asthma in young children, but knowledge on sensitivity and specificity of these measurements is a prerequisite....

  2. Edwards syndrome in a 6-year old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.

  3. Effects of perceptual variables on numerosity comparisonin 5-6-year-olds and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori eTokita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a critical issue in the debate over the existence of abstract numerical representation, it remains unclear whether and how perceptual variables affect numerosity judgment and how they change across development stages. In this research, we examine the effects of perceptual variables on approximate numerosity comparison in 5-6-year-olds and adults using the identical experimental procedure. In the assessment of the effect of the perceptual variables, we measured precision (i.e., Weber fraction and accuracy (i.e., point of subjective equality; PSE of the numerosity comparison. In Study 1, we tested how the manipulation of the cumulative element area would affect approximate numerosity comparison. The results showed that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large element condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. In study 2, we tested how the manipulation of the array area would affect the precision and accuracy of approximate numerosity comparison. The results demonstrated that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large array condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of perceptual variables on 5-6-year-olds is qualitatively similar to that on adults. In addition, we also tested whether the performance of approximate comparison correlated with the initial numerical skill in 5-6-year-olds to reveal least relationship between them.

  4. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study...... of marine n-3 PUFA, which reflects the endogenous exposure and is also an objective marker of the long-term dietary intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident AF during follow-up. RESULTS: 179 cases of AF occurred over 13.6 years. Multivariate, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using...... cubic splines showed a monotonic, negative, dose-response trend, but not statistically significant association, between total marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue and incident AF. A similar trend towards a lower risk of AF was seen in the second (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.24) and third tertiles (HR 0...

  5. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  6. Pica in under- 6 year old kindergarten children in Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Khosravizadegan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month, without an association with an aversion to food. This behavior should be developmentally inappropriate, and not a culturally sanctioned practice. Pica is more prevalent in underdeveloped and low socioeconomic areas. In this study under 6-year old kindergarten children of Bushehr were evaluated. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 256 under 6-year old kindergarten children were evaluated in Bushehr in 2001. The necessary information regarding pica characteristics was given to the parents and teachers. The questionnaires were completed by the parents and teachers, and the suspects were assessed a second time. A more complete history and psychiatric examination was done to confirm the diagnosis of pica according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV in these children. Results: A total of 256 children including 123 girls (48% and 133 boys (52% were evaluated. Pica was diagnosed in 67 of these children (26.2%. The most prevalent age for pica was 12-18 months (27 persons, 40.2% and 18-24 months (20 persons, 29.8%. Pica was significantly associated with sex (being a girl and positive family history. Conclusion: Pica is prevalent in kindergarten children in Bushehr. Educating parents and teachers seems to be necessary.

  7. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John; Foley, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. Methods: A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each intervertebral level between T12 and S1 using ImageJ analysis (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD) software by thresholding −190 to −30 HU and manually segmenting VAT. Single-slice VAT measurements were correlated with total VAT volume to identify the most representative slice. WC and SD were measured at L3–L4 and L4–L5 slices, respectively. Regression analysis was used to evaluate WC, SD and gender as VAT volume predictors. Results: Interviewer and intraviewer reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). Although VAT measured at multiple slices correlated strongly with abdominal VAT, only one slice in females at L2–L3 and two slices in males at L1–L2 and L5–S1 were strongly correlated across all age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that WC was strongly correlated with VAT volume (beta = 0.970, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Single-slice VAT measurements are highly reproducible. Measurements performed at L2–L3 in females and L1–L2 or L5–S1 in males were most representative of VAT. WC is indicative of VAT. Advances in knowledge: VAT should be measured at L2–L3 in female children and at either L1–L2 or L5–S1 in males. WC is a strong indicator of VAT in children. PMID:26317895

  8. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  9. Indirect measure of visceral adiposity ‘A Body Shape Index’ (ABSI) is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Asakawa, Masahiro; Ohara, Norihiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Takato; Murakami, Masanori; Sasahara, Yuriko; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Minami, Isao; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Among indirect measures of visceral adiposity, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), which is defined as waist circumference (WC)/(body mass index (BMI)2/3×height1/2), is unique in that ABSI is positively correlated with visceral adiposity and is supposed to be independent of BMI. ABSI has been also shown to be linearly and positively associated with visceral fat mass and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. It is, however, uncertain whether ABSI could be associated with arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 607 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64±12 years; 40.0% female). Visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA, cm2) were assessed with a dual-impedance analyzer. In order to estimate the risk for CVD, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, cm) was used for the assessment of arterial stiffness. Results ABSI was significantly and positively correlated with VFA (r=0.138, p=0.001) and negatively associated with BMI (r=−0.085, p=0.037). The correlation of z-score for ABSI with VFA remained significant (r=0.170, p<0.001) but not with BMI (r=0.009, p=0.820). ABSI (standardized β 0.095, p=0.043) but not WC (standardized β −0.060, p=0.200) was significantly and positively correlated with baPWV in the multivariate model including BMI as a covariate. Conclusions ABSI appears to reflect visceral adiposity independently of BMI and to be a substantial marker of arterial stiffening in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27026809

  10. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a majorinterest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissuecells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteinswhose composition and remodeling is of crucial importancefor cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue inobesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygenand hypoxia development. Subsequent activation ofhypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocytedifferentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Therebyadipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglyceridesare stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes andhypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration andactivation which further aggravates adipose tissuefibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissuefibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction,both in rodentmodels and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin bothreduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulinresistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibroticdrugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1antagonists will improve adipose tissue function andthereby ameliorate metabolic diseases.

  11. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  12. Effects of the perfusion of beta-, beta2-, or beta3-adrenergic agonists or epinephrine on in situ adipose tissue lipolysis measured by microdialysis in underfed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlay, A; Charret, C; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Chilliard, Y

    2001-02-01

    The effects of isoproterenol (ISO, a non-selective beta-agonist), terbutaline (TER, a selective beta2-agonist), CL316243 (CL, a selective beta3-agonist), and epinephrine (EPI, beta- and alpha2-agonist) on in situ lipolytic response of s.c. adipose tissue were investigated in vivo, using a microdialysis method to measure glycerol release, in 12 adult nonlactating and ovariectomized, underfed Lacaune ewes. All the adrenergic compounds were perfused for 120 min at 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M. They had no lipolytic effect at 10(-6) M. Isoproterenol and EPI at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M enhanced, in the same way, maximal response and area under the concentration curve (AUC) of dialysate glycerol, thus suggesting that involvement of alpha2-adrenoceptors in the control of in situ lipolysis is of minor importance in underfed ewes. Terbutaline had only a slight lipolytic effect at 10(-5) M. This low effect could be due to a lower affinity of TER than of ISO for the beta2-adrenoceptors. The beta3-agonist, CL, had no lipolytic effect whatever the concentration perfused. Further studies are needed to prove the putative presence of beta3-adrenoceptors and their possible role in the ovine adipose tissue.

  13. Urologist Directed Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement: 6 Years Experience

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    Tarik Yonguc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report our results on percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN and classify our complications with the modified Clavien Classification System (CCS in 6 years. Material and Method: Eight hundred fourteen PCN insertions were performed in 722 patients (538 men and 184 women at our institution. PCN insertion was performed under ultrasound for dilated pelvicalyceal system and ultrasound/fluoroscopy for nondilated system. PCN was considered successful if the catheter was drained urine spontaneously. Number of complications was registered. Results: Primary successful PCN insertion was achieved in 770 of the 814 procedures (94.5%. The success rates for nondilated and dilated systems were 71.1% and 97.7%, respectively. Our overall complication rate was 17.3%. According to the modified CCS grades I, II, III, IV, and V were 9%, 1.2%, 6.2%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Age, grade of the hydronephrosis, serum creatinine levels, and mean hemoglobin levels were statistically significant parameters for the occurrence of complications. The nondilated system has statistically significant parameter affecting the complication rates. Discussion: Percutaneous nephrostomy is a well-known procedure in the treatment of temporary or permanent drainage of an obstructed system. It is very important to define the complications related to interventions for interpretation of clinical comparisons more accurately. Modified CCS is a reproducible system to evaluate the complications of PCN.

  14. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  15. Comprehensive Treatment of Hypodontia in 6 Years Old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Desi Pratamasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis described as a certain developemntal disorder that is a lacking in the number of teeth present intraorally. Hypodontia is an agenesis with the absence of one or several teeth. In most of the population, the prevalence is 3,5 - 6,5% with 0,3-0,4% for a severe hypodontia (an absence of 6 teeth or more clinically. Agenesis affects permanent dentition more often than primary dentition, and the incidence of agenesis is greater in female than male patients. Agenesis might be a result of environmental and genetic factors. It is necessary to have a comprehensive treatment for a case of hypodontia, which involves restorative, orthodontic, a prosthetic treatment based on the children's growth and development. In the present case, a patient of 6 years and 5 months old girl was diagnosed with severe hypodontia. The treatment of choice included a removable orthodontic appliance for the upper jaw and a removable space maintainer for the lower jaw. The removable orthodontic appliance served as an interceptive orthodontic treatment to correct anterior crossbites, and the child will be referred to the orthodontist to treat a Class III skeletal malocclusion. The space maintainer was to be used until the patient's condition become favorable for a permanent fixed bridge or steel removable partial denture.

  16. Comparison of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and anthropometric measurements in metabolic syndrome (MS) cases above and under the age of 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Berrin; Ozulu, Banu; Ozturk, Feyza Yener; Oztekin, Erkan; Sener, Nur; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2011-01-01

    EAT is a new index of cardiac and visceral obesity. Waist circumference (WC) measurement is not fully reliable in the determination of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), especially in elderly individuals. Studies on the reflection of the intra-abdominal fat mass by the EAT mass surrounding the heart were performed. Our purpose in this study was to determine the relation between the MS criteria and EAT in MS cases and especially to compare anthropometric measures between non-geriatric patients under the age of 65, and geriatric ones over the age of 65 years. The study was performed during the years 2008 and 2009 on 120 cases; 66.7% of them were under the age of 65 and 33.3% of the cases were 65-year old or older. All of the patients were diagnosed as MS by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. They were randomized as per the application order and included to the study. Each subject underwent transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) guided M-mode echocardiogram. We measured epicardial fat thickness on the 1/3 section close to the ventricle basis adjacent to the free wall of right ventricle from both the parasternal long axis (LA) and parasternal short axis (SA) views. Multiple regression analysis showed that WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and age were the strongest independent variables correlated with EAT (pEAT (pEAT-measurement by echocardiography is an efficient method in determination of visceral adiposity and shall be taken into consideration especially when advanced age groups are in question.

  17. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if dietary protein and degree of adiposity interacts in relation to change in body weight and waist circumference (WC) in the general population. METHODS: In total 22,433 middle-aged individuals with dietary assessment at baseline and anthropometry at baseline...... to changes in body weight (BW) and changes WC adjusted for change in BW. RESULTS: Baseline intake of protein was not significantly associated with changes in weight or waist circumference. Across the nine groups of baseline BMI and WCBMI there were no distinct trends in the associations between dietary...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION...

  18. 中心型肥胖人体测量学指标研究现状%Recent progress in anthropometric measurements of central adiposity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红艳; 陈璐璐

    2009-01-01

    Central adiposity shows stronger association with cardiovascular disease risk and type 2 diabetes than overall adiposity. Thus, measurements of waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) have been viewed as alternatives to BMI. Although all of these simple anthropometric measurements are useful in predicting the risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease, they have different predicting power in different ethnic groups. Most studies have shown that the association between WHtR and cardiovascular risk factors is stronger than that of BMI, WC or WHR. The use of WHtR could be an important screening tool to identify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese people.%腰围、腰臀比(WHR)、腰围/身高比值(WHtR)均为反映中心型肥胖的体表测量指标,与糖尿病、高血压、冠心病等密切相关,均能预测糖尿病、高血压及心血管疾病的发生,但各指标的预测价值具有种族筹异.大量研究显示WHtR为中国人群最佳的中心型肥胖指标,与糖球病及冠心病危险因素的关联强于体重指数(BMI)或腰围、WHR.临床上应重视对WHtR的应用和进一步研究.

  19. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  20. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  1. Adipose tissue macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutens, Lily; Stienstra, Rinke

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation originating from the adipose tissue is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although a plethora of different immune cells shapes adipose tissue inflammation, this review is specifically foc

  2. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women but that gain or loss in HC was unrelated to these outcomes. This study examines whether a 6-year change in waist circumference (WC) predicts mortality and CVD in the same study sample. METHODS: Baseline WC and 6-year change in WC as predictors of mortality and CVD......OBJECTIVE: Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total...

  3. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    -surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal...... lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed...

  4. Nitrogen saturation in humid tropical forests after 6 years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Zhang, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    factor when N saturation has been reached. Although this hypothesis has been tested in temperate forests, whether they can be directly applied to N-saturated tropical forests remain poorly addressed. To test this hypothesis, soil inorganic N, soil N mineralization and nitrification rate, soil N2......O emission rate and nitrate (NO3-) leaching rate were measured in an N-saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China, after 6 years of N and P addition. We hypothesized that N addition would stimulate further N saturation, but P addition might alleviate N saturation. As expected, our......-saturated tropical forests can be negative and that P addition can alleviate N saturation in such tropical systems....

  5. Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircelik, Muhammed Bora; Gurel, Ozgul Malcok; Selcoki, Yusuf; Atar, Inci Asli; Eryonucu, Beyhan, E-mail: drdemircelik@yahoo.com [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Alper; Akin, Kayihan [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, Omer Caglar [Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods: the study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing < 50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≧ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses. Results: the average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm. Conclusion: we showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases. (author)

  6. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  7. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity: data in 10,793 youth from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H; Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Kordas, Katarzyna; Cooper, Ashley R; Sherar, Lauren B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sardinha, Luis B; Kriemler, Susi; Hallal, Pedro; van Sluijs, Esther; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. Objectives: We examined the relation between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. Design: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6–18 y from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (<100 counts/min), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) was measured according to WHO procedures. A mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to analyze data. Results: The mean (±SD) time spent sedentary was 370 ± 91 min/d. Birth weight was positively associated with sedentary time (B = 4.04, P = 0.006) and waist circumference (B = 1.59, P < 0.001), whereas waist circumference was positively associated with sedentary time (B = 0.82, P < 0.001). Results of the mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of birth weight on sedentary time through waist circumference (B: 1.30; 95% bias-corrected CI: 0.94, 1.72), and when waist circumference was controlled for, the effect of birth weight on sedentary time was attenuated by 32% (B = 2.74, P = 0.06). Conclusion: The association between birth weight and sedentary time appears partially mediated by central adiposity, suggesting that both birth weight and abdominal adiposity may be correlates of sedentary time in youth. PMID:25832337

  8. Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C

    2017-01-01

    Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of HNC. HNC risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: 30 kg/m2], waist circumference...... (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among men, a BMI risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 - 2.12)]; BMI was not associated with HNC among women. WC and WHR were...... associated with greater risk of HNC among women, (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 - 1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (p interaction 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with HNC only...

  9. An overview of new insights from 6 years of salinity data from SMOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for oceanographers and climatologists to gain a deeper understanding of ocean circulation and Earth's water cycle. ESA's SMOS mission is proving essential for this aim. Launched in 2009, SMOS has provided the longest continuous record (now ~6 years) of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. The salinity of surface seawater is controlled largely by the balance between evaporation and precipitation, but freshwater from rivers and the freezing and melting of ice also cause changes in concentrations. Along with temperature, salinity drives ocean circulation - the thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, plays a key role in the global climate. With a wealth of salinity data from SMOS now in hand complemented by measurements from the NASA-CONAE Aquarius satellite, which uses a different measuring technique. In this talk we shall provide an overview of how the SMOS mission - now celebrating 6 years in orbit - is providing detailed global measurements of SSS. An ensemble of key ocean processes for climate and biochemistry can now be determined and monitored for the first time from space : the detailed salinity structure of tropical instability waves along the equator and the salt exchanged across major oceanic current fronts, the occurrences of large-scale salinity anomalies in the Pacific and Indian oceans related to important climate indexes are also well-evidenced in the six year-long data. In addition, the dispersal of freshwater into the ocean from the major large tropical rivers (Amazon, Orinoco and Congo), their impact on tropical cyclone (TC) intensification and the oceanic imprints of the intense rainfall in the ITCZ and under TC can now be regularly monitored to better understand the variability of the oceanic part of the global water cycle. We will present how SMOS data, along with concurrent in situ Argo ocean-profile data, other satellite observations of sea

  10. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  11. Observation of 18.6-year modulation tide at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydelek, P. A.; Knopoff, L.; Zürn, W.

    1982-07-01

    We have observed long-period variations in the amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal gravity tides at the South Pole which we attribute to the tidal effects of the 18.6-year regression of the nodes of the lunar orbit. The observations are in agreement with theoretical values of the 18.6-year amplitude modulation of these tides.

  12. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  13. HRCT Measurement of Anatomyical Structures Related to the Vibrant Soundbridge to Round Window Implant in Children Aged 1~6 years old%1~6岁儿童振动声桥圆窗植入术相关解剖结构的CT测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹哲飞; 华清泉; 曹永茂; 廖华; 李暐; 解为全

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用颞骨高分辨率CT测量儿童振动声桥圆窗植入术的相关解剖结构,为术前评估提供理论参考.方法 以50例15个月~6岁因重度感音性聋拟行人工耳蜗植入术且术前颞骨薄层CT扫描示中耳、内耳均正常的患儿为研究对象,在其术前颞骨高分辨率CT扫描轴位片上测量振动声桥圆窗植入术的相关解剖结构数据,如圆窗龛的宽度和深度、锥隆起的高度、面神经至圆窗龛和外耳道后壁的距离等,并比较不同耳别、性别及年龄组间的差异.结果 50例儿童各指标测量均值分别为:圆窗龛的宽度2.02±0.20 mm,圆窗龛的深度1.25±0.19 mm,圆窗龛层面面神经管外缘至骨性外耳道后壁的最短距离3.99±0.53 mm,面神经骨管内缘至圆窗龛的距离5.21±0.37 mm,锥隆起的高度2.09±0.23 mm.各测量指标耳别间、不同性别间、不同年龄组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),锥隆起高度与面神经至圆窗龛的距离之间无明显相关性(r=0.331,P>0.05).结论 面神经隐窝等相关解剖结构在出生后可能已经基本发育完成;对国人1~6岁儿童行振动声桥圆窗植入术从解剖理论上具有可行性;术前相关结构的CT测量可为手术提供重要参考.%Objective To measure the anatomical structures related to the vibrant soundbridgc to round window implant in Chinese children for better prc - operation evaluation. Methods Prc - operation HRCT from 50 pedi-atric cochlcar implant recipients younger than six years were used in this study. The vibrant sound tridgc to ronnd minolow implant related anatomical structures sach as the width and the decpth of round window niche, the distances between facial nerve canal and external acoustic canaUthc distances between facial nerve canal and round window nichc^thc height of pyramidal eminence of the Vibrant Soundbridgc to round window implant were measured by high resolution computed tomography(HRCT). Results The width of round

  14. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... an oral glucose load. Adipose-tissue blood flow was measured in the anterior subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue by the (133)Xe-washout technique. ATLD was measured as the disappearance rate of (99m)Tc-labelled nanoaggregated human albumin, during fasting and after an oral glucose load. A significant...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  15. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  16. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution in obese children. US versus CT measurements; Valutazione della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo addominale nei bambini obesi. Confronto tra ecografia e Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrozzi, F.; Zuccoli, G.; Tognini, G.; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A.; Bacchini, E. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Bernasconi, S. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Clinica Pediatrica; Campani, R. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and, more recently, ultrasound (US), have proved excellent tools for quantifying adipose tissue distribution. Body fat distribution is an important factor in the treatment of obesity and its complications. In this work it is investigated the correlation between CT and US measurements in pediatric obesity. Forty obese children and adolescents aged 4.1-14.8 years were submitted to CT and US. Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous and total body fat were calculated (in cm{sup 2}), with the CT image analysis software. The rectus muscle-spine and rectus muscle-aorta distances, as indicative of visceral fat thickness, were measured on US images with(out) compression. The distance between skin fat and fat-rectus muscle interfaces was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness. US-CT findings have been compared with other morphometric variables-i.e., patient's (ideal) body weight and skin fold measures. A statistically significant correlation was found between the CT measurement of visceral fat and the aorta-rectus muscle and rectus muscle-spine distances (r=0.80 and 0.74, respectively). The US measurements of subcutaneous fat were correlated with CT subcutaneous fat area (r=0.82). No correlation was found between overweight, as calculated by body mass index, and CT or US fat. In conclusions, the findings indicate that US is as useful as CT in evaluating body fat distribution in pediatric obesity. [Italian] La TC e piu' recentemente l'ecografia si sono dimostrate eccellenti tecniche di valutazione della quantita' e della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo corporeo. La compartimentazione del grasso corporeo ha, infatti, importanti implicazioni per il trattamento dell'obesita' e delle sue complicanze. Scopo dello studio e' stato quello di correlare i risultati ottenuti con la TC con quelli ecografici nella valutazione dell'obesita' del paziente pediatrico. Quaranta bambini obesi con eta' compresa tra 4,1 e 14

  17. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...

  18. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  19. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  20. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Binu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children ( Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection.

  1. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

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    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  2. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain.

  3. Targeting adipose tissue

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    Haas Bodo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  4. Sugar-sweetened and diet beverages in relation to visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W

    2012-03-01

    Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been consistently associated with increased adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk, whereas the association with diet beverages is more mixed. We examined how these beverages associate with regional abdominal adiposity measures, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In a cross-sectional analysis of 791 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-70 we examined how beverage consumption habits obtained from a food frequency questionnaire associate with overall and abdominal adiposity measures from MRI. With increasing frequency of SSB intake, we observed increases in waist circumference (WC) and the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (VAT%), with no change in total body fat (TBF%) or BMI. Greater frequency of diet beverage intake was associated with greater WC, BMI, and TBF%, but was not associated with variation in visceral adiposity We conclude that increased frequency of SSB consumption is associated with a more adverse abdominal adipose tissue deposition pattern.

  5. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  6. Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junghyo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Pack, Stephanie; Jou, William; Mullen, Shawn; Sumner, Anne E; Cushman, Samuel W; Periwal, Vipul

    2009-03-01

    Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB/N and obesity-prone C57BL/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12 weeks under regular and high-fat feeding conditions. The total cell number in the epididymal fat pad was estimated from the fat pad mass and the normalized cell-size distribution. The cell number and volume-weighted mean cell size increase as a function of fat pad mass. To address adipose tissue growth precisely, we developed a mathematical model describing the evolution of the adipose cell-size distributions as a function of the increasing fat pad mass, instead of the increasing chronological time. Our model describes the recruitment of new adipose cells and their subsequent development in different strains, and with different diet regimens, with common mechanisms, but with diet- and genetics-dependent model parameters. Compared to the FVB/N strain, the C57BL/6 strain has greater recruitment of small adipose cells. Hyperplasia is enhanced by high-fat diet in a strain-dependent way, suggesting a synergistic interaction between genetics and diet. Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage. Additionally, high-fat diet leads to a dramatic spreading of the size distribution of adipose cells in both strains; this implies an increase in size fluctuations of adipose cells through lipid turnover.

  7. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  8. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

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    Yuwei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct microanatomical, functional, morphogenetic, and molecular profiles. Furthermore, the two compartments derive from different lineages; whereas adult adipose progenitors fate-map from an SMA+ mural lineage, developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the developmental cells and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide a discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity.

  9. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  10. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

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    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  11. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerth, C; Zijlmans, M A C; Mack, S; Beijers, R

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test is composed of three short tasks that children have to perform in front of a judge. The tasks are rigged so as to provoke (partial) failure in the child's performance. Participants were 42 children (M = 68.0 months, SD = 4.3). Six saliva samples were taken during the testing session to obtain cortisol measurements of baseline concentrations, stress reactivity, and recovery. Our findings showed that this paradigm was effective in provoking a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration in the group as a whole, with no effects of possible confounders (child's sex, age or school, parental educational level, time of testing, sex of experimenter, and sex of judge). The mean cortisol concentration increase for the group was 127.5% (SD = 190.9); 61% of the children could be classified as reactors (mean increase of 214%, SD = 201.5), and 39% as non-reactors (mean decrease of 7.8%, SD = 16.8). To our knowledge, this is the first study in this age group that shows a significant cortisol response for the group as a whole to a standardized laboratory paradigm. As such, this paradigm is a promising tool to be used in future research on early life interactions between physiology and psychology.

  12. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

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    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  13. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  14. Voucher Users and Revitalized Public-Housing Residents 6 Years after Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fred; Lewinson, Terri; Aszman, Jennifer; Wolk, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A total of 6 years after displacement by a Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) project, this research examines residents who returned to the redeveloped community and residents who decided to keep their vouchers and were living in private sector housing. Respondents were compared on the following variables: application…

  15. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Mack, S.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of

  16. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Garcia-Godoy; R. Frankenberger; U. Lohbauer; A.J. Feilzer; N. Krämer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural str

  17. Somatic chronic diseases and 6-year change in cognitive functioning among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.; Kriegsman, D.M.W.; Dik, M.G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of seven highly prevalent somatic chronic diseases on changes in cognitive functioning is investigated in older persons in a prospective design covering a 6-year follow-up period. The data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). The associations between

  18. Cat-scratch disease with severe pleuritis in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sasagu; Hasegawa, Shunji; Yanagihara, Masashi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD), who developed severe pleuritis without lymphadenitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood. This is the first report of CSD diagnosed on real-time PCR using whole blood.

  19. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  20. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  1. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  2. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  3. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  4. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  5. Social conformity persists at least one day in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-12-21

    Humans have a tendency to forgo their own attitudes or beliefs in order to better align with the interests of a majority, a behavioral process known as conformity. Social conformity has been widely studied among adults and adolescents, whereas experimental studies on the impact of peer influence among young children have been relatively limited. The current study aims to investigate both short-term and sustained conforming behaviors among children in situations of relatively low social pressure. Forty-one children aged 5 to 6 years rated the attractiveness of 90 faces presented serially followed by witnessing a group rating in the absence of peers. Subsequently, second judgement was made after 30 minutes (Experiment 1). Results show that 6-year-old children tended to conform to their peers when group ratings differed from their own ratings, while younger children did not. In Experiment 2, children were required to make the second judgment one day after exposure to group ratings. Similarly, children aged 6 years exhibited a sustained conformity effect even after one day. Our findings suggest that 6-year-old children spontaneously change their private opinions under implicit social influence from peers.

  6. Meal-Skipping Behaviors and Body Fat in 6-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To assess the prospective associations of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping at age 4 years with body fat (ie, percent fat mass, body mass index [BMI], and weight status) at age 6 years. Study design Data were analyzed from 5913 children participating in the Generation R Stu

  7. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  8. The effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Henriksen, O; Enevoldsen, L H

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that adipose tissue lipolysis is enhanced in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined the effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid mobilisation and measured the acute effects of exercise on the co-ordination of adipose tissue...

  9. Marrow adiposity assessed on transiliac crest biopsy samples correlates with noninvasive measurement of marrow adiposity by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at the spine but not the femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Dempster, D. W.; Zhou, H.; Recker, R. R.; Lappe, J. M.; Kepley, A.; Kamanda-Kosseh, M.; Bucovsky, M.; Stein, E. M.; Nickolas, T. L.; Shane, E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Measurement of marrow fat (MF) is important to the study of bone fragility. We measured MF on iliac biopsies and by spine/hip magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the same subjects. Noninvasively assessed spine MF a nd histomorphometrically assessed MF correlated well. MF quantity and relationships with bone volume differed by measurement site. Introduction Excess marrow fat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in several populations. In the bone marrow, adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common precursor and are reciprocally regulated. In addition, adipocytes may secrete toxic fatty acids and adipokines that adversely affect osteoblasts. Measurement of marrow fat is important to the study of mechanisms of bone fragility. Marrow fat can be quantified on bone biopsy samples by histomorphometry and noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In this study, we evaluate relationships between marrow fat assessed using both methods in the same subjects for the first time. Methods Sixteen premenopausal women, nine with idiopathic osteoporosis and seven normal controls, had marrow fat measured at the iliac crest by bone biopsy and at the lumbar spine (L3) and proximal femur by 1H-MRS. Results At L3, fat fraction by 1H-MRS correlated directly and significantly with marrow fat variables on iliac crest biopsies (r=0.5–0.8). In contrast, there were no significant correlations between fat fraction at the femur and marrow fat on biopsies. Marrow fat quantity (%) was greater at the femur than at L3 and the iliac crest and correlated inversely with total hip and femoral neck BMD by DXA. Conclusions In summary, measurement of marrow fat in transiliac crest biopsies correlates with marrow fat at the spine but not the proximal femur by 1H-MRS. There were site-specific differences in marrow fat quantity and in the relationships between marrow fat and bone volume. PMID:25986383

  10. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  11. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Adipose Tissue Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of MIF in adipose tissue and its impact on wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate MIF expression in inflamed adipose and determine its role in inflammatory cell recruitment and wound healing. Adipose tissue was harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue layers of 24 healthy subjects and from adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 21 patients undergoing wound debridement. MIF protein and mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Cell-specific MIF expression was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The functional role of MIF in cell recruitment was investigated by a chemotaxis assay and by flow cytometry of labeled macrophages that were injected into Mif-/-and wildtype mice. Wound healing was evaluated by an in vitro scratch assay on human fibroblast monolayers. MIF protein levels of native adipose tissue and supernatants from acutely inflamed wounds were significantly elevated when compared to healthy controls. MIF mRNA expression was increased in acutely inflamed adipose tissue indicating the activation of MIF gene transcription in response to adipose tissue inflammation. MIF is expressed in mature adipocytes and in infiltrated macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration was significantly increased towards supernatants derived from inflamed adipose tissue. This effect was partially abrogated by MIF-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, when compared to wildtype mice, Mif-/-mice showed reduced infiltration of labeled macrophages into LPS-stimulated epididymal fat pads in vivo. Finally, MIF antibodies partially neutralized the detrimental effect of MIF on fibroblast wound healing. Our results indicate that increased MIF expression and rapid activation of the MIF gene in fat tissue adjacent to acute wound healing disorders may play a

  12. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  13. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419.

  14. [Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R

    2009-02-01

    Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.

  15. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  16. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  17. Luni-solar 18.6-year signal in tree-rings from Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cùrrie, Robert G.

    1991-09-01

    Spectrum analysis of 32 tree-ring chronologies from Argentina and Chile yields evidence for two peaks with periods 19.2±1.6 years (30 out of 32 records) and 10.5±0.4 years in 22 instances. Tests by the t-statistic show that the long-period peak is significant at a confidence level of 99%. This signal is identified as the luni-solar 18.6-year M n term reported earlier by Currie (1983) in two treering chronologies from the same region, and later in tree-rings from North America, Tasmania, New Zealand, and South Africa ( Currie, 1991a-c). Amplitude and phase of the M n signal are nonstationary with respect to both time and geography. In particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed.

  18. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  19. A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghpour-Tabaee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

  20. Patterns of language and auditory dysfunction in 6-year-old children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Selassie, Gunilla Rejnö-Habte; Olsson, Ingrid; Jennische, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we reported difficulty with expressive language and visuoperceptual ability in preschool children with epilepsy and otherwise normal development. The present study analysed speech and language dysfunction for each individual in relation to epilepsy variables, ear preference, and intelligence in these children and described their auditory function. Twenty 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, 6 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y–6 y 11 mo) and 30 reference children w...

  1. Clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, R; Bergamaschi, S; Cazzavillan, A; Carnelli, V

    2005-09-01

    A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed to suffer from clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection. On the basis of the magnetic resonance image, the abscess was drained via the posterior wall of the pharyngeal tract immediately. Subsequent antibiotic therapy allowed rapid improvement and long-term healing of the osteomyelitic process without any side effect. Osteomyelitis or abscess of the clivus is very rare in adult patients and extremely rare in children. Some etiopathogenetic hypotheses are discussed in this case.

  2. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  3. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C;

    2009-01-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and the reciprocal value of fitness (maximum watts per kilogram). Overweight was defined using international classification of body mass index cutoff points for children. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children...

  4. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  5. Possible damping model of the 6 year oscillation signal in length of day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengshuo; Liu, Genyou; Hu, Xiaogang; Sun, Yafei; Li, Honglei

    2017-04-01

    A significant 6 year oscillation signal exists in the observed length-of-day (LOD) series. We recently used normal Morlet wavelet transform method to recover this oscillation signal. The result indicates that the amplitude of this oscillation has been decreasing for the over past 50 years. Using the simulation analysis, this study further demonstrates that the above result is reliable. However, the geophysical mechanism responsible for this decrease is less clear. Here, we develop a temporal-decaying function to characterize the secular attenuation of the oscillation signal. Using the least squared method, we obtain the corresponding quality factor Q value (51.6 ± 0.4) and the damping relaxation time τ (99.2 ± 0.8 years). We find the attenuation of the 6 year oscillation signal and its Q value can be explained by previous theoretical prediction, providing constraints on the related physical parameters of the lowermost mantle. The dissipative effect of electromagnetic coupling at the core-mantle boundary is likely to be a primary factor to cause the decaying of the 6 year oscillation signal.

  6. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6-year nodal tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Thomas C.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60°N, 149°W) increased by more than 1°C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated (˜0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50°. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes.

  7. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children.

  8. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...... month corrected age. At 6 years, a dexa scan was performed to evaluate body composition. Results A total number of 277 infants will be invited to follow up at 6 years of age. So far 79 children have had a dexa scan performed (HM 26, HMF: 22 and PF: 31). Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass (MM) was measured.......841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...

  9. Continuous flow microcalorimetric measurement of heat production in white adipose tissue from obese (ob/ob) mice and their lean littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E S; Knudsen, J

    1982-12-30

    Heat production, free fatty acid and glycerol release from white adipose tissue fat pads from obese (ob/ob) mice and their lean littermates are determined. Heat production was significantly lower in obese mice compared to lean mice when expressed on wet weight basis but not when expressed on DNA basis. Noradrenaline significantly increased the heat production in fat pads from both groups of animals. However, the increase in heat production due to noradrenaline addition in fat pads from lean mice was significantly higher than in fat pads from obese mice. The release of free fatty acids and glycerol before incubation with noradrenaline was similar from fat pads from both groups of animals. Addition of noradrenaline to the fat pads increased the release of free fatty acids and glycerol in both groups of animals, but the increase was significantly larger from fat pads from lean mice. In the absence of noradrenaline the free fatty acid/glycerol ratio (mol/mol) in the effluent was 7.9:1 and 4.8:1 for lean mice and obese mice, respectively. In the presence of noradrenaline the ratio decreased to 3:1 for both groups of animals.

  10. Sugar-sweetened and diet beverages in relation to visceral adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A; TOWNE, BRADFORD; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been consistently associated with increased adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk, whereas the association with diet beverages is more mixed. We examined how these beverages associate with regional abdominal adiposity measures, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In a cross-sectional analysis of 791 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-70 we examined how beverage consumption habits obtained from a food frequency questionnaire associ...

  11. Assessing Causality in the Association between Child Adiposity and Physical Activity Levels : A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca C Richmond; George Davey Smith; Ness, Andy R; Marcel den Hoed; George McMahon; Nicholas J Timpson

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI) has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal eff...

  12. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  13. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P muscle. The reproducibility of the measurements was good...

  14. Vasoconstrictor effect of high FFA/albumin ratios in adipose tissue in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A;

    1985-01-01

    Subcutaneous or perirenal adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe-washout technique before and after intravenous injection or infusion of Intralipid in six anesthetized, otherwise intact mongrel dogs. In four anesthetized mongrel puppies adipose tissue blood flow was measured with t...

  15. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  16. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  17. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  18. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  19. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis.

  20. Retrocaval ureter presenting at 6 years of age in a girl child – An extreme rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kajal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Retrocaval ureter is one of the very rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of retrocaval ureter in a 6-year-old girl who presented with right flank pain and hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was made on intravenous urography which showed typical “J” shape deformity in the proximal dilated ureter with moderate hydronephrosis. CT scan delineated the course of ureter. The patient was operated and findings were confirmed. The ureter was transected near the pelvis and a pyeloureteric anastomosis with pre-caval transposition of the ureter was performed and the patient was discharged in fair health.

  1. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome in a 6-year-old boy

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    Babu Priya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old boy presented with abnormal habitus since birth, delayed language development, history of frequent falls since 9 months, and fever since 1 week. He was found to have hyperandrogenic features, generalized paucity of fat, generalized muscular overdevelopment, and brownish pigmentation over the flexural creases. Skin biopsy demonstrated features suggestive of acanthosis nigricans with an absence of subcutaneous tissue. After further investigation, a diagnosis of Berardinelli-Seip syndrome with bilateral pneumonia and generalized tonic clonic seizures was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  2. Planning and organizing an event: Sushibar+Wine 6 -year birthday party

    OpenAIRE

    Laulajainen, Kaisa; Pitkänen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a written report of an overview on how to plan, produce and manage a me-dium scale special event. The thesis was commissioned by Sushibar Restaurants Finland Oy. The commissioner and the contact person for this thesis is Matti Sarkkinen. The au-thors of this thesis are students of Hotelli- ja Ravintola-alan liikkeenjohto and Experience and Wellness management. The aim of this thesis was to plan, organize and manage a 6-year old birthday party for Sushibar + Wine restaurants...

  3. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  4. Adipocyte telomere length associates negatively with adipocyte size, whereas adipose tissue telomere length associates negatively with the extent of fibrosis in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bouazzaoui, F; Henneman, P; Thijssen, P; Visser, A; Koning, F; Lips, M A; Janssen, I; Pijl, H; Willems van Dijk, K; van Harmelen, V

    2014-05-01

    Telomere length can be considered as a biological marker for cell proliferation and aging. Obesity is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and proliferation as well as with shorter telomeres in adipose tissue. As adipose tissue is a mixture of different cell types and the cellular composition of adipose tissue changes with obesity, it is unclear what determines telomere length of whole adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate telomere length in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes in relation to adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Telomere length was measured by real-time PCR in visceral adipose tissue, and isolated adipocytes of 21 obese women with a waist ranging from 110 to 147 cm and age from 31 to 61 years. Telomere length in adipocytes was shorter than in whole adipose tissue. Telomere length of adipocytes but not whole adipose tissue correlated negatively with waist and adipocyte size, which was still significant after correction for age. Telomere length of whole adipose tissue associated negatively with fibrosis as determined by collagen content. Thus, in extremely obese individuals, adipocyte telomere length is a marker of adiposity, whereas whole adipose tissue telomere length reflects the extent of fibrosis and may indicate adipose tissue dysfunction.

  5. Immediate Nonfunctional Loading of Two Single-Maxillary Postextractive Implants: 6-Year Postloading Results of Two Case Reports

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    Vincenzo Ariano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss of single-maxillary immediate postextractive implants and immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL during 72 months of follow-up. Material and Methods. Two single titanium implants (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3I, USA were placed in two patients using INFL technique. Implant stability and crestal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. All osseointegrated implants were clinically successful after 6 years of functional loading. Conclusion. Within the limit of the present case report, the paper supports the concept that INFL of single dental implant can be a successful treatment procedure.

  6. Management of pregnancy in a University Hospital: a 6-year study

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    Schupp Tânia Regina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the obstetric care in the Obstetric Clinic of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of University of São Paulo, the authors present a survey of the management of pregnancy during the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. The number of deliveries increased during the study by 45% over the 6 years. During this same period the number of fetal deaths was 526 (4.48%, but there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the incidence of fetal death. However, there was no concomitant increase in the proportion of pregnant women with prenatal care that could explain this improvement. Incidence of premature labor also decreased considerably. The authors believe that the increment in the number of deliveries was due mainly to the increasing number of pregnant women referred to our service. The efforts made by the service towards decreasing the time of hospitalization of both newborns in the nursery and the mothers in the hospital made this possible. Despite the increasing number of deliveries, there was a significant improvement in the management of pregnancy during the period of study. This improvement may be a consequence of the standardization of a protocol of management of pregnancy based on the recent progress in scientific and technological knowledge.

  7. Geodetic Constraints on Mantle Q at Periods from a Fortnight to 18.6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic observations have provided numerous constraints on the earth's spherically-averaged mantle anelasticity at periods of tens of minutes and shorter. Meanwhile, post-glacial rebound and other geodynamic studies provide information at periods of a few thousand years and longer. However, constraints at intermediate periods are scarce. Such constraints could be useful in trying to connect the seismic anelastic models with the longer-period visco-elastic behavior. Here we will describe constraints on anelasticity in this intermediate range of periods as obtained from earth tide and earth rotation observations. We discuss results from: (1) VLBI observations of the monthly and fortnightly tidal variations in rotation rate; (2) satellite laser ranging observations of the 18.6-year tidal variations in the earth's gravitational field; and (3) astrometric and geodetic observations of the 14-month Chandler Wobble period and damping. We find that these observations are consistent with a nearly frequency-independent mantle Q stretching from seismic periods all the way out to the 14-month Chandler Wobble period; but that Q appears to decrease significantly between 14-months and 18.6-years.

  8. Significant contribution of the 18.6 year tidal cycle to regional coastal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratiot, N.; Anthony, E. J.; Gardel, A.; Gaucherel, C.; Proisy, C.; Wells, J. T.

    2008-03-01

    Although rising global sea levels will affect the shape of coastlines over the coming decades, the most severe and catastrophic shoreline changes occur as a consequence of local and regional-scale processes. Changes in sediment supply and deltaic subsidence, both natural or anthropogenic, and the occurrences of tropical cyclones and tsunamis have been shown to be the leading controls on coastal erosion. Here, we use satellite images of South American mangrove-colonized mud banks collected over the past twenty years to reconstruct changes in the extent of the shoreline between the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. The observed timing of the redistribution of sediment and migration of the mud banks along the 1,500km muddy coast suggests the dominant control of ocean forcing by the 18.6 year nodal tidal cycle. Other factors affecting sea level such as global warming or El Niño and La Niña events show only secondary influences on the recorded changes. In the coming decade, the 18.6 year cycle will result in an increase of mean high water levels of 6cm along the coast of French Guiana, which will lead to a 90m shoreline retreat.

  9. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  10. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old Boy with Advanced Renal Failure

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    Majid MALAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Malak M, Barzgar M. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old boy with Advanced Renal Failure. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2:61-63. AbstractBaclofen is a drug for many diseases for all ages, but it is hazardous in patients with renal failure. This article talks about a case of baclofen overdose in a child with renal failure.A 6-year-old boy admitted to the emergency department with a loss of consciousness, hypotonia, and areflexia following administration of 20 mg baclofen (1mg/kg/daily in total dose for his voiding dysfunction. His laboratory tests showed advanced renal failure. After withholding the medication andsupportive therapy, he recovered completely after two days. After arousal, he complained of insomnia, strange sensations on the skin, intentional tremors, and ataxia. He left the hospital in good condition in three days.Renal function control before baclofen administration is mandatory especially in high-risk groups. A total dose of 1mg/kg lead to encephalopathy in children with advanced renal failure, with subtle persistent complaints persist are often overlooked for a while.

  11. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

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    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  12. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

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    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  13. How do cognitive and axial motor signs correlate in Parkinson's disease? A 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Miguel Fernandes; Garrett, M C; Fonseca, M R; Rosas, M J; Simões, M F; Vieira, S; Botelho, F

    2009-10-01

    Impairment of Parkinson's disease (PD) axial motor signs (AMS) has been described as a risk factor for dementia. Executive dysfunction is an important feature in recently proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for PD dementia. To clarify the relationship between AMS progression and executive cognitive performance, we conducted a 6-year prospective study in PD patients without AMS impairment at baseline. A hospital-based cohort of PD patients (n = 24) without dementia, in the initial motor stage (Hoehn-Yahr Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (r = -0.735, p < 0.001). PD patients with higher speech impairment progression showed more rapid declines in some neuropsychological tests. Further studies are needed to clarify the different roles of speech, gait and postural instability on the initial phases of cognitive dysfunction.

  14. MEMORY AND LANGUAGE IN TESTIMONIES OF 3- TO 6- YEAR OLD CHILDREN

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    Eva A. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The testimony of pre-school children is, in many cases, the main and only evidence in criminal proceedings. Memory and language are two main components in the statement of the child and they require special analysis, not only because of the important role they play, but also because of the relationship between the two capacities. The vulnerability of memory and its ability to be altered by suggestions, as well as the variability of language development in the 3- to 6-year-old child, are two factors that influence the collection of testimony. These factors, together with the interviewer’s skill in adapting the interview to the child, may obtain reliable information that is free of subjectivity and that will facilitate the investigation of the allegations. This article presents an overview of both capabilities, language and memory, from the perspective of child witness testimony as evidence in criminal proceedings.

  15. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  16. The Mount Sinai cesarean section reduction program: an update after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S A; Gleicher, N

    1993-11-01

    A six year follow-up evaluation of our original cesarean section reduction program is presented. While establishing obstetric practice guidelines was accomplished, two prerequisites remain critical: lowering cesarean utilization was to be accomplished without harm to mother or fetus, and a target rate was prospectively determined. The results after 6 years indicate that total cesarean rates of 10-12% can consistently be achieved without adverse outcome. Additionally, operative vaginal procedures were employed less that 3% of cases. Separate analysis of 580 breech deliveries failed to show an effect of route of delivery on mortality. This effort indicates that long-term reductions and cesarean utilization are possible with a comprehensive departmental program designed to accomplish achieving a target rate of 11%.

  17. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  18. The health level in children under 6 years Commune 20 Santiago de Cali (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of projects aimed to reducing morbidity and mortality rates on children below 6 years old, in Commune 20 of Cali, Colombia. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 114 children less than six years old, were examined before Primary Health Care interventions were applied. Results: 65% of the children ages were between 3 and 4 years old, 81.65 are mestizos and 51% live in nuclear families. The prevalence of initial carious lesions and cavitated as ICDAS criteria was 67.54% (95%CI 58.8-76, 27%, the proportion of healthy children was 32.45%, and 33% of the children were overweight. Conclusions: The baseline health conditions in this population are consistent with health situation analysis for the paediatric population of Cali. 

  19. Gamma-ray upper limits on magnetars with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F; de Ona-Wilhelmi, Emma

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for gamma-ray emission from 20 magnetars using 6 years of Fermi, Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently-known magnetars is found. We derived the most stringent upper limits to date on the 0.1--10 GeV emission of Galactic magnetars, which are estimated between $\\sim10^{-12}-10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Gamma-ray pulsations were searched for the four magnetars having reliable ephemerides over the observing period, but none were detected. On the other hand, we also studied the gamma-ray morphology and spectra of seven Supernova Remnants associated or adjacent to the magnetars.

  20. Survival until 6 years after cholecystectomy: female population of Denmark, 1977-1983

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T F; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    admissions had a relative risk (RR) of about 1.5. Cholecystectomy patients had a significantly increased mortality when compared to hysterectomy patients, RR = 1.3 (1.1-1.6), and to the population sample. Heart diseases and cancer occurred significantly more often as causes of death among cholecystectomy......It has been a prevailing assumption that cholecystectomy patients by and large follow a pattern of survival similar to that of the normal population. This paper presents a population-based study of the long-term survival after cholecystectomy in order to reassess this assumption. Based on data...... to both hysterectomy patients and a sample of the female population. Adjusting for age and other covariates, patients with psychiatric hospital admissions prior to surgery experienced a threefold risk of dying within 6 years after surgery. Patients with prior somatic admissions and patient with acute...

  1. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  2. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  3. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  4. Pre- and postnatal determinants of deciduous molar hypomineralisation in 6-year-old children. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies E C Elfrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls. Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. RESULTS: A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH.

  5. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  6. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were asses

  7. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  8. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  9. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  10. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  11. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference. The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI (rho = 0.81. Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

  12. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borruel

    Full Text Available Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, model of adipose distribution (MOAD, visceral adiposity index (VAI, and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression, and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99 and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98 probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  13. Cardiac adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation: the perils of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Redheuil, Alban; Gandjbakhch, Estelle

    2016-04-01

    The amount of adipose tissue that accumulates around the atria is associated with the risk, persistence, and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF). A strong body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that this relationship is not an epiphenomenon but is the result of complex crosstalk between the adipose tissue and the neighbouring atrial myocardium. For instance, epicardial adipose tissue is a major source of adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, or reactive oxidative species, which can contribute to the fibrotic remodelling of the atrial myocardium. Fibro-fatty infiltrations of the subepicardium could also contribute to the functional disorganization of the atrial myocardium. The observation that obesity is associated with distinct structural and functional remodelling of the atria has opened new perspectives of treating AF substrate with aggressive risk factor management. Advances in cardiac imaging should lead to an improved ability to visualize myocardial fat depositions and to localize AF substrates.

  14. The Dancing Sky: 6 years of night sky observations at Cerro Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F

    2008-01-01

    The present work provides the results of the first six years of operation of the systematic night-sky monitoring at ESO-Paranal (Chile). The UBVRI night-sky brightness was estimated on about 10,000 VLT-FORS1 archival images, obtained on more than 650 separate nights, distributed over 6 years and covering the descent from maximum to minimum of sunspot cycle n.23. Additionally, a set of about 1,000 low resolution, optical night-sky spectra have been extracted and analyzed. The unprecedented database discussed in this paper has led to the detection of a clear seasonal variation of the broad band night sky brightness in the VRI passbands, similar to the well known semi-annual oscillation of the NaI D doublet. The spectroscopic data demonstrate that this seasonality is common to all spectral features, with the remarkable exception of the OH rotational-vibrational bands. A clear dependency on the solar activity is detected in all passbands and it is particularly pronounced in the U band, where the sky brightness de...

  15. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  16. Regional changes in glucose metabolism during brain development from the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, P; Wikler, D; Damhaut, P; Szliwowski, H B; Goldman, S

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of 42 subjects ages 6 to 38 years were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping to identify age-related changes in regional distribution of glucose metabolism adjusted for global activity. Whereas adults were normal volunteers, children had idiopathic epilepsy. We studied polynomial expansions of age to identify nonlinear effects and found that adjusted glucose metabolism varied very significantly in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex and to a lesser degree in the basal ganglia, the mesencephalon, and the insular, posterior cingulate, frontal, and postcentral cortices. Regression plots slowed that the best fit was not linear: adjusted glucose metabolism increased mainly before the age of 25 years and then remained relatively stable. Effects persisted when anti-epileptic drug intake and sleep during the FDG uptake were considered as confounding covariates. To determine if the metabolic changes observed were not due to the epileptic condition of the children, PET data obtained in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy were compared with those in our group of normal adult subjects, resulting in the absence of mapping in the age-related regions. This study suggests that brain maturation from the age of 6 years gives rise to a relative increase of synaptic activities in the thalamus, possibly as a consequence of improved corticothalamic connections. Increased metabolic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is probably related to these thalamic changes and suggests that the limbic system is involved in the processes of brain maturation.

  17. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALOCCLUSIONS OF 5 AND 6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN FROM NORTHEASTERN REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The aim of this presentation is to show the percentage of the children with malocclusions and comparison between children with mild and severe malocclusions from rural and urban regions Materials and methods: 1200 children between 5 and 6 years old from North-eastern Bulgaria (600 urban and 600 rural were examined. WHO standards were applied and the data was collected in WHO statistic forms, which were modified accordingly. The children were divided in 3 groups-healthy, with mild and with severe malocclusions according to Angles classification. Results: More than a half of the urban children are healthy – 51,5% and the biggest percentage of the malocclusions are mild – 31,3%, only 17,2% have severe malocclusions. The rural children are without malocclusions – 23,8% and – 39,2% of them are with severe orthodontic deformations. Relative shares of children with malocclusions from the urban – 48,5% and rural regions – 76,2% The relative share of the healthy children from both urban and rural regions is 37,7%. The relative share of the children with malocclusions from urban and rural regions is 62,3%. Conclusion: A little percent of the rural children are without malocclusions and more of them are with severe ones. We suggest that specialist have to work on better prevention in these regions.

  19. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  20. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  1. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  2. The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and surface temperature variability in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Stewart M.; Crawford, William R.

    2007-02-01

    The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle (LNC) is a significant feature of winter (January) air and sea temperatures along the North American west coast over a 400-year period. Yet much of the recent temperature variation can also be explained by wind patterns associated with the PNA teleconnection. At Sitka, Alaska, (57°N) and nearby stations in northern British Columbia, the January PNA index accounts for over 70% of average January air temperatures in lengthy meteorological records. It appears that the LNC signal in January air temperatures in this region is not independent of the PNA, but is a component of it. The Sitka air temperature record, along with SSTs along the British Columbia coast and the PNA index have significant cross-correlations with the LNC that appear at a 2-year lag, LNC leading. The influence of the PNA pattern declines in winter with decreasing latitude but the LNC component does not. It appears as a significant feature of long-term SST variation at Scripps Pier and the California Current System. The LNC also appears over centennial-scales in proxy temperatures along western North America. The linkage of LNC-moderated surface temperatures to processes involving basin-scale teleconnections expands the possibility that the proximate mechanism may be located remotely from its expression in the northeast Pacific. Some of the largest potential sources of a diurnal tidal signal in the atmosphere are located in the western Pacific; the Sea of Okhotsk and the Indonesian archipelago.

  3. The relation between spatial perspective taking and inhibitory control in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Baumeler, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Developmental research on spatial perspective taking has shown that young children are able to solve perspective-taking problems under favorable circumstances, but they have difficulties succeeding in classic tasks involving a conflict between one's own perspective and that of another observer. To date, little is known about the reasons for young children's difficulties in dealing with incongruent perspectives. Based on the assumption that one's own perspective has to be ignored to imagine someone else's perspective, it was investigated whether perspective taking is related to inhibitory control in 6-year-olds (N = 140). An adapted version of the 'Fruit Stroop task', appropriate for preschool children, was used to assess inhibitory control. Perspective taking was assessed using the 'Perspective-Taking Test for Children'. Other spatial and nonspatial abilities were assessed to investigate the specificity of the relation. Results showed a significant correlation between perspective taking and inhibitory control, even when controlled for age, verbal-IQ, and socio-economic status. However, no significant correlations between inhibition and other spatial abilities were found, indicating a specific relation between inhibition and perspective taking. A linear regression analysis showed that, even after accounting for effects of control variables as well as other mental transformation abilities, inhibition accounted for a significant part of the variance in perspective-taking performance. The present findings provide valuable information on what contributes to individual differences in perspective taking, which is an important aspect of everyday cognition and bears relevance for reasoning in technical domains.

  4. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  5. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Factitious Oral Ulcers in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscilla Santana Pinto; Mendez, Daniela Alejandra Cusicanqui; Damante, José Humberto; Rios, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Factitious ulcers are characterized by self-inflicted lesions with multifactorial origin. These lesions are frequently found in head, neck, and hands. This report shows a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with factitious oral ulcers that occurred after the self-biting of buccal vestibule and nail-scratching of gingival tissue. Clinically, a significant swelling was observed, hard on palpation, located at the right lower third of the face, next to the posterior area of the mandible. In the intraoral examination, ulcers at different healing stages were noted on the swelling area. During the anamnesis, the father reported a change in his familial structure that triggers psychological stress, providing the clues to the presumptive diagnosis of factitious oral ulcers. We prescribed the topical use of Gingilone® three times a day to control the local pain and inflammation. At 7-day follow-up, we noticed the reduction of extraoral swelling and the initial healing of the ulcers. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed at 30-day follow-up, with the lasting remission of oral lesions. The treatments of factitious oral ulcers should be individually tailored for each patient, focused on a multidisciplinary approach, including psychotherapy and periodic clinical control. To the best of our knowledge, gaps of evidence lead to the lack of standardized clinical protocols on this issue. PMID:28293440

  6. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  7. Central adiposity and the propensity for rehearsal in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling FCM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiona CM Ling, Rich SW Masters, Clare CW Yu, Alison M McManusInstitute of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong KongBackground: There is increasing evidence that continuous activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and the central sympathetic nervous system contributes to the pathogenesis of central adiposity via increased psychological stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the link between central adiposity and the propensity for Chinese children to rehearse emotionally upsetting events, a dimension of psychological stress. Additionally, gender differences in this relationship were explored.Methods: Waist circumference, which is a marker of central adiposity and associated risks of developing cardiovascular disease, was measured and the propensity for rehearsal was assessed twice over two consecutive years in Hong Kong Chinese children (n = 194, aged 7–9 years, using a psychometric tool.Results: Children with waist circumference indicative of a risk of cardiovascular disease displayed higher rehearsal scores than children categorized as “not at risk”, as did boys compared with girls. Our results suggest that central adiposity and the propensity for rehearsal of emotionally upsetting events may be linked in Chinese children.Conclusion: Future prospective studies examining the direction of causality between central adiposity and rehearsal can potentially have valuable clinical implications.Keywords: obesity, abdominal, stress, psychological, Hong Kong, child

  8. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.;

    2009-01-01

    that CT can be used to measure subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and identify novel measurement sites that can be used as predictors of general adiposity. Methods Growing pigs (N = 12), were each CT scanned on three occasions. From these data the total volume of adipose tissue was determined...... the limits of the relevant tissues and automated measurements were successfully generated. Two sites on the animal were identified where there was optimal correlation with fat-index. The first of these was located 4 intercostal spaces cranial to the caudal extremity of the last rib, the other, a further 5...

  9. Adiposity in childhood brain tumors: A report from the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in Children (CanDECIDE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuan-Wen; Souza, Russell J. de; Fleming, Adam; Singh, Sheila K.; Johnston, Donna L.; Zelcer, Shayna M.; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Burrow, Sarah; Scheinemann, Katrin; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M. Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population. Recently, adiposity has been reported to be more informative for cardiometabolic risk stratification than body mass index (BMI) in the general population. The goal of this study is to describe the adiposity phenotype in CBT, and to establish adiposity determinants. We recruited CBT (n = 56) and non-cancer controls (n = 106). Percent body fat (%FM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured to determine total and central adiposity, respectively. Regression analyses were used to evaluate adiposity determinants. CBT had higher total and central adiposity compared to non-cancer controls despite having similar BMI measurements. Those with tumors at the supratentorial region had increased total and central adiposity, while those who received radiotherapy had increased total adiposity. In conclusion, CBT have increased total and central adiposity in the presence of similar BMI levels when compared to non-cancer controls. Adiposity, especially central adiposity, is a potential cardiometabolic risk factor present relatively early in life in CBT. Defining interventions to target adiposity may improve long-term outcomes by preventing cardiometabolic disorders in CBT. PMID:28327649

  10. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  11. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  12. Effectiveness of rotary or manual techniques for removing a 6-year-old filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Cimadon, Vanessa Buffon; Zucatto, Cristiane; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Kuga, Milton Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of manual and rotary instrumentation techniques for removing root fillings after different storage times. Twenty-four canals from palatal roots of human maxillary molars were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and zinc-oxide eugenol-based sealer (Endofill) , and were stored in saline for 6 years. Non-aged control specimens were treated in the same manner and stored for 1 week. All canals were retreated using hand files or ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary system. Radiographs were taken to determine the amount of remaining material in the canals. The roots were vertically split, the halves were examined with a clinical microscope and the obtained images were digitized. The images were evaluated with AutoCAD software and the percentage of residual material was calculated. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the manual and rotary techniques for filling material removal regardless the ageing effect on endodontic sealers. When only the age of the filling material was analyzed microscopically, non-aged fillings that remained on the middle third of the canals presented a higher percentage of material remaining (p<0.05) compared to the aged sealers and to the other thirds of the roots. The apical third showed a higher percentage of residual filling material in both radiographic and microscopic analysis when compared to the other root thirds. In conclusion, all canals presented residual filling material after endodontic retreatment procedures. Microscopic analysis was more effective than radiographs for detection of residual filling material.

  13. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  14. Tuberculosis drug-resistance in Lisbon, Portugal: a 6-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Macedo, R; Silva, C; Pinto, C; Furtado, C; Brum, L; Portugal, I

    2011-09-01

    Multidrug-resistance and extensive drug-resistance pose a serious threat to tuberculosis management in Portugal. The country has high TB incidence rates in comparison with other European Union countries, with the Lisbon Health Region being one of the most affected. In the present study we have analysed a convenience sample of 3025 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, recovered over a 6-year period (2001-2006) in the Lisbon Health Region, regarding drug-resistance both to first-line and second-line drugs. Moreover, 100 of these isolates were also genotyped by 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit - Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. We have compared each year and observed the existence of 22 different resistance profiles, with MDR-TB rates ranging between 9.9% and 15.2% and XDR-TB rates, relative to the number of MDR-TB isolates, between 44.3% and 66.1% (excluding 1 year here considered as an outlier). A steady increase in the fraction of MDR-TB isolates resistant to all first-line drugs was also noticed. The genotyping analysis of MDR-TB isolates revealed six clusters, of which three (Lisboa3, Lisboa4 and Q1) were related to XDR-TB. Our results show that active transmission of MDR- and XDR-TB is taking place and that the high prevalence of observed XDR-TB is due to the continued transmission of particular genetic clusters. Enforcement of the implementation of genotyping in diagnostic routines would lead to early detection of resistant cases.

  15. The pattern of psoriatic arthritis in Kashmir: A 6-year prospective study

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    Shagufta Rather

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence, clinical presentation, and patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA vary in different parts of the world. The scenario of PsA in west is different from that of Asia. Moreover, the oligoarticular type which was considered most prevalent earlier has been replaced by polyarticular type. Aim: The study was to the clinical profile of psoriasis patients associated with PsA in Kashmir valley of India. Materials and Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective, hospital-based study involving 150 successive patients of PsA over a span of 6 years. Severity of the skin and nail involvement was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, respectively. PsA was diagnosed by classification criteria for PsA. The number and pattern of swollen and tender joints was counted and classified by Moll and Wright′s classification criteria. Results: Plaque-type psoriasis was the most common clinical type, observed in 122 (81.33% patients followed by erythrodermic psoriasis in 10 (6.66% patients and pustular psoriasis in eight (5.33% patients. PsA occurred between 30 and 40 years of age in 105 (70% patients. The cutaneous involvement occurred before joint involvement in 113 (75.33%, while they occurred simultaneously in 30 (20% cases and the PsA preceded the skin involvement in seven (4.66% cases. Symmetrical polyarthritis was the commonest clinical presentation and was seen in 90 (60% patients. Nail involvement due to psoriasis was present in 120 (80% patients. Commonest nail change found was pitting and seen in 60 (40% patients. Conclusion: The clinical pattern of PsA varies in different parts of the world. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of PsA in a given area is necessary for the successful management of this disease.

  16. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms--6 years of experience with Ella stent-graft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Utikal, Petr; Koutna, Jirina; Bachleda, Petr; Buriankova, Eva; Herman, Miroslav; Bucil, Jiri; Benysek, Vladimir; Cerna, Marie; Kojecky, Zdenek

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 6-year results of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment by Ella stent-grafts with regard to safety and effectivity in relation to morphology of the aneurysm. Methods: From a group of 172 patients with AAA, in whom elective endovascular treatment was considered, 120 of them (69.8%) were found to be suitable for this type of therapy. The bifurcated type of stent-graft was implanted in 97 patients, uniiliacal type in 19 patients and only four patients were found to be suitable for tubular type of stent-graft. Additional necessary procedures (internal iliac artery occlusion or contralateral common iliac artery occlusion in a group of patients with uniiliacal type of stent-graft) were performed surgically during the stent-graft implantation. CT and US controls were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, later every 12 months. Results: Primary technical success was achieved in 109 of the 120 patients (91%). Primary endoleak was recorded in 11 patients (primary endoleak type Ia in seven patients, type Ib in three patients and type IIIa in one patient). Assisted technical success after reintervention or spontaneous seal was 98.3%. Surgical conversion was indicated in two patients (1.7%). Perioperative mortality rate was 3.3%. Total average follow-up period was 20.7 months (range from 2 to 60 months). In nine patients (7.5%) secondary endoleak type II was found at control CT or US, in three patients partial thrombosis of the stent-graft was found. There was no aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Conclusion: Treatment of AAA with Ella stent-graft system is effective and safe. Bifurcated stent-graft is the most frequently used type. Uniiliacal type of stent-graft is used by us only in cases of complicated morphology.

  17. Ewing Sarcoma of the Bone in Children under 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Prete, Arcangelo; Cozza, Raffaele; Podda, Marta; Manzitti, Carla; Pession, Andrea; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Contoli, Benedetta; Balter, Rita; Fagioli, Franca; Bisogno, Gianni; Amoroso, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Background Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT) are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. Methods The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23%) patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58–83%) and 72% (95% CI 57–83%) for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17–60%) and 21% (95% CI 5–45%) for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01), while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P  = 0.002). In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000–2008 were 89% (95% CI 71–96%) and 86% (95% CI 66–94%), respectively. Conclusion The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome. PMID:23382839

  18. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  19. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  20. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...... levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated...

  1. Depot-dependent effects of adipose tissue explants on co-cultured hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Lock, Erik-Jan;

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro hepatocyte-adipose tissue explant (ATE) co-culture model enabling examination of the effect of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues on primary rat hepatocytes. Initial analyses of inflammatory marker genes were performed in fractionated epididymal or inguinal...... levels of IL-6, TNF-a and PGE(2) in the media from inguinal ATEs co-cultured with primary rat hepatocytes were higher than that in the media from epididymal ATEs co-cultured with hepatocytes, although the significant difference was only seen in PGE(2). Lipolysis, measured as glycerol release, was similar...... in the ATEs isolated from inguinal and epididymal adipose tissues when cultured alone, but the glycerol release was higher in the ATEs isolated from epididymal than from inguinal adipose tissue when co-cultured with hepatocytes. Compared to epididymal ATEs, the ATEs from inguinal adipose tissue elicited...

  2. The Effect of Distraction Technique on the Pain of Dressing Change among 3-6 Year-old Children

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    Sima Kaheni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn dressings, debridement, surgical incisions, skin grafting and physical therapy are some of painful treatments of burn. According to the studies, distraction techniques have a significant effect on patients’ pain. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of distraction on pain of dressing change in second degree burn in 3-6 year-old children. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study, was conducted on 80 hospitalized children with second degree burn in 2015. Playing a video computer game for children during the dressing change procedure was the intervention for the interventional group. Also the intensity of pain was measured by behavioral pain scale for children (FLCC scale during dressing. This scale was completed for patients without no intervention in the control group during dressing. Results Pain intensity mean in the interventional group (2.575 ± 1.807 had significant changes in comparison with the control group (8.025 ± 1.187 (P

  3. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  4. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  5. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  6. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Young; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Lee, Hee Suk; Park, Eun Kyu; Hahm, Jong Cheon; Kim, Jin Woo; Shin, Soon Shik; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS) prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  7. Microarray Evidences the Role of Pathologic Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance and Their Clinical Implications

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    Sandeep Kumar Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of insulin resistance and dysmetabolism with obesity is attributed to pathologic adipose tissue. The morphologic hallmarks of this pathology are adipocye hypertrophy and heightened inflammation. However, it's underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Study of gene function in metabolically active tissues like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver is a promising strategy. Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large number of genes in an array. This technique has several potential applications in understanding pathologic adipose tissue. They are: (1 transcriptomic differences between various depots of adipose tissue, adipose tissue from obese versus lean individuals, high insulin resistant versus low insulin resistance, brown versus white adipose tissue, (2 transcriptomic profiles of various stages of adipogenesis, (3 effect of diet, cytokines, adipokines, hormones, environmental toxins and drugs on transcriptomic profiles, (4 influence of adipokines on transcriptomic profiles in skeletal muscle, hepatocyte, adipose tissue etc., and (5 genetics of gene expression. The microarray evidences of molecular basis of obesity and insulin resistance are presented here. Despite the limitations, microarray has potential clinical applications in finding new molecular targets for treatment of insulin resistance and classification of adipose tissue based on future risk of insulin resistance syndrome.

  8. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. 11.1 nmol/L vs. Amour D, Cordier S, Chevrier C. 2016. Organophosphate insecticide metabolites in prenatal and childhood urine samples and intelligence scores at 6 years of age: results from the mother–child PELAGIE cohort (France). Environ Health Perspect 124:674–680; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409472 PMID:26394442

  9. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  10. Ozone variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere from the first 6 years of IASI observations (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, Catherine; Hurtmans, Daniel; Emmons, Louisa K.; Safieddine, Sarah; Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we assess how daily ozone (O3) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp-A platform can contribute to the analyses of the processes driving O3 variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere and, in the future, to the monitoring of long-term trends. The temporal evolution of O3 during the first 6 years of IASI (2008-2013) operation is investigated with multivariate regressions separately in four different layers (ground-300, 300-150, 150-25, 25-3 hPa), by adjusting to the daily time series averaged in 20° zonal bands, seasonal and linear trend terms along with important geophysical drivers of O3 variation (e.g. solar flux, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)). The regression model is shown to perform generally very well with a strong dominance of the annual harmonic terms and significant contributions from O3 drivers, in particular in the equatorial region where the QBO and the solar flux contribution dominate. More particularly, despite the short period of the IASI data set available up to now, two noticeable statistically significant apparent trends are inferred from the daily IASI measurements: a positive trend in the upper stratosphere (e.g. 1.74 ± 0.77 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° S), which is consistent with other studies suggesting a turnaround for stratospheric O3 recovery, and a negative trend in the troposphere at the mid-latitudes and high northern latitudes (e.g. -0.26 ± 0.11 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° N), especially during summer and probably linked to the impact of decreasing ozone precursor emissions. The impact of the high temporal sampling of IASI on the uncertainty in the determination of O3 trend has been further explored by performing multivariate regressions on IASI monthly averages and on ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements.

  11. Adipose tissues as endocrine target organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2014-08-01

    In the context of obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration result in the production of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines inducing insulin resistance locally but also in distant organs and contributing to low grade inflammatory status associated with the metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a prominent role. Brown and beige adipose tissues are capable of energy dissipation, but also of cytokine production and their role in dysmetabolic syndrome is emerging. This review focuses on metabolic and inflammatory changes in these adipose depots and contribution to metabolic syndrome. Also we will review surgical and pharmacological procedures to target adiposity as therapeutic interventions to treat obesity-associated disorders.

  12. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  13. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  14. Expression of Resistin Protein in Normal Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Pregnant Women Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongming; GUO Tiecheng; ZHANG Muxun; GUO Wei; YU Meixia; XUE Keying; HUANG Shiang; CHEN Yanhong; ZHU Huanli; XU Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta and the relationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta was detected by using Western blotting method.Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), serum triglycerides (TG), serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay to calculate insulin resistance index (IRI). Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF %). Resistin protein expression in pregnant women placental tissue (67 905±8441) (arbitrary A values) was much higher than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue in pregnant women abdomen (40 718 ± 3818, P < 0.01), non-pregnant women abdomen (38 288±2084, P<0.01), normal human abdomen (39 421±6087, P<0.01)and thigh (14 942 ±6706, P<0. 001) respectively. The resistin expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no significant difference among pregnant, non-pregnant women and normal human, but much higher than that in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0. 001). Pearson analysis revealed that resistin protein was correlated with BMI (r=0.42), fasting insulin concentration (r=0.38),IRI (r=0. 34), BF % (r=0.43) and fasting glucose (r=0. 39), but not with blood pressure,CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. It was suggested that resistin protein expression in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was much higher

  15. Adipose tissue, diet and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Age related increase in body fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (AT), and ectopic fat deposition are strongly related to worse health conditions in the elderly. Moreover, with aging higher inflammation in adipose tissue may be observed and may contribute to inflammaging. Aging may significantly affect AT function by modifying the profile of adipokines produced by adipose cells, reducing preadipocytes number and their function and increasing AT macrophages infiltration. The initiating events of the inflammatory cascade promoting a greater AT inflammatory profile are not completely understood. Nutrients may determine changes in the amount of body fat, in its distribution as well as in AT function with some nutrients showing a pro-inflammatory effect on AT. Evidences are sparse and quite controversial with only a few studies performed in older subjects. Different dietary patterns are the result of the complex interaction of foods and nutrients, thus more studies are needed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and changes in adipose tissue structure, distribution and function in the elderly.

  16. Hypothalamic control of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, A; Wiedmann, N M; Adler, E S; Oldfield, B J

    2014-10-01

    A detailed appreciation of the control of adipose tissue whether it be white, brown or brite/beige has never been more important to the development of a framework on which to build therapeutic strategies to combat obesity. This is because 1) the rate of fatty acid release into the circulation from lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) is integrally important to the development of obesity, 2) brown adipose tissue (BAT) has now moved back to center stage with the realization that it is present in adult humans and, in its activated form, is inversely proportional to levels of obesity and 3) the identification and characterization of "brown-like" or brite/beige fat is likely to be one of the most exciting developments in adipose tissue biology in the last decade. Central to all of these developments is the role of the CNS in the control of different fat cell functions and central to CNS control is the integrative capacity of the hypothalamus. In this chapter we will attempt to detail key issues relevant to the structure and function of hypothalamic and downstream control of WAT and BAT and highlight the importance of developing an understanding of the neural input to brite/beige fat cells as a precursor to its recruitment as therapeutic target.

  17. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    of about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  18. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  19. Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golley, Rebecca K; Smithers, Lisa G; Mittinty, Murthy N; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W

    2013-10-01

    Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on children's health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (β = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P health conscious" dietary pattern [β = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P health and development outcomes in childhood.

  20. Increased asthma and adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression with obesity and Inuit migration to a western country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Baines, Katherine J; Powell, Heather;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An overlap between obesity and asthma exists, and inflammatory cells in adipose tissue could drive the development of asthma. Comparison of adipose tissue gene expression among Inuit living in Greenland to those in Denmark provides an opportunity to assess how changes in adipose tissue...... inflammation can be modified by migration and diet. OBJECTIVE: To examine mast cell and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and the association with asthma. METHODS: Two Inuit populations were recruited, one living in Greenland and another in Denmark. All underwent adipose subcutaneous biopsy, followed...... by clinical assessment of asthma, and measurement of AHR. Adipose tissue biopsies were homogenised, RNA extracted, and PCR was performed to determine the relative gene expression of mast cell (tryptase, chymase, CPA3) and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β, and CD163). RESULTS: Of the 1059 Greenlandic Inuit...

  1. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  2. The development and evaluation of Persian rhyme awareness tasks for normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rhyme awareness is an important criterion for speech, language and writing processing. In Iran, there is no auditory tasks of rhyme awareness available for assessment of 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate Persian rhyme awareness tasks in 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: A hundred normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children (50 girls and 50 boys were randomly selected. The two rhyme awareness tasks of this study were rhyme detection and rhyme production. The validity and reliability of these tasks were studied by content validity index, intraclass correlation coefficient, and standard error of measurement. The correlation between tasks was studied by Pearson correlation and the mean scores of two sections were compared by easiness level method. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys were evaluated by independent t-test.Results: The results showed that the proposed tasks had appropriate validity and reliability. The ability of children in production section was significantly more than in detection section. The correlation of each of two sections with total tasks was significant (p0.05.Conclusions: The proposed tasks are appropriate for assessment of rhyme awareness skills with appropriate validity and reliability in both genders. Two Sections of the tasks had significant correlations and influence on together. The abilities of girls and boys were the same.

  3. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  4. Role of developmental transcription factors in white, brown and beige adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Catriona; Karpe, Fredrik; Pinnick, Katherine E

    2015-05-01

    In this review we discuss the role of developmental transcription factors in adipose tissue biology with a focus on how these developmental genes may contribute to regional variation in adipose tissue distribution and function. Regional, depot-specific, differences in lipid handling and signalling (lipolysis, lipid storage and adipokine/lipokine signalling) are important determinants of metabolic health. At a cellular level, preadipocytes removed from their original depot and cultured in vitro retain depot-specific functional properties, implying that these are intrinsic to the cells and not a function of their environment in situ. High throughput screening has identified a number of developmental transcription factors involved in embryological development, including members of the Homeobox and T-Box gene families, that are strongly differentially expressed between regional white adipose tissue depots and also between brown and white adipose tissue. However, the significance of depot-specific developmental signatures remains unclear. Developmental transcription factors determine body patterning during embryogenesis. The divergent developmental origins of regional adipose tissue depots may explain their differing functional characteristics. There is evidence from human genetics that developmental genes determine adipose tissue distribution: in GWAS studies a number of developmental genes have been identified as being correlated with anthropometric measures of adiposity and fat distribution. Additionally, compelling functional studies have recently implicated developmental genes in both white adipogenesis and the so-called 'browning' of white adipose tissue. Understanding the genetic and developmental pathways in adipose tissue may help uncover novel ways to intervene with the function of adipose tissue in order to promote health.

  5. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  6. The role of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on parasympathetic functioning from 3 to 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-05-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load.

  7. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, ptissue, ptissue, ptissues via its effect on adipose tissue function.

  8. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  9. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  10. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which

  11. Study on heterogeneity between visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue%内脏和皮下脂肪组织的异质性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺昌

    2015-01-01

    [Summary] The increasing prevalence of obesity has led to extensive research on white adipose tissue. Currently ,functional differences among white adipose tissue depots have become clear ,especially between visceral adipose tissue (VAT ) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT ). This article will review the heterogeneity of distribution ,structure ,function ,influence factors ,measurement methods and metabolic properties between VAT and SAT.%随着肥胖患病率的增加,对白色脂肪组织的研究受到关注。不同部位的白色脂肪组织有功能异质性,特别是内脏和皮下脂肪组织。本文从二者的分布、解剖、功能、影响因素及内分泌功能等方面作一综述。

  12. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    OpenAIRE

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Biancale, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular...

  13. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  14. The Reflecting Heliometer of Rio de Janeiro after 6 Years of Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, Sergio C; Penna, Jucira L; D'Avila, Victor; Reis-Neto, Eugenio; Andrei, Alexandre H

    2015-01-01

    Started its regular, daily operational phase in 2011 and installed in 2009 by the occasion of the Symp264 in the XXVII IAU GA at Rio de Janeiro, the results so far obtained show that the Heliometer of the Observatorio Nacional fulfilled its planed performance of single measurement to the level of few tens of milli-arcsecond, freely pivoting around the heliolatitudes without systematic deviations or error enhancement. We present and discuss the astrometric additions required on ground based astronomic programs. We also discuss instrumental and observations terms, namely the constancy of the basic heliometric angle, against which the measurements are made, and the independence to meteorological and pointing conditions.

  15. Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, K.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Jenab, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer

  16. The adipose organ at a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Cinti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ – a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ’s plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that ‘browning’ of the adipose organ curbs these disorders.

  17. Visceral fat accumulation is an indicator of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Andréanne; Drolet, Renée; Noël, Suzanne; Paris, Gaëtan; Tchernof, André

    2012-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that visceral obesity is the best correlate of abdominal adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women. Omental and subcutaneous fat samples were surgically obtained from 40 women (age, 47.0 ± 4.0 years; body mass index, 28.4 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). CD68+ cells were identified using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Expression of macrophage markers was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. Mean CD68+ cell percentage tended to be higher in subcutaneous (18.3%) compared with omental adipose tissue (15.5%, P = .07). Positive correlations were observed between CD68+ cell percentage as well as CD68 messenger RNA expression in a given depot vs the other (P ≤ .01). Visceral adipose tissue area and omental adipocyte diameter were positively related to CD68+ cell percentage in omental fat (r = 0.52 and r = 0.35, P ≤ .05). Total and visceral adipose tissue areas as well as subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were significantly correlated with CD68+ cell percentage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.40, P ≤ .05). Adipose tissue areas and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were also significantly associated with expression of commonly used macrophage markers including CD68 in the subcutaneous fat compartment (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.57, P ≤ .05). Visceral adipose tissue area was the best correlate of CD68+ cell percentage in both omental and subcutaneous fat tissues, explaining, respectively, 20% and 12% of the variance in models also including subcutaneous adipose tissue area, adipocyte sizes, and total body fat mass. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is the best correlate of macrophage infiltration in both the subcutaneous and omental fat compartments of lean to obese women.

  18. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    -based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. KEY POINTS The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark. Preschool children...

  19. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  20. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Jason D.; Krueth, Stacy B.; Bernlohr, David A.; Katz, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two ...

  1. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  2. Relationship between the measures of adiposity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults in Jiangsu province%江苏省成年人肥胖测量指标与糖尿病患病风险的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶然; 徐燕; 苏健; 覃玉; 张永青; 潘晓群; 杨婕; 吕淑荣; 武鸣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the measures of adiposity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults of Jiangsu province.Methods Total of 8 400 inhabitants aged 18 years and above were selected from 14 chronic no-communicable diseases surveillance areas by multi-stage cluster random sampling method in Jiangsu province.Information of the inhabitants was collected with a questionnaire survey,anthropometric measurement and biochemical test of blood.Data was analyzed to explore the relationship between obesity,central obesity,the measures of adiposity including weight,body mass index(BMI),waist circumference,waist-height ratio and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus by unconditional logistic regression analysis.Results The prevalence of diabetes mellitus,obesity and central obesity was 8.5%,13.6%,30.8% respectively in adults of Jiangsu province.The distributional difference of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in different age groups was statistically significant (x2=119.77,P<0.05).The prevalence showed an obvious rising trend with age growth.The results of unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that obesity,central obesity,weight,BMI,waist circumference and waist-height ratio were associated with diabetes mellitus(x2=39.01,86.82,95.11,114.61,119.76,all P<0.05).The risk of diabetes mellitus was rising with the increase of BMI,waist circumference and waist-height ratio.About 1-unit greater measures of BMI,waist circumference and waist-height ratio were respectively associated with 13% (OR=1.13,95%CI:1.10-1.15),5% (OR=1.05,95%CI:1.04-1.06) and 8% (OR=1.08,95%CI:1.07-1.10) higher risk of diabetes mellitus.And about 1-SD greater measures of waistheight ratio,waist circumference and BMI were respectively associated with 62% (OR=1.62,95%CI:1.49-1.76),61% (OR=1.61,95% CI:1.48-1.75) and 49% (OR=1.49,95%CI:1.38-1.62) higher risk of diabetes mellitus.The risk of diabetes mellitus increased in turn with the

  3. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  4. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  5. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  6. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  7. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  8. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...

  9. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature. PMID:27746877

  10. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma: a novel report from Nigeria in a 6-year-old girl, and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nzegwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature.

  11. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  12. Characterization and comparison of adipose tissue-derived cells from human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Mito; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Lin, Konghua; Sugimachi, Keizou; Furue, Masutaka

    2009-10-01

    Different fat depots contribute differently to disease and function. These differences may be due to the regional variation in cell types and inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. To address the differences of cell types in the adipose tissue from different depots, the phenotypes of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived cells (ATDCs) from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues were compared using flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(+) population, containing vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, was specifically defined in the SC adipose tissue while no such population was observed in OM adipose tissue. On the other hand, CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(-) population, which is an undefined cell population, were found solely in OM adipose tissue. Overall, the SC adipose tissue contained more ATDCs than OM adipose tissue, while OM adipose tissue contained more blood-derived cells. Regarding to the inherent properties of fat cell progenitors from the two depots, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SC had higher capacity to differentiate into both adipogenic and osteogenic lineages than those from OM, regardless of that the proliferation rates of ADSCs from both depots were similar. The higher differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SC adipose tissue suggests that SC tissue is more suitable cell source for regenerative medicine than OM adipose tissue.

  13. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J;

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... [insulin infusion rates: 10,000 (step I), 20,000 (step II), and 150,000 (step III) microU x min(-1) x m(-2)]. Glucose and glycerol concentrations were measured in arterial blood and also by microdialysis in interstitial fluid in periumbilical, subcutaneous adipose tissue and in quadriceps femoris muscle...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration...

  14. Neighbourhood physical activity environments and adiposity in children and mothers: a three-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles-Corti Billie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neighbourhood environments are often blamed for contributing to rising levels of obesity, current evidence is based predominantly on cross-sectional samples. This study examined associations between objectively-measured environmental characteristics of neighbourhoods and adiposity cross-sectionally and longitudinally over three years in children and their female carers. Methods Longitudinal study of 140 5-6 year-old and 269 10-12 year-old children and their female carers (n = 369. At baseline (2001 and follow-up (2004, height and weight were measured among children and self-reported among female carers, and were used to compute BMI z-scores and BMI, respectively. A Geographic Information System determined access to destinations (public open spaces, sports options, walking/cycling tracks, road connectivity (density of cul-de-sacs and intersections, proportion of 4-way intersections, length of 'access' paths (overpasses, access lanes, throughways between buildings and traffic exposure (length of 'busy' and 'local' roads within 800 m and 2 km of home. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between environmental characteristics and BMI/BMI z-scores at baseline and change in BMI/BMI z-scores over the three years. Results Cross-sectionally, BMI z-score was inversely associated with length (km of access paths within 800 m (b = -0.50 and 2 km (b = -0.16 among younger and number of sport/recreation public open spaces (b = -0.14 and length (km of 'access' paths (b = -0.94 within 800 m and length of local roads within 2 km (b = -0.01 among older children. Among female carers, BMI was associated with length (km of walking/cycling tracks (b = 0.17 and busy roads (b = -0.34 within 800 m. Longitudinally, the proportion of intersections that were 4-way (b = -0.01 within 800 m of home was negatively associated with change in BMI z-score among younger children, while length (km of access paths (b

  15. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  16. Association of Breastfeeding with Maternal Visceral Adiposity Postmenopause Among Three Racial/ Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Armenta, Richard F.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah; Laughlin, Gail A.; Wooten, Wilma; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between breastfeeding and visceral adiposity postmenopause. Design and Methods Participants were community-dwelling women aged 55–80 from the Caucasian Rancho Bernardo Study, the Filipino Women’s Health Study, and the Health Assessment Study of African-American Women who had visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurements by computed tomography between 2000–2002. Linear regression was used to determine the association between average breastfeeding duration per...

  17. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  18. A Modified Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Dummy Head Model for Lateral Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rafukka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid III six-year-old (6YO child dummy head model was developed and validated for frontal impact assessment according to the specifications contained in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 572.122, Subpart N by Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC. This work is aimed at improving biofidelity of the head for frontal impact and also extending its application to lateral impact assessment by modifying the head skin viscoelastic properties and validating the head response using the scaled nine-year-old (9YO child cadaver head response recently published in the literature. The modified head model was validated for two drop heights for frontal, right, and left parietal impact locations. Peak resultant acceleration of the modified head model appeared to have good correlation with scaled 9YO child cadaver head response for frontal impact on dropping from 302 mm height and fair correlation with 12.3% difference for 151 mm drop height. Right parietal peak resultant acceleration values correlate well with scaled 9YO head experimental data for 153 mm drop height, while fair correlation with 16.4% difference was noticed for 302 mm drop height. Left parietal, however, shows low biofidelity for the two drop heights as the difference in head acceleration response was within 30%. The modified head model could therefore be used to estimate injuries in vehicle crash for head parietal impact locations which cannot be measured by the current hybrid III dummy head model.

  19. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis – Results from a population-based 6-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wagner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9% and (iii classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115 or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825 at baseline.Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < .001, avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < .05, an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < .05, bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < .01 as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < .05 and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < .05 problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = .164 or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = .168 in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  20. Normative personality trait development in adulthood: A 6-year cohort-sequential growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojev, Petar; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects. Extraversion decreased as people aged, with the most pronounced declines occurring in young adulthood, and then again in old age. Agreeableness, indexed with a measure focusing on empathy, decreased in young adulthood and remained relatively unchanged thereafter. Conscientiousness increased among young adults then leveled off and remained fairly consistent for the rest of the adult life span. Neuroticism and openness to experience decreased as people aged. However, the models suggest that these latter effects may also be partially due to cohort differences, as older people showed lower levels of neuroticism and openness to experience more generally. Honesty-humility showed a pronounced and consistent increase across the adult life span. These analyses of large-scale longitudinal national probability panel data indicate that different dimensions of personality follow distinct developmental processes throughout adulthood. Our findings also highlight the importance of young adulthood (up to about the age of 30) in personality trait development, as well as continuing change throughout the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jason D; Krueth, Stacy B; Bernlohr, David A; Katz, Stephen A

    2009-02-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS.

  2. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  3. Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zongquan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disorders of endocrine substances in epicardial adipose tissue are known causes of coronary artery disease (CAD. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, expression of adiponectin in epicardial adipose tissue and its function in CAD pathogenesis is unclear. This study investigates adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue in CAD patients. Methods Vessels or adipose tissue samples collected from CAD patients and non-CAD controls were examined after immunochemical staining. Adiponectin, cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression level in adipose tissue were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Adiponectin concentrations in peripheral and coronary sinus vein plasma were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral vein plasma biochemistries were performed with routine laboratory techniques. Monocytes were collected from blood using lymphocyte separation medium. Expression level of cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB were measured to learn the effect of adiponectin on stearic acid-stimulated monocytes. Percentage of TLR4 positive monocytes was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Histological examination revealed increased macrophage infiltration into epicardial adipose tissue of CAD patients. Decreased adiponectin displayed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR was associated with enhanced cytokines of IL-6 and TNF-α or TLR4 expression level in epicardial adipose tissue, suggesting decreased circulating adiponectin may be useful as a more sensitive predictor for coronary atherosclerosis than routine laboratory examinations. Adiponectin suppressed secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in stimulated monocytes and TLR4 was expressed on cell surfaces. Conclusions Endocrine disorders in epicardial adipose tissue are strongly linked to CAD, and adiponectin has a protective effect by inhibiting macrophage

  4. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  5. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  6. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alexandra; Hildur, Kristin; Barberà, Joan Albert; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; de Castro Reis, Fernanda; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Templado, Cristina; Fuster, Carme

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage could help to detect genes involved in genetic disorders, most notably cancer. Until now, only one published study, carried out by our group, has identified chromosome bands affected by exposure to oil from an oil spill. In that study, which was performed two years after the initial oil exposure in individuals who had participated in clean-up tasks following the wreck of the Prestige, three chromosomal bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31) were found to be especially prone to breakage. A recent follow-up study, performed on the same individuals, revealed that the genotoxic damage had persisted six years after oil exposure. Objectives To determine whether there exist chromosome bands which are especially prone to breakages and to know if there is some correlation with those detected in the previous study. In addition, to investigate if the DNA repair problems detected previously persist in the present study. Design Follow-up study performed six years after the Prestige oil spill. Setting Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Participants Fishermen highly exposed to oil spill who participated in previous genotoxic study six years after the oil. Measurements Chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes. For accurate identification of the breakpoints involved in chromosome damage of circulating lymphocytes, a sequential stain/G-banding technique was employed. To determine the most break-prone chromosome bands, two statistical methods, the Fragile Site Multinomial and the chi-square tests (where the bands were corrected by their length) were used. To compare the chromosome lesions, structural chromosome alterations and gaps/breaks between two groups of individuals we used the GEE test which takes into account a possible within-individual correlation. Dysfunctions in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosome damage, were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin by the GEE test. Results Cytogenetic

  7. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  8. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  9. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.

  10. A diagnosis neglected for 6 years: report of a misdiagnosed case of pulmonary mucormycosis and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-fang; HE Chao; LIU Xue-feng; WANG Sheng-yun; QU Jin-long; LIN Zhao-fen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary mucormycosis is an uncommon and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection caused by fungi in the class zygomycetes of the order mucorales. As a rare clinical entity characterized by acute onset, rapid progression and high mortality rate, pulmonary mucormycosis often results in fatal consequences within two years after the onset, and can be easily misdiagnosed.1,2 Here we report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis for which a definite diagnosis had not been established until 6 years after the initial onset.

  11. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available <0.001. The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5% followed by students (0.7% and businessmen (0.25%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity.

  12. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ching Chi

    Full Text Available The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown.We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT using dedicated computed tomography (CT software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA, with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG, including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women, we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05 when superimposed on age and BMI.We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect.

  13. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  14. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Biancale, R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.

  15. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden;

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined...... or as mixtures in combination with different diets: one low fat diet and two high fat diets with different protein:sucrose ratios. We measured accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue and liver and determined obesity development, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of genes involved...... in metabolism of xenobiotics. Compared with mice fed diets with a low protein:sucrose ratio, mice fed diets with a high protein:sucrose ratio had significantly lower total burden of POPs in adipose tissue, were protected from obesity development and exhibited enhanced hepatic expression of genes involved...

  16. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    , a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease......One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... in lipolysis, but it began to increase about 1 h post-exercise and remained elevated for the following 2 h. The increase in post-exercise non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) mobilization was greater after 60% exercise than after 40 % exercise. It is concluded that the lipolytic rate in abdominal subcutaneous...

  17. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  18. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  19. Imaging white adipose tissue with confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents.

  20. Oestrone sulphate, adipose tissue, and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R A; Thomson, M L; Killen, E

    1985-01-01

    Oestrone sulphate, the oestrogen in highest concentration in the plasma, may play a role in the induction and growth of breast cancers. By enzymolysis and radioimmunoassay, oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in 3 biological fluids. High concentrations of the conjugate (up to 775 nmol/l) were detected in breast cyst fluids from some premenopausal women, the concentrations in blood plasma (0.91-4.45 nmol/l) being much lower. Concentrations in the plasmas from postmenopausal women with (0.23-4.63 nmol/l) or without (0.18-1.27 nmol/l) breast cancer were still lower. Oestrone sulphate concentration in cow's milk or cream (0.49-0.67 nmol/l) was also low: dietary intake in these fluids is probably of little consequence. The capacity of breast tissues for hydrolysis of oestrone sulphate was examined in two ways: In tissue slices incubated with 85 pM (3H) oestrone sulphate solution at 37 degrees C, cancers (131-412 fmol/g tissue/hr) and adipose tissues (23-132 fmol/g tissue/hr) hydrolysed significantly more sulphate than did benign tissues (1-36 fmol/g tissue/hr). In tissue homogenates incubated with 5-25 microM [3H] oestrone sulphate at 37 degrees much higher capacities for hydrolysis (nmol/g tissue/hr) were demonstrated with a Km of 2-16.5 microM: cancers (34-394) and benign tissues (9-485) had significantly higher sulphatase activities than adipose tissues (9-39). On a protein basis, however, the sulphatase activities in the 3 tissues were comparable. It is concluded that oestrone sulphate is present in breast cysts and blood plasma and that in vitro, the conjugated hormone can be hydrolysed by breast tissues. The biological significance of these findings in vivo remains to be established.

  1. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  2. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, mitochondrial substrate sensitivity (Km (app) ), and mitochondrial content were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy overweight subjects before and after 6 weeks...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle, but not in adipose tissue. Furthermore, mitochondrial fat oxidation was not improved in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue....

  3. Age of Complementary Foods Introduction and Risk of Anemia in Children Aged 4–6 years: A Prospective Birth Cohort in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    Age of complementary foods introduction is associated with childhood anemia, but the ideal age for the introduction of complementary foods to infants is a continuing topic of debate. We examined the longitudinal association between complementary foods introduction age and risk of anemia in 18,446 children from the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who had detailed complementary feeding records at 3 and 6 months of age and had hemoglobin concentrations measured at 4–6 years. Early introduction of complementary foods at 3–6 months of age was significantly associated with a higher risk of anemia (odds ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.28) and a lower hemoglobin concentration of −0.84 g/L (95% confidence interval: −1.33 to −0.35) in children aged 4–6 years, compared with those fed complementary foods starting at 6 months of age. When it comes to the specific type of complementary foods, early introduction of all plant-based foods was associated with increased anemia risks and lower hemoglobin concentrations, while early introduction of most animal-based foods was not. These findings may be informative regarding the appropriate time to introduce complementary foods in infants. PMID:28333130

  4. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  5. Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Bellisle, F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E

    1984-01-01

    To follow and predict the evolution of adiposity during growth, individual adiposity curves, assessed by the weight/height2 index, were drawn for 151 children from the age of 1 month to 16 yr. Adiposity increases during the 1st yr and then decreases. A renewed rise, termed here the adiposity rebound, occurs at about 6 yr. Individual weight/height2 curves may differ regarding their percentile range level and age at adiposity rebound. The present study shows a relationship between the age at adiposity rebound and final adiposity. An early rebound (before 5.5 yr) is followed by a significantly higher adiposity level than a later rebound (after 7 yr). This phenomenon is observed whatever the subject's adiposity at 1 yr. The present observations might be connected with the cellularity of adipose tissue.

  6. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P; Granneman, James G

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodeling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  7. Neuronal differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells and their transplantation for cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Tian; Xiaoguang Luo; Jin Zhou; Jinge Wang; Bing Xu; Li Li; Feng Zhu; Jian Han; Jianping Li; Siyang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review published data on the biological characteristics, differentiation and applications of adipose-derived stem cells in ischemic diseases.DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online search of reports published from January 2005 to June 2012 related to the development of adipose-derived stem cells and their transplantation for treatment of cerebral ischemia was performed in Web of Science using the key words"adipose-derived stem cells", "neural-like cells", "transplantation", "stroke", and "cerebral ischemia". SELECTION CRITERIA: The documents associated with the development of adipose-derived stem cells and their transplantation for treatment of cerebral ischemia were selected, and those published in the last 3-5 years or in authoritative journals were preferred in the same field. Totally 89 articles were obtained in the initial retrieval, of which 53 were chosen based on the inclusion criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biological characteristics and induced differentiation ofadipose-derived stem cells and cell transplantation for disease treatment as well as the underlying mechanism of clinical application. RESULTS: The advantages of adipose-derived stem cells include their ease of procurement, wide availability, rapid expansion, low tumorigenesis, low immunogenicity, and absence of ethical constraints. Preclinical experiments have demonstrated that transplanted adipose-derived stem cells can improve neurological functions, reduce small regions of cerebral infarction, promote angiogenesis, and express neuron-specific markers. The improvement of neurological functions was demonstrated in experiments using different methods and time courses of adipose-derived stem cell transplantation, but the mechanisms remain unclear.CONCLUSION: Further research into the treatment of ischemic disease by adipose-derived stem cell transplantation is needed to determine their mechanism of action.

  8. Surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 with mineral trioxide aggregate: a 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rafael; Rincón, Juan G

    2011-11-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a type of external resorption rarely seen as an adverse effect after a guided tissue regeneration procedure for a periodontal condition. This case report summarizes the surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 (Heithersay) with mineral trioxide aggregate, in a mandibular incisor of a 67-year-old man. A 6-year clinical follow-up with radiovisiography and cone-beam computerized tomography revealed complete healing. A surgical endodontic management could promote healing and survival of a tooth with advanced root resorption due to a periodontal condition.

  9. Primary vaginal calculus secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ince, Emine; Ezer, Semire Serin; Temiz, Abdülkerim; Demir, Senay; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2009-07-01

    Primary vaginal stones are extremely rare in children and may be mistaken for bladder calculi on plain radiography. We present a case of a large vaginal calculus in a 6-year-old girl who had an imperforate hymen and urethrovaginal fistula. Hymenotomy and urethrovaginal fistula repair were performed, and the vaginal stone was extracted. It was postulated that the vaginal calculus originated from stasis of urine through the urethrovaginal fistula in the obstructed vagina. This is a unique case of a vaginal calculus with a congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with an imperforate hymen.

  10. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  11. Evidence for 18.6-year lunar nodal drought in Western North America during the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert G.

    1984-02-01

    Analysis of 38 tree ring chronologies yields evidence for enhanced drought conditions every 18.6 years in the North American interior for the past millenium. Cross spectra between a drought area index and 26 temperature records confirm the analysis of Currie (1979, 1981d) as regards a lunar nodal MN term in these data. Discussion of the MN tidal constituent, which appreciably modulate amplitude and phase of four main constituents (M2, K1, O1, Mf), is presented, and implications for agriculture are surveyed.

  12. Fluoride Varnish Effect on Preventing Dental Caries in a Sample of 3-6 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Hajizamani, Hamid Reza; Abolghasemi, Batol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of children that affect their life and their family in different aspects. Using different types of fluoride is one of the most effective ways for preventing the disease. Fluoride varnish is a topical fluoride product which could use in the community even by non-professional. This study aimed to assess the effect of fluoride varnish on dental caries in a group of children aged 3-6 years old in Kerman kindergarten ...

  13. Changes in levels of haemoglobin A1c during the first 6 years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, V.; Hansen, Lars Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability in levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during the first six years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes in relation to possible predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample from general practice of 581 newly diagnosed...... the first 6 years after the diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes, changes in levels of HbA(1c) show considerable inter-individual variability with age as the only long-term predictor. The results indicate that it is important to monitor changes in HbA(1c) more closely and intensify treatment of those often...

  14. Central leptin versus ghrelin: effects on bone marrow adiposity and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Suresh; Li, Qiang; Rayalam, Srujana; Hartzell, Diane L; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Hamrick, Mark W; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the central effects of ghrelin and leptin on body and bone marrow adiposity and gene expression in adipose tissue and bone marrow. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intracerebroventricular (ICV) twice daily with control, 66 ng ghrelin (G66), 330 ng ghrelin (G330), or 5 μg leptin (L5) for 5 days. Food intake (FI) and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Gene expression in adipose tissue and bone marrow was assessed using RT-PCR. Leptin reduced FI (P < 0.05) and BW (P < 0.05), whereas ghrelin increased BW (P < 0.05) without affecting FI. Leptin decreased fat pad weights, whereas ghrelin (G330) increased fat pad weights (P < 0.05). In epididymal adipose tissue, leptin increased expression of lipolysis marker ADRB2 and thermogenesis marker MFN2 and decreased expression of adipogenic markers, FASN, SLC2A4, and SCD1, whereas ghrelin increased expression of FASN and SCD1. Leptin decreased bone marrow adipocyte size and number; however, ghrelin had no effect on these parameters. In whole bone marrow, leptin decreased expression of FASN and SCD1 and increased expression of DLK1, whereas ghrelin (G330) decreased expression of COL1A1. Thus, leptin induces similar changes in bone marrow and adipose tissue gene expression, reflecting the decreased adiposity in both compartments.

  15. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  16. Soya protein attenuates abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue from obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigolet, María E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2012-01-01

    Several metabolic disturbances during obesity are associated with adipose tissue-altered functions. Adipocytes contain the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates signalling pathways that control angiogenesis via Akt in an autocrine fashion. Soya protein (Soy) consumption modifies the gene expression pattern in adipose tissue, resulting in an improved adipocyte function. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study whether dietary Soy regulates the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes and its association with the phosphorylated state of Akt in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Animals were fed a 30 % Soy or casein (Cas) diet containing 5 or 25 % fat for 160 d. mRNA abundance was studied in the adipose tissue, and Akt phosphorylation and hormone release were measured in the primary adipocyte culture. The present results show that Soy treatment in comparison with Cas consumption induces lower angiotensin release and increased insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipocytes. Furthermore, Soy consumption varies the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes, which maintain cell size and vascularity in the adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis, which are frequently observed in dysfunctional adipose tissue, were avoided by consuming dietary Soy. Taken together, these findings suggest that Soy can be used as a dietary strategy to preserve adipocyte functionality and to prevent obesity abnormalities.

  17. The longitudinal relationship of changes of adiposity to changes in pulmonary function and risk of asthma in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Runa Vavia; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vidal, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    changes in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage (bio-impedance) were analyzed with respect to changes of FEV1 and FVC (spirometry), and incidence of asthma and wheezing (questionnaire). Gender, atopy (serum specific IgE-positivity to inhalant allergens) and adipose tissue mass......BACKGROUND: Adiposity has been linked to both higher risk of asthma and reduced lung function. The effects of adiposity on asthma may depend on both atopic status and gender, while the relationship is less clear with respect to lung function. This study aimed to explore longitudinal weight changes...... not modify these associations. There were no statistically significant associations between changes in adiposity measures and risk of incident asthma or wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: Over a five-year period, increasing adiposity was associated with decreasing lung function, whereas decreasing adiposity was associated...

  18. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  19. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  20. Study of trends in anthropometric nutritional indices and the impact of adiposity among patients of subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Sivashanmugam Dhandapani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Excessive adiposity of patients, measured as an increased TSF value, is significantly associated with clinical vasospasm independent of other prognostic factors, while fall in MAMC, indicating somatic protein catabolism, has some impact on mortality.

  1. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD.

  2. Remote impacts of the 18.6 year period modulation of localized tidal mixing in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the 18.6 year period modulation of the localized strong tidal mixing on the annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the open North Pacific Ocean is analyzed in a numerical experiment using an ocean general circulation model. Oscillatory SST anomalies induced in this model move eastward along the boundary between the subarctic and the subtropical gyres from the western boundary to the central Pacific in about 10 years, with a speed slower than that of the surface currents. Anomalous currents in the upper 300 m play an important role in inducing SST anomalies. These anomalous currents are coupled to subsurface density anomalies and could be related to eastward moving, low-mode (second or higher), baroclinic long Rossby waves. These results suggest that the 18.6 year modulation of localized strong tidal mixing can influence large-scale SST and/or heat flux, and thus climate, as a result of remote impacts associated with changes in the mid-depth density structure, induced locally where mixing is strong, that move horizontally into the open ocean.

  3. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

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    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  4. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

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    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  5. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  6. An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling

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    Mendelson Rena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS, and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations. Methods The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations. Results The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (β-0.19, p Conclusion The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined.

  7. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  8. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products...... secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well...... as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors...

  9. Adipose-Vascular Coupling and Potential Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Maik

    2017-01-06

    Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ with multiple humoral and metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. However, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) also plays a functional role in regulating the contractile state of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Work during the past decade has shown that this adipose-vascular coupling is achieved by production of numerous substances released from PVAT. Animal disease models have been instrumental in identifying biological and pathophysiological functions of this regulation. These studies have produced strong evidence that alterations in the paracrine control of PVAT in the regulation of arterial tone contribute to vascular dysfunction in obesity, hypertension, and cardiometabolic disease. Perivascular relaxing factors, or perhaps their putative targets, might represent exciting new targets for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  10. Immunological contributions to adipose tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpirito, Joanna R; Mathis, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of many functionally and developmentally distinct cell types, the metabolic core of which is the adipocyte. The classification of "adipocyte" encompasses three primary types - white, brown, and beige - with distinct origins, anatomic distributions, and homeostatic functions. The ability of adipocytes to store and release lipids, respond to insulin, and perform their endocrine functions (via secretion of adipokines) is heavily influenced by the immune system. Various cell populations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system can resist or exacerbate the development of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we discuss these interactions, with a focus on their consequences for adipocyte and adipose tissue function in the setting of chronic overnutrition. In addition, we will review the effects of diet composition on adipose tissue inflammation and recent evidence suggesting that diet-driven disruption of the gut microbiota can trigger pathologic inflammation of adipose tissue.

  11. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...

  12. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  13. Changes in social inequality with respect to health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany after re-unification

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    Ranft Ulrich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Germany re-unified in 1990, substantial social and economic changes have happened in East Germany, the former socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these socio-economic changes in East Germany on the association between social status, measured by parental educational level, and health-related living conditions of children during the ten-year period after re-unification. Methods In total, 25,864 6-year-old school beginner children (51.2% male and 48.8% female participated in cross-sectional studies which have been repeated every year from 1991 to 2000 in East Germany. Parental educational level as a social indicator was the independent variable. Dependent variables included not employed parents, small living space and health-related living conditions (e. g. damp housing, single oven heating and living at busy road. The relationships were described by odds ratios using logistic regression. Results A large overall effect of parental educational level on health-related living conditions was observed. The time trends showed that the situation regarding small living space, damp housing conditions and single oven heating improved from 1991 to 2000, while regarding not employed parents (1996–2000 and living at busy road (1991–2000 did not, but even deteriorated. 6-year old children with low parental educational level, who lived at the time of re-unification, were often under damp housing conditions and with single oven heating at homes. Nevertheless, this social inequality has almost vanished ten years later. In contrast, we found an increasing gap between low and high parental educational level with respect to the proportion of parents who were not employed (22%: 4% gain, or lived under cramped housing conditions (22%: 37% reduction, or close to a busy road (7% gain: 2% reduction. Conclusion The social inequalities which already existed under the socialist

  14. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  15. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution.

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    Cecilia M Lindgren

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580 informative for adult waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio (WHR. We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11 and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9. A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8. The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.

  16. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-10-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as "adipokines." Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues.

  17. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  18. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

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    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  19. Carboxylesterase 1 gene duplication and mRNA expression in adipose tissue are linked to obesity and metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    involved in the control of mRNA expression. Here, we investigated mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic function in a population of elderly twins. Furthermore, the heritability of mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and the effect of gene......CONTEXT AND AIMS: Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) appears to play an important role in the control of the metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in adipocytes and other cell types including hepatocytes. Therefore, it is relevant to gain insights into the genetic versus non-genetic mechanisms...

  20. Lung injury caused by greenstick fracture of the scapular body in a 6-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Jin; Wang, Sung Il; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2016-04-01

    Complications caused by a scapular body fracture are rare, and usually occur due to concomitant injuries or nonunion. Intrathoracic displacement of a fractured scapula has only been described in two reports involving adolescents. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old boy with a parenchymal lung injury caused by a greenstick fracture fragment of the scapular body after being struck by a dump truck. Three-dimensional CT (3D CT) scan showed an incomplete fractured fragment impaling the left lung parenchyma resulting in pneumothorax, parenchymal contusion, and pneumatocele in the left upper lobe. The patient underwent emergency open reduction of the scapular fracture and chest tube insertion. A rare subtype of scapular fracture with resultant fragment rotation and intrathoracic penetration can injure the lung parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, lung injury caused by incomplete fracture of the scapula in patients younger than 10 years has not been reported previously.

  1. Vaginal foreign body in a 6 year old girl: a game for the child but a challenge for the gynaecologist

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    Amrita Chaurasia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6 year old girl visited our gynaecology out-patient department of S.R.N hospital, Allahabad, India with the complaint of relapsing blood stained vaginal discharge for 3 months. Different gynaecologists, including us, tried treating the condition with different courses of antibiotics. To each, the girl responded only for few days and relapsed again. We investigated completely into the background of the childs home and school environment, her playing habits and her behaviour with her kins. Then, we got her various investigations done but with no derangement. With the backup of her history, examination and investigations, we performed another detailed examination of her genitals. The findings were intriguing as to their cause, and it definitely was a lesson to all of us. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 518-520

  2. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

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    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  3. Diode laser versus scalpel in the treatment of hereditary gingival fibromatosis in a 6-year old boy

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    Samia Aboujaoude

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique.

  4. Diode Laser Versus Scalpel in the Treatment of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis in a 6-Year Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Samia; Cassia, Antoine; Moukarzel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i) classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii) diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique. PMID:27994842

  5. Primary Cerebellar Neuroendocrine Tumors: Chimeras or Real Entities? A Case Report with a 6-Year Follow-Up

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    Claudio Vernieri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a cerebellar well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WDNET in 2009. At first glance, we believed that it was a metastasis from an unrecognized WDNET arising outside the cerebellum. However, despite a prolonged follow-up of 6 years, an extracranial WDNET has never been found. During this time, the tumor recurred locally twice, and the patient was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. At the moment, he enjoys good general conditions and his tumor is under control. Due to the histopathological characteristics and clinical behavior of the tumor, we believe that this is the first report to date of a primary cerebellar WDNET.

  6. Primary Cerebellar Neuroendocrine Tumors: Chimeras or Real Entities? A Case Report with a 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, Claudio; Femia, Daniela; Pusceddu, Sara; Capella, Carlo; Rosai, Juan; Calareso, Giuseppina; Concas, Laura; Prinzi, Natalie; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; de Braud, Filippo; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a cerebellar well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WDNET) in 2009. At first glance, we believed that it was a metastasis from an unrecognized WDNET arising outside the cerebellum. However, despite a prolonged follow-up of 6 years, an extracranial WDNET has never been found. During this time, the tumor recurred locally twice, and the patient was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. At the moment, he enjoys good general conditions and his tumor is under control. Due to the histopathological characteristics and clinical behavior of the tumor, we believe that this is the first report to date of a primary cerebellar WDNET.

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in Shiraz, Iran: a 6-Year- Study of 768 Patients (2004-2010

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    Arabion HR.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Information about etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year-period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. Materials and Method: The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospec-tively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. Results: A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women, whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women .The other etiologies were assault (5.2%, sport related injuries (1.3% and firearm injuries (1%. Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6% patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%, which seems to have been due to schools opening. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%, probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Conclusion: Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz.

  8. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan, biglycan, is highly expressed in adipose tissue of Psammomys obesus and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes

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    Bolton K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristy Bolton1, David Segal1, Ken Walder1,21Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, 2Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: We have previously demonstrated that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin may play a role in adipose tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of obesity. Biglycan is highly similar in structure to decorin, therefore we hypothesized it would have a similar expression profile and role to decorin in adipose tissue. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure biglycan mRNA levels in adipose tissue from normal glucose tolerant and impaired glucose tolerant and type 2 diabetic (T2D Psammomys obesus. Biglycan mRNA was found to be highly expressed in adipose tissue, and gene expression was significantly higher in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, with elevated levels in obese, T2D compared to lean normal glucose tolerant P. obesus (P < 0.04. Biglycan mRNA was predominantly expressed by stromal/vascular cells of fractionated adipose tissue (P = 0.023. Biglycan expression in adipose tissue, particularly in the obese state, was markedly upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family proteins biglycan and decorin may play a role in the development of obesity and T2D, possibly by facilitating expansion of adipose tissue mass.Keywords: biglycan, small leucine-rich proteoglycan, Psammomys obesus, adipose tissue, obesity, type 2 diabetes

  9. THE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE COMPLEX OF SPINE-PELVIS TRAITS AND THE FEET TRAITS IN BOYS AGED 4 TO 6 YEARS

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    Mrozkowiak Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early diagnosis is one of meaningful elements of prevention and treatment of postural defects. The objective of the study was an attempt to determine the correlations among the spine - pelvis traits and the feet traits in the population of boys aged 4 to 6 years living in rural areas and cities. Material and method: The study group covered 1506 boys aged 4 to 6 years. The measurement of 104 traits of the spine-pelvis and feet complex was conducted by means of the projection Moiré method for computer-based examination of body posture. Results: there is not much publications on the influence and correlations between the complex of the pelvis-spine traits and the feet traits. There is a correlation between the forming foot type and formation of the spine. The proposed Steinmetz suggestion assuming that if the spine can be corrected with the foot then the foot can be corrected by means of the spine, raises a number of doubts. The author emphasizes the meaning of wearing corrective footwear since proper foot positioning provided by special shoes cannot be the cause of spinal deformities. Conclusions: The spine-pelvis trait in the population of boys most frequently revealing significant influence on the feet traits is the height and depth of thoracic kyphosis. The foot trait among the population of boys living in cities most frequently revealing significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was the value of the right foot length. In the rural population significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was revealed by: the length and height of the fifth longitudinal arch of the left foot.

  10. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    glucose load. In addition a technique using microdialysis for measurement of tissue oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions is described. Microdialysis and vein catheterization were performed in the same region on the abdomen, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe...

  11. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hauner, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  12. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, S D; Søgaard, D; Vigelsoe, A; Dybboe, R; Skaaby, S; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2015-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak)]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, mitochondrial substrate sensitivity (K(m)(app)), and mitochondrial content were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy overweight subjects before and after 6 weeks of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. K(m)(app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak. Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue. Furthermore, mitochondrial fat oxidation was not improved in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue.

  13. The influence of dietary fat on the lipogenic activity and fatty acid composition of rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Schmidt, P C; Serrato, C M

    1987-05-01

    The in vivo fatty acid synthesis rate, selected enzyme activities and fatty acid composition of rat white adipose tissue from animals fed semisynthetic diets of differing fat type and content were studied. All animals were starved for 48 hr and then refed a fat-free (FF) diet for 48 hr. They were then divided into three groups. One group was continued on the FF diet for 48 hr. Another group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from corn oil (CO). The final group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from completely hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO). The animals on the FF diet had a marked increase in adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis during the 96-hr feeding period (as measured by 3H incorporation into adipose fatty acids). Addition of either CO or HSO to the diets did not significantly inhibit fatty acid synthesis in dorsal or epididymal adipose tissue. The activities of the enzymes' fatty acid synthetase, ATP-citrate lyase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased on the FF diet and generally were not inhibited significantly by the addition of either fat to the diets. Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (ca. 22%) in adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, cis-vaccenic) made up ca. 38% of the total adipose fatty acids, while saturated fatty acids accounted for about 32% (myristic, palmitic and stearic). White adipose tissue in mature male rats was a major depot for n-3 fatty acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene;

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe....... The results show that octreotide infusion during rest increased lipolysis and fatty acid release from the abdominal, s.c. adipose tissue. The exercise-induced increase in lipolysis and fatty acid release does not seem to be affected by octreotide when compared with the control study without octreotide......-clearance method. Nine subjects were studied during 1-h basal rest, and then during continuous octreotide infusion during 1-h rest, 1-h exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption and 4-h post-exercise rest. A control study on seven subjects was performed under similar conditions but without octreotide infusion...

  15. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-22

    According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.

  16. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

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    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  17. Depot-dependent effects of adipose tissue explants on co-cultured hepatocytes.

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    Zhen-Yu Du

    Full Text Available We have developed an in vitro hepatocyte-adipose tissue explant (ATE co-culture model enabling examination of the effect of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues on primary rat hepatocytes. Initial analyses of inflammatory marker genes were performed in fractionated epididymal or inguinal adipose tissues. Expressions of inflammation related genes (IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 were higher in the inguinal than the epididymal ATE. Similarly, expressions of marker genes of macrophage and monocyte (MPEG-1, CD68, F4/80, CD64 were higher in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF isolated from inguinal ATE than that from epididymal ATE. However, expressions of lipolysis related genes (ATGL, HSL, perilipin-1 were higher in the epididymal adipocytes than inguinal adipocytes. Moreover, secretion of IL-6 and PGE(2 was higher from inguinal ATEs than from epididymal ATEs. There was a trend that the total levels of IL-6, TNF-α and PGE(2 in the media from inguinal ATEs co-cultured with primary rat hepatocytes were higher than that in the media from epididymal ATEs co-cultured with hepatocytes, although the significant difference was only seen in PGE(2. Lipolysis, measured as glycerol release, was similar in the ATEs isolated from inguinal and epididymal adipose tissues when cultured alone, but the glycerol release was higher in the ATEs isolated from epididymal than from inguinal adipose tissue when co-cultured with hepatocytes. Compared to epididymal ATEs, the ATEs from inguinal adipose tissue elicited a stronger cytotoxic response and higher level of insulin resistance in the co-cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results reveal depot-dependent effects of ATEs on co-cultured primary hepatocytes, which in part may be related to a more pronounced infiltration of stromal vascular cells (SVCs, particularly macrophages, in inguinal adipose tissue resulting in stronger responses in terms of hepatotoxicity and insulin-resistance.

  18. Early Overfeed-Induced Obesity Leads to Brown Adipose Tissue Hypoactivity in Rats

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    Douglas L. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. Methods: Birth of litters was considered day 0. On day 2, litter size was adjusted to normal (9 pups and small (3 pups litters. On day 21, the litters were weaned. A temperature transponder was implanted underneath interscapular brown adipose tissue pads of 81-day-old animals; local temperature was measured during light and dark periods between days 87 and 90. The animals were euthanized, and tissue and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The vagus and retroperitoneal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. Results: Small litter rats presented significant lower interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature during the light (NL 37.6°C vs. SL 37.2°C and dark (NL 38°C vs. SL 37.6°C periods compared to controls. Morphology of small litter brown adipose tissue showed fewer lipid droplets in the tissue center and more and larger in the periphery. The activity of vagus nerve was 19,9% greater in the small litter than in control (pConclusion: Early overfeeding programming of obesity changes the interscapular brown adipose tissue structure in adulthood, leading to local thermogenesis hypoactivity, which may contribute to obesity in adults.

  19. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.

  20. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cell surface markers from bone marrow aspirates and adipose stromal vascular fraction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan eSullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this study was to subjectively evaluate the harvest of 2 areas of adipose collection and 3 areas of bone marrow collection as potential sites for clinical harvest of adipose stromal vascular fraction and bone marrow concentrate for clinical use by quantifying the amount of tissue harvested, subjective ease of harvest, the variation of each site, and determining the cell surface marker characteristics using commercially available antibodies. Bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were collected from 10 adult mixed breed dogs. Adipose tissue was collected from the caudal scapular region and falciform fat ligament. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the ilium, humerus, and tibia. Tissues were weighed (adipose or measured by volume (bone marrow, processed to isolate the stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow concentrate, and flow cytometry was performed to quantitate the percentage of cells that were CD90, CD44 positive and CD45 negative. Sites and tissue types were compared using matched pairs t-test. Subjectively subcutaneous fat collection was the most difficult and large amounts of tissue dissection were necessary. Additionally the subcutaneous area yielded less than the goal amount of tissue. The bone marrow harvest ranged from 10-27.5 ml. Adipose tissue had the highest concentration of cells with CD90+, CD44+, and CD45- markers (p<0.05, and bone marrow had the highest total number of these cells at harvest (p<0.05. Variation was high for all sites but the adipose collection yielded more consistent results. These results describe the relative cellular components in the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and bone marrow as defined by the biomarkers chosen. Although bone marrow yielded higher absolute cell numbers on average, adipose tissue yielded more consistent results. Fat from the falciform ligament was easily obtained with less dissection and therefore created less perceived relative patient trauma.

  1. Macro fat and micro fat: insulin sensitivity and gender dependent response of adipose tissue to isocaloric diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28 individuals, separated into 4 subgroups according to gender and insulin sensitivity/resistance. Adipose cell-size distribution changes in each individual are simulated with a dynamic model and parameters corresponding to lipid turnover and cell growth rates are determined for each subgroup to match the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive to changes in energy intake and diet composition than insulin sensitive subjects. The different cell-size distribution changes of adipose cells of various sizes in different subject groups further suggest distinct modulations of adipose cell dynamics.

  2. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Surface Markers from Bone Marrow Aspirates and Adipose Stromal Vascular Fraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Fredericks, Lisa Page; Kiefer, Kristina; Conzemius, Michael G; Griffon, Dominique J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to subjectively evaluate the harvest of two areas of adipose collection and three areas of bone marrow collection as potential sites for clinical harvest of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and bone marrow concentrate for clinical use by quantifying the amount of tissue harvested, subjective ease of harvest, the variation of each site, and determining the cell surface marker characteristics using commercially available antibodies. Bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were collected from 10 adult mixed breed dogs. Adipose tissue was collected from the caudal scapular region and falciform fat ligament. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the ilium, humerus, and tibia. Tissues were weighed (adipose) or measured by volume (bone marrow), processed to isolate the SVF or bone marrow concentrate, and flow cytometry was performed to quantitate the percentage of cells that were CD90, CD44 positive, and CD45 negative. Sites and tissue types were compared using matched pairs t-test. Subjectively subcutaneous fat collection was the most difficult and large amounts of tissue dissection were necessary. Additionally the subcutaneous area yielded less than the goal amount of tissue. The bone marrow harvest ranged from 10 to 27.5 ml. Adipose tissue had the highest concentration of cells with CD90(+), CD44(+), and CD45(-) markers (P adipose collection yielded more consistent results. These results describe the relative cellular components in the SVF of adipose tissue and bone marrow as defined by the biomarkers chosen. Although bone marrow yielded higher absolute cell numbers on average, adipose tissue yielded more consistent results. Fat from the falciform ligament was easily obtained with less dissection and therefore created less perceived relative patient trauma.

  3. Metastatic Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma 6 Years After Curative Resection for Ampullary Adenocarcinoma. Metastatic Disease from Initial Primary or Metachronous Tumour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Giakoustidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context With patients surviving longer after pancreatic resection, the challenges now is the management of the unresolved longerterm issues. Case report A 53-year-old woman with painless obstructive jaundice, underwent a pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a pT3N0M0 ampullary adenocarcinoma in 2001 (patchy chronic pancreatitis with mucinous metaplasia of background pancreatic duct epithelium and acinar atrophy were noted. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, at month 54 she required a pulmonary wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma, followed by a pulmonary relapse at 76 months when she underwent 6 neoadjuvant cycles of gemcitabine/capecitabine and a left pneumonectomy. Finally 7 years after the initial Whipple’s, a single 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG avid pancreatic tail lesion led to completion pancreatectomy for a well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with clear resection margins albeit peripancreatic adipose tissue infiltration. On review all resected tumour cells had identical immunophenotype (CK7+/CK20-/MUC1+/MUC2- as that of the primary. She is currently asymptomatic on follow-up. Conclusions These findings suggest that in selected cases even in the presence of pulmonary metastasis, repeat resections could result in long-term survival of patients with metachronous ampullary cancer. Second, even ampullary tumours maybe should be regarded as index tumors in the presence of ductal precursor lesions in the resection specimen. Three distant metastases, particularly if long after the initial tumour, should instigate a search for metachronous tumour, especially in the presence of field change in the initial specimen. Risk-adapted follow-up protocols with recognition of such factors could result in cost-effective surveillance and potentially improved outcomes.

  4. In vivo determination of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Ruda, L; Wenning, P; von Stemm, C-I; Pfarrer, C; Huber, K; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonography was used as a noninvasive method for quantitative estimation of the subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in dairy cattle. The prediction model was created and validated with a total of 29 German Holstein cows; 6 were in early lactation (≤100 d in milk [DIM]) and 16 were in advanced lactation (101 to 292 DIM). Seven cows were nonpregnant and nonlactating and had been off milk for 350 to 450 d. Transcutaneous assessment of the thickness of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was done at 16 sites on the body surface of all cows. After completion of the ultrasonographic measurements, the cows were slaughtered and the adipose depots were separately weighed. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of the ultrasonographic variables was performed to estimate the slaughter weights of the different fat depots. Slaughter weights of the fat depots ranged from 5.0 to 43.0 kg for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), from 13.7 to 98.8 kg for abdominal adipose tissue (AAT), from 3.4 to 30.3 kg for retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), from 5.2 to 39.6 kg for omental adipose tissue (OMAT), and from 4.0 to 35.8 kg for mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). The relationship between calculated amount of fat and slaughter weight of fat had coefficients of determination () and root mean square errors (kg) of 0.88 and 3.4, respectively, for SCAT; 0.94 and 6.1, respectively, for AAT; 0.94 and 1.7, respectively, for RPAT; 0.83 and 3.2, respectively, for OMAT; and 0.95 and 1.6, respectively, for MAT. The accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the different fat depots appears sufficient for the quantitative assessment of internal and subcutaneous fat stores in cows. This method is noninvasive and therefore allows safe and repeated monitoring of the amount of stored fat in different adipose tissue depots of German Holsteins cows.

  5. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  6. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  7. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  8. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

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    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  9. Skin temperature and subcutaneous adipose blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured bilaterally by the 133Xe washout method. At one side of the skin (epicutaneous) temperature was varied with a temperature blanket, the other side served as control. There was a significant (P less than 0.001) positive...... correlation between skin temperature and ATBF. In the range from 25 to 37 degrees CATBF increased 9% of the control flow on average per centigrade increase in skin temperature. ATBF at the control side was uninfluenced by the contralateral variations in skin temperature. Although no better correlation could...

  10. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

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    Bianca eJovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children’s judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by 40%. Neither the adults’ nor the children’s discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children’s visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children’s and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  11. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

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    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  12. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  13. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described.

  14. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

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    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

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    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  16. Bidecadal variability in the Bering Sea and the relation with 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2010-02-01

    Bidecadal variations are investigated in the Bering Sea, especially in the southeastern basin adjacent to the Aleutian passes, where vertical mixing may be strong because of the diurnal tide. Those variations found in this region are synchronized with the 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle, and the temporal patterns are similar to ones around the northwestern subarctic Pacific near the Kuril Straits reported by a previous study. Salinity and density in the upper layer are high in the periods when the diurnal tide is strong. In the intermediate layer, layer thickness is large, and isopycnal potential temperature and apparent oxygen utilization are low in the same periods. It is shown that these variations are consistent with the patterns expected from the nodal modulation of vertical mixing, and a simple two-dimensional model, assuming a balance between anomalous vertical mixing and advection of anomaly by the mean current, succeeds to some extent in explaining the variations of the upper layer salinity and isopycnal temperature and apparent oxygen utilization in the intermediate layer.

  17. [Usefulness of group work as a teaching strategy for long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kazuko; Okazaki, Hiromi; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Nishihara, Shigeki; Nawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Kawasaki, Yoichi; Nakura, Hironori; Matsunaga, Hisashi; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    At the initiation of long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education, there are many issues to be solved. For example, it is necessary for teaching pharmacists, who are in charge of both staffing and teaching pharmacy students, to manage their workload with other staff pharmacists. To overcome this situation and to improve the motivation of teaching pharmacists towards student practical training, we twice held group work (GW) sessions for teaching pharmacists, and then evaluated whether such training was effective for their understanding of the Model Core Curriculum for Practical Training and for promoting a higher level of motivation. During the two-day GW discussions, teaching pharmacists, who work daily in the dispensing area, were separated into two groups to discuss teaching skills. A questionnaire survey was completed by participants before and after each GW session. According to the survey, more than 90% of the pharmacists had a higher motivation level for practical training after the sessions. Particularly in the second GW training, the response rate of "being actively involved" improved from 40% to 70%. Furthermore, "The Educational Evaluation Testing" was conducted, which confirmed the increased participant comprehension. The median scores of the comprehensive exams significantly (pteaching pharmacists involved in the practical training of students. We hope that this exercise will lead to higher student motivation and satisfaction during their practical training.

  18. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  19. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello-Moura ACV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a unilateral giant ovarian fibroma in a Japanese 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Takahiro; Masumoto, Kouji; Urita, Yasuhisa; Takayasu, Hajime; Shinkai, Toko; Uesugi, Toru; Gotoh, Chikashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sasaki, Takato; Oto, Tatsuyuki; Fukushima, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Nakano, Yoshiro

    2014-05-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is characterized by basal cell carcinoma, skeletal abnormalities, benign tumors including ovarian fibroma, and various other phenotypic expressions. Ovarian fibromas in NBCCS before puberty are very rare. We report a 6-year-old prepubescent girl with NBCCS showing skeletal abnormalities, medulloblastoma, and ovarian fibromas. The patient was referred to our hospital owing to abdominal distension. On admission, a huge elastic hard tumor was palpable and computed tomography showed a huge tumor of the left ovary. We performed a left salpingo-oophorectomy and diagnosed the tumor as a benign fibroma. Further examination of the computed tomography images showed skeletal abnormalities. In addition, the patient had a history of medulloblastoma at the age of 4 years. Therefore, we diagnosed NBCCS. A genetic examination indicated a novel 1 bp deletion in exon 18 (c.3055delG). Sequence analysis of exon 18 using DNA from the ovarian tumor revealed a mutant allele (c.3055delG) dominant to the wild-type allele, thus suggesting loss of heterozygosity in the PTCH1 gene, which is known to be associated with NBCCS. Conclusion On the basis of our experience, physicians treating pediatric ovarian tumors should be aware that such huge benign ovarian tumors may be a phenotype of NBCCS, as shown in our patient. In addition, genetic examination focusing on the PTCH1 gene might be important for diagnosis of NBCCS in pediatric patients.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, A C V; Bonini, G A V C; Suga, S S; Navarro, R S; Wanderley, M T

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  2. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Bilateral Idiopathic Demyelinating Optic Neuritis in a 6-Year-Old Boy with OFD1 Gene Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes. His condition was diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa (RP with idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (IDON. After corticosteroid therapy, visual acuity recovered to OD: 0.5 and OS: 0.4. Genetic analysis revealed a G985S variant in the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene. Ophthalmologists should pay attention to the existence of other complications in patients with RP who suffer a sudden decrease in vision. A gene survey can help clarify this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with RP and ON, as well as genetic testing results. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity of the variant needs further confirmation.

  3. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Bilateral Idiopathic Demyelinating Optic Neuritis in a 6-Year-Old Boy with OFD1 Gene Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Zheng, Cong; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes. His condition was diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (IDON). After corticosteroid therapy, visual acuity recovered to OD: 0.5 and OS: 0.4. Genetic analysis revealed a G985S variant in the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene. Ophthalmologists should pay attention to the existence of other complications in patients with RP who suffer a sudden decrease in vision. A gene survey can help clarify this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with RP and ON, as well as genetic testing results. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity of the variant needs further confirmation. PMID:28191358

  4. Low Spigelian hernia in a 6-year-old boy presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianakis Efstratios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lower Spigelian hernia is a very rare entity. The clinical findings are similar to those of inguinal hernias and in many cases may be misdiagnosed. In the literature, only a few references to this entity have been reported in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a lower Spigelian hernia in a child who presented with an acute painful scrotum. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 6-year-old Greek boy who presented to our emergency department complaining of severe pain in the left inguinal area and scrotum. The acute painful swelling started suddenly, without any obvious cause. The initial diagnosis was incarcerated inguinal hernia which was reduced with difficulty. Five days later, the patient still experienced mild pain during palpation and he was operated on. During the operation, a large lower Spigelian hernia was revealed and reconstructed. Conclusion Although Spigelian hernias are rare in children and difficult to diagnose, physicians should be aware of them and include them in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  6. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  7. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  8. Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Kai G; Schweiger, Ulrich; Pars, Kaweh; Kunikowska, Alicja; Deuschle, Michael; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Increased intra-abdominal (IAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) have been found in depression, and are discussed as potential mediating factors. IAT and PAT are thought to be the result of a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) with subsequent hypercortisolism. Therefore we examined adrenal gland volume as proxy marker for HPAA activation, and IAT and PAT in depressed patients. Twenty-seven depressed patients and 19 comparison subjects were included in this case-control study. Adrenal gland volume, pericardial, intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Further parameters included factors of the metabolic syndrome, fasting cortisol, fasting insulin, and proinflammatory cytokines. Adrenal gland and pericardial adipose tissue volumes, serum concentrations of cortisol and insulin, and serum concentrations tumor-necrosis factor-α were increased in depressed patients. Adrenal gland volume was positively correlated with intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue, but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our findings point to the role of HPAA dysregulation and hypercortisolism as potential mediators of IAT and PAT enlargement. Further studies are warranted to examine whether certain subtypes of depression are more prone to cardio-metabolic diseases.

  9. Hormonal control of lipolysis from the white adipose tissue of hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Hamsany, C; Castex, C; Hoo-Paris, R; Kacemi, N; Sutter, B

    1988-01-01

    1. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids and total lipid content of the white adipose tissue were measured in euthermic and hibernating jerboa. 2. During hibernation, plasma glucose and glycerol were low compared to the euthermic animals, whereas there was no obvious difference in plasma free fatty acids. The white adipose tissue lipid content was strongly reduced in the hibernating state. 3. The effect of lipolytic hormones (norepinephrine and glucagon) and antilipolytic hormone (insulin) on in vitro glycerol release by adipose tissue isolated from hibernating or euthermic jerboa has been studied. 4. The white adipose tissue from hibernating jerboa presented a higher sensitivity to norepinephrine and glucagon than that of euthermic jerboa; insulin did not modify either basal glycerol release or lipolysis induced by the two lipolytic hormones at low temperatures (7 degrees C) and during the rewarming (from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C) of the tissue slices. 5. These results suggested that white adipose tissue constitutes an important source of substrates derived from lipolysis during hibernation.

  10. Changes in white and brown adipose tissue microRNA expression in cold-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cong; Huang, Shujuan; Wang, Yajun; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Desheng; Wang, Yanfang; Li, Kui

    2015-07-31

    There are two classic adipose tissues in mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). It has been well known that browning of WAT can be induced by cold exposure. In this study, to identify the novel cold responsive key miRNAs that are involved in browning, mice were housed at 6 °C for 10 days, and deep sequencing of the miRNAs of WAT and BAT was performed. Our data showed that WAT and BAT displayed distinct expression profiles due to their different locations, morphology and biological function. A total of 27 BAT and 29 WAT differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in response to cold stimulation, respectively (fold change >2 and false discovery rate (FDR) adipose tissues. Furthermore, the potential target genes of the DE miRNAs from BAT and WAT were predicted computationally, and the KEGG pathway analysis revealed the enrichment pathways in cold stimulated adipose tissues. The expression pattern of miR-144-3p/Bmpr1b/Phlda1 and miR-146a-5p/Sphk2 were further measured by qPCR. Finally, we found that miR-146a-5p was significantly induced during the primary adipogenesis caused by BAT differentiation, whereas miR-144-3p was decreased. Our study identifies for the first time the novel miRNAs involved in browning of WAT by sequencing and expands the therapeutic approaches for combating metabolic diseases.

  11. Resistin-binding peptide antagonizes role of resistin on white adipose tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan GU; Shu-ping HAN; Li FEI; Xiao-qin PAN; Mei GUO; Rong-hua CHEN; Xi-rong GUO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the direct effects of resistin and resistin-binding peptide (RBP) on lipid metabolism and endocrine function in adipose tissue. Methods: Rat white adipose tissue was cultured in vitro and incubated for 24 h with 30 ng/Ml recombinant rat resistin protein (rResistin) or combined with RBP of varying concentrations(1x10-12 mol/L, 1x10-10mol/L, 1x10-8mol/L). Free fatty acids (FFA) released into medium was measured by a colorimetric kit. The levels of protein secretion and mRNA expression of TNF-α and adiponectin were detected by ELISA kit and RT-PCR respectively. Results: The levels of FFA released into medium were significantly increased after 24 h of exposure to rResistin, but significantly decreased after RBP was applied, although there was no difference between the 3 concentrations. The protein level and gene expression of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly increased after 24 h of exposure to rResistin, but only obviously decreased after incubated with Ix 10-8 mol/L RBP. The levels of protein secretion and mRNA expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue were significantly de-creased after 24 h of exposure to rResistin, but increased after incubated with RBP with the higher concentrations. Conclusion: RBP can effectively antagonize the role of resistin on the lipid metabolism and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

  12. Is prolactin the missing link in adipose tissue dysfunction of polycystic ovary syndrome patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Alice; Florea, Suzana; Fica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate whether adiposity was among the determinants of circulating prolactin levels and to determine whether serum prolactin independently predicted metabolic abnormalities in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 322 PCOS patients with normal serum prolactin levels were recruited between January 2007 and January 2014. Anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal parameters were measured in all of the patients. HOMA-IR was calculated as an index of insulin resistance. Serum prolactin was negatively correlated with age (p prolactin after adjustment for age, leptin, and anthropometrical adiposity parameters. Of the adiposity parameters, only WHR and VAI were independent predictors of serum prolactin after adjustment for adiponectin. Circulating prolactin was also negatively correlated with fasting glycemia (only in patients with normal glucose metabolism, p = 0.037) and was inversely correlated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (p prolactin level was related to adipose tissue quantity and function, and adiponectin was a possible mediator of this relationship. Low serum prolactin levels were associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile, but this association seemed to be due to the complex interplay among prolactin, adiposity, and insulin resistance rather than to a direct metabolic effect of prolactin.

  13. Robust separation of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in micro-CT of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bibo; Xie, Shuisheng; Berryman, Darlene; List, Ed; Liu, Jundong

    2013-01-01

    One of the common practices in obesity and diabetes studies is to measure the volumes and weights of various adipose tissues, among which, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) play critical yet different physiological roles in mouse aging. In this paper, a robust two-stage VAT/SAT separation framework for micro-CT mouse data is proposed. The first stage is to distinguish adipose from other tissue types, including background, soft tissue and bone, through a robust mixture of Gaussian model. Spatial recognition relevant to anatomical locations is carried out in the second step to determine whether the adipose is visceral or subcutaneous. We tackle this problem through a novel approach that relies on evolving the abdominal muscular wall to keep VAT/SAT separated. The VAT region of interest (ROI) is also automatically set up through an atlas based skeleton matching procedure. The results of our method are compared with VAT/SAT delineations by human experts, and a high classification accuracy is demonstrated on eight micro-CT mouse volume sets.

  14. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M; Bulow, J; Galitzky, J; Harant, I; Suljkovicova, H; Lafontan, M; Rivière, D; Crampes, F

    2000-04-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were significantly higher during the second exercise bout compared with the first (P < 0.05). The responses of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and plasma epinephrine were higher during the second exercise bout, whereas the response of norepinephrine was unchanged and that of growth hormone lower. Plasma insulin levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated with an increase in the exercise-induced rise of epinephrine and with lower plasma insulin values during the repeated exercise bout.

  15. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Design Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Settings Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. Participants A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Main outcome measure Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. Results 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. Conclusions NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. Trial registration number

  16. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed...... in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body...... rate of extracellular FA reesterification was similar at rest and during exercise (approximately 290 micromol min(-1)) and increased during recovery to a plateau of 390 micromol min(-1). FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake by adipose tissue was undetectable, but a constant but small glycerol uptake...

  17. Changes in the relative thickness of individual subcutaneous adipose tissue layers in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Madsen, Mads T.;

    2007-01-01

    longevity and finally to assist in the calculation of payments to producers that allow for general adiposity. Currently for reasons of tradition and ease, total adipose thickness measurements are made at one or multiple sites although it has been long recognized that up to three well defined layers (outer......Background: The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer is an important parameter at all stages The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer is an important parameter at all stages of pig production. It is used to inform decisions on dietary requirements to optimize growth, in gilts to promote...... (L1), middle (L2), and inner (L3)) may be present to make up the total. Various features and properties of these layers have been described. This paper examines the contribution of each layer to total adipose thickness at three time points and describes the change in thickness of each layer per unit...

  18. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A;

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations......: the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...... it in the forearm. This indicates that the mechanism for the flow increase is elicited by a stimulation of vascular beta-adrenoceptors in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, since the beta-adrenoceptor inhibition did not affect the overall metabolic and hormonal responses to the meal....

  19. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (industry in Viborg County, further improvements are possible. There should be more focus on improved exhaust ventilation, professional cleaning methods and avoiding use of compressed air. PMID:18407937

  20. Three-dimensional evaluation of facial morphology in children aged 5-6 years with a Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Bojana; Primožič, Jasmina; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in 25 Class III and 46 non-Class III children aged 5-6 years using three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging; 3D facial images were obtained, two average facial templates were constructed for the non-Class III male and female groups, each individual face was superimposed on the corresponding average template and group comparisons were evaluated (facial height, facial convexity, mandibular position and facial surface morphology). Differences between parameters were evaluated by using an analysis of variance and colour deviation maps. The results showed that Class III children had less mid-face prominence and a concave facial profile when compared to non-Class III children (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018). The position of the pg point in the z-axis just failed to reach statistical significance when comparing the two groups (P = 0.051). A vertical analysis showed no statistical significance between the groups, when evaluating middle (n-sn) and lower (sn-pg) facial height. Coincidence of the Class III faces to normal templates with a tolerance set as 0.5 mm was low (less than 30%). The soft tissue characteristics of a Class III face differ significantly from the non-Class III face in the mid-face region and in the facial profile. A 3D laser imaging method evaluated and identified morphological characteristics of Class III children in deciduous dentition, which could in the future become an important diagnostic tool in small children. The most important clinical advantage of this study is the non-invasiveness of the method.

  1. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  2. Infliximab therapy for moderately severe Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a retrospective comparison over 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzafiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raed Alzafiri1, Christina A Holcroft2, Paula Malolepszy1, Albert Cohen1, Andrew Szilagyi11Jewish General Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC.Objective: Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal–Wallis (nonparametric tests to compare two groups and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes.Results: Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups.Discussion: Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials.Conclusions: This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.Keywords: infliximab, inflammatory bowel diseases

  3. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  4. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Zillikens, M Carola; Stančákova, Alena;

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14...

  5. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A. Stancáková (Alena); F.M. Finucane (Francis); J.S. Ried (Janina); C. Langenberg (Claudia); W. Zhang (Weihua); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J. Luan; L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); J.H. Zhao (Jing); N. Amin (Najaf); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); S.-Y. Shin; T. Haritunians (Talin); M. Fu (Mao); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); M. Kumari (Meena); B.V. Halldorsson (Bjarni); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); M. Mangino (Massimo); C. Hayward (Caroline); C. Song (Ci); A.M. Arnold (Alice); B.A. Oostra (Ben); H. Campbell (Harry); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); K.E. Davis (Kathryn); A. Döring (Angela); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J.M. Fernández-Real; M. Garcia (Melissa); C. Gieger (Christian); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Guiducci (Candace); A. Hofman (Albert); S.E. Humphries (Steve); B. Isomaa (Bo); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); A. Jula (Antti); D. Karasik (David); M.K. Karlsson (Magnus); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); L.J. Kim (Lauren); M. Kivimaki (Mika); N. Klopp (Norman); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); Y. Liu (Yongmei); Ö. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); R.N. Luben (Robert); B. McKnight (Barbara); D. Mellström (Dan); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); V. Mooser (Vincent); J.M. Moreno; S. Männistö (Satu); J.R. O'Connell (Jeffery); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); B. Peral (Belén); M. Perola (Markus); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); V. Salomaa (Veikko); D.B. Savage (David); R.K. Semple (Robert); T. Skaric-Juric (Tatjana); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.-C. Syvänen; P.J. Talmud (Philippa); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Vidal-Puig (Antonio); S.H. Wild (Sarah); A.F. Wright (Alan); D.J. Clegg (Deborah); E.E. Schadt (Eric); J.F. Wilson (James); I. Rudan (Igor); S. Ripatti (Samuli); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); E. Ingelsson (Erik); J.O. Jansson; R.C. Kaplan (Robert); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L. Groop (Leif); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); M. Walker (Mark); I. Barroso (Inês); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); J.C. Chambers (John); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); K. Stefansson (Kari); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); C. Ohlsson (Claes); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); N.J. Wareham (Nick); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); C.S. Fox (Caroline); M. Laakso (Markku); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed

  6. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.

    2014-01-01

    of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC...

  7. Microdialysis of glucose in subcutaneous adipose tissue up to 3 weeks in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, K.J C; Vonk, P; Vonk-van Klei, Y; Schoonen, A.J M; Kossen, N.W F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To measure possible changes in dialysate glucose concentrations over time, to validate the diffusional model for glucose transport from tissue to the probe, and to evaluate the actual glucose concentration in adipose tissue. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Glucose concentrations in the sub

  8. Tracheal CT morphology: correlation with distribution and extent of thoracic adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ap Dafydd, Derfel [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Desai, Sujal R. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Gordon, Fabiana; Copley, Susan J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between adipose tissue measurements and anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall in a large nonselected group of patients undergoing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Consecutive patients undergoing CTPA over a 4-month period were analyzed retrospectively. Using an adapted scoring system (posterior bowing, flattening, mild/moderate or severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal membrane), the axial morphology and cross-sectional area of the trachea at the narrowest point and 1 cm above the aortic arch were evaluated. Measurements of adipose tissue were taken (anterior mediastinal fat width, sagittal upper abdominal diameter and subcutaneous fat thickness at the level of the costophrenic angle). Relationships between tracheal morphology and measurements of adipose tissue were analyzed. 296 patients were included (120 males, 176 females, mean age 59 years, range 19-90). Severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing sagittal upper abdominal diameter (p = 0.002). Mild/moderate and severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing mediastinal fat width (p = 0.000 and p = 0.031, respectively). Tracheal cross-sectional area was inversely correlated with increasing subcutaneous fat thickness (p = 0.022). The findings demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between CT tracheal morphology and adipose tissue measurements in a large nonselected population. (orig.)

  9. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an ora...... assumptions on which calculations of venous concentrations from microdialysis data are based. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are discussed....

  10. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study. DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status. RESULTS: Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex

  11. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  12. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p water standing overnight in pipelines were higher in all sites by 0.36 mg l(-1) on average, but observed really contaminations were higher. The Zn limit based on the taste and colour of drinking water (3 mg l(-1)) was exceeded in 1% and 10% of households from urban and non-urban sites, respectively. The Zn intake predictions for evening water samples for 6-year-old children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  13. Robust signaling networks of the adipose secretome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prototypical complex systems disease that has a strong hereditary component and etiologic links with a sedentary lifestyle, overeating and obesity. Adipose tissue has been shown to be a central driver of type 2 diabetes progression, establishing and maintaining a chronic state o

  14. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects.

  15. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

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    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity.

  16. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  17. Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Pae, Munkyong; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Eberlé, Delphine; Shimada, Takeshi; Kamei, Nozomu; Park, Hee-Sook; Sasorith, Souphatta; Woo, Ju Rang; You, Jia; Mosher, William; Brady, Hugh J M; Shoelson, Steven E; Lee, Jongsoon

    2016-04-12

    Obesity-induced inflammation mediated by immune cells in adipose tissue appears to participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We show that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet (HFD) increases NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. When NK cells were depleted either with neutralizing antibodies or genetic ablation in E4bp4(+/-) mice, obesity-induced insulin resistance improved in parallel with decreases in both adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) numbers, and ATM and adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, expansion of NK cells following IL-15 administration or reconstitution of NK cells into E4bp4(-/-) mice increased both ATM numbers and adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated HFD-induced insulin resistance. These results indicate that adipose NK cells control ATMs as an upstream regulator potentially by producing proinflammatory mediators, including TNFα, and thereby contribute to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  18. Proteomic characterization of adipose tissue constituents, a necessary step for understanding adipose tissue complexity.

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    Peinado, Juan R; Pardo, María; de la Rosa, Olga; Malagón, Maria M

    2012-02-01

    The original concept of adipose tissue as an inert storage depot for the excess of energy has evolved over the last years and it is now considered as one of the most important organs regulating body homeostasis. This conceptual change has been supported by the demonstration that adipose tissue serves as a major endocrine organ, producing a wide variety of bioactive molecules, collectively termed adipokines, with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine activities. Adipose tissue is indeed a complex organ wherein mature adipocytes coexist with the various cell types comprising the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF), including preadipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells, perivascular cells, and blood cells. It is known that not only mature adipocytes but also the components of SVF produce adipokines. Furthermore, adipokine production, proliferative and metabolic activities and response to regulatory signals (i.e. insulin, catecholamines) differ between the different fat depots, which have been proposed to underlie their distinct association to specific diseases. Herein, we discuss the recent proteomic studies on adipose tissue focused on the analysis of the separate cellular components and their secretory products, with the aim of identifying the basic features and the contribution of each component to different adipose tissue-associated pathologies.

  19. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ursula A; Tchoukalova, Yourka D

    2014-03-01

    Obesity, characterized by excessive adiposity, is a risk factor for many metabolic pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies have shown that adipose tissue distribution may be a greater predictor of metabolic health. Upper-body fat (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal) is commonly associated with the unfavorable complications of obesity, while lower-body fat (gluteal-femoral) may be protective. Current research investigations are focused on analyzing the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, in order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate fat distribution in both men and women. This review will highlight the adipose tissue depot- and sex-dependent differences in white adipose tissue function, including adipogenesis, adipose tissue developmental patterning, the storage and release of fatty acids, and secretory function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  20. The role of adiposity in cardiometabolic traits: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

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    Tove Fall

    Full Text Available The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach.We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV for body mass index (BMI in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i rs9939609 and BMI (n  =  198,502, (ii rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39 and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1-1.4; all p < 0.05. For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p < 0.05. The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (p  =  0

  1. Excessive interatrial adiposity is associated with left atrial remodeling, augmented contractile performance in asymptomatic population

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    Yau-Huei Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pericardial adipose tissue had been shown to exert local effects on adjacent cardiac structures. Data regarding the mechanistic link between such measures and left atrial (LA structural/functional remodeling, a clinical hallmark of early stage heart failure (HF and atrial fibrillation (AF incidence, in asymptomatic population remain largely unexplored. Methods: This retrospective analysis includes 356 subjects free from significant valvular disorders, atrial fibrillation, or clinical HF. Regional adipose tissue including pericardial and periaortic fat volumes, interatrial septal (IAS, and left atrioventricular groove (AVG fat thickness were all measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA. We measured LA volumes, booster performance, reservoir capacity as well as conduit function, and analyzed their association with adiposity measures. Results: All four adiposity measures were positively associated with greater LA volumes (all P < 0.05, while IAS and AVG fat were also related to larger LA kinetic energy and worse reservoir capacity (both P < 0.01. In multivariate models, IAS fat thickness remained independently associated with larger LA volumes, increased LA kinetic energy and ejection force (β-coef: 0.17 & 0.15, both P < 0.05, and impaired LA reservoir and conduit function (β-coef: −0.20 & −0.12, both P < 0.05 after adjusting for clinical variables. Conclusion: Accumulated visceral adiposity, especially interatrial fat depots, was associated with certain LA structural/functional remodeling characterized by impaired LA reservoir and conduit function though augmented kinetic energy and ejection performance. Our data suggested that interatrial fat burden may be associated with certain detrimental LA functions with compensatory LA adaptation in an asymptomatic population.

  2. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

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    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  3. Characterization and assessment of hyperelastic and elastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissues.

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    Omidi, Ehsan; Fuetterer, Lydia; Reza Mousavi, Seyed; Armstrong, Ryan C; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2014-11-28

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown potential as a regenerative scaffold for plastic and reconstructive surgery to augment or replace damaged or missing adipose tissue (e.g. following lumpectomy or mastectomy). The mechanical properties of soft tissue substitutes are of paramount importance in restoring the natural shape and appearance of the affected tissues, and mechanical mismatching can lead to unpredictable scar tissue formation and poor implant integration. The goal of this work was to assess the linear elastic and hyperelastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissue and compare them to those of normal breast adipose tissue. To assess the influence of the adipose depot source on the mechanical properties of the resultant decellularized scaffolds, we performed indentation tests on DAT samples sourced from adipose tissue isolated from the breast, subcutaneous abdominal region, omentum, pericardial depot and thymic remnant, and their corresponding force-displacement data were acquired. Elastic and hyperelastic parameters were estimated using inverse finite element algorithms. Subsequently, a simulation was conducted in which the estimated hyperelastic parameters were tested in a real human breast model under gravity loading in order to assess the suitability of the scaffolds for implantation. Results of these tests showed that in the human breast, the DAT would show similar deformability to that of native normal tissue. Using the measured hyperelastic parameters, we were able to assess whether DAT derived from different depots exhibited different intrinsic nonlinearities. Results showed that DAT sourced from varying regions of the body exhibited little intrinsic nonlinearity, with no statistically significant differences between the groups.

  4. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Department (Spain); Garde, C. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, B. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada (Spain); Expósito, J. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); Torne, P. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); and others

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  5. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Schweiger, Martina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Zechner, Rudolf; Portillo, María del Puy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to increase adrenaline-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The general aim of the present work was to gain more insight concerning the effects of trans-resveratrol on lipid mobilization. The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule. For lipolysis experiments, 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes as well as adipose tissue from wild-type, ATGL knockout and HSL knockout mice were used. Moreover, gene and protein expressions of these lipases were analyzed. Resveratrol-induced free fatty acids release but not glycerol release in 3T3-L1 under basal and isoproterenol-stimulating conditions and under isoproterenol-stimulating conditions in SGBS adipocytes. When HSL was blocked by compound 76-0079, free fatty acid release was still induced by resveratrol. By contrast, in the presence of the compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, resveratrol effect was totally blunted. Resveratrol increased ATGL gene and protein expressions, an effect that was not observed for HSL. Resveratrol increased fatty acids release in epididymal adipose tissue from wild-type and HSL knockout mice but not in that adipose tissue from ATGL knockout mice. Taking as a whole, the present results provide novel evidence that resveratrol regulates lipolytic activity in human and murine adipocytes, as well as in white adipose tissue from mice, acting mainly on ATGL at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Enzyme activation seems to be induced via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

  6. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yea Eun; Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  7. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

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    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  9. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

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    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  10. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2014-09-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming.

  11. Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor (The 5A Study: Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rubi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas Ramos1, Roopa Mehta1, Julieta De La Luz Castro2, Rutila Castañeda Limones3, Ernesto García Rubí4, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas11Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" (INCMNSZ; 2Cardiodiabetes Unit, Sanofi-Aventis de México; 3Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital General Regional No 1 Dr Carlos Mac Gregor Sánchez Navarro; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Angeles Metropolitano, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: The Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Study assesses the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women and evaluates how physicians manage these patients.Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists contributed patients to the study. A standardized questionnaire was completed and registered demographics, anthropometric measurements, lab results from the medical files, and any treatment utilized to manage dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.Results: A total of 1312 patients was included. The mean age was 49.3 ± 14.6 years and 834 (63.6% were female. The primary reason for the physician consultation was treatment of obesity (47.5%, followed by management of arterial hypertension (27.7%, diabetes (18.3%, dyslipidemia (14.2%, and cardiovascular disease (7.1%. The majority of patients identified excess body weight as a health problem (81.4%. However, patients had lost a mean of 4.3 ± 3.5 kg. Only 63.4% of patients with arterial hypertension were on drug therapy. Few of them had reached target values for diastolic (24.1% and systolic/diastolic (13.3% pressure. Less than half of the patients with dyslipidemia were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Only 32.2% were at their target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with

  12. Classification of different degrees of adiposity in sedentary rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, A.S.; Lima-Leopoldo, A.P. [Departamento de Desportos, Centro de Educação Física e Esportes, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, A.F.; Luvizotto, R.A.M.; Sugizaki, M.M. [Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Sinop, MT (Brazil); Campos, D.H.S.; Silva, D.C.T. da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Padovani, C.R. [Departamento de Bioestatística, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, A.C. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-23

    In experimental studies, several parameters, such as body weight, body mass index, adiposity index, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, have commonly been used to demonstrate increased adiposity and investigate the mechanisms underlying obesity and sedentary lifestyles. However, these investigations have not classified the degree of adiposity nor defined adiposity categories for rats, such as normal, overweight, and obese. The aim of the study was to characterize the degree of adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet using cluster analysis and to create adiposity intervals in an experimental model of obesity. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a normal (n=41) or a high-fat (n=43) diet for 15 weeks. Obesity was defined based on the adiposity index; and the degree of adiposity was evaluated using cluster analysis. Cluster analysis allowed the rats to be classified into two groups (overweight and obese). The obese group displayed significantly higher total body fat and a higher adiposity index compared with those of the overweight group. No differences in systolic blood pressure or nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels were observed between the obese and overweight groups. The adiposity index of the obese group was positively correlated with final body weight, total body fat, and leptin levels. Despite the classification of sedentary rats into overweight and obese groups, it was not possible to identify differences in the comorbidities between the two groups.

  13. Childhood hypo-adiponectinaemia but not hyper-leptinaemia is associated with insulin insensitivity 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    were made at four progressive steps for sex, sexual maturity, body mass index (BMI), other biomarkers, physical activity, and school location as well as baseline insulin insensitivity in prospective analyses. Insulin insensitivity was measured using homeostasis model assessment standardized...

  14. The Examination of the Metalinguistic Skills of 5 and 6 - Year - Old Children Who Attend Preschool Education Institutions and Who Don’t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet ŞEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the metalinguistic skills of 5 and 6year-old children who attend preschool education and who do not in terms of age, sex andwhether they go to preschool or not. The research was conducted on 64 children belonging to5-6 year-old group attending preschool education and those not going to preschool. In theresearch, metalinguistic skill procedures were used. The data obtained were analyzed by ttest.According to the research, it has been observed that 6-year-old children are moresuccessful than 5-year-olds on CSA and SHA tasks. It is seen that girls’ skills on SHA tasksare more developed than boys’. At the end of SWS, SWP, FWB and FWE tasks, a result was gained in favour of children who attend preschool education.

  15. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic...... and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors...

  16. Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Sarcopenia, and Mobility Function in Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and sarcopenia may adversely impact mobility function and physical activity. This study determined the association of locomotor muscle structure and function with mobility function in older adults. Method. 109 older adults with a variety of comorbid disease conditions were examined for thigh muscle composition via MRI, knee extensor strength via isometric dynamometry, and mobility function. The contribution of strength, quadriceps lean tissue, and IMAT to explaining the variability in mobility function was examined using multivariate linear regression models. Results. The predictors as a group contributed 27–45% of the variance in all outcome measures; however, IMAT contributed between 8–15% of the variance in all four mobility variables, while lean explained only 5% variance in only one mobility measure. Conclusions. Thigh IMAT, a newly identified muscle impairment appears to be a potent muscle variable related to the ability of older adults to move about in their community.

  17. Nanomechanics of human adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show gene expression of chondrogenic markers after three-dimensional cultivation. However, hypertrophy and osteogenic transdifferentiation are still limiting clinical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of small...... stem cells by single-cell elasticity measurements using atomic force microscopy. Results were matched with single-cell size measurements (diameter and volume) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic and hypertrophic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type X) as well...... a significantly lower deformability than chondrocytes (Young's modulus: 294.4 vs. 225.1 Pa; ANOVA: pstem cell elasticity to chondrocyte values (221.7 Pa). All other chondrogenic differentiated ASCs presented intermediate elasticity (BMP-2 stimulation: 269.1 Pa...

  18. Air-displacement plethysmography pediatric option in 2-6 years old using the four-compartment model as a criterion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Allison, David B

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy, precision, bias, and reliability of percent fat (%fat) determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the pediatric option against the four-compartment model in 31 children (4.1 ± 1.2 years, 103.3 ± 10.2 cm, 17.5 ± 3.4 kg). %Fat was determined by (BOD POD Body Composition System; COSMED USA, Concord, CA) with the pediatric option. Total body water (TBW) was determined by isotope dilution ((2)H(2)O; 0.2 g/kg) while bone mineral was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar iDXA v13.31; GE, Fairfield, CT and analyzed using enCore 2010 software). The four-compartment model by Lohman was used as the criterion measure of %fat. The regression for %fat by ADP vs. %fat by the four-compartment model did not deviate from the line of identity where: y = 0.849(x) + 4.291. ADP explained 75.2% of the variance in %fat by the four-compartment model while the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 2.09 %fat. The Bland-Altman analysis showed %fat by ADP did not exhibit any bias across the range of fatness (r = 0.04; P = 0.81). The reliability of ADP was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV), within-subject SD, and Cronbach's α. The CV was 3.5%, within-subject SD was 0.9%, and Cronbach's α was 0.95. In conclusion, ADP with the pediatric option is accurate, precise, reliable, and without bias in estimating %fat in children 2-6 years old.

  19. Changes in soil carbon and nutrients following 6 years of litter removal and addition in a tropical semi-evergreen rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Edmund Vincent John; Sheldrake, Merlin W. A.; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2016-11-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature may increase forest productivity, including litterfall, but the consequences for soil organic matter remain poorly understood. To address this, we measured soil carbon and nutrient concentrations at nine depths to 2 m after 6 years of continuous litter removal and litter addition in a semi-evergreen rain forest in Panama. Soils in litter addition plots, compared to litter removal plots, had higher pH and contained greater concentrations of KCl-extractable nitrate (both to 30 cm); Mehlich-III extractable phosphorus and total carbon (both to 20 cm); total nitrogen (to 15 cm); Mehlich-III calcium (to 10 cm); and Mehlich-III magnesium and lower bulk density (both to 5 cm). In contrast, litter manipulation did not affect ammonium, manganese, potassium or zinc, and soils deeper than 30 cm did not differ for any nutrient. Comparison with previous analyses in the experiment indicates that the effect of litter manipulation on nutrient concentrations and the depth to which the effects are significant are increasing with time. To allow for changes in bulk density in calculation of changes in carbon stocks, we standardized total carbon and nitrogen on the basis of a constant mineral mass. For 200 kg m-2 of mineral soil (approximately the upper 20 cm of the profile) about 0.5 kg C m-2 was "missing" from the litter removal plots, with a similar amount accumulated in the litter addition plots. There was an additional 0.4 kg C m-2 extra in the litter standing crop of the litter addition plots compared to the control. This increase in carbon in surface soil and the litter standing crop can be interpreted as a potential partial mitigation of the effects of increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere.

  20. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V;

    2004-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels...... of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29......) and hepatic glucose output during low-dosage insulin infusion of a hyperinsulinemic clamp (HGO; a measure of hepatic insulin resistance), and acute insulin secretory response (AIR; assessed by 25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test). Follow-up measurements of M, BHGO, HGO, and AIR were available for 34...

  1. IL28B SNP rs12979860 is the Critical Predictor for Sustained Viral Response in Chinese Children Aged 1 to 6 Years with Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Shi, Yan-Min; Li, Yong-Li; Chu, Fang; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Da-Wei; Gan, Yu; Wang, Fu-Chuan; Gu, Mei-Lei; Dong, Yi; Zhu, Shi-Shu; Shi, Ce; Fan, Hua-Hao; Zhang, Xiu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data on children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) remain extremely limited. This study investigated sustained virologic response (SVR) to alfa-interferon 2b plus RBV treatment in children aged 1-6 years with unsafe injection-acquired CHC. 154 children with CHC aged 1 to 6 years were enrolled, 101 of them were male (65.6%) and 53 were female (34.4%), and they were treated with alfa-interferon at a dose of 1-5 MIU/m2 3 times weekly plus oral RBV (15 mg/kg/day) for 48 weeks. 57(39.3 %) of...

  2. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    OpenAIRE

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; J.-M. Lemoine; Biancale, R.

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular...

  3. Is Imaging Time Between two Tc 99m DMSA Scans Sufficient for Reporting as Renal Parenchymal Scarring? Healed Parenchymal Renal Defect After 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to report a healed renal parenchymal defect after 6 years in a 9-year-old girl who was being followed for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. The first UTI was at the age of two. She was being followed with ultrasonography, urine analysis and urine culture since the first UTI. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scintigraphy was repeated four times up to the present day. She had a renal parenchymal defect reported as parenchymal scarring, which healed 6 years after the first DMSA scintigraphy.

  4. NPY antagonism reduces adiposity and attenuates age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjoon; Fujishita, Chika; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-12-01

    An orexigenic hormone, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plays a role not only in the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, but also in the peripheral regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by NPY to regulate lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we report that NPY deficiency reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism in mice. Gene expression involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis was found to decrease, whereas proteins involved in lipolysis increased in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of NPY-knockout mice. These changes were associated with an activated SIRT1- and PPARγ-mediated pathway. Moreover, the age-related decrease of de novo lipogenesis in gWAT and thermogenesis in inguinal WAT was inhibited by NPY deficiency. Further analysis using 3T3-L1 cells showed that NPY inhibited lipolysis through the Y1 receptor and enhanced lipogenesis following a reduction in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and SIRT1 protein expression. Therefore, NPY appears to act as a key regulator of adipose tissue metabolism via the CREB-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, NPY deficiency reduces adiposity and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism, suggesting that antagonism of NPY may be a promising target for drug development to prevent age-related metabolic diseases.

  5. Adipose tissues differentiated by adipose-derived stemcells harvested from transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng; GAO Jian-hua; Rei Ogawa; Hiroshi Mizuro; Hiki Hykusoku

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To induce adipocyte differentiation in vitro by adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) harvested from transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)and assess the possibility of constructing adipose tissues via attachment of ASCs to type Ⅰ collagen scaffolds.Methods: Inguinal fat pads from GFP transgenic mice were digested by enzymes for isolation of ASCs (primary culture). After expansion to three passages of ASCs, the cells were incubated in an adipogenic medium for two weeks, and the adipocyte differentiation by ASCs in vitro was assessed by morphological observation and Oil Red O staining. Then they were attached to collagen scaffolds and co-cultured for 12 hours, followed by hypodermic implantation to the dorsal skin of nude mice for 2 months. The newly-formed tissues were detected by HE staining.Results: The cultured primary stem cells were fibroblast-like and showed active proliferation. After being incubated in an adipocyte differentiation medium, the lipid droplets in the cytoplasm accumulated gradually and finally developed into mature adipocytes, which showed positive in Oil Red O staining. A 0.5-cm3 new tissue clot was found under the dorsal skin of the nude mice and it was confirmed as mature adipose tissues by fluorescent observation and HE staining.Conclusions: ASCs can successfully differentiate adipose tissues into mature adipocytes, which exhibit an adipocyte-like morphology and express as intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. It is an efficient model of adipose tissues engineered with ASCs and type Ⅰ collagen scaffolds.

  6. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  7. Impact of Adiposity on Incident Hypertension Is Modified by Insulin Resistance in Adults: Longitudinal Observation From the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Shengxu; Li, Ying; Liu, Yaozhong; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension. This study aims to investigate whether the association between adiposity and hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. The cohort consisted of 1624 middle-aged normotensive black and white adults aged 18 to 43 years at baseline who followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Prevalence of incident hypertension was compared between the insulin-sensitive adiposity and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of incident hypertension was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (32.1% versus 22.1%, Phypertension (odds ratio, 1.9; P=0.008). Odds ratios did not differ between blacks and whites (P=0.238). Of note, the odds ratios of BMI associated with hypertension significantly increased with increasing quartiles of baseline homeostasis model assessment (odds ratio, 1.3, 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 in quartiles I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P=0.006 for trend). Slopes of increasing follow-up blood pressure with baseline BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β=0.74 versus β=0.35 for systolic blood pressure, P=0.004 for difference; β=0.51 versus β=0.23 for diastolic blood pressure, P=0.001 for difference). These findings suggest that insulin resistance has a synergistic effect on the obesity-hypertension association in young adults, indicating that the role of adiposity in the development of hypertension is modified by insulin resistance.

  8. Bovine dedifferentiated adipose tissue (DFAT) cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shengjuan; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Duarte, Marcio S.; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Albrecht, Elke; Will, Katja; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J.; Elabd, Elham M Youssef; Bergen, Werner G.; Basu, Urmila; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are derived from lipid-containing (mature) adipocytes, which possess the ability to symmetrically or asymmetrically proliferate, replicate, and redifferentiate/transdifferentiate. Robust cell isolation and downstream culture methods are needed to isolate large numbers of DFAT cells from any (one) adipose depot in order to establish population dynamics and regulation of the cells within and across laboratories. In order to establish more consistent/repea...

  9. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...

  10. The Facial Adipose Tissue: A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja; Trujillo, Oscar; Kristen, Quick; Isac, Kerelos; Zorko, Julia; Fam, Maria; Okonkwo, Kasie; Mian, Asima; Thanh, Hyunh; Koban, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Steinke, Hanno; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Recent advantages in the anatomical understanding of the face have turned the focus toward the subcutaneous and deep facial fat compartments. During facial aging, these fat-filled compartments undergo substantial changes along with other structures in the face. Soft tissue filler and fat grafting are valid methods to fight the signs of facial aging, but little is known about their precise effect on the facial fat. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the facial fat compartments in terms of anatomical location, histologic appearance, immune-histochemical characteristics, cellular interactions, and therapeutic options. Three different types of facial adipose tissue can be identified, which are located either superficially (dermal white adipose tissue) or deep (subcutaneous white adipose tissue): fibrous (perioral locations), structural (major parts of the midface), and deposit (buccal fat pad and deep temporal fat pad). These various fat types differ in the size of the adipocytes and the collagenous composition of their extracellular matrix and thus in their mechanical properties. Minimal invasive (e.g., soft tissue fillers or fat grafting) and surgical interventions aiming to restore the youthful face have to account for the different fat properties in various facial areas. However, little is known about the macro- and microscopic characteristics of the facial fat tissue in different compartments and future studies are needed to reveal new insights to better understand the process of aging and how to fight its signs best.

  11. Giant cell tumor in adipose package Hoffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Escobar, G.; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino₁, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of adipose Hoffa package are very uncommon, with isolated cases reported in the literature. His presentation in pediatric patients knee is exceptional. The most frequently described tumors are benign including vellonodular synovitis. The extra-articular localized variant there of is known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is characterized by locally aggressive nature, and has been described in reports of isolated cases. Objective: A case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in adipose presentation package Hoffa in pediatric patients is presented in this paper. Methods: male patient eleven years with right knee pain after sports practice was evaluated. Physical examination, showed limited extension -30º, joint effusion, stable negative Lachman maneuver without peripheral knee laxity. MRI hyperintense on tumor is observed in T2 and hypointense on T1 homogeneous and defined edges content displayed prior to LCA related to adipose Hoffa package. Results: The tumor specimen was obtained and histopathology is defined as densely cellular tissue accumulation of xantomisados fibrocollagenous with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, compatible with giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Conclusion: The presentation of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath in Hoffa fat pad is exceptional. However, his suspicion allows adequate preoperative surgical planning, as a whole resection is the only procedure that has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrence of this disease.

  12. Irradiation Response of Adipose-derived Stem Cells under Three-dimensional Culture Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ya Rong; PAN Dong; CHEN Ya Xiong; XUE Gang; REN Zhen Xin; LI Xiao Man; ZHANG Shi Chuan; HU Bu Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adipose tissue distributes widely in human body. The irradiation response of the adipose cells in vivo remains to be investigated. In this study we investigated irradiation response of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) under three-dimensional culture condition. Methods ASCs were isolated and cultured in low attachment dishes to form three-dimensional (3D) spheres in vitro. The neuronal differentiation potential and stem-liked characteristics was monitored by using immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry in monolayer and 3D culture. To investigate the irradiation sensitivity of 3D sphere culture, the fraction of colony survival and micronucleus were detected in monolayer and 3D culture. Soft agar assays were performed for measuring malignant transformation for the irradiated monolayer and 3D culture. Results The 3D cultured ASCs had higher differentiation potential and an higher stem-like cell percentage. The 3D cultures were more radioresistant after either high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam or low LET X-ray irradiation compared with the monolayer cell. The ASCs’ potential of cellular transformation was lower after irradiation by soft agar assay. Conclusion These findings suggest that adipose tissue cell are relatively genomic stable and resistant to genotoxic stress.

  13. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging to Detect and Quantify Adipose Tissue Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinish, U. S; Wong, Chi Lok; Sriram, Sandhya; Ong, Wee Kiat; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Sugii, Shigeki; Olivo, Malini

    2017-01-01

    Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to “beige” or “brown-like” adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods. Moreover, accurate quantification of the overall browning process is not possible by any of these methods. In this context, we report the novel application of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and multispectral imaging (MSI) to detect and quantify the browning process in mice. We successfully demonstrated the time-dependent increase in browning of WAT, following its induction through β-adrenergic agonist injections. The results from these optical techniques were confirmed with those of standard molecular and biochemical assays, which measure gene and protein expression levels of UCP1 and PGC-1α, as well as with histological examinations. We envision that the reported optical methods can be developed into a fast, real time, cost effective and easy to implement imaging approach for quantification of the browning process in adipose tissue. PMID:28145475

  14. CT-based compartmental quantification of adipose tissue versus body metrics in colorectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nattenmueller, Johanna; Hoegenauer, Hanna; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia [Huntsman Cancer Institute, Department of Population Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Scherer, Dominique; Paskow, Michael; Gigic, Biljana; Schrotz-King, Petra [National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Division of Preventive Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    While obesity is considered a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC), there is increasing evidence that not simply body mass index (BMI) alone but specifically abdominal fat distribution is what matters. As part of the ColoCare study, this study measured the distribution of adipose tissue compartments in CRC patients and aimed to identify the body metric that best correlates with these measurements as a useful proxy for adipose tissue distribution. In 120 newly-diagnosed CRC patients who underwent multidetector computed tomography (CT), densitometric quantification of total (TFA), visceral (VFA), intraperitoneal (IFA), retroperitoneal (RFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA), as well as the M. erector spinae and psoas was performed to test the association with gender, age, tumor stage, metabolic equivalents, BMI, waist-to-height (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). VFA was 28.8 % higher in men (p{sub VFA}<0.0001) and 30.5 % higher in patients older than 61 years (p{sub VFA}<0.0001). WHtR correlated best with all adipose tissue compartments (r{sub VFA}=0.69, r{sub TFA}=0.84, p<0.0001) and visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio (VFR, r{sub VFR}=0.22, p=<0.05). Patients with tumor stages III/IV showed significantly lower overall adipose tissue than I/II. Increased M. erector spinae mass was inversely correlated with all compartments. Densitometric quantification on CT is a highly reproducible and reliable method to show fat distribution across adipose tissue compartments. This distribution might be best reflected by WHtR, rather than by BMI or WHR. (orig.)

  15. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  16. Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S; Houghton, A McGarry; Shapiro, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots.

  17. Cesarean Section Is Associated with Increased Peripheral and Central Adiposity in Young Adulthood: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise N Mesquita

    Full Text Available Cesarean section (CS has been associated with obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI, in some studies. It has been hypothesized that this association, if causal, might be explained by changes in gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether CS is also associated with increased adiposity as measured by indicators other than BMI.To assess the association between CS and indicators of peripheral and central adiposity in young adults.The study was conducted on 2,063 young adults aged 23 to 25 years from the 1978/79Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, São Paulo, Brazil. CS was the independent variable. The anthropometric indicators of adiposity were: waist circumference (WC, waist-height ratio (WHtR, waist-hip ratio (WHR, tricipital skinfold (TSF, and subscapular skinfold (SSF. The association between CS and indicators of adiposity was investigated using a Poisson model, with robust adjustment of variance and calculation of incidence rate ratio (IRR with 95% confidence interval (95%CI, and adjustment for birth variables.Follow-up rate was 31.8%. The CS rate was 32%. Prevalences of increased WC, WHtR, WHR were 32.1%, 33.0% and 15.2%, respectively. After adjustment for birth variables, CS was associated with increased risk of adiposity when compared to vaginal delivery: 1.22 (95%CI 1.07; 1.39 for WC, 1.25 (95%CI 1.10;1.42 for WHtR, 1.45 (95%CI 1.18;1.79 for WHR, 1.36 (95%CI 1.04;1.78 for TSF, and 1.43 (95%CI 1.08;1.91 for SSF.Subjects born by CS had a higher risk for increased peripheral and central adiposity during young adult age compared to those born by vaginal delivery. The association of CS with adiposity was consistently observed for all indicators and was robust after adjustment for a variety of early life confounders.

  18. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  19. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-01-01

    Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  20. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  1. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  2. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  3. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  4. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records...

  5. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  6. Adipose tissue angiogenesis: impact on obesity and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2014-03-01

    The growth and function of tissues are critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in turn increases type-2 diabetes risk. In addition, genetic and developmental factors involved in vascular patterning may define the size and expandability of diverse adipose tissue depots, which are also associated with type-2 diabetes risk. Moreover, the adipose tissue vasculature appears to be the niche for pre-adipocyte precursors, and factors that affect angiogenesis may directly impact the generation of new adipocytes. Here we review recent advances on the basic mechanisms of angiogenesis, and on the role of angiogenesis in adipose tissue development and obesity. A substantial amount of data points to a deficit in adipose tissue angiogenesis as a contributing factor to insulin resistance and metabolic disease in obesity. These emerging findings support the concept of the adipose tissue vasculature as a source of new targets for metabolic disease therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  7. Adipose tissue and its role in organ crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romacho, T; Elsen, M; Röhrborn, D; Eckel, J

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of adipokines has revealed adipose tissue as a central node in the interorgan crosstalk network, which mediates the regulation of multiple organs and tissues. Adipose tissue is a true endocrine organ that produces and secretes a wide range of mediators regulating adipose tissue function in an auto-/paracrine manner and important distant targets, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, the pancreas and the cardiovascular system. In metabolic disorders such as obesity, enlargement of adipocytes leads to adipose tissue dysfunction and a shift in the secretory profile with an increased release of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Adipose tissue dysfunction has a central role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Besides the well-acknowledged role of adipokines in metabolic diseases, and the increasing number of adipokines being discovered in the last years, the mechanisms underlying the release of many adipokines from adipose tissue remain largely unknown. To combat metabolic diseases, it is crucial to better understand how adipokines can modulate adipose tissue growth and function. Therefore, we will focus on adipokines with a prominent role in auto-/paracrine crosstalk within the adipose tissue such as RBP4, HO-1, WISP2, SFRPs and chemerin. To depict the endocrine crosstalk between adipose tissue with skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system and the pancreas, we will report the main findings regarding the direct effects of adiponectin, leptin, DPP4 and visfatin on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, cardiovascular function and β-cell growth and function.

  8. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Lumeng, Carey N.; Bodzin, Jennifer L.; Alan R Saltiel

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that macrophages migrating to adipose tissue upon high-fat feeding may differ from those that reside there under normal diet conditions. To this end, we found a novel F4/80+CD11c+ population of ATMs in adipose tissue of obese mice that was not seen in lean mice. ATMs from lean mice expressed many genes characteristic of M2 or “alternatively activated” macrophages, i...

  9. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Najma Z Baquer; M Sinclair; S Kunjara; Umesh C S Yadav; P McLean

    2003-03-01

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose tissue in the controls and an additive effect of insulin and manganese on glucose oxidation was seen when Mn2+ was added in vitro. The flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis was significantly decreased in high fat fed animals. Although the in vitro addition of Mn2+ was additive with insulin when 14CO2 was measured from control animals, it was found neither in young diabetic animals (6–8 weeks old) nor in the old (16 weeks old). Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into 14C-lipids in the young control animals; the additive effect of insulin and manganese suggests separate site of action. This effect was decreased in fat fed animals, diabetic animals and old animals. Manganese alone was found to decrease glycerol in both the control and diabetic adipose tissue in in vitro incubations. The results of the effects of glucose oxidation, lipogenesis, and glycerol release in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals.

  10. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.

  11. Adipose tissue resistin gene expression in DIO and DR rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Zhao; Yuhui Ni; Xirong Guo; Haixia Gong; Xia Chi; Ronghua Chen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of resistin gene in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet resistance (DR)rats. Methods: DIO and DR models were prepared with male SD rats after 6 weeks feeding by a diet of relatively high fat, sucrose, and caloric content (HE diet). Body-weight, fat mass, and the concentration of serum insulin were measured, and the expression of resistin and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptory-γ(PPAR-γ) gene in whit adipose tissue (WAT) was also detected by RT-PCR. Results: ①Body weight, fat mass and the concentration of serum insulin were significantly increased in DIO rats and decreased in DR rats. ② The expression of resistin and PPARγ gene was upregulated in DIO group and supressed in DR group, but the expression of resistin was not detectable in all samples within three groups. Conclusion: Resistin may serve as a link between obesity and insulin resistance, but the individual difference is enormous.

  12. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  13. Selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression impacts systemic metabolic phenotype and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi H; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Maeda, Nobuyo; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-02-01

    apoE is a multi-functional protein expressed in several cell types and in several organs. It is highly expressed in adipose tissue, where it is important for modulating adipocyte lipid flux and gene expression in isolated adipocytes. In order to investigate a potential systemic role for apoE that is produced in adipose tissue, mice were generated with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression and normal circulating apoE levels. These mice had less adipose tissue with smaller adipocytes containing fewer lipids, but no change in adipocyte number compared with control mice. Adipocyte TG synthesis in the presence of apoE-containing VLDL was markedly impaired. Adipocyte caveolin and leptin gene expression were reduced, but adiponectin, PGC-1, and CPT-1 gene expression were increased. Mice with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE had lower fasting lipid, insulin, and glucose levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were consistent with increased insulin sensitivity. Lipid storage in muscle, heart, and liver was significantly reduced. Adipose tissue macrophage inflammatory activation was markedly diminished with suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression. Our results establish a novel effect of adipose tissue apoE expression, distinct from circulating apoE, on systemic substrate metabolism and adipose tissue inflammatory state.

  14. Selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression impacts systemic metabolic phenotype and adipose tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi H.; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    apoE is a multi-functional protein expressed in several cell types and in several organs. It is highly expressed in adipose tissue, where it is important for modulating adipocyte lipid flux and gene expression in isolated adipocytes. In order to investigate a potential systemic role for apoE that is produced in adipose tissue, mice were generated with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression and normal circulating apoE levels. These mice had less adipose tissue with smaller adipocytes containing fewer lipids, but no change in adipocyte number compared with control mice. Adipocyte TG synthesis in the presence of apoE-containing VLDL was markedly impaired. Adipocyte caveolin and leptin gene expression were reduced, but adiponectin, PGC-1, and CPT-1 gene expression were increased. Mice with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE had lower fasting lipid, insulin, and glucose levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were consistent with increased insulin sensitivity. Lipid storage in muscle, heart, and liver was significantly reduced. Adipose tissue macrophage inflammatory activation was markedly diminished with suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression. Our results establish a novel effect of adipose tissue apoE expression, distinct from circulating apoE, on systemic substrate metabolism and adipose tissue inflammatory state. PMID:25421060

  15. Siblings, theory of mind, and executive functioning in children aged 3-6 years: new longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R; Peterson, Candida C

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling influences suggests that benefits-in terms of advanced ToM development-accrue to children with siblings versus without, and to those with a larger number of child-aged siblings. Any advance in either area (ToM or EF) is likely to benefit the other, and early sibling interaction appears to act as a catalyst.

  16. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  17. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Fred J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1 that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2 that computer use is associated with obesity and adiposity, and 3 that > 2 hours of media use daily is associated with obesity and adiposity. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative data on children, aged 2–5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Our main outcome measures were 1 weight status: normal versus overweight or at risk for overweight, and 2 adiposity: the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (mm. Our main exposures were TV/video viewing (≤ 2 or > 2 hours/day, computer use (users versus non-users, and media use (≤ 2 or > 2 hours/day. We used multivariate Poisson and linear regression analyses, adjusting for demographic covariates, to test the independent association between TV/video viewing, computer use, or overall media use and a child's weight status or adiposity. Results Watching > 2 hours/day of TV/videos was associated with being overweight or at risk for overweight (Prevalence ratio = 1.34, 95% CI [1.07, 1.66]; n =1340 and with higher skinfold thicknesses (β = 1.08, 95% CI [0.19, 1.96]; n = 1337. Computer use > 0 hours/day was associated with higher skinfold thicknesses (β = 0.56, 95% CI [0.04, 1.07]; n = 1339. Media use had borderline significance with higher skinfold thicknesses (β = 0.85, 95% CI [-0.04, 1.75], P=0.06; n = 1334 Conclusion Watching > 2 hours/day of TV/videos in US preschool-age children was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or at risk for overweight and higher adiposity–findings in support of national guidelines to limit preschool children's media use. Computer use was also related to higher adiposity in

  18. Accumulation of 19 environmental phenolic and xenobiotic heterocyclic aromatic compounds in human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-05-01

    The extensive use of environmental phenols (e.g., bisphenol A) and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzothiazole) in consumer products as well as widespread exposure of humans to these compounds have been well documented. Biomonitoring studies have used urinary measurements to assess exposures, based on the assumption that these chemicals are metabolized and eliminated in urine. Despite the fact that some of these chemicals are moderately lipophilic, the extent of their accumulation in adipose fat tissues has not been convincingly demonstrated. In this study, human adipose fat samples (N=20) collected from New York City, USA, were analyzed for the presence of environmental phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens, as well as heterocyclic aromatic compounds, including benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and their derivatives. BPA and TCS were frequently detected in adipose tissues at concentrations (geometric mean [GM]: 3.95ng/g wet wt for BPA and 7.21ng/g wet wt for TCS) similar to or below the values reported for human urine. High concentrations of BP-3 were found in human adipose tissues (GM: 43.4; maximum: 4940ng/g wet wt) and a positive correlation between BP-3 concentrations and donor's age was observed. The metabolite of parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB), also was found at elevated levels (GM: 4160; max.: 17,400ng/g wet wt) and a positive correlation between donor's age and sum concentration of parabens and p-HB were found. The GM concentrations of BTR and BTH in human adipose tissues were below 1ng/g, although the methylated forms of BTR (i.e., TTR and XTR) and the hydrated form of BTH (i.e., 2-OH-BTH) were frequently detected in adipose samples, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds. Our results suggest that adipose tissue is an important repository for BP-3 and parabens, including p-HB, in the human body.

  19. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  20. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices.

  1. Determinants of childhood adiposity: evidence from the Australian LOOK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Telford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To contribute to the current debate as to the relative influences of dietary intake and physical activity on the development of adiposity in community-based children. METHODS: Participants were 734 boys and girls measured at age 8, 10 and 12 years for percent body fat (dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, physical activity (pedometers, accelerometers; and dietary intake (1 and 2-day records, with assessments of pubertal development and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Cross-sectional relationships revealed that boys and girls with higher percent body fat were less physically active, both in terms of steps per day and moderate and vigorous physical activity (both sexes p<0.001 for both measures. However, fatter children did not consume more energy, fat, carbohydrate or sugar; boys with higher percent body fat actually consumed less carbohydrate (p = 0.01 and energy (p = 0.05. Longitudinal analysis (combined data from both sexes was weaker, but supported the cross-sectional findings, showing that children who reduced their PA over the four years increased their percent body fat (p = 0.04. Relationships in the 8 year-olds and also in the leanest quartile of all children, where adiposity-related underreporting was unlikely, were consistent with those of the whole group, indicating that underreporting did not influence our findings. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide support for the premise that physical activity is the main source of variation in the percent body fat of healthy community-based Australian children. General community strategies involving dietary intake and physical activity to combat childhood obesity may benefit by making physical activity the foremost focus of attention.

  2. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  3. The role of adipose tissue in cancer-associated cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, Janina A; Celi, Francesco S

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning." While these adipose tissue depots are under investigation in the context of obesity, new evidence suggests a maladaptive role in other metabolic disturbances including cancer-associated cachexia, which is the topic of this review. This syndrome is multifactorial in nature and is an independent factor associated with poor prognosis. Here, we review the contributions of all three adipose depots - white, brown, and beige - to the development and progression of cancer-associated cachexia. Specifically, we focus on the local and systemic processes involving these adipose tissues that lead to increased energy expenditure and sustained negative energy balance. We highlight key findings from both animal and human studies and discuss areas within the field that need further exploration. Impact statement Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a complex, multifactorial syndrome that negatively impacts patient quality of live and prognosis. This work reviews a component of CAC that lacks prior discussion: adipose tissue contributions. Uniquely, it discusses all three types of adipose tissue, white, beige, and brown, their interactions, and their contributions to the development and progression of CAC. Summarizing key bench and clinical studies, it provides information that will be useful to both basic and clinical researchers in designing

  4. A Design Based on Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Method in Human Abdominal Adipose Measurement System%一种基于多频生物电阻抗法的人体腹部脂肪检测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章勇; 苌飞霸; 任超世; 陈小波; 冷锐; 王伟; 赵德春; 梁晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Human body's abdominal fat content can be divided into SFA( Subcutaneous Fat Area) and VFA( Visceral Fat Area)according to the depth,two kinds of fat content has certain effects on human health,in order to avoid the measurement of different depth of abdominal fat content caused by their mutual interference. This paper introduces a design based on the bioimpedance spectroscopy method BIS ( bioimpedance spectroscopy ) for the measurement of the human abdominal fat device. The device adopts four electrodes and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance measurement system, mainly including the programmable signal generator module and the amplitude and phase detection module. According to the selection of the best relative fixed electrode position and the appropriate measurement scheme,the corresponding depth of abdominal fat content can be calculated. The result indicates that the system is stable and reliable, with sufficient accuracy, precision and good repeatability. So for the traditional impedance analysis measurement systems with BIS which needs only measuring a single depth abdominal fat content has an important reference meaning help.%人体的腹部脂肪含量按深度可以分为皮下脂肪SFA(Subcutaneous Fat Area)和内脏脂肪VFA(Visceral Fat Area),两种脂肪的含量对人体健康具有一定的影响,为了避免测量不同深度的腹部脂肪含量造成的相互干扰.设计了一种基于多频生物电阻抗法BIS(Bioimpedance Spectroscopy)测量人体腹部脂肪的装置,该装置采用四电极多频率的生物电阻抗测量系统,主要包括程控信号发生器模块和幅度相位检测模块.根据选择的最佳的电极相对固定位置及合适的测量方案,可以计算出相应深度的腹部脂肪含量.实测表明该系统稳定可靠,具有足够的测量精度、准确度与重复性好等特点.所以对于传统的借助于生物电阻抗法测量单一深度的腹部脂肪含量的测量系统具有重要的借鉴意义.

  5. Severe dental caries, impacts and determinants among children 2-6 years of age in Inuvik Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, James; Jozzy, Simon; Uswak, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In 2004-2005, 349 of 541 eligible, mostly preschool, children in the Inuvik Region in the Northwest Territories of Canada were examined clinically, and the parents or caregivers of 315 of these children were interviewed to measure their oral health status, and its impacts and determinants. Dental caries is a highly prevalent health problem among these preschool children in Inuvik Region: we found that 66% (230/349 children) had the disease and had, on average, 4.8 affected teeth, of which 2.4 had untreated decay. Twelve percent (42/349) of the children needed urgent dental care. Among the 315 children whose parents or caregivers were interviewed, 46% (144/315) had severe early childhood tooth decay. Significantly more of the parents of children with severe decay reported that their children had pain and a decreased ability to chew than the parents of children with no or moderate disease. Using logistic regression, we found that protective factors for severe early childhood tooth decay were higher family income (OR = 0.68; 90% CI = 0.54-0.85), community water fluoridation (OR = 0.49; 90% CI = 0.26-0.91), and drinking milk (OR = 0.44; 90% CI = 0.24-0.81) and fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 90% CI = 0.24-0.90) after the child began to walk, whereas significant risks were consuming drinks made from flavour crystals before (OR = 2.4; 90% CI = 1.3-4.6) and after (OR = 2.0; 90% CI = 1.2-3.2) that age. This information should enable the Health and Social Services Authority to plan health promotion and service delivery programs for the children in Inuvik Region.

  6. Remote sensing of particle backscattering in Chesapeake Bay: a 6-year SeaWiFS retrospective view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D.G.; Hu, C.; Clayton, T.; Chen, Z.; Brock, J.C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional field techniques to monitor water quality in large estuaries, such as boat-based surveys and autonomous moored sensors, generally provide limited spatial coverage. Satellite imagery potentially can be used to address both of these limitations. Here, we show that satellite-based observations are useful for inferring total-suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations in estuarine areas. A spectra-matching optimization algorithm was used to estimate the particle backscattering coefficient at 400 nm, bbp(400), in Chesapeake Bay from Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite imagery. These estimated values of bbp(400) were compared to in situ measurements of TSS for the study period of September 1997–December 2003. Contemporaneous SeaWiFS bbp(400) values and TSS concentrations were positively correlated (N = 340, r2 = 0.4, P bp(400) values served as a reasonable first-order approximation for synoptically mapping TSS. Overall, large-scale patterns of SeaWiFS bbp(400) appeared to be consistent with expectations based on field observations and historical reports of TSS. Monthly averages indicated that SeaWiFS bbp(400) was typically largest in winter (>0.049 m−1, November–February) and smallest in summer (−1, June–August), regardless of the amount of riverine discharge to the bay. The study period also included Hurricanes Floyd and Isabel, which caused large-scale turbidity events and changes in the water quality of the bay. These results demonstrate that this technique can provide frequent synoptic assessments of suspended solids concentrations in Chesapeake Bay and other coastal regions.

  7. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  8. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease.

  9. Omentin-1 is decreased in maternal plasma, placenta and adipose tissue of women with pre-existing obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Barker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on (i the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 44 and women with GDM (n = 39 at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of omentin-1 was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women collected at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Omentin-1 levels were also measured in maternal plasma from 13 NGT women at 11 and 28 weeks gestation and 7 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with significantly lower omentin-1 levels in maternal plasma; however, there was no effect of maternal obesity on cord omentin levels. Omentin-1 gene expression was lower in placenta and adipose tissue obtained from women with pre-existing obesity. In addition to this, adipose tissue release of omentin-1 was significantly lower from obese pregnant women. Omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in non-obese GDM compared to non-obese NGT women. However, there was no difference in omentin-1 levels between obese NGT and obese GDM women. There was no effect of GDM on cord omentin levels, and placental and adipose tissue omentin-1 expression. Maternal omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with fetal birthweight and fetal ponderal index. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study demonstrate that pre-existing maternal obesity is associated with lower omentin-1 expression in placenta, adipose tissue and maternal plasma. Alteration in omentin-1 in pregnancy may influence the development of metabolic disorders in offspring later in life.

  10. Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransi A. Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA, which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 ( and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (. This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.

  11. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Adipose Tissue in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vaag, Allan;

    2011-01-01

    of intensity in-homogeneities. This effect is estimated by a thin plate spline extended to fit two classes of automatically sampled intensity points in 3D. Adipose tissue pixels are labelled with fuzzy c-means clustering and locally determined thresholds. The visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue...

  12. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  13. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  14. FEEDING INFLUENCES ADIPOSE TISSUE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chih; Travers, Rebecca L; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier T; Koumanov, Francoise; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-03-14

    Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations. Adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and one hour post-exercise to examine changes in adipose tissue mRNA expression and secretion of selected adipokines ex-vivo. Adipose tissue mRNA expression of PDK4, ATGL, HSL, FAT/CD36, GLUT4 and IRS2 in response to exercise were lower in FED compared to FASTED conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). Post-exercise adipose IRS2 protein was affected by feeding (p ≤ 0.05), but Akt2, AMPK, IRS1, GLUT4, PDK4 and HSL protein levels were not different. Feeding status did not impact serum and ex-vivo adipose secretion of IL-6, leptin or adiponectin in response to exercise. This is the first study to show that feeding prior to acute exercise affects post-exercise adipose tissue gene expression and we propose that feeding is likely to blunt long-term adipose tissue adaptation to regular exercise.

  15. Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Llamas, Gloria; Szalowska, Ewa; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Landman, Karloes; Hoek, Annemieke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Roelofsen, Johan; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and t

  16. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol, an

  17. Hepatic oleate regulates adipose tissue lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.