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Sample records for adiposity measures 6-year

  1. Predictive performances of lipid accumulation product vs. adiposity measures for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, 8.6-year follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Fereidoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the most commonly used marker for evaluating obesity related risks, however, central obesity measures have been proposed to be more informative. Lipid accumulation product (LAP is an alternative continuous index of lipid accumulation. We sought in this study to assess if LAP can outperform BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR, or waist-to-hip-ratio (WHpR in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD or all-cause mortality. Results Among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 6,751 participants (2,964 men, aged ≥ 30 years, were followed for a median of 8.6 years. We observed 274 deaths (men: 168 and 447 CVD events (men: 257. Levels of common CVD risk factors significantly increased across LAP quartiles. Mortality rates did not differ by LAP quartiles. Among participants free of CVD at baseline [6331 (2,741 men], CVD incident rates per 1000 person increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing LAP quartile values in both men (from 6.9 to 17.0 and women (from 1.3 to 13.0, (Ps Among women, a 1-SD increment in log-LAP conferred a 41% increased risk for CVD (HR 1.41, 95% CIs 1.02-1.96. Among men, however, LAP was not observed to be independently associated with increased risk of CVD; except in a sub-group of men assigned to the lifestyle modification interventions, where, LAP predicted CVD risk. After adjustment with CVD risk factors LAP turned to be inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR, men 0.74, 95% CIs 0.61-0.90; women, 0.94 95% CIs 0.74-1.20. Among women, magnitude of increased risk of CVD due to LAP was not different from those of anthropometric measures. Among men, however, WHpR was observed to be more strongly associated with increased risk of CVD than was LAP. Among neither men nor women were the predictive performances (discrimination, calibration, goodness-of-fit of the LAP better than those of different anthropometric measures were. Conclusions If LAP is to be

  2. Association of built environment characteristics with adiposity and glycaemic measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. J.; Hwang, S.‐J.; Mutalik, K.; Corey, D.; Joyce, R.; Block, J. P.; Fox, C. S.; Powell‐Wiley, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective: This study examined the cross‐sectional and longitudinal relationships of built environment characteristics with adiposity and glycaemic measures. Method Longitudinal study sample consisted of 4,010 Framingham Heart Study Offspring (baseline: 1998–2001; follow‐up: 2005–2008) and Generation Three (baseline: 2002–2005; follow‐up: 2008–2011) participants (54.8% women, baseline mean age 48.6 years). Built environment characteristics (intersection density, greenspace, recreation...

  3. Psychometric properties of a caregiver illness perception measure for caries in children under 6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Suchitra; Slusar, Mary Beth; Albert, Jeffrey M; Liu, Yiying; Riedy, Christine A

    2016-02-01

    Based on the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM), the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) was developed to measure patients' perceptions of their chronic medical illness. Such a measure does not exist for dental conditions. This study describes psychometric properties of the IPQ-R for Dental (IPQ-RD) for parent/caregivers of children under 6 years of age. Parent/caregivers (n=160) of children aged 0.74). The IPQ-RD is a valid and reliable measure to assess parent/caregivers' representation of young children's cavities with potential to be a valuable risk assessment tool for oral health behavioral research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Menstrual blood loss measured 5-6 years after endometrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirney, R; Arachchi, G J; Fraser, I S

    2000-02-01

    To examine objectively the long-term efficacy of endometrial ablation for menorrhagia. Thirty-nine women with menorrhagia due to ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding treated previously by rollerball ablation were followed up 5-6 years later. Menstrual blood in sanitary towels was measured with the alkaline hematin technique in 26 women who were still premenopausal and in whom menstrual blood loss had been measured before and immediately after the original ablation. Mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) menstrual blood loss (per menstrual period) was reduced from 90 mL +/- 14.4 before ablation to 3.8 mL +/- 2.1 at 3 months, 1.8 mL +/- 1.0 at 6 months, and 3.3 mL +/- 1.3 at 5-6 years after ablation. In women who were still menstruating, the mean hemoglobin concentration rose significantly from 126 to 135 g/L (P = .022). Rollerball endometrial ablation is a highly effective long-term therapy for carefully selected women with menorrhagia due to ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

  5. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  6. Wound healing university diplomas in France: an impact measurement after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, Sylvie; Téot, Luc; Dereure, O

    2005-06-01

    An educational programme in wound healing was developed in France in 1998. The course lasts for 1 year and consists of 100 hours of interactive education including wound-healing principles, management of pressure ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, burns and trauma. The programme mixes theoretical and practical issues and results in the award of a diploma that identifies students as having a level of expertise in wound healing. A large component of each student's evaluation is based on a thesis that has been developed by the student during the year. After 6 years of continual development and modification, this educational approach was analysed to evaluate its impact on wound healing in France. More than 500 individuals have been trained by this educational programme, including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, physiotherapists and employees of commercial concerns. In order to evaluate the impact of such a training programme on changing practice in France, a questionnaire was developed and a telephone survey carried out. The results of this survey are reported here and they show that education and training provided undertaking a university diploma has played an important role in the development of wound healing and the subsequent change in practice in France.

  7. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  8. Assessment of measures of adiposity that correlate with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies differ on which anthropometric measure of adiposity shows good correlation with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of common epidemiological measures of adiposity as a correlate of elevated blood pressure in an African population. Methodology: The study was carried out ...

  9. Habitual coffee consumption and changes in measures of adiposity: a comprehensive study of longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S C; Mikkelsen, M-Lk; Frederiksen, P; Heitmann, B L

    2017-12-21

    A relationship between change in coffee consumption and reduced long-term weight gain has been suggested, but current evidence is inconsistent. To examine longitudinal associations between coffee consumption and changes in body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), body fat percentage (BF %) and waist circumference (WC). The study consisted of 2128 participants from the Danish part of the MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) cohort with repeated information on coffee consumption, adiposity measures and covariates during an 11-year period. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent change in adiposity measures. The same analyses were conducted analyzing associations between change in coffee consumption and concurrent as well as subsequent changes in adiposity measures. We found no consistent evidence of associations between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent 6-year changes in adiposity measures. A statistically significant association between increased coffee consumption over a 6-year period and decreased concurrent gain in BMI, FMI, BF % and WC (-0.05 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.07, -0.02), -0.04 kg m -2 (95% CI: -0.06, -0.02), -0.08% (95% CI: -0.13, -0.04) and -0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.12), respectively, per 1 cup day -1 increase in coffee consumption) was found. No association was seen between change in coffee consumption and concurrent change in FFMI. Moreover, an initial change in coffee consumption during the first 5-year period was not associated with change in adiposity during the subsequent 6-year period. Increased coffee consumption was associated with a decreased concurrent gain in body weight, fat mass and waist circumference, but the associations were weak. Moreover, a causal relationship could not be established, as we found no evidence of associations between an initial change

  10. assessment of measures of adiposity that correlate with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    independent risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.4,5. ASSESSMENT OF MEASURES OF ... body fat, the variance for adiposity measurement is very small suggesting reliability of BMI as measure of ..... fat distribution reduction through lifestyle modification, including exercise and diet, may have significant ...

  11. Factors Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time of 5-6-Year-Old Children in the STEPS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarma, Tanja; Tammelin, Tuija; Kulmala, Janne; Koski, Pasi; Hurme, Saija; Lagström, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The factors associated with preschool-aged children's physical activity (PA) remains unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how different factors were associated with preschool-aged children's objectively measured PA and sedentary time. Methods: The study population was 5-6-year-old children (n = 140) and their…

  12. Is directly measured physical activity related to adiposity in preschool children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the association between directly assessed physical activity and adiposity in preschool children (age 1.5-6 years). It includes 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that were published between January 1999 and February 2010. The association between physical activity and

  13. Visceral adipose tissue area measurement at a single level: can it represent visceral adipose tissue volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumura, Yusuke; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Nishimura, Hideho

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) needs to be accurate and sensitive to change for risk monitoring. The purpose of this study is to determine the CT slice location where VAT area can best reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. 60 plain abdominal CT images from 30 males [mean age (range) 51 (41-68) years, mean body weight (range) 71.1 (101.9-50.9) kg] who underwent workplace screenings twice within a 1-year interval were evaluated. Automatically calculated and manually corrected areas of the VAT of various scan levels using "freeform curve" region of interest on CT were recorded and compared with body weight changes. The strongest correlations of VAT area with VAT volume and body weight changes were shown in a slice 3 cm above the lower margin of L3 with r values of 0.853 and 0.902, respectively. VAT area measurement at a single level 3 cm above the lower margin of the L3 vertebra is feasible and can reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. Advances in knowledge: As VAT area at a CT slice 3cm above the lower margin of L3 can best reflect interval changes in VAT volume and body weight, VAT area measurement should be selected at this location.

  14. Changes in hip bone mineral density and objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women: a 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Neil R; Tucker, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if physical activity volume (PAv) and intensity (PAi) at baseline influence the likelihood of gaining hip bone mineral density (BMD) over 6 years. In a prospective study, the sample was limited to 244 female nonsmokers, ages 35 to 45 years, and was approximately 90% white. SETTING AND MEASURES: PAv and PAi were measured in daily living conditions using accelerometers at baseline. BMD, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and several confounding factors were measured in the lab. On the basis of BMD change scores, participants were divided into three categories: BMD loss, minimal change, and BMD gain. Risk ratios were used to show the likelihood of BMD gains over time across different levels of PAv and PAi at baseline. Women with higher PAv were more likely to show improvements in hip BMD from baseline to follow-up than their counterparts, as indicated by the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square (χ(2)(mh)  =  6.1, p  =  .01). Women with high PAv were 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.19-5.24) more likely to experience hip BMD gains than women with low PAv, and women with moderate PAv were 2.20 times (95% CI, 1.08-4.45) more likely. PAi was not predictive of gains in hip BMD. Adjusting for potential confounders had little influence on the results. Middle-aged women with moderate or high levels of PAv are more likely to experience BMD gains at the hip over time compared with those who have low levels of PAv. However, PAi does not appear to influence the likelihood of gaining BMD at the hip over 6 years.

  15. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overnight fasting blood sample was obtained for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), uric acid and adiponectin estimation using standard laboratory protocols. Visceral adipose tissue was estimated using visceral adiposity index ...

  17. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass in...

  18. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and

  19. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue measurements provide information about cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusal Okyay, Gülay; Okyay, Kaan; Polattaş Solak, Evşen; Sahinarslan, Asife; Paşaoğlu, Özge; Ayerden Ebinç, Fatma; Paşaoğlu, Hatice; Boztepe Derici, Ülver; Sindel, Şükrü; Arınsoy, Turgay

    2015-07-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a cardiovascular risk predictor in general population. However, its value has not been well validated in maintainance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We aimed to assess associations of EAT with cardiovascular risk predictors in nondiabetic MHD patients. In this cross-sectional study, we measured EAT thickness by transthoracic echocardiography in 50 MHD patients (45.8 ± 14.6 years of age, 37 male). Antropometric measurements, bioimpedance analysis, left ventricular (LV) mass, carotis intima media thickness, blood tests, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and hemodialysis dose by single-pool urea clearence index (spKt/V) were determined. The mean EAT thickness was 3.28 ± 1.04 mm. There were significant associations of EAT with body mass index (β = 0.590, P  0.05). Body mass index, waist circumference, body fat mass, percentage of lean tissue mass, LV mass, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, HOMA-IR, and spKt/V appeared as independent predictors of EAT. EAT was significantly associated with body fat measures, cardiovascular risk predictors, and dialysis dose in MHD patients. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. Tundra is a consistent source of CO2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Gerardo; Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Salmon, Verity G.; Webb, Elizabeth E.; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M.; Schädel, Christina; Crummer, Kathryn G.; Schuur, Edward A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Current and future warming of high-latitude ecosystems will play an important role in climate change through feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. This study compares 6 years of CO2 flux measurements in moist acidic tundra using autochambers and eddy covariance (Tower) approaches. We found that the tundra was an annual source of CO2 to the atmosphere as indicated by net ecosystem exchange using both methods with a combined mean of 105 ± 17 g CO2 C m-2 y-1 across methods and years (Tower 87 ± 17 and Autochamber 123 ± 14). The difference between methods was largest early in the observation period, with Autochambers indicated a greater CO2 source to the atmosphere. This discrepancy diminished through time, and in the final year the Autochambers measured a greater sink strength than tower. Active layer thickness was a significant driver of net ecosystem carbon exchange, gross ecosystem primary productivity, and Reco and could account for differences between Autochamber and Tower. The stronger source initially attributed lower summer season gross primary production (GPP) during the first 3 years, coupled with lower ecosystem respiration (Reco) during the first year. The combined suppression of GPP and Reco in the first year of Autochamber measurements could be the result of the experimental setup. Root damage associated with Autochamber soil collar installation may have lowered the plant community's capacity to fix C, but recovered within 3 years. While this ecosystem was a consistent CO2 sink during the summer, CO2 emissions during the nonsummer months offset summer CO2 uptake each year.

  1. Association of lipids and antropometrics measures of adiposity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Barauce Bento; Maria de Fátima Aguiar Lopes; Suelen Meira Góes; Gerusa Eisfeld Milano; Fabrício Cieslak; Neiva Leite; Rosana Bento Radominski

    2009-01-01

    The arm of this study was to relate lipidic levels to global and central obesity in adolescents. Transversal, descriptive and co-relational study. 127 pubescent subjects took part in this study, 71 girls (13.39+1.81 years) and 56 boys (13.10+1.97 years). It was identified global adiposity through the body mass index (BMI) as well central adiposity through the waist circumference (WC), according to age, sex, and ethnics. It had been determined levels of total cholesterol (TC), high density lip...

  2. Different anthropometric adiposity measures and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, S. B.; Takken, T.; Prinsen, E. C.; Wittink, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate which anthropometric adiposity measure has the strongest association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Caucasian men and women without a history of CVD. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched databases for studies reporting correlations between anthropometric adiposity measures and CVD risk factors in Caucasian subjects without a history of CVD. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ra...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement Reproducibility for Calf Muscle and Adipose Tissue Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commean, Paul K.; Tuttle, Lori J.; Hastings, Mary K.; Strube, Michael J; Mueller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe a new semi-automated method for segmenting and measuring the volume of the muscle, bone and adipose (subcutaneous and inter-muscular) tissue in calf muscle compartments using magnetic resonance (MR) images and determine the intra- rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measures. Materials and Methods Proton-density weighted MR images were acquired from the right calf for 21 subjects. Three raters segmented and measured the volumes of bones, adipose tissue, and 5 individual muscle compartments. Two raters repeated the segmentations. The intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of the measures (intra-class correlation coefficients; ICC) were determined using generalizability theory. Results All ICC values were greater than 0.96. The average SEM of all measures was 1.21 cm3 and none were greater than 2.3 cm3. Essentially all variation (≥ 97% for all measures) was due to subject differences indicating low error in the measurements. Conclusion The volumetric measurements for the bones, adipose tissue, and muscle in each of the compartments using MR imaging were highly reproducible. MR imaging can provide quantitative, reproducible volumetric measures of bone, adipose tissue, and individual muscles in the calf. We believe these methods can be used to quantify specific muscle or adipose volumetric measures for other clinical or research purposes. PMID:21964677

  4. Objectively measured sleep patterns in young adult women and the relationship to adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bruce W; Allen, Matthew D; LeCheminant, James D; Tucker, Larry A; Errico, William K; Christensen, William F; Hill, Marshall D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and adiposity in young adult women. Cross-sectional. The study took place at two Mountain West region universities and surrounding communities. Subjects were 330 young adult women (20.2 ± 1.5 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored for 7 consecutive days and nights using actigraphy. Height and weight were measured directly. Adiposity was assessed using the BOD POD. Regression analysis, between subjects analysis of variance, and structural equation modeling were used. Bivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sleep efficiency was negatively related to adiposity and that the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration were positively related to adiposity (p sleep duration and adiposity by 84% but had a statistically negligible impact on all other relationships that were analyzed. However, multivariate structural equation modeling indicated that a model including sleep efficiency, sleep pattern inconsistency (latent variable consisting of the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration), and physical activity was the best for predicting percent body fat. Inconsistent sleep patterns and poor sleep efficiency are related to adiposity. Consistent sleep patterns that include sufficient sleep may be important in modifying risk of excess body fat in young adult women.

  5. Comparative Study of Ultrasonographic and Anthropometric Measurements of Regional Adiposity in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jebin; Prasanthi, Krishna; Reddy, Harish T; Shah, Rushit Sandeep; Haritha, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is complex disorder unifying dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hyper insulinemia. Rising global epidemic of obesity has tremendous impact on metabolic syndrome. Ultrasound is becoming widely utilized modality for measuring the visceral adiposity. Aim To determine the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurements in the estimation of regional adiposity and to compare them with anthropometric measurements and to correlate ultrasonographic measurements of regional adiposity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare anthropometry and ultrasonography in assessing the regional adiposity in metabolic syndrome. A total of 105 consecutive participants were included in the study after scrutinizing them for various definable factors of metabolic syndrome. Body Mass Index (BMI) of all participants was calculated and their available serological investigations were gathered. Primarily participants were subjected for anthropometric measurements like waist circumference and hip circumference, further waist/hip ratio was calculated. Following which all participants underwent sonological examination and sonographic indices like intraabdominal fat thickness, preperitoneal fat thickness, minimum and maximum subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured. Abdominal wall fat index was calculated as ratio of maximum preperitoneal fat thickness to minimum subcutaneous fat thickness. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package Social Science, version-10.0.5) software. A p-value was calculated and values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results Significant correlation was established between the BMI and waist and hip circumferences. Mild positive correlation was obtained between BMI and sonographic indices like IAF, SCF and PPF with Pearson correlation (r) values of 0.324, 0.585 and 0.211 respectively. Anthropometric measurements showed higher r-values (WC- 0.624 and

  6. Multiple measures of adiposity are associated with mean leukocyte telomere length in the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton, Jessica L.; Das, Shikta; Rodriguez, Alina; Kaakinen, Marika; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Sebert, Sylvain; Millwood, Iona Y.; Laitinen, Jaana; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and adiposity have produced conflicting results, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and telomere length throughout life remains unclear. We therefore tested association of adult LTL measured in 5,598 participants with: i) childhood growth measures (BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR)); ii) change in BMI from childhood to adulthood and iii) adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body adiposity index (BAI). Childhood BMI at AR was posit...

  7. Association of lipids and antropometrics measures of adiposity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Barauce Bento

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The arm of this study was to relate lipidic levels to global and central obesity in adolescents. Transversal, descriptive and co-relational study. 127 pubescent subjects took part in this study, 71 girls (13.39+1.81 years and 56 boys (13.10+1.97 years. It was identified global adiposity through the body mass index (BMI as well central adiposity through the waist circumference (WC, according to age, sex, and ethnics. It had been determined levels of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG after twelve hours of overnight fasting. The date had been analyzed through Chi-square test and Pearson`s correlation, considering the significance level of p<0.05. It had been identified increased levels of TC in the obese group (boys=61.90%; girls=56.89% as well as in the non-obese group (boys=64.28%; girls=61.54%, without statistical difference. The HDL-C were lower in the boys obese group compared to the non-obese (64.29% vs 28.57%; p=0.019 and in the female obese group in relation to the non-obese (60.35% vs 23.08%; p=0.014. It was identified a greater proportion of TC surplus in he male obese group than in the non-obese (50% vs 14.29%; p=0.018. Positive associations were verified for logn TG and logn BMI (r=0.215; p<0.001 and logn TG e logn WC (r=0.210; p<0.001, negative relations were observed in logn HDL-C and logn BMI (r=-0.425; p<0.001 and logn TG and logn WC (r=-0.365; p<0.001. This study has shown greater proportion of decreased levels of TG in obese adolescents comparing to the non-obese. It was observed moderate inverse associations of HDL-C to the global and central adiposity.

  8. Association of lipids and antropometrics measures of adiposity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Leite

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p127   The arm of this study was to relate lipidic levels to global and central obesity in adolescents. Transversal, descriptive and co-relational study. 127 pubescent subjects took part in this study, 71 girls (13.39+1.81 years and 56 boys (13.10+1.97 years. It was identified global adiposity through the body mass index (BMI as well central adiposity through the waist circumference (WC, according to age, sex, and ethnics. It had been determined levels of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG after twelve hours of overnight fasting. The date had been analyzed through Chi-square test and Pearson`s correlation, considering the significance level of p<0.05. It had been identified increased levels of TC in the obese group (boys=61.90%; girls=56.89% as well as in the non-obese group (boys=64.28%; girls=61.54%, without statistical difference. The HDL-C were lower in the boys obese group compared to the non-obese (64.29% vs 28.57%; p=0.019 and in the female obese group in relation to the non-obese (60.35% vs 23.08%; p=0.014. It was identified a greater proportion of TC surplus in he male obese group than in the non-obese (50% vs 14.29%; p=0.018. Positive associations were verified for logn TG and logn BMI (r=0.215; p<0.001 and logn TG e logn WC (r=0.210; p<0.001, negative relations were observed in logn HDL-C and logn BMI (r=-0.425; p<0.001 and logn TG and logn WC (r=-0.365; p<0.001. This study has shown greater proportion of decreased levels of TG in obese adolescents comparing to the non-obese. It was observed moderate inverse associations of HDL-C to the global and central adiposity.

  9. Adiposity measures and arterial stiffness in primary care: the MARK prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Leticia; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rigo, Fernando; Martí, Ruth; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A; Ramos, Rafel; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2017-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular risk of obesity is potentially increased by arterial stiffness. Objective To assess the relationship of adiposity measures with arterial stiffness in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. Setting Six Spanish health centres. Participants We enrolled 2354 adults (age range, 35–74 years; mean age, 61.4±7.7 years, 61.9% male). Methods This is a cross-sectional study that analyses data from the baseline visit of the improving interMediAte RisK management (MARK) study. The main outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), Clínica Universidad de Navarra-body adiposity estimation (CUN-BAE) body fat percentage and body roundness index (BRI). Vascular function was assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) with the VaSera device; brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was determined using a validated equation. Results The mean adiposity measures were a BMI of 29.2±4.4, WHtR of 0.61±0.07, CUN-BAE of 35.7±1.7 and BRI of 5.8±1.7. The mean stiffness measures were a CAVI of 8.8±1.2 and baPWV of 14.9±2.5. In multiple linear regression analyses, all adiposity measures were negatively associated with CAVI and baPWV (p<0.01 for all) after adjustment for possible factors of confusion. The proportion of CAVI variability via the adiposity measures were 5.5% for BMI, 5.8% for CUN-BAE, 3.8% for WHtR and 3.7% for BRI. These were higher among diabetic, obese, younger (≤62 years) and non-hypertensive subjects who had similar activity and sedentary profiles. Conclusions Adiposity measures are negatively associated with arterial stiffness measures. The percentage of variation in CAVI explained by its relation to the different measures of adiposity ranges from 5.8% (CUN-BAE) to 3.7% (BRI). In the case of baPWV, it oscillates between 0.7% (CUN-BAE and BMI) and 0.1% (WHtR). Trial registration number NCT01428934. PMID:28963288

  10. Different anthropometric adiposity measures and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S B; Takken, T; Prinsen, E C; Wittink, H

    2012-05-01

    To investigate which anthropometric adiposity measure has the strongest association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Caucasian men and women without a history of CVD. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched databases for studies reporting correlations between anthropometric adiposity measures and CVD risk factors in Caucasian subjects without a history of CVD. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage were considered the anthropometric adiposity measures. Primary CVD risk factors were: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose. Two independent reviewers performed abstract, full text and data selection. Twenty articles were included describing 21,618 males and 24,139 females. Waist circumference had the strongest correlation with all CVD risk factors for both men and women, except for HDL and LDL in men. When comparing BMI with waist circumference, the latter showed significantly better correlations to CVD risk factors, except for diastolic blood pressure in women and HDL and total cholesterol in men. We recommend the use of waist circumference in clinical and research studies above other anthropometric adiposity measures, especially compared with BMI, when evaluating CVD risk factors.

  11. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  12. Adjusting adiposity and body weight measurements for height alters the relationship with blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L.; Casazza, Krista; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Franklin, Frank A.; Amaya, Michelle; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adiposity measures are associated with increased pediatric blood pressure. However, this correlation can be confounded by the relationship of both variables to height. We evaluated whether adiposity and anthropometric measures were associated with pediatric blood pressure before and after adjusting each value for height. METHODS Participants included 281 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7–12 years. Blood pressure percentiles were calculated according to pediatric guidelines using the average of four measurements. Total fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Socioeconomic status was calculated with the Hollingshead index. Adiposity measures were indexed for height using log-log regression analysis. Partial correlations identified measures associated with blood pressure. Linear regression was used to test the association of those measures with absolute blood pressure, while logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds for hypertension. RESULTS More African-Americans (16.3%) presented with potential hypertension than European-American (5.1%) or Hispanic-American (2.7%) children. After adjusting for covariates, fat mass, body mass index, and waist circumference were positively significantly associated with absolute blood pressure and hypertension in African-American and European-American children (P < 0.05). When these measures were height-indexed, only waist remained significantly positively associated with hypertension risk in these two groups. No measures were significantly associated with blood pressure among Hispanic-American children. CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic pediatric population, waist circumference was the strongest significant adiposity predictor of hypertension risk among African-American and European-American children. Additional research is needed to determine which environmental and genetic factors contribute to pediatric hypertension, particularly among Hispanic

  13. Association of Anthropometric and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Measures of Adiposity with High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between adiposity measures and plasma concentration of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. In a Chinese sample (n = 1081), we performed measurements of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We defined overweight and obesity as a body mass index between 24 and 27.4 kg/m² and ≥ 27.5 kg/m², respectively, and central obesity as a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women. Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was measured by the ELISA method. Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was significantly (P obesity (n = 60, 1.31 μg/mL and n = 82, 2.10 μg/mL, respectively) than normal weight subjects (n = 185, 2.07μg/mL and n = 368, 2.94 μg/mL, respectively) and in the presence of central obesity (n = 106, 1.28 μg/mL and n = 331, 2.12 μg/mL, respectively) than subjects with a normal waist circumference (n = 298, 1.74 μg/mL and n = 346, 2.74 μg/mL, respectively). In multiple regression analyses stratified for gender, adjusted for confounders and considered separately each of the adiposity measures, all adiposity measures were significantly (r -0.18 to -0.31, P obesity, such as waist-to-hip ratio, but not BIA measures, are independently associated with plasma adiponectin concentration.

  14. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  15. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K M; Paiva, L L; Sanchez, S E; Revilla, L; Lopez, T; Yasuda, M B; Yanez, N D; Gelaye, B; Williams, M A

    2011-01-24

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  16. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG. For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  17. assessment of measures of adiposity that correlate with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing BMI with dual energy xray absorptiometry. (DXA), an example of direct measurement of total .... (HEM711DLX) blood pressure apparatus on the left arm placed at heart level after 5-minute rest and using ... weight, waist and arm circumferences were obtained. Height was measured without shoes to the nearest.

  18. Assumed non-persistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artacho-Cordón, F; Arrebola, J P; Nielsen, O

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from......) were detected in >40% of adipose tissue samples. In general, levels were similar between adipose tissue and serum, while a correlation between adipose tissue and urine was only found for BP-3. In conclusion, adipose tissue samples in this study were found to contain environmental chemicals considered...... to be non-persistent, whose levels were weakly or not at all correlated with the urine burden. Therefore, adipose tissue may potentially provide additional information to that obtained from other biological matrices. Further investigations are warranted to explore whether adipose tissue might be a suitable...

  19. Ownership of consumer electronics is associated with measures of adiposity during health transition in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Pomer, Alysa; Dancause, Kelsey N; Chan, Chim W; Olszowy, Kathryn M; Silverman, Harold; Lee, Gwang; Tarivonda, Len; Taleo, George; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji

    2017-03-01

    The Republic of Vanuatu, like many developing nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition. Our previous study identified several behavioral risk factors for the rising prevalence of obesity. Unexpectedly, daily time spent using television and radio was revealed as a protective factor for obesity in 2007. In this study, we sought to explore associations between ownership of consumer electronics (CE) and measures of adiposity in Vanuatu in 2011. We surveyed 873 adults from five islands varying in level of economic development. Height, weight, and waist circumferences; triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Ownership of eight types of CE, diet through 24-h dietary recall and leisure-time activity patterns were assessed using a questionnaire. Participants from more developed islands owned more types of CE, and revealed higher measures of adiposity on average as well as higher prevalence of obesity/central obesity. When controlling for demographic factors, and dietary and activity patterns, increased measures of adiposity and risk for obesity/central obesity were associated with ownership of cellphones, music players, televisions, video players, microwaves, and/or refrigerators. Positive correlations between CE ownership and measures of adiposity were mainly observed among men on the two most developed islands. The results of this study indicate a possible role of CE use in the rising prevalence of obesity and the shift to a sedentary lifestyle in Vanuatu and many other modernizing regions, where prevention efforts including education on healthy use of CE are imperative. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adiposity measurements in association with metabolic syndrome in older men have different clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lau, Shu Chuen; Chiang, Wei-Yong; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem, and measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future comorbidities are important issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4 adiposity measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage, have different physiological meanings and distinct associations with adverse health consequences. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of these 4 measurements with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and identify the most associated factor for MetS occurrence in older, non-medicated men. Cross-sectional data from 3004 men, all 65 years of age and older, were analyzed. The correlation and association between adiposity measurements and MetS components were evaluated by Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Based on multivariate logistic regression, BMI and WC were significantly associated with MetS and were selected to build a combined model of receiver operating characteristic curves to increase the diagnosis accuracy for MetS. The results show that BMI is independently associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure; WC and body fat percentage are associated with fasting plasma glucose and log transformation of triglyceride; BMI and WC are negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and WC is a better discriminate for MetS than BMI, although the combined model (WC + BMI) is not significantly better than WC alone. Based on these results, we conclude that the 4 adiposity measurements have different clinical implications. Thus, in older men, BMI is an important determinant for blood pressure and HDL-C. Waist circumference is associated with the risk of fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C, triglyceride, and MetS occurrence. The combined model did not increase the diagnosis accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal Stress, Methylation in Inflammation-Related Genes, and Adiposity Measures in Early Childhood: the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.

  2. Does measurement site for visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue alter associations with the metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and the metabolic syndrome are altered depending on measurement site for VAT and ASAT and the definition used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Total VAT and ASAT volume was derived using approximately 37 contiguous computed tomography (CT) images from T10-T11 to L5-S1 in 85 men. CT images obtained at eight intervertebral locations (e.g., L4-L5, L3-L4, etc.) were used to determine the associations between partial volumes (single images) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in adipose tissue. For total and all partial volumes, VAT was more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than ASAT independent of metabolic syndrome criteria. The OR (per SD) for NCEP metabolic syndrome was higher for total VAT volume (OR = 7.26) and for the partial volumes at T12-L1 (7.46) and L1-L2 (8.77) than those at the L4-L5 level (3.94). The OR for metabolic syndrome ( approximately 2.6) was not substantially different among the ASAT measures. A similar pattern of association was observed using the IDF metabolic syndrome criteria. The measurement site for VAT, but not for ASAT, has a substantial influence on the magnitude of the association with both metabolic syndrome definitions. However, because VAT remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome regardless of measurement site, the clinical interpretation was unaltered by measurement protocol or metabolic syndrome definition.

  3. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  4. Is epicardial adipose tissue, another measure of central obesity, correlated with erectile dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Tsao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, a measure of central obesity, and sexual function in males with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study of selected males with ED aged <75 years who attended the Urology Outpatient Department of Tri-Service General Hospital. Sixty subjects were included in the study, which employed biochemical data, anthropometric indexes, echocardiography, and questionnaires. Biochemical lipid profiles and associated inflammation markers were recorded. The anthropometric indexes included general and central obesity and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Echocardiography results were assessed by a single experienced cardiologist and included epicardial and pericardial fat thickness measurements. Sexual function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score. Results: According to the analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression, only the erectile hardness score (EHS was statistically positively correlated with the IIEF-5 score. All other anthropometric indexes and echocardiography parameters, including EAT thickness, pericardial adipose tissue thickness, and ejection fraction (EF, were not significantly associated with sexual function. Conclusions: Only EHS was statistically associated with sexual function in the male subjects with ED. The anthropometric indexes and EAT thickness, a measure of central obesity, were not significantly correlated with sexual function in the male patients with ED.

  5. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4-6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (phigh blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life.

  6. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  7. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC.......26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women...

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of different measures of adiposity to distinguish between low/high motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor Pires

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the ability of different measures of adiposity to discriminate between low/high motor coordination and to evaluate the relationship between different measures of adiposity and motor coordination. This study included 596 elementary school children aged 9 to 12 years (218 females - 47.1%). Weight, height, and waist circumference were objectively measured by standardized protocols. Body fat percentage was estimated by bioelectric impedance. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were computed. Motor coordination was assessed by the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. A questionnaire was used to assess the maternal educational level. The receiver operating characteristic performance of body fat percentage in females and waist circumference in males presented a slightly better discriminatory accuracy than body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in predicting low motor coordination. After adjustments, logistic regression analyses showed that body mass index (β=2.155; 95% CI: 1.164-3.992; p=0.015 for girls; β=3.255; 95% CI: 1.740-6.088; pmotor coordination in both sexes, with the exception of waist-to-height ratio in girls (β=1.343; 95% CI: 0.713-2.528; p=0.381). Body fat percentage and waist circumference showed a slightly better discriminatory accuracy in predicting low motor coordination for females and for males, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Assumed non-persistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho-Cordón, F; Arrebola, J P; Nielsen, O; Hernández, P; Skakkebaek, N E; Fernández, M F; Andersson, A M; Olea, N; Frederiksen, H

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from adults undergoing trauma surgery. Nine phenols and seven parabens were determined by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. The analytical method showed good accuracy and precision. Limits of detection (LOD) for parabens and phenols ranged from 0.05 to 1.83ng/g tissue. Good recovery rates were found, even when biological samples remained defrosted up to 24h. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3; range of values: 70% of adipose tissue samples, while bisphenol-A (BPA; 40% of adipose tissue samples. In general, levels were similar between adipose tissue and serum, while a correlation between adipose tissue and urine was only found for BP-3. In conclusion, adipose tissue samples in this study were found to contain environmental chemicals considered to be non-persistent, whose levels were weakly or not at all correlated with the urine burden. Therefore, adipose tissue may potentially provide additional information to that obtained from other biological matrices. Further investigations are warranted to explore whether adipose tissue might be a suitable matrix for assessment of the consequences for human health of mid/long-term exposure to these chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric mea...

  11. Protein intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition at 6 years: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Tielemans (Myrte); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Intra-uterine exposure to protein may affect body composition and may increase the prevalence of childhood adiposity. Therefore, we examined whether protein intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring body composition at the age of 6 years and whether associations

  12. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Du, Huaidong

    2010-01-01

    Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI))", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess...

  13. Inflammation and race and gender differences in computerized tomography-measured adipose depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, L.E.; Koster, A.; Newman, A.B.; Javaid, M.K.; Ferucci, L.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Kuller, L.H.; Pahor, M.; Visser, M.; Rubin, S.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Everhart, J.E.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has consistently shown a correlation between obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation. It is unclear whether the size of specific adipose depots is more closely associated with concentrations of inflammatory markers than overall adiposity. This study investigated the

  14. Sedentary behaviour, visceral fat accumulation and cardiometabolic risk in adults: a 6-year longitudinal study from the Quebec Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Saunders

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviour has recently emerged as a unique risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality. One factor that may explain this relationship is visceral adiposity, which is prospectively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether sedentary behaviour was associated with increased accumulation of visceral fat or other deleterious changes in cardiometabolic risk over a 6-year follow-up period among adult participants in the Quebec Family Study.The current study included 123 men and 153 women between the ages of 18 and 65. Total sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by self-report questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were assessed using computed tomography. Cardiometabolic biomarkers including fasting insulin, glucose, blood lipids, HOMA-Insulin Resistance, and oral glucose tolerance were also measured. All variables of interest were collected at both baseline and follow-up.After adjustment for age, sex, baseline BMI, physical activity, energy intake, smoking, education, income and menopausal status, baseline sedentary behaviour was not associated with changes in visceral adiposity or any other marker of cardiometabolic risk. In the longitudinal model which adjusted for all studied covariates, every 15-minute increase in sedentary behaviour from baseline to follow-up was associated with a 0.13 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI = 0.02, 0.25. However, there was no association between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in visceral adiposity or other markers of cardiometabolic risk.These results suggest that neither baseline sedentary behaviour nor changes in sedentary behaviour are associated with longitudinal changes in visceral adiposity in adult men and women. With the exception of waist circumference, the present study did not find evidence of a relationship between

  15. Physical activity in 3-6 year old children measured by SenseWear Pro®: direct accelerometry in the course of the week and relation to weight status, media consumption, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerg, Yvonne; Petroff, David; Kiess, Wieland; Blüher, Susann

    2013-01-01

    Data on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in preschoolers are controversial. Direct accelerometry was performed in children aged 3-6 years, and differences in PA patterns over the course of the week were evaluated. Data were analyzed with gender, BMI, lifestyle, and socioeconomic parameters as covariates. PA was measured in 119 children by the SensewearPro® accelerometer and analyzed in the 92 (40 girls) that wore it for at least 4 days including one day of the weekend. Median measuring time in this group was 7 consecutive days (median/mean daily measuring time: 23.5 h/d and 21.8 h/d, respectively), corresponding to 834,000 analyzed minutes. PA questionnaires were completed by 103 parents and 87 preschool teachers to collect anthropometric, lifestyle, and socioeconomic data. Median daily PA (MET>3) was 4.3 hours (mean: 4.4 hours). Boys spent an estimated 52 min/week more being very active (MET>6) than girls (95% CI [6, 96] min/week, p = 0.02). PA was lower during the weekend (3.7 h/d) compared to weekdays (4.5 h/d), p = 3 × 10(-6)), where a 95% CI for the difference is [0.5, 1.0] h/d. PA levels did not differ between overweight/obese children (median 4.7 h/d) and normal-weight peers (median 4.2 h/d). Daily media consumption increased with decreasing social class on weekdays (p = 0.05) and during the weekend (p = 0.01), but was not related to the amount of daily PA. A multivariate regression with BMI-SDS as independent variable and gender, age, amount of PA>6 MET, parental BMI, media time and socioeconomic status as explanatory variables revealed that only SES had a significant contribution. The negative impact of obesity-promoting factors in older children is rather low for preschoolers, but there is evidently a gradient in PA between weekdays and weekends already in this age group. Weight status of preschoolers is already considerably influenced by SES, but not physical activity levels.

  16. Physical activity in 3-6 year old children measured by SenseWear Pro®: direct accelerometry in the course of the week and relation to weight status, media consumption, and socioeconomic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Vorwerg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on objectively measured physical activity (PA in preschoolers are controversial. Direct accelerometry was performed in children aged 3-6 years, and differences in PA patterns over the course of the week were evaluated. Data were analyzed with gender, BMI, lifestyle, and socioeconomic parameters as covariates. METHODS: PA was measured in 119 children by the SensewearPro® accelerometer and analyzed in the 92 (40 girls that wore it for at least 4 days including one day of the weekend. Median measuring time in this group was 7 consecutive days (median/mean daily measuring time: 23.5 h/d and 21.8 h/d, respectively, corresponding to 834,000 analyzed minutes. PA questionnaires were completed by 103 parents and 87 preschool teachers to collect anthropometric, lifestyle, and socioeconomic data. RESULTS: Median daily PA (MET>3 was 4.3 hours (mean: 4.4 hours. Boys spent an estimated 52 min/week more being very active (MET>6 than girls (95% CI [6, 96] min/week, p = 0.02. PA was lower during the weekend (3.7 h/d compared to weekdays (4.5 h/d, p = 3 × 10(-6, where a 95% CI for the difference is [0.5, 1.0] h/d. PA levels did not differ between overweight/obese children (median 4.7 h/d and normal-weight peers (median 4.2 h/d. Daily media consumption increased with decreasing social class on weekdays (p = 0.05 and during the weekend (p = 0.01, but was not related to the amount of daily PA. A multivariate regression with BMI-SDS as independent variable and gender, age, amount of PA>6 MET, parental BMI, media time and socioeconomic status as explanatory variables revealed that only SES had a significant contribution. CONCLUSION: The negative impact of obesity-promoting factors in older children is rather low for preschoolers, but there is evidently a gradient in PA between weekdays and weekends already in this age group. Weight status of preschoolers is already considerably influenced by SES, but not physical activity levels.

  17. Habilidades auditivas e medidas da imitância acústica em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade Auditory abilities and acoustic immittance measures in children from 4 to 6 year old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Della Giacoma Prado Toscano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho em habilidades auditivas e as condições de orelha média de crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade. MÉTODO: foram aplicados os testes de detecção sonora (audiômetro pediátrico em 20dBNA, a Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e as medidas de imitância acústica (handtymp com tom de 226Hz em 61 crianças com média de idade de 5,65 anos. Para comparar os resultados das provas de habilidades auditivas e das medidas da imitância acústica foi aplicado o teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of auditory abilities and conditions in the middle ear of children from 4 to 6 year old. METHOD: we applied the tests in order to detect sound (pediatric audiometer in 20dBHL, the Simplified Assessment of Auditory Processing (SAAP and the acoustic immittance measures (handtymp with a probe of 226Hz. In order to compare the results from the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic impedance we applied Fisher's exact test with significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS: the study involved 61 children with a mean age of 5.65 years. There was some alteration in at least one of the investigated auditory skills in 24.6% of the children. Tympanometry was altered in 34.4% of the children and 64% were classified on the "fail" criterion for the measure of ipsilateral acoustic reflex. Younger children had higher incidence of middle ear disorders, but with no significant statistical difference between different ages as for the tests. CONCLUSION: younger children showed a higher occurrence of alterations in the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic immittance. Research and monitoring programs for the conditions of the middle ear and auditory skills in preschool and school age can eliminate or minimize events that would alter the socio-linguistic development.

  18. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  19. Sugar-containing beverage intake in toddlers and body composition up to age 6 years: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, E T M; Felix, J F; Erler, N S; Ćerimagić, A; Wijtzes, A I; Hofman, A; Raat, H; Moll, H A; Rivadeneira, F; Jaddoe, V W V; Franco, O H; Kiefte-de Jong, J C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. The potential effect of SCB intake during infancy is unclear. We examined the association of SCB intake at 13 months with BMI development until 6 years and body composition at age 6 years. This study included 2371 Dutch children from a population-based prospective cohort study. SCB intake at 13 months was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire with validation against 24-h recalls and was standardized for total energy. BMI was calculated from repeated weight and height measurements, and age- and sex-specific s.d. scores were calculated. Adiposity was measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In girls, higher SCB intake at 13 months was significantly associated with higher BMI at ages 2, 3, 4 and 6 years (at age 6 years BMI (s.d. score) increase 0.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.00; 0.23), high versus low intake). We observed a tendency towards higher android/gynoid fat ratio in girls with high intake (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI -0.02; 0.29), versus low intake) but not with body fat percentage. In boys, there was no association with BMI or body composition, but boys with high SCB intake at 13 months were taller at age 6 years (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI +0.00; 0.27), versus low intake). Higher SCB intake at 13 months was associated with higher BMI up to age 6 years in girls but not in boys. Our results imply that the unfavorable effects of SCB intake start early in life and that dietary advice regarding limiting SCB intake should already be given early in life.

  20. Effects of glucose and insulin levels on adipose tissue glucose measurement by microdialysis probes retained for three weeks in Type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, LM; Lutgers, HL; Dullaart, RPF; Sluiter, WJ; Wientjes, KJ; Schoonen, AJM; Hoogenberg, K

    Background: To evaluate the effects of acute hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on adipose tissue glucose measurements by microdialysis probes inserted for a 3-week period. Methods: Microdialysis probes were implanted pairwise in abdominal adipose tissue in seven Type 1 diabetic patients and

  1. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Fetal Limb Soft Tissue Measurements in the Third Trimester Predict Neonatal Adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Fisher, Barbra M; Kahn, Bronwen F; Hernandez, Teri L; Reece, Melanie S; Reynolds, Regina M; Lee, Wesley; Barbour, Linda A; Galan, Henry L

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal adiposity is associated with chronic metabolic sequelae such as diabetes and obesity. Identifying fetuses at risk for excess neonatal body fat may lead to research aimed at limiting nutritional excess in the prenatal period. We sought to determine whether fetal arm and leg soft tissue measurements at 28 weeks' gestation were predictive of neonatal percent body fat METHODS : In this prospective observational cohort study of singleton term pregnancies, we performed sonography at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation, including soft tissue measurements of the fetal arm and thigh (fractional limb volume and cross-sectional area). We estimated the neonatal body composition (percent body fat) using anthropometric measurements and air displacement plethysmography. We estimated Spearman correlations between sonographic findings and percent body fat and performed modeling to predict neonatal percent body fat using maternal characteristics and sonographic findings. Our analysis of 44 women yielded a mean maternal age of 30 years, body mass index of 26 kg/m(2), and birth weight of 3382 g. Mean neonatal percent body fat was 8.1% by skin folds at birth and 12.2% by air displacement plethysmography 2 weeks after birth. Fractional thigh volume measurements at 28 weeks yielded the most accurate model for predicting neonatal percent body fat (R(2) = 0.697; P = .001), outperforming models that used abdominal circumference (R(2)= 0.516) and estimated fetal weight (R(2)= 0.489). Soft tissue measurements of the fetal thigh at 28 weeks correlated better with neonatal percent body fat than currently used sonographic measurements. After validation in a larger cohort, our models may be useful for prenatal intervention strategies aimed at the prevention of excess fetal fat accretion and, potentially, optimization of long-term metabolic health.

  3. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC and Body Mass Index (BMI, as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations.To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents.We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers participating in the "Healthy Start" study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children's adiposity measures.HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg. We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively.Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children.

  4. Characterization of Adipose Tissue Product Quality Using Measurements of Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Sieber, David A; Mueller, Kathryn; Van Beek, Allen L; Cunningham, Bruce L; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2018-03-14

    Fat grafting is a common procedure in plastic surgery but associated with unpredictable graft retention. Adipose tissue (AT) "product" quality is affected by the methods used for harvest, processing and transfer, which vary widely amongst surgeons. Currently, there is no method available to accurately assess the quality of AT. In this study, we present a novel method for the assessment of AT product quality through direct measurements of oxygen consumption rate (OCR). OCR has exhibited potential in predicting outcomes following pancreatic islet transplant. Our study aim was to reapportion existing technology for its use with AT preparations and to confirm that these measurements are feasible. OCR was successfully measured for en bloc and postprocessed AT using a stirred microchamber system. OCR was then normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), which represents the AT product quality. Mean (±SE) OCR/DNA values for fresh en bloc and post-processed AT were 149.8 (± 9.1) and 61.1 (± 6.1) nmol/min/mg DNA, respectively. These preliminary data suggest that: (1) OCR and OCR/DNA measurements of AT harvested using conventional protocol are feasible; and (2) standard AT processing results in a decrease in overall AT product quality. OCR measurements of AT using existing technology can be done and enables accurate, real-time, quantitative assessment of the quality of AT product prior to transfer. The availability and further validation of this type of assay could enable optimization of fat grafting protocol by providing a tool for the more detailed study of procedural variables that affect AT product quality.

  5. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  6. Use of B-mode ultrasound to examine preclinical markers of atherosclerosis: image quality may bias associations between adiposity and measures of vascular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Thomson, Russell; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Dwyer, Terence; Raitakari, Olli T; Venn, Alison

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adiposity measures, ultrasound image quality, and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in young adults. B-mode ultrasound was used to obtain common carotid intima-media thickness and common carotid artery distensibility of 2265 and 1313 adults aged 24 to 39 years in two population-based studies: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns and Childhood Determinants of Adult Health studies. Qualitative assessments of ultrasound image quality were obtained from each study (scored as 1, excellent; 2, average; and 3, poor) based on the ability to detect arterial interfaces and the amount of noise present in the image. Increased adiposity was associated with significantly increased odds (all P media thickness in Young Finns (regression coefficient = -0.029; P = .01) and higher intima-media thickness in Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (regression coefficient = 0.013; P = .03) and lower distensibility levels in both studies (Young Finns, β = -.494; P bias) in the association between adiposity measures and carotid intima-media thickness by image quality, but there was some evidence suggesting that the association between adiposity measures and carotid distensibility differed by image quality. Adiposity affects ultrasound image quality and has the potential to bias associations between adiposity and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis. Studies examining adiposity and ultrasound-derived measures of atherosclerosis should consider taking steps during the design and analysis phase to adequately account for variations in image quality to avoid any potential bias.

  7. Measurements of pericardial adipose tissue using contrast enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography—comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Lønborg, Jacob; Rasmussen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    and CMRI scans were performed. The optimal fit for measuring PAT using contrast MDCT was developed and validated by the corresponding measures on CMRI. The median for PAT volume in patients was 175 ml (SD 68) and 153 ml (SD 60) measured by MDCT and CMRI respectively. Four different attenuation values were...... tested, and the smallest difference in PAT was noted when -30 to -190 HU were used in MDCT measures. The median difference between MDCT and CMRI for the assessment of PAT was 9 ml (SD 50) suggesting a reasonable robust method for the assessment of PAT in a large-scale study. Pericardial adipose tissue...

  8. Effects of weight loss on leptin, sex hormones, and measures of adiposity in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudi, K M; Gallistl, S; Borkenstein, M H; Payerl, D; Aigner, R; Möller, R; Tafeit, E

    2001-04-01

    Adipose tissue influences steroid conversion by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. Leptin is secreted by adipocytes and influenced by sex hormones and adiposity. Short-term weight loss in the treatment of childhood obesity reduces leptin and adipose tissue. We therefore asked, Do alterations in sex hormones occur owing to weight loss? and can these alterations be explained by changes in fat mass or sc fat and are alterations in sex hormones directly related to the fall in leptin? Twenty obese boys and 40 obese girls were studied before and after 3 wk of low-calorie diet and physical activity. The weight loss program significantly lowered fat mass, abdominal fat distribution, sc fat (all p testosterone. Changes in leptin were related to changes in body mass and to changes in fat mass in boys. In girls, changes in leptin were related to changes in sc fatness and also to changes in insulin. In boys, the reduction in sc fat was positively correlated to changes in testosterone (r = 0.54; p testosterone (r = 0.33; p fat depots in boys whereas in girls changes in insulin might participate in changes in sex hormones. A greater fall in leptin owing to short-term weight loss is not associated with greater alterations in sex hormones and initial leptin is the best determinant to explain the variability in changes in leptin. The possibility of sex differences in changes in sex hormones secondary to the reduction in fatness warrants further study.

  9. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  10. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469) children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics. PMID:26006128

  11. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  12. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  13. Effect of urbanization on objectively measured physical activity levels, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in Kenyan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, Robert M; Easton, Chris; Casajús, Jose A; Konstabel, Kenn; Reilly, John J; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization affects lifestyles in the developing world but no studies have assessed the impact on objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa. To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents from rural and urban areas of Kenya. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometry for 5 consecutive days in 97 (50 female and 47 male) rural and 103 (52 female and 51 male) urban adolescents (mean age 13 ± 1 years). Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity. Rural males spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) compared with urban males (68 ± 22 vs. 50 ± 17 min, respectively; P urban females (62 ± 20 vs. 37 ± 20 min, respectively; P urban subjects. Residence (rural vs. urban) significantly (P urban adolescents and this is a likely reflection of the impact of urbanization on lifestyle in Kenya.

  14. Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with high blood pressure in black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Doubell, Maretha; van Rooyen, Johannes M

    2017-11-01

    To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured. There was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (high blood pressure (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-2.81 versus OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.23, respectively). Despite significant agreement between BMI and %BF categories, considerable misclassification occurred in the overweight range. Participants with excessive %BF had a greater odds of high blood pressure than those in the highest BMI category. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT.

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    Ho Cheol Hong

    Full Text Available Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored.We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR, the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP, whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001, whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003.This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles.

  16. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002 and women (P for trend = 0.0001. In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24 after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines.

  17. Precision of a new tool to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothney, Megan P; Xia, Yi; Wacker, Wynn K; Martin, Francois-Pierre; Beaumont, Maurice; Rezzi, Serge; Giusti, Vittorio; Ergun, David L

    2013-01-01

    A new tool to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT) over the android region of a total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan has recently been reported. The measurement, CoreScan, is currently available on Lunar iDXA densitometers. The purpose of the study was to determine the precision of the CoreScan VAT measurement, which is critical for understanding the utility of this measure in longitudinal trials. VAT precision was characterized in both an anthropomorphic imaging phantom (measured on 10 Lunar iDXA systems) and a clinical population consisting of obese women (n = 32). The intrascanner precision for the VAT phantom across 9 quantities of VAT mass (0-1,800 g) ranged from 28.4 to 38.0 g. The interscanner precision ranged from 24.7 to 38.4 g. There was no statistical dependence on the quantity of VAT for either the inter- or intrascanner precision result (p = 0.670). Combining inter- and intrascanner precision yielded a total phantom precision estimate of 47.6 g for VAT mass, which corresponds to a 4.8% coefficient of variance (CV) for a 1 kg VAT mass. Our clinical population, who completed replicate total body scans with repositioning between scans, showed a precision of 56.8 g on an average VAT mass of 1110.4 g. This corresponds to a 5.1% CV. Hence, the in vivo precision result was similar to the phantom precision result. The study suggests that CoreScan has a relatively low precision error in both phantoms and obese women and therefore may be a useful addition to clinical trials where interventions are targeted towards changes in visceral adiposity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI.Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  19. The Associations Between Increasing Degrees of HOMA-IR and Measurements of Adiposity Among Euglycemic U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, William R; Johnson, Tammie M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael R; Churilla, James R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between increasing degrees of insulin resistance (using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and two measures of adiposity in a nationally representative sample of euglycemic U.S. adults. Sample included adult participants (≥ 20 years of age) [N = 1586 (body mass index, BMI model), N = 1577 (waist circumference, WC model)] from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). HOMA-IR was categorized into quartiles. BMI and WC were examined continuously as the dependent variables. Following adjustment for covariates, those with HOMA-IR values in the second, third, and fourth quartiles had significantly higher BMIs (P HOMA-IR (P HOMA-IR and BMI (R(2) = 0.4171, P HOMA-IR and WC (R(2) = 0.4826, P HOMA-IR value is associated with higher BMI and WC values in euglycemic subjects.

  20. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overea...

  1. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or meals and sex.

  2. Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Laurell, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallström, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pearson, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error. Methods Among 363 094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of HNC. HNC risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: < 22.5 kg/m2, normal weight (reference): 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obese: ≥ 30 kg/m2], waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among men, a BMI < 22.5 kg/m2 was associated with higher HNC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 – 2.12)]; BMI was not associated with HNC among women. WC and WHR were associated with greater risk of HNC among women, (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 – 1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 – 1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (p interaction 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with HNC only upon additional adjustment for BMI (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 – 1.26; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21 – 1.65). Conclusion Central adiposity, particularly among women, may have a stronger association with HNC risk than previously estimated. Impact Strategies to reduce obesity may beneficially impact HNC incidence. PMID:28183827

  3. From modeling to measurement: developmental trends in genetic influence on adiposity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, C H; Trzaskowski, M; Plomin, R; Wardle, J

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of increasing heritability of BMI over childhood can seem paradoxical given longer exposure to environmental influences. Genomic data were used to provide direct evidence of developmental increases in genetic influence. BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) at ages 4 and 10 were calculated for 2,556 twin pairs in the Twins Early Development Study. Twin analyses estimated heritability of BMI-SDS at each age and the longitudinal genetic correlation. One randomly selected twin per pair was genotyped. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) determined DNA-based heritability at each age and the longitudinal genomic correlation. Associations with a polygenic obesity risk score (PRS) using 28 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed at each age, with bootstrapping to test the significance of the increase in variance explained. Twin-estimated heritability increased from age 4 (0.43; 95% CI: 0.35-0.53) to 10 (0.82; 0.74-0.88). GCTA-estimated heritability went from non-significant at 4 (0.20; -0.21 to 0.61) to significant at 10 (0.29; 0.01-0.57). Longitudinal genetic correlations derived from twins (0.58) and GCTA (0.66) were similar. The same PRS explained more variance at 10 than 4 years (R(2) Δ:0.024; 0.002-0.078). GCTA and PRS findings confirm twin-based results suggesting increasing genetic influence on adiposity during childhood despite substantial genetic stability. © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  4. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  5. Pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic adipose tissues contribute to systemic inflammation and calcified coronary atherosclerosis independent of body fat composition, anthropometric measures and traditional cardiovascular risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Lin, Tin-Yu; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I.; Yang, Fei-Shih; Chen, Su-Chiu; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Cury, Ricardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis has traditionally been proposed to be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measures. However, clinical data regarding the independent value of visceral adipose tissue in addition to such traditional predictors remains obscure. Materials and methods: We subsequently studied 719 subjects (age: 48.1 ± 8.3 years, 25% females) who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for coronary calcium score (CCS) quantification. Baseline demographic data and anthropometric measures were taken with simultaneous body fat composition estimated. Visceral adipose tissue of pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic fat was quantified by MDCT using TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, CA). Traditional cardiovascular risk stratification was calculated by metabolic (NCEP ATP III) and Framingham (FRS) scores and high-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) was taken to represent systemic inflammation. The independent value of visceral adipose tissue to systemic inflammation and CCS was assessed by utilizing multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of all subjects enrolled in this study, the mean values for pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue were 74.23 ± 27.51 and 7.23 ± 3.69 ml, respectively. Higher visceral fat quartile groups were associated with graded increase of risks for cardiovascular diseases. Both adipose burdens strongly correlated with anthropometric measures including waist circumference, body weight and body mass index (all p < 0.001). In addition, both visceral amount correlates well with ATP and FRS scores, all lipid profiles and systemic inflammation marker in terms of Hs-CRP (all p < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline variables, both visceral fat were independently related to Hs-CRP levels (all p < 0.05), but only pericardial fat exerted independent role in coronary calcium deposit. Conclusion: Both visceral adipose tissues strongly correlated with systemic inflammation beyond traditional

  6. Fetal and maternal factors associated with neonatal adiposity as measured by air displacement plethysmography: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheryl P; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E; Jeffery, Heather

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments play a role in determining the risk of lifetime obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Neonatal body composition, as a surrogate marker of the in-utero environment, can be reliably and accurately measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Our primary objective was to identify preconception, fetal and maternal factors affecting neonatal body composition. This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born between September and October 2010 at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using ADP. Maternal demographic, anthropometric and medical data as well as neonatal gestational age and sex were used to develop a regression model that predicted body composition and birthweight. The mean (SD) neonatal BF% in our whole population was 9.2(4.4)%. Significant variables in the model for neonatal BF% were neonatal sex, gestational age, maternal ethnicity, gestational weight gain (GWG), pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and maternal hypertension (pNeonatal female sex, maternal Caucasian ethnicity and increased gestational weight gain explained the most variation and were most strongly associated with increased BF%. This study highlights maternal obesity and increased gestational weight gain as two factors that are amenable to intervention as risk factors for newborn adiposity, which is important in the future study of the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. © 2013.

  7. Measures of Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Stroke: A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chong Ke; Zhong, Xiao Yan; Xu, Tan; Zhang, Yong Hong

    2016-01-01

    Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio, which are the indicators or measures of abdominal adiposity, have long been hypothesized to increase the risk of stroke; yet evidence accumulated till date is not conclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize evidences of the association between these measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Two investigators independently conducted the study selection and data extraction. Dose-response relationships were assessed by the generalized least squares trend estimation, while the summary effect estimates were evaluated by the use of fixed- or random-effect models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential sources of heterogeneity and the robustness of the pooled estimation. Publication bias of the literature was evaluated using Begg's and Egger's test. Altogether 15 prospective cohort studies were identified in this study. The summary of relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus the lowest categories was 1.28 (1.18-1.40) for waist circumference, 1.32 (1.21-1.44) for waist-to-hip ratio, and 1.49 (1.24-1.78) for waist-to-height ratio. For a 10-cm increase in waist circumference, the relative risk of stroke increased by 10%; for a 0.1-unit increase in waist-to-hip ratio, the relative risk increased by 16%; and for a 0.05-unit increase in waist-to-height ratio, the relative risk increased by 13%. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between waist-to-hip ratio and stroke risk, Pnonlinearity=0.028. Findings from our meta-analysis indicated that waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were positively associated with the risk of stroke, particularly ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, ppoverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to reduce high concentrations of neighbourhood poverty as well as

  9. Age and sex-specific associations of anthropometric measures of adiposity with blood pressure and hypertension in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Kevin Y; Farkouh, Michael E; Moineddin, Rahim; Tu, Jack V; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-12-01

    A determinant of blood pressure is adiposity; however, there are uncertainties surrounding whether general or central adiposity is the more important determinant of blood pressure. Further, inconsistent results exist for the relationships of anthropometric measures with blood pressure and hypertension, and whether these relationships differ substantially by age and sex is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the associations of anthropometric measures of general and central adiposity with blood pressure and hypertension, and determine the effect of age and sex on these relationships. We used cross-sectional data from the Centre for Global Health Research health check-up survey conducted during 2006-2007 of the general population in India (n = 7 601; age 18-59 years). We examined the associations of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio) with blood pressure components (systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, mid-blood pressure) and hypertension within four (18-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years) age groups, by sex. We adjusted all analyses for education and location, with further adjustments, variously, for either a measure of central (waist circumference) or general (body mass index) adiposity. On average, every 5 kg/m 2 greater body mass index or 10 cm wider waist circumference was associated with a 5 and 4 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure, respectively. When considered separately, each anthropometric measure was strongly and positively associated with most blood pressure components in all age groups, and for both sexes. However, with few exceptions, when considered jointly (body mass index adjusted for waist circumference), the associations of body mass index with blood pressure components and hypertension were greatly diminished for both sexes, and particularly in the ≥30 years age groups. By contrast, further adjustment

  10. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Metzinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR. Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues.

  11. Nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D

    2014-08-01

    Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Measures of General and Abdominal Adiposity as Predictors of Blood Pressure in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius A.; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To compare anthropometric measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as predictors of blood pressure in college students. Participants: Students (N = 116) were recruited from November 2012 to May 2014 at an urban university and rural community…

  13. The effects of 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone on anthropometric and biochemical measures of adiposity in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mesut; Gelisgen, Remise; Topcuoglu, Ata; Guralp, Onur; Topcuoglu, Deniz; Simsek, Gonul; Uludag, Seyfettin; Uzun, Hafize

    2012-11-01

    To assess whether there are changes on anthropometric and biochemical measures of adiposity in pre- and postmenopausal women and in the latter before and after 6 months treatment with 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone. Twenty postmenopausal and 20 premenopausal women were enrolled in a prospective comparative study. Postmenopausal women received 1 mg 17β-estradiol plus 2 mg drospirenone daily for 6 months. Measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio and plasmatic levels of insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were performed in premenopausal (group 1) and postmenopausal women and in the latter before (group 2a) and after (group 2b) 6 months treatment with 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone. No significant changes in BMIs, insulin and glucose were observed between group 1 and 2a; and group 2a and 2b. GLP-1 levels were significantly increased in group 1 compared to group 2a (p = 0.035). Leptin levels were significantly increased (p = 0.001) and GLP-1 levels were significantly decreased (p = 0.021) in group 2b compared to group 2a. HDL was significantly decreased while LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly increased in group 2a compared to group 1. (p = 0.030, p = 0.001, p = 0.020; respectively) LDL was significantly decreased (p = 0.010) in group 2b compared to group 2a. GLP-1 had a positive correlation with orexin-A (p correlation with leptin (p = 0.008, r = -0.345). Leptin was significantly higher and GLP-1 was significantly lower in women receiving 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone treatment. GLP-1 levels were significantly lower after the menopause compared to premenopausal levels. Orexin-A and GLP-1 were positively correlated.

  14. Risk factors for childhood overweight: a 30-month longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, Valerie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine

    2014-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight is an important health issue. There is a need for longitudinal research among children in order to identify risk factors for childhood overweight. The objective of the present research was to identify potential sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors for development of childhood overweight among 3- to 6-year-old children. Longitudinal study. Sixteen pre-primary and primary schools. BMI Z-scores at baseline and two follow-up measurements were calculated for 568 children. Sociodemographic, parental adiposity, familial composition, child's diet, physical activity and sedentary behavioural data were collected through questionnaires. Several risk factors for the development of childhood overweight were found. Being an only child, lower maternal educational level, maternal and paternal overweight, more than 1 h screen time on weekdays and high soft drinks consumption were shown to be positively associated with the development of childhood overweight. Although behavioural factors are important, our findings support the thesis that interventions on the prevention of childhood overweight should focus on high-risk groups, i.e. children from low socio-economic background or with high parental BMI. Interventions should address the whole family and take into account their lifestyle and structure.

  15. Less Waste on Waist Measurements: Determination of Optimal Waist Circumference Measurement Site to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V. Seimon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT. This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SEM, mean body mass index 34.5 ± 0.2 kg/m2. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WCmid, the narrowest point of the torso (WCnarrow, and at the level of the umbilicus (WCumbilicus. WC differed significantly according to measurement site, with WCnarrow (102.1 ± 0.7 cm < WCmid (108.3 ± 0.7 cm < WCumbilicus (115.7 ± 0.8 cm (p < 0.001. WCmid, WCnarrow and WCumbilicus were all significantly correlated with VAT, as measured by MRI (r = 0.581, 0.563 and 0.390, respectively; p < 0.001 for all, but the relationships between WCmid or WCnarrow and VAT determined by MRI were stronger than for WCumbilicus. Measurement of either WCmid or WCnarrow provides valid estimates of VAT in postmenopausal women with obesity, with WCnarrow being favoured in light of its greater ease and speed of measurement in this population.

  16. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michelle; Ryan, John; Foley, Shane

    2015-10-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each intervertebral level between T12 and S1 using ImageJ analysis (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD) software by thresholding -190 to -30 HU and manually segmenting VAT. Single-slice VAT measurements were correlated with total VAT volume to identify the most representative slice. WC and SD were measured at L3-L4 and L4-L5 slices, respectively. Regression analysis was used to evaluate WC, SD and gender as VAT volume predictors. Interviewer and intraviewer reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). Although VAT measured at multiple slices correlated strongly with abdominal VAT, only one slice in females at L2-L3 and two slices in males at L1-L2 and L5-S1 were strongly correlated across all age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that WC was strongly correlated with VAT volume (beta = 0.970, p VAT measurements are highly reproducible. Measurements performed at L2-L3 in females and L1-L2 or L5-S1 in males were most representative of VAT. WC is indicative of VAT. VAT should be measured at L2-L3 in female children and at either L1-L2 or L5-S1 in males. WC is a strong indicator of VAT in children.

  17. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    OpenAIRE

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J.; Baranowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9–10 year old children and 264 17–1...

  18. Duplicated Muellerian remnant in a 6-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Helen J.; Cain, Mark P. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Urology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, Boaz [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We report a 6-year-old boy with large duplicated Muellerian duct remnant who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and dysuria. His prior urological problems included proximal hypospadias (repaired), urachal cyst, and a unilateral undescended testis. Imaging evaluation included US, MRI, and cystoscopy. Laparoscopic resection was performed via a retrovesical approach. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  19. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  20. Hip dysplasia in a 6-year-old Salz ram

    OpenAIRE

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan José; Sáez, Teófilo; Sever, Ramón; Marca, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A 6-year old Salz ram was presented with a history of poor body condition, progressive gait abnormalities, pelvic limb lameness, and difficulty with copulation. Based on the history, clinical signs, hip palpation, and radiography, a diagnosis of hip dysplasia, previously unreported in sheep, was made.

  1. Intermediate Term (3-6 Years Post Surgery) Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operatively, the 5 eyes had VA ranging from 6/60 to NLP, after a variable follow-up period of 3-6 years. Complications included development of tough vascularized retroprosthetic membrane (4 eyes) and infective endophthalmitis in one eye. Conclusion: The intermediate-term outcome of keratoprosthesis surgery in ...

  2. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  3. Body diameters in 3 - 6 years old children from Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineshev Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze the body diameters in 3-6 year old children. The biacromial diameters were taken as well as the two chest diameters, the bicristal and bitrohanterial diameters in 316 children (157 boys and 159 girls 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age attending kindergarten in Plovdiv. The analysis shows that all diameters, with the exception of the bitrohanterial have higher values in boys. The absolute year's increment of the diameters is greater in girls. The growth velocity of the researched features is greatest at the age of 3-4 and 4-5, decreasing at different rates for the different features at the age of 5-6. The only exception is the sagittal chest diameter in both sexes and the bitrohanterial diameters in girls.

  4. Spirometry in an unselected group of 6-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This study presents reference equations for spirometric parameters in 6-year-old children and evaluates the ability of spirometry to discriminate healthy children from children with asthma. Baseline spirometry and respiratory symptoms were assessed in 404 children participating in a longitudinal...... in Delta FEV1(mean) between healthy children and children with asthma (3.1% vs. 6.1%, P Spirometry including bronchodilator measurements was demonstrated...... to be feasible in 6-year-old children and reference values were determined. Spirometry aids the diagnosis of asthma in young children, but knowledge on sensitivity and specificity of these measurements is a prerequisite....

  5. Sex Differences in the Association Between Measures of General and Central Adiposity and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Results From the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Sophie H; Woodward, Mark

    2018-02-28

    There are substantial differences in the distribution of adipose tissue between women and men. We assessed the sex-specific relationships and their differences between measures of general and central adiposity and the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI). Between 2006 and 2010, the UK Biobank recruited over 500 000 participants aged 40 to 69 years across the United Kingdom. During 7 years of follow-up, 5710 cases of MI (28% women) were recorded among 265 988 women and 213 622 men without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression models yielded adjusted hazard ratios for MI associated with body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio. There was an approximate log-linear relationship between measures of general and central adiposity and the risk of MI in both sexes. A 1-SD higher in body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio, respectively, were associated with hazard ratios (confidence intervals) for MI of 1.22 (1.17; 1.28), 1.35 (1.28; 1.42), 1.49 (1.39; 1.59), and 1.34 (1.27; 1.40) in women and of 1.28 (1.23; 1.32), 1.28 (1.23; 1.33), 1.36 (1.30; 1.43), and 1.33 (1.28; 1.38) in men. The corresponding women-to-men ratios of hazard ratios were 0.96 (0.91; 1.02), 1.07 (1.00; 1.14), 1.15 (1.06; 1.24), and 1.03 (0.97; 1.09). Although general and central adiposity measures each have profound deleterious effects on the risk of MI in both sexes, a higher waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio conferred a greater excess risk of MI in women than in men. Waist-to-hip ratio was more strongly associated with the risk of MI than body mass index in both sexes, especially in women. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Sleep During Menopausal Transition: A 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Kurki, Samu; Huupponen, Eero; Engblom, Janne; Heinonen, Olli J; Polo, Olli; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    Menopausal transition is associated with increased dissatisfaction with sleep, but the effects on sleep architecture are conflicting. This prospective 6-year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the changes in sleep stages and sleep continuity that occur in women during menopausal transition. Sixty women (mean age 46.0 years, SD 0.9) participated. All women were premenopausal at baseline, and at the 6-year follow-up, women were in different stages of menopausal transition. Polysomnography was used to study sleep architecture at baseline and follow-up. The effects of aging and menopause (assessed as change in serum follicle-stimulating hormone [S-FSH]) on sleep architecture were evaluated using linear regression models. After controlling for body mass index, vasomotor, and depressive symptoms, aging of 6 years resulted in shorter total sleep time (B -37.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -71.5 to (-3.3)), lower sleep efficiency (B -6.5, 95%CI -12.7 to (-0.2)), as well as in increased transitions from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to wakefulness (B 1.0, 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9), wake after sleep onset (B 37.7, 95%CI 12.5 to 63.0), awakenings per hour (B 1.8, 95%CI 0.8 to 2.8), and arousal index (B 2.3, 95%CI 0.1 to 4.4). Higher S-FSH concentration in menopausal transition was associated with increased SWS (B 0.09, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.16) after controlling for confounding factors. A significant deterioration in sleep continuity occurs when women age from 46 to 52 years, but change from premenopausal to menopausal state restores some SWS. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Maternal lipid profile 6 years after a gestational hypertensive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Laura; Bergen, Nienke E; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mulder, Monique T; Steegers, Eric A P; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E

    2017-12-28

    Gestational hypertensive disorders (GHDs), including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, possibly through an atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study is to assess if women with a previous GHD have a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study, we included 4933 women during pregnancy, including 302 women with a GHD. Six years after pregnancy, we determined maternal lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein[a], and apolipoprotein B) and glucose levels. Women with a previous GHD had a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. These atherogenic lipid profiles were a result of higher levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Differences in lipid profile between women with a previous GHD and women with a previous normotensive pregnancy were attenuated after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Between women from both groups, no differences were observed in total cholesterol, lipoprotein[a], and glucose levels. Women with a previous GHD show a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. The increased risk of cardiovascular disease after a GHD might result from an atherogenic lipid profile after pregnancy, primarily driven by prepregnancy body mass index. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of perceptual variables on numerosity comparisonin 5-6-year-olds and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori eTokita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a critical issue in the debate over the existence of abstract numerical representation, it remains unclear whether and how perceptual variables affect numerosity judgment and how they change across development stages. In this research, we examine the effects of perceptual variables on approximate numerosity comparison in 5-6-year-olds and adults using the identical experimental procedure. In the assessment of the effect of the perceptual variables, we measured precision (i.e., Weber fraction and accuracy (i.e., point of subjective equality; PSE of the numerosity comparison. In Study 1, we tested how the manipulation of the cumulative element area would affect approximate numerosity comparison. The results showed that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large element condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. In study 2, we tested how the manipulation of the array area would affect the precision and accuracy of approximate numerosity comparison. The results demonstrated that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large array condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of perceptual variables on 5-6-year-olds is qualitatively similar to that on adults. In addition, we also tested whether the performance of approximate comparison correlated with the initial numerical skill in 5-6-year-olds to reveal least relationship between them.

  9. Nitrogen saturation in humid tropical forests after 6 years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    O emission rate and nitrate (NO3-) leaching rate were measured in an N-saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China, after 6 years of N and P addition. We hypothesized that N addition would stimulate further N saturation, but P addition might alleviate N saturation. As expected, our...

  10. Sex-specific associations of birth weight with measures of adiposity in mid-to-late adulthood: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, G; Luft, V C; Mueller, N T; Duncan, B B; Stein, M C; Vigo, Á; Matos, S M A; Fonseca, M J M; Barreto, S M; Benseñor, I M; Appel, L J; Schmidt, M I

    2016-08-01

    To investigate sex-specific associations of birth weight with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in mid-to-late adulthood. ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study of adults aged 35-74 years affiliated with universities or research institutions of six capital cities in Brazil. After exclusions, we investigated 11 636 participants. Socio-demographic factors and birth weight were obtained by interview. All anthropometry was directly measured at baseline. We categorized birth weight as low (⩽2.5 kg); normal (2.5-4 kg) and high (⩾4 kg). We performed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous outcomes and ordinal logistic regression for categorical adiposity outcomes. We examined interaction on the multiplicative scale by sex and by race. High birth weight uniformly predicted greater overall and central obesity in men and women. However, low (vs normal) birth weight, in ANCOVA models adjusted for participant age, family income, race, education, maternal education, and maternal and paternal history of diabetes, was associated with lower BMI, WC and WHR means for men, but not for women (Pinteraction=0.01, <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively). In similarly adjusted ordinal logistic regression models, odds of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.65, 0.46-0.90) and of being in the high (vs low) tertile of WC (OR=0.66, 0.50-0.87) and of WHR (OR=0.79, 0.60-1.03) were lower for low (vs normal) birth weight men, but trended higher (BMI: OR=1.18, 0.92-1.51; WC: OR=1.21, 0.97-1.53; WHR: OR=1.44, 1.15-1.82) for low (vs normal) birth weight women. In this Brazilian sample of middle-aged and elderly adults who have lived through a rapid nutritional transition, low birth weight was associated with adult adiposity in a sex-specific manner. In men, low birth weight was associated with lower overall and central adult adiposity, while in women low birth weight was generally associated with greater central adiposity.

  11. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-10-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared adipose tissue measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but no such study has been conducted in HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss. We compared DXA- with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 877 HIV+ subjects and 260 control subjects in FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status. Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r > or = 0.92) and slightly weaker for leg (r > or = 0.87) and arm (r > or = 0.71) fat. The average estimated limb fat was substantially greater for DXA than for MRI for HIV+ and control men and women (all P < 0.0001). Less of a difference was observed in trunk fat measured by DXA and MRI, but the difference was still statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability. Greater average limb fat in control and HIV+ subjects (both P < 0.0001) was associated with greater differences between DXA and MRI measurements. Because the control subjects had more limb fat than did the HIV+ subjects, greater amounts of fat were measured by DXA than by MRI when control subjects were compared with HIV+ subjects. More HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of the control subjects by DXA than by MRI (P < 0.0001). Although DXA- and MRI-measured adipose tissue depots correlate strongly in HIV+ and control subjects, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher prevalence of peripheral lipoatrophy than does MRI in HIV+ subjects.

  12. Relation of adiposity, television and screen time in offspring to their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Korenfeld, Yoel; Dengel, Donald R; Chow, Lisa S; Steinberger, Julia

    2013-09-03

    Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, ptelevision (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.

  13. Food allergy in Finnish children aged 1 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajosaari, M

    1982-09-01

    Food allergy was studied in a total of 866 Finnish children aged 1, 2, 3 and 6 years in the Helsinki region. The diagnosis was based on history as well as on elimination and challenge performed at home concerning fish, citrus fruit and eggs. The prevalence of food allergy was 19% at one year of age, increased to a peak of 27% at three years, and thereafter decreased to 8% at six years of age. The most common allergenic foods were citrus fruit, tomato, eggs, strawberry and fish. A positive history of food allergy could be confirmed by challenge in about half of the cases in the younger age groups and in 100% at six years of age. The data indicate that food allergy is common in Finnish children.

  14. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  15. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9-10 year old children and 264 17-18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the "Lie Scale" from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chordoma: 6 years' experience at a tertiary centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.P.; Bahadur, A.K.; Mohanta, P.K.; Singh, K.; Rathi, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nine patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of chordoma seen at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to age, sex, presentation, location of tumour, treatment, response, recurrence, metastasis and follow up. Chordoma constituted 0.07% of total cancer cases registered over 6 years. Out of nine patients, eight were males and one was female with median age at time of diagnosis 52 years (range 34-68 years). All had sacrococcygeal lesions except one who had a spheno-occipital lesion. Seven patients had undergone either subtotal or gross total resection whereas only biopsy had been carried out in two of them. All patients received radiation therapy, seven in a postoperative setting and two for palliation. Follow-up period ranged from 2 to 50 months. Four patients died - the first after fourth fraction of radiation, second after 10 days of treatment, third of progressive lesion in sphenoidal region despite resection and radiation and fourth of local recurrence in the sacrococcyx. One patient developed distant metastases in the lungs and subcutaneous tissue over the scalp along with local recurrence; he is still alive. Two patients are locally free of disease whereas the other two were lost to follow up. The present analysis was undertaken to review our institutional experience with an aim to provide a practical approach to these tumours. In this report, these cases are discussed and the published works have been reviewed for the optimal management of patients with chordoma Copyright (2006) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Visceral Adiposity Measurements, Metabolic and Inflammatory Profi le in Obese Patients with and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Crosssectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Rocha, Denise Rosso Tenório; Jorge, André Rocha; Braulio, Valeria Bender; Arbex, Alberto Krayyem; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Waist circumference does not distinguish subcutaneous from visceral adipose tissue, which is highly associated with impaired cardiometabolic profile and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because of the complexity of the assessment of visceral fat with imaging techniques, easy-to-apply and low-cost anthropometric measures have been proposed. The aim of the study was to show a possible association between Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP Index), Deep-abdominal adiposity tissue Index (DAAT) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) with metabolic profile and adipokines in obese subjects with and without T2DM, and to compare the results with the use of waist circumference isolated. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 101 outpatients with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) of which 48% with diabetes and aged 48.9 ±13.3 years. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular adhesion molecule type 1 and adiponectin levels, lipid profile and fasting glucose were assessed. LAP Index, DAAT and VAI were calculated and body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impedance analyses. Continuous variables were described as mean ±standard deviation, and categorical variables as absolute numbers and percentages. Nonparametric data were log-transformed and Student's t test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-squared test, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used for statistical analyses. In total, 31 men and 70 women were evaluated. Individuals with T2DM showed higher LAP values and percentage of body fat and lower waist circumference and BMI values. DAAT and LAP were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, percentage of body fat and free fat mass. After adjustment for age, sex and total body fat, both LAP Index and VAI were associated with plasma adiponectin, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in obese with and without T2DM (all P values ≤ 0.02); fasting glucose

  18. Single crowns with CAD/CAM-fabricated copings from titanium: 6-year clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Beuer, Florian; Bensel, Tobias; Boeckler, Arne F

    2014-08-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium ceramic restorations were developed with the potential for replacing expensive, high noble metal ceramic restorations. However, little information exists about the clinical performance of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns after 6 years in function. A total of 41 crowns were fabricated for 21 patients. The titanium copings were CAD/CAM milled (Everest CAD/CAM system), with an even thickness of 0.5 mm and veneered with low-fusing porcelain (Vita Titanium Porcelain) in the powder-build-up technique. All the crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate. The participants were recalled at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months after cementation to document any mechanical and biologic complications and to measure the periodontal parameters, such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and the plaque index. The success and survival rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis. After 6 years of clinical service, 12 mechanical complications and 1 biologic complication were found, which resulted in a success rate of 67.8%. The cumulative survival rate of the crowns was 91.3% after 6 years. At the end of the follow-up period, the probing depth was 3.21 mm, the percentile of surface with bleeding on probing was 25, and the plaque index was 0.37. No secondary caries or decementation was detected during the 6-year observation period. The clinical performance of the CAD/CAM titanium-ceramic crowns after 6 years was poor because of veneering porcelain problems. Recent CAD software with tools to design proper copings might improve the clinical success. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A 6 year longitudinal study of post-fire woody carbon dynamics in California's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Vicente J. Monleon; Jeremy S. Fried

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dynamics of aboveground forest woody carbon pools — live trees, standing dead trees, and down wood—during the first 6 years following wildfire across a wide range of conditions, which are characteristic of California forest fires. From repeated measurements of the same plots, we estimated change in woody carbon pools as a function of crown fire severity...

  20. Invasive disease by Streptococcus pyogenes: patients hospitalized for 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Constantí, Vanessa; Trenchs-Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Sanz-Marcos, Nuria Elvira; Guitart-Pardellans, Carmina; Gené-Giralt, Amadeu; Luaces-Cubells, Carles

    2017-07-10

    The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital. Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014). To consider ID, SGA had to be isolated in sterile samples; in patients with fascitis necroticans in skin samples or in any sample in patients with the diagnostic of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS). The SSTS was defined as hypotension and at least 2 of these criteria: renal failure, hepatic failure, acute respiratory distress, tissue necrosis or desquamative erythematous rash. Demographic data, type of infection, risk factors, clinical presentation, analytical data at admission, treatment, need for admission to a pediatric intensive care unit, microbiological data, hospital stay and evolution were collected. Fifty-two (52) cases were included (12/10,000 of all inpatients); 3 years-old was the medium age (p25-75: 1.4-6.9 years); 28 (53.8%) were boys. Fourteen patients (26.9%) had risk factors. Fever was the major symptom (51 patients, 98.1%). The skin lesions were the most frequent clinical manifestations found (21; 40.4%). In 50 (96%) cases, SGA was isolated in at least one sterile sample. Skin and soft tissue infections were diagnosed in 14 patients (26.9%), 14 (26.9%) pneumonias, 12 (23.1%) bones and joints infections, 10 (19.2%) SSTS, 6 (11.5%) occult bacteremia, 4 (7.7%) meningitis and 2 (3.8%) sepsis. Surgery was required in 18 cases (34.6%) and 17 patients (32.7%) needed intensive care. The medium hospital stay was 9.5 days (p25-75: 8-15 days). Three patients presented sequels and one patient died. The ID due to SGA was a rare but serious reason for hospital admission. Skin and soft tissue infections, and pleuroneumonia were the most

  1. A comparative study of software programmes for cross-sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J; Burger, Jacobus W A; Willemsen, Sten P; de Bruin, Ron W F; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2017-04-01

    The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single-slice computed tomography (CT)-based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter-software, intra-observer, and inter-observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Bland-Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979-1.000, P software programmes were found. Accordingly, excellent Jaccard similarity coefficients were found for all comparisons (mean ≥ 0.964). FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic showed an excellent agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements on abdominal CT scans. Furthermore, excellent inter-observer and intra-observer agreement were achieved. Therefore, results of studies using these different software programmes can reliably be compared. © 2016 The Authors. Journal

  2. Adiposity distribution influences circulating adiponectin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Mitchell; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Zhao, Shi; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2015-01-01

    Thirty percent of obese individuals are metabolically healthy and were noted have increased peripheral obesity. Adipose tissue is the primary source of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Lower adiponectin levels are observed in individuals with obesity and those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Conversely, higher levels are noted in some obese individuals who are metabolically healthy. Our objective was to determine whether abdominal adiposity distribution, rather than BMI status, influences plasma adiponectin level. Four-hundred and twenty-four subjects (female: 255) of Northern European ancestry were recruited from “Take Off Pounds Sensibly” (TOPS) weight loss club members. Demographics, anthropometrics, and dual X-ray absorptiometry of the whole body and CT scan of the abdomen were performed to obtain total body fat content and to quantify subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue respectively. Laboratory measurements included fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid panel, and adiponectin. Age- and gender-adjusted correlation analyses showed that adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue. A positive correlation was noted with HDL-cholesterol and fat free mass (padipose tissue -to-visceral adipose tissue ratios were also significantly associated with adiponectin (r=0.13, p = 0.001). Further, the best positive predictors for plasma adiponectin were found to be subcutaneous adipose tissue -to-visceral adipose tissue ratios and gender by regression analyses (Padiposity distribution is an important predictor of plasma adiponectin and obese individuals with higher subcutaneous adipose tissue -to-visceral adipose tissue ratios may have higher adiponectin levels. PMID:24811003

  3. Correlation of visceral adipose tissue measured by Lunar Prodigy dual X-ray absorptiometry with MRI and CT in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, A S; de Rooy, C; Hoermann, R; Gianatti, E J; Hamilton, E J; Roff, G; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is important to understand obesity-related comorbidities. We hypothesized that dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of VAT would correlate with traditional gold standards of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in older men. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between VAT measured simultaneously by DXA and MRI (n=95) in a cohort of older males participating in a randomized trial of testosterone replacement for diabetes. We also correlated DXA with single-slice CT (n=102) in a cohort of older males undergoing testosterone deprivation for prostate cancer. Lunar Prodigy DXA scanners using enCORE software was used to measure VAT. DXA VAT volume strongly correlated with MRI VAT volume (r=0.90, PProdigy DXA scanners correlate well with gold standard MRI and CT quantification methods, and provides a low radiation, efficient, cost-effective option. Future clinical studies examining the effects of interventions on body composition and regional fat distribution may find DXA an appropriate volumetric method to quantify VAT.

  4. Cross calibration of two dual-energy X-ray densitometers and comparison of visceral adipose tissue measurements by iDXA and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; DeMers, Barbara; Trinidad, Cathy; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare total percentage body fat (pfat) measurements between two densitometers, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimates between iDXA and MRI from the same defined abdominal region. Methods Participants (N=93 (50m, 43f), BMI: 19.1–57.6 kg/m2) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans on two DXA systems (iDXA and Lunar Prodigy), and a subgroup underwent abdominal MRI imaging for quantification of VAT. Results Pfat correlated strongly between both machines (r2=0.98, PProdigy in leaner subjects and the opposite in more overweight subjects. The R2, for regression of MRI on iDXA VAT-values was 0.948. Bland-Altman bias was +104.1 cm3 with 95% limits of agreement of −681.9 to 890.0 cm3. For both DXA methods, and iDXA v MRI determined VAT, comparison using rank regression demonstrated no order bias. Conclusions The total pfat measured by both machines were strongly, and linearly associated allowing for conversion (equations are provided) of iDXA for assessment of longitudinal body fat changes. Despite a bias of abdominal VAT measures of iDXA v MRI, the high rank correlation makes iDXA a good alternative to the more complicated and time consuming MRI for use in larger cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. PMID:28000375

  5. Reference values for three-dimensional surface cephalometry in children aged 3-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M; Schaupp, E; Massumi-Möller, N; Zeyher, C; Godt, A; Berneburg, M

    2012-05-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study design was performed to define reference values for the facial surfaces of 3-6-year-old boys and girls using three-dimensional surface cephalometry. A total of 2290 standardized three-dimensional facial images from 3 to 6-year-old preschool children were separated by gender and assigned to four age categories. All children were Caucasian and revealed no evidence of dentofacial abnormalities. On each image, 31 cephalometric landmarks were marked, resulting in 35 (19 frontal, six lateral, 10 paired) distances and eight angles. Differences between age groups and genders were calculated and significances detected. A base table with reference values was compiled, which indicated that boys showed higher values than age-matched girls and that measured distances increased with age. The mean values from this study could be compiled as a reference table for three-dimensional facial analysis in Caucasian children aged 3-6 years. Such a reference table could be used in comparative studies with other populations or children with craniofacial malformations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Early Childhood Sleep Patterns and Cognitive Development at Age 6 Years: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Franco, Oscar H; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-04-01

    To explore the association of sleep duration and awakening frequency with cognitive outcomes in young children. Mothers of 2,800 children from the Generation R cohort reported sleep duration and awakenings at children's age 24 months. At age 6 years, validated Dutch measures were used to assess children's nonverbal intelligence and language comprehension. We found a nonlinear association of total sleep time at 24 months with nonverbal intelligence ( p  = 0.03) and language comprehension ( p  = 0.04) at 6 years. Toddlers sleeping within the recommended 11-14 hr had more favorable cognitive development compared with both extremes. Frequent awakenings were negatively associated with nonverbal intelligence, but not with verbal comprehension. Sleep duration in toddlerhood has an inverted-U-shaped relation with childhood cognitive measures. Frequent awakenings are associated with lower nonverbal intelligence. Given the marked decline in sleep duration and awakenings in toddlerhood, developmental changes of sleep patterns might be important for cognitive development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  8. Association of adiposity measures with blood lipids and blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Vicente Martínez; Aguilar, Fernando Salcedo; Martínez, Montserrat Solera; López, Mairena Sánchez; Gutiérrez, Ricardo Franquelo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and percentage body fat (%BF) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with blood lipids, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the Cuenca province (Spain). Data collection was conducted under standardized conditions, taking several measurements of each variable to enhance accuracy. Analyses were performed using age-adjusted correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression adjusted for age, BMI, TST and %BF. Correlations between %BF and apolipoprotein (apo) B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and DBP were higher than those for BMI and TST. In contrast, the correlations between BMI, and apo A-I and SBP were higher than those for %BF and TST. The results were similar across the sexes. The correlations between each of the three measures of body fatness, and blood lipids and blood pressure were highest in children with greatest BMI and %BF. When analyses were adjusted for the three body fatness measures, %BF showed stronger associations than did BMI or TST with blood lipids and blood pressure, with the exception of apo A-I and SBP, which were more closely associated with BMI. %BF from BIA is more strongly associated than either BMI or TST with most of the blood lipid fractions in schoolchildren aged 8-11 years.

  9. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance training had no impact on the measures of centrally located and abdominal adiposity. Body mass and BMI should be used with caution in risk calculations and measures of total adiposity in individuals engaging in resistance training due to this mode of training increasing lean mass (and thus body mass and BMI) ...

  10. Immediate versus delayed loading of dental implants in edentulous patients' maxillae: a 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdo, Tiziano; Menini, Maria; Bevilacqua, Marco; Pera, Francesco; Pesce, Paolo; Signori, Alessio; Pera, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the surgical protocol efficacy of immediate and delayed implant loading in edentulous maxillae opposed by natural or restored mandibular dentitions over an observational period of 6 years or longer. The selected outcome determinants included individual implant survival data, progressive measurements of peri-implant bone resorption, prosthodontic survival and success data, and report of complications. A convenience sample of 49 patients requiring fixed implant-supported maxillary prostheses was split into two groups. The test group (34 patients) was treated according to the Columbus Bridge Protocol, which prescribes the insertion of four to six implants, including distally tilted implants, and load within 24 hours. The control group (15 patients) was treated via a two-stage surgical protocol of 6 to 9 straight implants that were loaded a mean 8.75 months after stage-one implant surgery. Two hundred sixty implants (test: n = 163, control: n = 97) were placed, and all subjects were ultimately treated with screw-retained full-arch prostheses. Two patients dropped out (one in the test group and one in the control group) by the time of the scheduled sixth annual visit. The other patients were followed up for 75.2 months (range: 72 to 90 months). At the 6-year follow-up, no differences in implant cumulative survival rates were found between groups. Significantly less bone loss was found in the test group (mean: 1.62 mm) compared with the control group (mean: 2.44 mm). All of the original prostheses were maintained throughout the study's observation period and were functioning satisfactorily at each patient's last recall appointment. Patients who received immediate and delayed implant loading in their edentulous maxillae demonstrated similar survival outcomes. However, less marginal bone loss was recorded around the immediately loaded implants over the study's 6-year follow-up period.

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircelik, Muhammed Bora; Gurel, Ozgul Malcok; Selcoki, Yusuf; Atar, Inci Asli; Eryonucu, Beyhan, E-mail: drdemircelik@yahoo.com [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Alper; Akin, Kayihan [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, Omer Caglar [Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods: the study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing < 50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≧ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses. Results: the average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm. Conclusion: we showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases. (author)

  12. Increased Ratio of Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Septic Patients Is Associated With Adverse Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsak, Chawika; Lee, Joseph G H; Boyd, John H; Coxson, Harvey O; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may contribute differentially to the septic inflammatory response. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with altered sepsis outcome. A retrospective analysis from a cohort of sepsis patients admitted between 2004 and 2009. A mixed medical-surgical ICU at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients older than 16 years old who had sepsis and underwent abdominal CT scan (n = 257) for clinical reasons. None. We measured the visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and calculated the visceral adipose tissue-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. Visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was not correlated with body mass index (r = -0.015, p = NS) and therefore provides additional unique information independent of body mass index. Sepsis patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue had greater 90-day mortality than patients with lower visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue (log-rank test, linear-by linear association p ratios of 2.01 (95% CI, 1.01-3.99) for the third visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile compared with the first quartile and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.15-4.69) for the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile when compared with the first quartile. Increased mortality for patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was found for both patients with body mass index less than 25 kg/m (p = 0.004) and for body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m (p = 0.023). Furthermore, we found significantly greater need for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and ICU stay in patients in the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile. The ratio of proinflammatory (interleukin-8) to anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) plasma cytokine levels was greater in patients with

  13. Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are associated with childhood blood pressure independently of family adiposity measures: The Avon longitudinal study of parents and Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Geelhoed (Miranda); A. Fraser (Abigail); K. Tilling (Kate); L. Benfield (Li); G. Davey-Smith (George); N. Sattar (Naveed); S.M. Nelson (Scott); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Offspring of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications later in life, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. Our aim was to examine whether adjusting for birth weight and familial adiposity

  14. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates...

  15. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  16. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were...... measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake...

  17. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose ...

  18. Oral health in pre-school children with asthma - followed from 3 to 6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Stensson, Malin; Wendt, Lill-Kari; Koch, Göran; Oldaeus, Göran; Nilsson, Mats; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate caries and its determinants in preschool children with and without asthma, followed from 3 to 6 years. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Caries, plaque, and gingivitis were examined at 3 and 6 years of age in 64 asthmatic children and 50 matched, healthy control children. Furthermore, at 6 years radiographic examination and saliva sampling were conducted. The parents were interviewed about various oral health-related factors. RESULTS: Initial caries inc...

  19. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution in obese children. US versus CT measurements; Valutazione della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo addominale nei bambini obesi. Confronto tra ecografia e Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrozzi, F.; Zuccoli, G.; Tognini, G.; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A.; Bacchini, E. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Bernasconi, S. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Clinica Pediatrica; Campani, R. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and, more recently, ultrasound (US), have proved excellent tools for quantifying adipose tissue distribution. Body fat distribution is an important factor in the treatment of obesity and its complications. In this work it is investigated the correlation between CT and US measurements in pediatric obesity. Forty obese children and adolescents aged 4.1-14.8 years were submitted to CT and US. Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous and total body fat were calculated (in cm{sup 2}), with the CT image analysis software. The rectus muscle-spine and rectus muscle-aorta distances, as indicative of visceral fat thickness, were measured on US images with(out) compression. The distance between skin fat and fat-rectus muscle interfaces was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness. US-CT findings have been compared with other morphometric variables-i.e., patient's (ideal) body weight and skin fold measures. A statistically significant correlation was found between the CT measurement of visceral fat and the aorta-rectus muscle and rectus muscle-spine distances (r=0.80 and 0.74, respectively). The US measurements of subcutaneous fat were correlated with CT subcutaneous fat area (r=0.82). No correlation was found between overweight, as calculated by body mass index, and CT or US fat. In conclusions, the findings indicate that US is as useful as CT in evaluating body fat distribution in pediatric obesity. [Italian] La TC e piu' recentemente l'ecografia si sono dimostrate eccellenti tecniche di valutazione della quantita' e della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo corporeo. La compartimentazione del grasso corporeo ha, infatti, importanti implicazioni per il trattamento dell'obesita' e delle sue complicanze. Scopo dello studio e' stato quello di correlare i risultati ottenuti con la TC con quelli ecografici nella valutazione dell'obesita' del paziente pediatrico. Quaranta bambini obesi con eta' compresa tra 4,1 e 14

  20. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jean M; Lindsay, Karen L; Walsh, Jennifer M; Horan, Mary; Molloy, Eleanor J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-11-10

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring. Data from the ROLO [Randomised COntrol Trial of LOw Glycaemic Index in Pregnancy] study were analysed in the ROLO Kids study. Neonatal anthropometric and skinfold measurements were compared with fetal leptin and C-peptide results from cord blood in 185 cases. Analyses were performed to examine the association between these metabolic factors and birthweight, anthropometry and markers of central and generalised adiposity. Fetal leptin was found to correlate with birthweight, general adiposity and multiple anthropometric measurements. On multiple regression analysis, fetal leptin remained significantly associated with adiposity, independent of gender, maternal BMI, gestational age or study group assignment, while fetal C-peptide was no longer significant. Fetal leptin may be an important predictor of regional neonatal adiposity. Interventional studies are required to assess the impact of neonatal adiposity on the subsequent risk of childhood obesity and to determine whether interventions which reduce circulating leptin levels have a role to play in improving neonatal adiposity measures.

  1. Muscle quality and relative adiposity are the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of physical activity, adiposity, lean mass and muscle quality to lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older women. Cross-sectional analysis at a university research laboratory. Community-dwelling older women (n=96, 73.9 ± 5.6 years, BMI=26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, muscle quality (W/kg) as the ratio of leg extension power (W) to lower-body mineral free lean mass (kg) and moderate-intensity physical activity via questionnaire. A composite measure of LEPF was calculated by summing Z-scores of the 6-min walk, 8-foot up-and-go and 30-s chair stand tests. Muscle quality and physical activity were associated with all measures of LEPF (all p0.05). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that muscle quality (standardized β=0.47, pquality and relative adiposity are the strongest independent predictors of LEPF in older women. These findings suggest that maintaining muscle quality, especially relative to adiposity, may be a critical target for interventions to prevent declines in physical function in older women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Recognition acuity, grating acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual fields in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Deborah D; Wood, Jeffrey; Twelker, J Daniel; Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma

    2010-01-01

    To measure monocular distance visual acuity (VA), grating VA, contrast sensitivity, and visual field extent in full-term, 6-year-old children. Subjects were 59 healthy full-term children aged 5.8 to 6.3 years who had no ocular abnormalities and no myopia of 1.00 diopter (D) or greater, hyperopia of 4.00 D or greater, astigmatism of 1.50 D or greater, or anisometropia of 1.50 D or greater spherical equivalent or cylinder, as evaluated by a standard eye examination with cycloplegic refraction. All were tested monocularly for recognition acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VA charts), grating acuity (Teller acuity cards), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity charts), and visual field extent (white-sphere kinetic perimetry). Right and left eye values did not differ significantly. Mean values for the right eye were 0.040 logMAR (SD, 0.075 log units) for Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VA, 24.5 cycles per degree (SD, 0.3 octaves) for grating acuity, and 1.63 (SD, 0.12 log units) for contrast sensitivity. Mean visual field extent for the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal meridians was 59.1 degrees (SD, 9.7 degrees), 57.8 degrees (SD, 9.6 degrees), 71.2 degrees (SD, 12.3 degrees), and 100.4 degrees (SD, 6.6 degrees), respectively. The results provide additional normative monocular data on visual function in 6-year-old children and indicate that their thresholds are less than those of adults for distance recognition VA, grating VA, and contrast sensitivity, but similar to those of adults for white-sphere kinetic perimetry.

  4. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Liu, Y; Berenson, G S

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. A longitudinal sample of children 10 years (n = 355; 61% females; 71% European-Americans, 29% African-Americans) who participated in cross-sectional surveys from 1973 to 1984 (baseline) and in one of two surveys (follow-ups) as young adults [19-38 years; mean (SD) = 23.6 (2.6) years] in Bogalusa, LA, were studied. Dietary data were collected using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline and at one follow-up survey; a food frequency questionnaire was used in the other follow-up survey. Candy consumers were those consuming any amount of candy. Candy consumption was calculated (g day(-1) ) from baseline 24-h dietary recalls, and was used as a covariate in the adjusted linear mixed models. Dependent variables included body mass index (BMI) and CVRF measured in young adults. At baseline, 92% of children reported consuming candy [46 (45) g day(-1)]; the percentage decreased to 67% [20 (30) g day(-1)] at follow-up. No longitudinal relationship was shown between baseline candy consumption and BMI or CVRF in young adults, suggesting that candy consumption was not predictive of health risks later in life. The consumption of nutrient rich foods consistent with dietary recommendations is important, although modest amounts of candy can be added to the diet without potential adverse long-term consequences to weight or CVRF. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Brain Structural Integrity and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Forecast 6 Year Longitudinal Growth in Children's Numerical Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M; Kochalka, John; Ngoon, Tricia J; Wu, Sarah S; Qin, Shaozheng; Battista, Christian; Menon, Vinod

    2015-08-19

    Early numerical proficiency lays the foundation for acquiring quantitative skills essential in today's technological society. Identification of cognitive and brain markers associated with long-term growth of children's basic numerical computation abilities is therefore of utmost importance. Previous attempts to relate brain structure and function to numerical competency have focused on behavioral measures from a single time point. Thus, little is known about the brain predictors of individual differences in growth trajectories of numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal design, with multimodal imaging and machine-learning algorithms, we investigated whether brain structure and intrinsic connectivity in early childhood are predictive of 6 year outcomes in numerical abilities spanning childhood and adolescence. Gray matter volume at age 8 in distributed brain regions, including the ventrotemporal occipital cortex (VTOC), the posterior parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex, predicted longitudinal gains in numerical, but not reading, abilities. Remarkably, intrinsic connectivity analysis revealed that the strength of functional coupling among these regions also predicted gains in numerical abilities, providing novel evidence for a network of brain regions that works in concert to promote numerical skill acquisition. VTOC connectivity with posterior parietal, anterior temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices emerged as the most extensive network predicting individual gains in numerical abilities. Crucially, behavioral measures of mathematics, IQ, working memory, and reading did not predict children's gains in numerical abilities. Our study identifies, for the first time, functional circuits in the human brain that scaffold the development of numerical skills, and highlights potential biomarkers for identifying children at risk for learning difficulties. Children show substantial individual differences in math abilities and ease of math learning. Early

  6. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2017-09-15

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  7. Dietary patterns in infancy are associated with child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C M; Birch, L L; Savage, J S

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether patterns of dietary exposures at 9 months are associated with child diet and weight at 6 years. Data for this study were from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Year 6 Follow-Up Studies. All data were self-reported monthly. Results of a previous latent class analysis revealed five dietary patterns varying in milk and solid food intake. These five infant dietary patterns were used in the current study to predict child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years, while controlling for confounding variables. Infants with dietary patterns higher in fruit and vegetable intake at 9 months had higher fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years. Similarly, infants with the dietary pattern characterized by foods high in energy density (that is, French Fries and sweet desserts) continued to have higher consumption of these foods at 6 years, and had a higher prevalence of overweight at 6 years (43%) compared with the other classes. Formula-fed infants had higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fewer met the dietary guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years than breastfed infants, controlling for factors such as income. Early decisions about milk-feeding, and the types of solid foods offered in infancy can foreshadow dietary patterns and obesity risk later in childhood. Infants who were offered energy-dense foods had higher intake of these foods at 6 years of age.

  8. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  9. Associations between nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and overall diet quality and adiposity measures in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined how the nutritional quality of meals and snacks was associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06:00-09:00 h, 12:00-14:00 h, and 17:00-20:00 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (meals: ≥15%; snacks: quality of meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetical energy intake-weighted means of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein. Regardless of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA score (lower nutritional quality) of meals was inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the Mediterranean diet score in both children and adolescents (P quality of meals, but not snacks, assessed by the FSA score was associated with lower overall diet quality, whereas no consistent associations were observed with regard to adiposity measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  11. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  12. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe...

  13. Breastfeeding in children of women taking antiepileptic drugs: Cognitive outcomes at age 6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Bromley, Rebecca L.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Breastfeeding is known to have beneficial effects, but concern exists that breastfeeding during maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) therapymay be harmful.We previously noted no adverse effects of breastfeeding associated with AED use on IQ at age 3 years, but IQ at age 6 years is more predictive of school performance and adult abilities. OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of AED exposure via breastfeeding on cognitive functions at age 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospec...

  14. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  15. Strabismus and Near Point of Convergence and Amblyopia in 4-6 Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, AbbasAli; Hashemi, Hassan; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Haghighi, Batool; Shafiee, Hava; Mehravaran, Shiva; Nabovati, Payam; Asharlous, Amir; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia, and the distribution of the near point of convergence (NPC), in a population of children aged 4 to 6 years. In this cross-sectional study, preschoolers in Mashhad were sampled using a random multistage cluster sampling approach. Examinations were done after obtaining parental consent. All participants had measurements of uncorrected visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, and non-cycloplegic refraction, and they had near and far cover tests to determine tropia and phoria. Of the 3765 selected children, 3701 participated in the study. The prevalence of tropia was 1.21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-1.57). Near and near/far tropia was observed in 0.83% (95% CI: 0.53-1.12) and 0.39% (95% CI: 0.18-0.59), respectively. Tropia was significantly more prevalent in boys (P=0.005). The most common type of tropia was esotropia, 0.22% (95% CI: 0.07-0.37). Among participants, 63.92% (95% CI: 62.36-65.48) had phoria; prevalence of far, near, and near/far phoria was 0.22% (95% CI: 0.07-0.37), 60.47% (95% CI: 58.88-62.07), and 3.22% (95% CI: 2.65-3.8), respectively. Mean NPC was 5.1 cm (95% CI: 5.05-5.14). NPC increased by 0.08 cm per month of age (P=0.033) and was 0.10 cm higher in boys compared to girls (P=0.027). Based on NPC, 61.58% (95% CI: 59.99-63.17) were symptomatic. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.41% (95% CI: 0.20-0.61). The type of amblyopia was anisometropic, strabismic, and isoametropic in 75%, 11.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia in this study population was not high; however, the prevalence of tropia was average compared to previous studies in Iran. Describing NPC in a 4- to 6-year-old Iranian population for the first time, we found that NPC increased with age in this sample.

  16. The Role of Creative Drama in Improving the Creativity of 4-6 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Momeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the influence of creative drama on the creativity of 4 to 6 years old children. Accordingly, using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 52 children (21 girls and 31 boys, of district of Ahwaz city, were chosen and then randomly divided into two groups of experimental (33 people and control (19 people. The researched was directly involved in intervention as regarded the experimental group. The intervention group participated in creative drama activities for two months (15 sessions. The creativity level of the children in these two groups, before and after the intervention, was measured using the creativity test of Jean-Louis Cellier? This test includes verbal creativity, completing and interpreting the pictures that are determinative of creativity components, fluidity, extension, flexibility and originality. The data and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistical and inferential methods such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and non-parametric rank (Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and the Spearman correlation. The results indicated that the creative drama significantly increased the creativity of children at the ages of 4 to 6.

  17. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  18. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor problems than overweight and obese

  19. Body size and intelligence in 6-year-olds: are offspring of teenage mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A; Leech, Sharon L; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2009-11-01

    Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Two prospective study cohorts assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980's and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990's. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children.

  20. Reported safety environment predicts injuries among children aged 1-6 years in specific communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Peleg, Kobi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2018-01-09

    To measure individual and environmental risk factors predicting reported child injuries. A prospective, follow-up study was performed including 380 parents of children aged 1-6 years, living in various communities throughout Israel. Parents were interviewed three times, 3 months apart. Injuries were defined as including minor injuries that required parental attention and medically attended injuries: doctor or nurse visit, emergency medical services or hospitalisation. Parents reported the level of safety for both indoor and outdoor environments, covering 11 items pertaining to safety elements dedicated to prevent child injury. Socio-demographic and parents' attitudes towards child injury were also measured. During the 6-month follow-up period, 37% of parents reported that their child was injured, and 29% of them received medical attention. Reported outdoor safety environment was found to be a predictor of child injury, suggesting that the risk of child injury is higher among children living in unsafe outdoor environments. However, this depended on levels of religiosity (with an odds ratio of 2.48 and 95% confidence interval of 1.09-5.64 for traditional families and an odds ratio of 3.65 and 95% confidence interval of 1.58-8.46 for religious families). Safe environments play a major role in decreasing the risk of injury among children. In order to decrease injury rates among young children, attention should be given to the immediate outdoor environment in which children grow up and play. Decision makers might particularly want to pay closer attention to the influence of religious backgrounds on child safety through safe environments. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  2. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  3. Caries experience in the primary dentition among French 6-year-olds between 1991 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Colette; Eid, Ariane; Riordan, Paul J; Wolikow, Maryse; Cohen, Fabien

    2005-10-01

    There are few national caries preventive policies for children in France. Various surveys suggest that in the late 1980s, oral health of the 6-year olds in France was poorer than in those of other European countries. In Val de Marne (a Department just east of Paris) a public dental service was established in 1991. A programme to inform preschool staff about dental diseases was commenced and volunteers brought oral health information to parents and health professionals. Periodical monitoring of primary tooth caries of 6-year olds was planned. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in primary tooth caries in 6-year olds over the 10 years of the programme. Participating 6-year olds, randomly selected, were examined in schools by dentists. Clinical data were collected (WHO criteria). Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved comparison of mean values, variance analysis and chi-square test for categorical variables. The proportions of children with caries experience were, 38.9%, 30.6% and 22.2% in 1991, 1995 and 2000 respectively (P European native parents or belonging to low socioeconomic families remained those most affected by dental caries in 2000. Dental caries in 6-year olds improved between 1991 and 2000 in Val de Marne but caries remained a socially inequitable disease. Most children did not have access to dental care. The situation requires changes to the dental care provision system.

  4. Tracking food consumption frequency of children from age 4 to 6 years: the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savila, Fa'asisila; Obolonkin, Victor; Rush, Elaine

    2015-08-21

    To report longitudinal food frequency consumption and evaluate tracking of food frequency among a cohort of New Zealand-born Pacific children. Identify the most commonly consumed foods and estimate tracking among Pacific children aged 4 and 6 years. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to n>1,000 caregivers of children aged 4 and 6 years. Consumption scores were developed from averaged frequency of daily food. Foods and food groups were examined for tracking. Caregivers completed questionnaires for 646 children at both ages. Twelve most frequently consumed foods were identified, accounting for up to 25% of all food consumed daily. Across ages 4 and 6, the association for frequency of the most frequently consumed foods was moderate (r(2)=0.53). Food groups: breads and cereals; meat and alternates; and vegetables and fruit constituted approximately 72% of all foods consumed daily. The association of frequency of consumption within food groups across the two measurement periods was strong (r(2)=0.96). Pacific children consume similar foods that track from age 4 through age 6 years.

  5. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2010-08-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed for proximal surfaces.

  6. Magic memories: young children's verbal recall after a 6-year delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the event, including 2 who were under 3 years old when the event occurred. This may be the most convincing evidence to date that such early experiences can be verbally recalled after long delays. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia and underscore some of the problems associated with evaluating the veracity of early memories under less controlled conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baez Ramon J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  8. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  9. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  10. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  11. Serum Visfatin and Leptin in Relation to Childhood Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van de Heijning, Bert; van der Beek, Eline; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Visfatin has been suggested as a marker of visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that visfatin, but not leptin, would be specifically associated with visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation of serum visfatin and leptin with measures of adiposity and body fat distribution in

  12. Carboxylesterase 1 gene duplication and mRNA expression in adipose tissue are linked to obesity and metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involved in the control of mRNA expression. Here, we investigated mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic function in a population of elderly twins. Furthermore, the heritability of mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and the effect of gene...

  13. The effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Henriksen, O; Enevoldsen, L H

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that adipose tissue lipolysis is enhanced in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined the effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid mobilisation and measured the acute effects of exercise on the co-ordination of adipose tissue...

  14. A 6-year Follow-up survey of health status in middle-aged women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjermestad, Krister W; Naess, Eva E; Bahr, David; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-09-01

    Studies suggest younger women with Turner syndrome (TS) have good quality of life. Less is known about everyday functioning in adults with TS. In a 6-year follow-up study, multiple areas of functioning were compared between TS women and controls. Women with TS and controls were mailed a self-report survey 6 years after a baseline study. Fifty-seven women with TS (M age 40·6 ± 11·1 years) and 101 controls (M age 38·8 ± 10·6 years, ns) responded. Measures of background information, experienced life strain and presence/impact of health conditions were developed for this study. The QPS Nordic measured perceived workload challenges. The LiSat-9 measured life satisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale measured self-esteem. More TS women lived alone, fewer had biological children, and more had adoptive children. TS women reported fewer sex partners and less sexual confidence. Controls had higher education. There was no difference in employment status. More TS women received disability pensions. TS women reported their work as more physically challenging, less positively challenging and requiring less knowledge skills. TS women experienced more life strain in school, adolescence and late working life. Controls reported higher overall life satisfaction, with no difference between samples on specific domains. TS women reported lower self-esteem. For TS women only, physical health at baseline predicted length of education and mental health at baseline predicted self-esteem. Women with TS face more challenges than controls on several domains of functioning. Early physical and mental health may influence later educational achievement and self-esteem for women with TS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Correlation of adiposity indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy adults of Singapore: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Xinyan; Tey, Siew Ling; Leong, Claudia; Quek, Rina; Loo, Yi Ting; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has long been highlighted for its association with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nonetheless, the best adiposity indices to evaluate the CVD risk factors remain contentious and few studies have been performed in Asian populations. In the present study, we compared the association strength of percent body fat (PBF) to indirect anthropometric measures of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and body adiposity index (BAI)) and central adiposity (wais...

  16. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in hypogonadal men during 6 years of transdermal testosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Jean-Pierre; Gardette, Jean; Rollet, Jacques; Legros, Jean-Jacques

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Hypogonadism affects an estimated 2-4 million men in the USA, but only 5% receive treatment. Testosterone replacement therapy reduces the effects of testosterone deficiency on sexual function, mood and energy in hypogonadal patients. Long-term hypogonadism management requires testosterone treatment to restore serum concentrations of testosterone and its active metabolites, within physiological ranges; a testosterone preparation that achieves physiological plasma concentrations without supra-physiological escape is a preferred option. A previous 1-year study European clinical study showed the efficacy and safety of a transdermal testosterone patch (Testopatch(®) ). The present study shows the long-term (6-year) safety and efficacy of Testopatch in patients with primary or secondary hypogonadism. We show that, over the long-term, Testopatch was associated with no relevant changes in PSA concentration and PSA velocity, or any significant prostate risks (there were no cases of prostate cancer). To assess the change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in patients with primary or secondary hypogonadism, receiving transdermal testosterone. This was an interventional, 6-year study, conducted in Urology and Endocrinology centres in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Participants were primary (48%) or secondary (52%) hypogonadal patients who received two 60 cm(2) testosterone patches (Testopatch(®) ), delivering 4.8 mg of testosterone per day, applied every 2 days. During treatment, total testosterone (TT), dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol and, PSA concentrations were measured in a centralised laboratory every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months thereafter. In all, 200 patients [mean (sd) age 41.0 (12.5) years, body weight 82.5 (13.7) kg, height 177.2 (9.3) cm, body mass index 26.2 (3.4) kg/m(2) ] were treated with transdermal testosterone patches. In all, 161 patients

  17. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Adult adiposity linked to relationship hostility for low cortisol reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Slep, Amy; Lorber, Michael; Thorson, Katherine; Heyman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Past research on the relation between hostility in intimate relationships and adiposity has yielded mixed findings. The present study investigated whether the association between relationship hostility and adiposity is moderated by people’s biological reactions to couple conflict. Cohabiting adult couples (N = 117 couples) engaged in two conflict interactions, before and after which salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results revealed an association between relationship hostility and adip...

  19. Letter to the Editor: A 6-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the Editor: A 6-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010. KL Gowda, MAM Marie, YA Al-Sheikh, J John, S Gopalkrishnan ...

  20. Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 1 million children in Northern India · Pre-school rural Northern India · DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 8000+ villages (ie, AWCs) in 72 clusters (ie, blocks) · DEVTA vitamin A schedule, 05/1999 - 04/2004 · DEVTA: biomedical monitoring.

  1. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  2. Current level of gross motor development of 3-6 year-old children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research shows that preschool children are physically not as active as in the past, leading to the question of the current level of gross motor development of preschool children in urban areas in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to establish and describe specific gross motor components in a group of 3-6 year old ...

  3. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  4. Attending to Relations: Proportional Reasoning in 3- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A.; Cordes, Sara

    2018-01-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task…

  5. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  6. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Frankenberger, R.; Lohbauer, U.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krämer, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural

  7. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  8. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  9. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  10. The motor development of 2 to 6-year old children infected with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the motor development of 2 to 6-year old children (53.74 months, sd 12.49) who were infected (Group 1, n = 17) with HIV and to compare their development with an affected (Group 2, n = 13) and unaffected group (Group 3, n = 12). The motor development of the group was determined ...

  11. Comparison of the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year periods in and around Gauteng Province. Further distinction was made based on gender, race and histological types. Methods: A retrospective audit was conducted including histologically documented oesophageal cancer cases collected over a ...

  12. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 2-6 years old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the differences in prevalence of early childhood caries among underprivileged and privileged children aged 2 to 6 years at different institutions in Dar es Salaam. Design: A cross sectional study. Study participants and methods: Intra oral examination was done to assess the children's caries status scored ...

  13. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: a 6 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariz, M. I.; Krack, P.; Alesch, F.; Augustinsson, L.-E.; Bosch, A.; Ekberg, R.; Johansson, F.; Johnels, B.; Meyerson, B. A.; N'Guyen, J.-P.; Pinter, M.; Pollak, P.; von Raison, F.; Rehncrona, S.; Speelman, J. D.; Sydow, O.; Benabid, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with tremor predominant Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 years post surgery. This was a prolonged follow-up study of 38 patients from eight centres who participated in a multicentre study, the 1 year

  14. Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 Years for Predicting IQ at 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Rousseau, Jessica; Calderon, Johanna; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Kaminski, Monique

    2017-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of the 36-month Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) score for IQ score at age 5 to 6 years in the general population and to identify factors associated with IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ in preschool children regardless of ASQ score. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Case Report - A 6 year-old boy was referred from a district hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report - A 6 year-old boy was referred from a district hospital with congestive cardiac failure. A Selman, E Molyneux, N Kennedy. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL ...

  16. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  17. SFRP2 Is Associated with Increased Adiposity and VEGF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rachel K; O'Reilly, Michael W; Bujalska, Iwona J; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Hazlehurst, Jonathan M; Foucault, Danielle R; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium. Effects of recombinant sFRP2 on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation were measured. Preadipocyte expression of the angiogenic genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFATC3) was measured after recombinant sFRP2 exposure. Complementary clinical studies correlating human serum sFRP2 with age, gender, adiposity and insulin secretion were also performed. sFRP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in mouse and human adipose tissue. In humans, sFRP2 mRNA expression was 4.2-fold higher in omental than subcutaneous adipose. Omental adipose tissue secreted 63% more sFRP2 protein than subcutaneous. Treatment with recombinant sFRP2 did not impact on lipogenesis or preadipocyte proliferation but was associated with increased VEGF mRNA expression. In human subjects, circulating insulin levels positively correlated with serum sFRP2, and levels were higher in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (34.2ng/ml) compared to controls (29.5ng/ml). A positive correlation between sFRP2 and BMI was also observed. Circulating sFRP2 is associated with adipose tissue mass and has a potential role to drive adipose angiogenesis through enhanced VEGF expression.

  18. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  19. Repeatability testing of a new Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Ryu, Yeonsu; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H

    2017-05-29

    Vehicle safety is improving, thus decreasing the number of life-threatening injuries and increasing the need for research in other areas of the body. The current child anthropomorphic test device (ATD) does not have the capabilities or instrumentation to measure many of the potential interactions between the lower extremity and the vehicle interior. A prototype Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity (ATD-LE) was developed and contains a tibia load cell and a more biofidelic ankle. The repeatability of the device has not yet been assessed; thus, the objective was to evaluate the repeatability of the ATD-LE. Additionally, a dynamic assessment was conducted to quantify injury threshold values. A pneumatic ram impactor was used at 2 velocities to evaluate repeatability. The ATD-LE was fixed to a table and impacted on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. Three repeated trials at 1.3 and 2.3 m/s without shoes and 2.3 m/s with shoes were conducted. The consistency of tibia force (N), bending moment (Nm), ankle range of motion (ROM, °), and stiffness (Nm/°) were quantified. A dynamic assessment using knee bolster airbag (KBA) tests was also conducted. The ATD-LE was positioned to mimic 3 worst-case scenarios: toes touching the mid-dashboard, touching the lower dashboard, and flat on the floor prior to airbag deployment. The impact responses in the femur and tibia were directly collected and compared with published injury threshold values. Ram impact testing indicated primarily excellent repeatability for the variables tested. For all 3 conditions the coefficients of variance (CV) were as follows: tibia force, 1.9-2.7%; tibia moment, 1.0-2.2%; ROM, 1.3-1.4%; ankle stiffness, 4.8-15.6%. The shoe-on condition resulted in a 25% reduction in tibia force and a 56% reduction in tibia bending moment. The KBA tests indicate that the highest injury risk may be when the toes touch the lower dashboard, due to the high bending moments recorded in the tibia at 76.2 Nm, which was

  20. Recent Advances in Human Genetics and Epigenetics of Adiposity: Pathway to Precision Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Mendelson, Michael; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the past decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions now are known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Gene expression associated with general adiposity is enriched in the nervous system. In contrast, genes associated with abdominal adiposity function in adipose tissue. Recent population-based epigenetic analyses have highlighted additional distinct loci. We discuss how associated genetic variants can lead to understanding causal mechanisms, and to disentangling reverse causation in epigenetic analyses. Discoveries emerging from population genomics are identifying new disease markers and potential novel drug targets to better define and combat obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  2. Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-08-01

    Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development.

  3. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  4. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  5. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaas, T.; Kamphuis, D.J.; Witkamp, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.)

  6. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  7. Articulation Speaks to Executive Function: An Investigation in 4- to 6-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Netelenbos; Robbin L. Gibb; Fangfang Li; Claudia L. R. Gonzalez

    2018-01-01

    Executive function (EF) and language learning play a prominent role in early childhood development. Empirical research continues to point to a concurrent relation between these two faculties. What has been given little attention, however, is the association between EF and speech articulation abilities in children. This study investigated this relation in children aged 4–6 years. Significant correlations indicated that children with better EF [via parental report of the Behavior Rating Invento...

  8. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person?s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years...

  9. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  11. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Frankenberger, Roland; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Feilzer, Albert J; Krämer, Norbert

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural strength (FFL: flexural fatigue limit) were evaluated in a four-point bending setup (n = 15) in distilled water at 37°C. For the in vivo part, 30 patients received 68 direct resin composite restorations of the same materials (Grandio bonded with Solobond M; Tetric Ceram bonded with Syntac). Patients revealed a minimum of two different class II restorations in different quadrants. Epoxy replicas of restored teeth were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 30× magnification for fatigue characteristics, and 11 selected restorations per group were assessed for marginal fatigue characteristics at 200×. In vitro, YM was 15.7 GPa (Grandio) and 8.7 GPa (Tetric Ceram; p Grandio) versus 101.5 MPa (Tetric Ceram; p > 0.05), and FFL was 63.0 MPa (Grandio) versus 44.3 MPa (Tetric Ceram; p Grandio; p Grandio, clinical outcome for both resin composite materials over 6 years of clinical service was similar. Higher FFLs in vitro seem to be related to less marginal composite fractures in vivo but without any influence on clinical outcome until the 6 years recall. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  14. Age at Introduction to Solid Foods and Child Obesity at 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Chloe M; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that timing of introduction of solid foods may be associated with subsequent obesity, and the association may vary by whether an infant is breastfed or formula-fed. We included 1181 infants who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) and the Year 6 Follow Up (Y6FU) study. Data from IFPS II were used to calculate the primary exposure and timing of solid food introduction (obesity at 6 years of age (BMI ≥95th percentile). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between timing of the introduction of solids and obesity at 6 years and test whether this association was modified by breastfeeding duration (breastfed for 4 months vs. not). Prevalence of obesity in our sample was 12.0%. The odds of obesity was higher among infants introduced to solids obesity. We found no interaction between breastfeeding duration and early solid food introduction and subsequent obesity. Timing of introduction of solid foods was not associated with child obesity at 6 years in this sample. Given the inconsistency in findings with other studies, further studies in larger populations may be needed.

  15. Using the common sense model of illness perceptions to examine osteoarthritis change: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; Bijsterbosch, Jessica; Scharloo, Margreet; Hampson, Sarah E; Kroon, Herman M; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between changes in common sense models and changes in functional status over a 6-year follow-up in patients with osteoarthritis. At baseline and follow-up, osteoarthritis outpatients (N = 241) recruited from a university medical center completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index, and the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Also, their physician-assessed pain intensity, and biomedical, and clinical measures of medical severity of osteoarthritis were recorded. Functional disability, pain intensity. Over 6 years, functional disability and pain intensity increased. The IPQ-R dimensions of timeline, personal control, and illness coherence became more negative, and emotional representations became less negative (i.e., more accepting). Patients identified as sharing a similar profile of negative changes on the IPQ-R had significantly worse functioning on 2 of 3 outcomes, independent of objectively measured osteoarthritis severity. Changes in illness perceptions were associated with changes in outcomes. Interventions to prevent increasingly negative patterns of illness perceptions over time, with an emphasis on strengthening control cognitions, may benefit functional status outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis.

  16. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  17. [Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R

    2009-02-01

    Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.

  18. Healing of donor defect after mandibular parasymphyseal block harvesting: a 6-year computerized tomographic follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, Carolina; Toti, Paolo; Guidetti, Franco; Martuscelli, Ranieri; Califano, Luigi; Sbordone, Ludovico

    2012-07-01

    A long-term survey on the healing potential of large-sized parasymphyseal osseous defects. Ten patients, subjected to 14 bilateral and 3 unilateral parasymphyseal bone harvesting for alveolar ridge augmentation, were selected for the retrospective chart review. CT scans were performed immediately before bone grafting, before implant insertion, and then once annually for 6 years, and the volumes of the bone defects at the buccal aspect in the healing process were measured using a software program. Volumes from the yearly measurements were then compared statistically. Volumes of both the intrasurgical defects, 0.77 (0.20) cc and of those in the one-year group, 0.60 (0.26) cc were statistically different from volumes of all the other time intervals (from 24 to 72 months) with all p-values less than 0.002 and 0.004, respectively. The healing of osseous defects in the long-term radiographic survey (6 years) resulted in bony infill of 63%. For parasymphyseal defects of 0.7 cc, a maximum possible healing of two-thirds can be expected; a re-harvesting procedure could be performed 24 months after early surgery, due to both the formation of a new buccal cortical plate and the achievement of a steady state of osseous remodelling. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  20. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for the Treatment of Progressive Corneal Ectasia: 6-Year Prospective Outcome in a French Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Muriel; Lefevre, Amélie; Auxenfans, Céline; Burillon, Carole

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate 6-year results of standardized epithelium-off corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for treatment of progressive corneal ectasia. Prospective, consecutive, interventional case series. Thirty-six eyes of 25 consecutive patients with documented progressive primary or iatrogenic corneal ectasia underwent CXL following the Siena protocol. The main outcome measures included uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, biomicroscopy and fundus appearance, topography-derived steep and flat keratometry (Kmax, Kmin), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT-IOP), and endothelial cell density (ECD), recorded at baseline and months 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 72. Bilateral macular optical coherence tomography was performed at the endpoint visit. The mean follow-up was 66 ± 6 months (range, 60-78 months). At 6 years, CXL stabilized primary and iatrogenic corneal ectasia in 89% of the patients. In bilateral CXL, the progression of the first eye was highly predictive of the fellow eye's outcome. At the endpoint follow-up, the mean outcome variations were: UDVA: -0.08 ± 0.36 logMAR (P = .2); CDVA: -0.14 ± 0.28 logMAR (P = .004); Kmax: +0.11 ± 1.70 diopters (D) (P = .7); Kmin: -0.25 ± 1.25 D (P = .2); CCT: -16.38 ± 37 μm (P = .01); GAT-IOP: +1.0 ± 2.3 mm Hg (P = .01); ECD: +31 ± 400 cells/mm(2) (P = .6); no cases of macular toxicity or severe adverse events were reported. At 6 years, CXL maintains long-term results in halting the progression of corneal ectasia, with significant improvement in CDVA and long-term stability of keratometry. Further clinical studies with longer follow-up and larger series would be necessary to definitely confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  3. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  4. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...... month corrected age. At 6 years, a dexa scan was performed to evaluate body composition. Results A total number of 277 infants will be invited to follow up at 6 years of age. So far 79 children have had a dexa scan performed (HM 26, HMF: 22 and PF: 31). Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass (MM) was measured.......841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...

  5. Radiation dose evaluation in head and neck MDCT examinations with a 6-year-old child anthropomorphic phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Fujii, Keisuke; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Yamauchi, Masato

    2010-07-01

    CT examinations of the head and neck are the most commonly performed CT studies in children, raising concern about radiation dose and their risks to children. The purpose of this study was to clarify radiation dose levels for children of 6 years of age undergoing head and neck multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations. Radiation doses were measured with small-sized silicon-photodiode dosimeters that were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within a standard 6-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. Organ and effective doses of brain CT were evaluated for 19 protocols in nine hospitals on various (2-320 detector rows) MDCT scanners. The maximum value of mean organ dose in brain CT was 34.3 mGy for brain. Maximum values of mean doses for the radiosensitive lens and thyroid were 32.7 mGy for lens in brain CT and 17.2 mGy for thyroid in neck CT. seventy-fifth percentile of effective dose distribution in brain CT was approximately the same as the diagnostic reference level (DRL) in the 2003 UK survey. The results of this study would encourage revision of MDCT protocols in pediatric head and neck CT examinations for dose reduction and protocol standardization.

  6. Radiation dose evaluation in head and neck MDCT examinations with a 6-year-old child anthropomorphic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji [Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Fujii, Keisuke [Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiological Protection, Chiba (Japan); Yamauchi, Masato [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Nagakute-cho, Aichi-gun, Aichi (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    CT examinations of the head and neck are the most commonly performed CT studies in children, raising concern about radiation dose and their risks to children. The purpose of this study was to clarify radiation dose levels for children of 6 years of age undergoing head and neck multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations. Radiation doses were measured with small-sized silicon-photodiode dosimeters that were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within a standard 6-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. Organ and effective doses of brain CT were evaluated for 19 protocols in nine hospitals on various (2-320 detector rows) MDCT scanners. The maximum value of mean organ dose in brain CT was 34.3 mGy for brain. Maximum values of mean doses for the radiosensitive lens and thyroid were 32.7 mGy for lens in brain CT and 17.2 mGy for thyroid in neck CT. seventy-fifth percentile of effective dose distribution in brain CT was approximately the same as the diagnostic reference level (DRL) in the 2003 UK survey. The results of this study would encourage revision of MDCT protocols in pediatric head and neck CT examinations for dose reduction and protocol standardization. (orig.)

  7. Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P M; Schwartz, M P; Richards, J W; Goldstein, A O; Rojas, T H

    1991-12-11

    Little is known about the influence of advertising on very young children. We, therefore, measured product logo recognition by subjects aged 3 to 6 years. Children were instructed to match logos with one of 12 products pictured on a game board. Twenty-two logos were tested, including those representing children's products, adult products, and those for two popular cigarette brands (Camel and Marlboro). Preschools in Augusta and Atlanta, Ga. A convenience sample of 229 children attending preschool. The children demonstrated high rates of logo recognition. When analyzed by product category, the level of recognition of cigarette logos was intermediate between children's and adult products. The recognition rates of The Disney Channel logo and Old Joe (the cartoon character promoting Camel cigarettes) were highest in their respective product categories. Recognition rates increased with age. Approximately 30% of 3-year-old children correctly matched Old Joe with a picture of a cigarette compared with 91.3% of 6-year-old children. Very young children see, understand, and remember advertising. Given the serious health consequences of smoking, the exposure of children to environmental tobacco advertising may represent an important health risk and should be studied further.

  8. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Demetra D.; Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI...

  9. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  10. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  12. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  13. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  14. Assessing Treatment Options Based on Expected Long-Term Results: Case Report Demonstrates 6-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Douglas E

    2015-05-01

    A patient whose chief concern was the esthetics of her anterior teeth presented for a second opinion after it had been recommended that crowns be placed throughout her mouth. Examination revealed numerous defective and some fractured restorations with recurring caries. With treatment goals including creating and maintaining a healthy periodontal environment, leveling the occlusal plane, and decreasing biomechanical risk, the treatment plan incorporated an interdisciplinary approach that utilized orthodontics, a Kois deprogrammer, and implant therapy. Demonstrating 6-year outcomes, this report discusses use of a method to assess treatment options based on expected long-term results.

  15. 6-year-old girl with anorectal malformation: what is more important – anatomy or function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Morozov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-year-old girl with first revealed anorectal malformation with perineal fistula was investigate. She did not have any complaints or history of constipation/soiling. Resting and squeeze anal pressure by anorectal manometry was normal. Recto-anal inhibitory reflex registered. There was no signs of dyssynergic defecation. The diameter of the colon by contrast enema was normal, megarectum did not detect, barium all came out after defecation. Muscles electro-identification confirmed external anal sphincter located posterior to the anus. After examination, council for Pediatric Surgery decided not to perform the surgery. Monitoring of the patient continued.

  16. Metanephric adenoma in a 6-year-old child with hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Serhan; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Canakl, Fatih; Yalçn, Bilgehan; Kösemehmetoğlu, Kemal; Tekgül, Serdar; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2009-06-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a renal tumor that is rarely diagnosed in children. Although it is considered benign and to have a good prognosis, the diagnosis of MA is challenging because of histopathologic and radiologic similarities to Wilms tumor. In this case report, we present a 6-year-old girl, with a renal mass and right hemihypertrophy, who was previously diagnosed as Wilms tumor on a fine-needle biopsy and diagnosed as MA after nephroureterectomy. The differentiation between Wilms tumor and metanephric adenoma is also discussed.

  17. Effect of training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis determined by microdialysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1995-01-01

    glycerol concentrations (Tr: 129 +/- 36 microM; Sed: 119 +/- 56) did not differ between groups. It is concluded that in intact subcutaneous adipose tissue epinephrine-stimulated blood flow is enhanced, whereas lipolytic sensitivity to epinephrine is the same in trained compared with untrained subjects.......Trained humans (Tr) have a higher fat oxidation during submaximal physical work than sedentary humans (Sed). To investigate whether this reflects a higher adipose tissue lipolytic sensitivity to catecholamines, we infused epinephrine (0.3 nmol.kg-1.min-1) for 65 min in six athletes and six...... sedentary young men. Glycerol was measured in arterial blood, and intercellular glycerol concentrations in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by microdialysis. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by 133Xe-washout technique. From these measurements adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated...

  18. Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3-6 years in China. METHODS: Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least -0.50 D in the worse eye, hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye. Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5-6 years in most conditions.

  19. Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Zhao, Feng; Lin, Lixia; Li, Zhen; Zeng, Junwen; Yang, Zhikuan; Morgan, Ian G

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3-6 years in China. Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex) was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least -0.50 D in the worse eye), hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye) and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye). Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5-6 years in most conditions.

  20. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  1. Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-10-15

    To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.

  2. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  3. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer restorative system: a 6-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgan, Sevil; Kutuk, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Oztas, Sema Seval; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a glass ionomer (GI) restorative system in the restoration of posterior teeth compared with a micro-filled hybrid posterior composite. A total of 140 (80 Cl1 and 60 Cl2) lesions in 59 patients were restored with a GI system (Equia) or a micro hybrid composite (Gradia Direct). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and yearly during 6 years according to the modified-USPHS criteria. Negative replicas at each recall were observed under SEM to evaluate surface characteristics. Data were analyzed with Cohcran's Q and McNemar's tests (p evaluated in 47 patients with a recall rate of 79.6% at 6 years. Significant differences were found in marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration for both restorative materials for Cl1 and Cl2 restorations (p  0.05). A significant decrease in color match was observed in Equia restorations (p performance after 6 years. SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings. Both materials showed a good clinical performance for the restoration of posterior teeth during the 6-year evaluation. The clinical effectiveness of Equia and Gradia Direct Posterior was acceptable in Cl1 and Cl2 cavities subsequent to 6-year evaluation.

  4. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  5. Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Brooks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous research suggests a relationship between chronic low back pain (cLBP and adiposity, this relationship is poorly understood. No research has explored the relationship between abdominal-specific subcutaneous and visceral adiposity with pain and disability in cLBP individuals. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationship of regional and total body adiposity to pain and disability in cLBP individuals. Methods A preliminary explorative study design of seventy (n = 70 adult men and women with cLBP was employed. Anthropometric and adiposity measures were collected, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, total body adiposity and specific ultrasound-based abdominal adiposity measurements. Self-reported pain and disability were measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI questionnaires respectively. Relationships between anthropometric and adiposity measures with pain and disability were assessed using correlation and regression analyses. Results Significant correlations between abdominal to lumbar adiposity ratio (A-L variables and the waist-to-hip ratio with self-reported pain were observed. A-L variables were found to predict pain, with 9.1–30.5 % of the variance in pain across the three analysis models explained by these variables. No relationships between anthropometric or adiposity variables to self-reported disability were identified. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that regional distribution of adiposity via the A-L is associated with cLBP, providing a rationale for future research on adiposity and cLBP.

  6. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... venous glycerol concentrations increased substantially from rest to exercise but were similar both at rest and during later stages of exercise. In contrast, during the initial approximately 40 min of exercise, calculated glycerol concentration was significantly lower (approximately 40%) than measured...... and continuous prolonged exercise. However, during shorter periods of exercise (

  7. A 6-year exercise program improves skeletal traits without affecting fracture risk: a prospective controlled study in 2621 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detter, Fredrik; Rosengren, Björn E; Dencker, Magnus; Lorentzon, Mattias; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2014-06-01

    Most pediatric exercise intervention studies that evaluate the effect on skeletal traits include volunteers and follow bone mass for less than 3 years. We present a population-based 6-year controlled exercise intervention study in children with bone structure and incident fractures as endpoints. Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys in the intervention group (3969 person-years) and 835 girls and 869 boys in the control group (8245 person-years), all aged 6 to 9 years at study start, during the 6-year study period. Children in the intervention group had 40 minutes daily school physical education (PE) and the control group 60 minutes per week. In a subcohort with 78 girls and 111 boys in the intervention group and 52 girls and 54 boys in the control group, bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2) ) and bone area (mm(2) ) were measured repeatedly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured bone mass and bone structure at follow-up. There were 21.7 low and moderate energy-related fractures per 1000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.3 fractures in the control group, leading to a rate ratio (RR) of 1.12 (0.85, 1.46). Girls in the intervention group, compared with girls in the control group, had 0.009 g/cm(2) (0.003, 0.015) larger gain annually in spine BMD, 0.07 g (0.014, 0.123) larger gain in femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), and 4.1 mm(2) (0.5, 7.8) larger gain in femoral neck area, and at follow-up 24.1 g (7.6, 40.6) higher tibial cortical BMC (g) and 23.9 mm(2) (5.27, 42.6) larger tibial cross-sectional area. Boys with daily PE had 0.006 g/cm(2) (0.002, 0.010) larger gain annually in spine BMD than control boys but at follow-up no higher pQCT values than boys in the control group. Daily PE for 6 years in at study start 6- to 9-year-olds improves bone mass and bone size in girls and bone mass in boys, without affecting the fracture risk. © 2014 American Society for Bone

  8. Immediate Nonfunctional Loading of Two Single-Maxillary Postextractive Implants: 6-Year Postloading Results of Two Case Reports

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    Vincenzo Ariano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss of single-maxillary immediate postextractive implants and immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL during 72 months of follow-up. Material and Methods. Two single titanium implants (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3I, USA were placed in two patients using INFL technique. Implant stability and crestal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. All osseointegrated implants were clinically successful after 6 years of functional loading. Conclusion. Within the limit of the present case report, the paper supports the concept that INFL of single dental implant can be a successful treatment procedure.

  9. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the fore...

  10. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. (orig.)

  11. Child abuse-related homicides in New Mexico: a 6-year retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected.

  12. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years

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    A.J. Gordillo-Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires induce a series of soil changes affecting their physical and chemical properties and the hydrological and erosive response. Two of the properties that are commonly affected by burning are soil water repellency and structural stability. This paper carries out the study and monitoring of water repellency and soil structural stability during a period of 6 years after fire in calcareous soils of southern Spain in different aggregate size fractions (<2, 1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm. During this time, it was observed that both properties showed different tendencies in different aggregate size fractions. It was observed that water repellency increased after fire especially in the finer fractions (0.25-0.5 mm. Structural stability increased significantly after the fire and was progressively reduced during the experimental period.

  13. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  14. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and the reciprocal value of fitness (maximum watts per kilogram). Overweight was defined using international classification of body mass index cutoff points for children. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte...... growth factor were assessed using immunochemical assays. Linear relationships were found between metabolic risk score and both plasma adiponectin (inverse, P = .02) and plasma leptin (P overweight but not normal-weight children, plasma...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children...

  15. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a 6-year-old boy initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İncecik, Faruk; Hergüner, M Özlem; Mert, Gülen; Önenli-Mungan, Neslihan; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kör, Deniz; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked ALD develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. We present the case of a 6-year-old with childhood-onset ALD, first presenting with psychiatric symptoms and progressive gait difficulties, slurred speech and cognitive impairment. Genetic testing was performed and a p.R401Q (c.1202G>A) mutation detected in the ABCD1 gene. ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with behavior changes and white matter disease in neuroimaging.

  16. The health level in children under 6 years Commune 20 Santiago de Cali (2014

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    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of projects aimed to reducing morbidity and mortality rates on children below 6 years old, in Commune 20 of Cali, Colombia. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 114 children less than six years old, were examined before Primary Health Care interventions were applied. Results: 65% of the children ages were between 3 and 4 years old, 81.65 are mestizos and 51% live in nuclear families. The prevalence of initial carious lesions and cavitated as ICDAS criteria was 67.54% (95%CI 58.8-76, 27%, the proportion of healthy children was 32.45%, and 33% of the children were overweight. Conclusions: The baseline health conditions in this population are consistent with health situation analysis for the paediatric population of Cali. 

  17. Missed distal tracheal foreign body in consecutive bronchoscopies in a 6-year-old boy

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    Oghenevware Joel Eyekpegha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unusual but not uncommon for foreign bodies to be missed at bronchoscopy. This case report highlights the importance of the clinical history in the diagnosis of aspirated foreign bodies and the usefulness of chest imaging modalities. A 6-year-old boy presented with recurrent breathlessness and cough of 2 months. He was said to have aspirated the base cap of a pen at about the time symptoms started. He had two sessions of rigid bronchoscopy and a session of flexible bronchoscopy at three different hospitals. He had an initial rigid bronchoscopy which failed to show the foreign body (FB. A chest computerized tomographic scan demonstrated the FB, which was retrieved at combined flexible/rigid bronchoscopy. Although rigid bronchoscopy is the gold standard for managing airway foreign bodies, there remains a false negative rate for this procedure and where necessary, appropriate imaging may compliment rigid bronchoscopy, especially where there is some confusion.

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 μg/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Jusko, Todd A.; Henderson, Charles R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Canfield, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations < 10 μg/dL adversely affect children’s cognitive function. Objective We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children’s IQ at 6 years of age. Methods Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years o...

  19. The Seroepidemiology of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b in Children Under 6 Years Old in Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ansari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib is now recognized as an agent of bacterial meningitis in Asia. Polyribosil Ribitol Phosphate (PRP capsule are in all of the strains and IgG antibodies can be target. Due to limited studies on H. influenzae type b in the country and the lack of sufficient information on the status of carriers, achieve a comprehensive model of the spread of the bacteria in the carrier's most vulnerable children is the aim of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, 194 (49% female and 51% male serum samples were collected from children under 6 years old referred to medical centers in Korram Abad. The serological study of H. influenzae type b was carried using anti-H. influenzae PRP IgG antibodies kit by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Of 194 children under 6 years-old screened for H. influenzae-specific IgG antibodies with ELISA, 6 (3 percent were IgG seropositive. Prevalence of bacteria in children under 2 years was 67% that demonstrated no significant association between seropositivity in subjects and place of residence of children with the prevalence of bacteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. influenzae type b seropositivity in our study was 3% of the total sample. In current study, a higher percentage of males than females were seropositive and frequency of predominant bacteria in patients younger than 2 years. The age factor is a variable that positively affects serum. Regarding to non-Hib vaccination in children, the presence of the bacteria in children can be important.

  20. [Epidemiological profile of Tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Diongue, K; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Diallo, M A; Deme, A B; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Diallo, S; Ndoye, N W; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is considered as a public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the incidence, the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis diagnosed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory, over a 6-year period (2008-2013). A total of 1640 specimens were examined. Of these, 566 were positive with direct examination and after culture. We noted the reduction of patients and of the incidence of tineas during 6 years with variations of 147 (46.82%) to 37 (22.02%). The average incidence of the tineas during six years was 34.51%. Patients' age varied between 1 to 83 years with a mean of 27.33 years. Prevalence varied between age groups, with 10.61 % in adults between 20 to 29 years, 7.19% in children between 0 to 9 years, 6.04% between 10 to 19 years, and 5.91% in adults between 30 to 39 years. Women were more infected 469 (82.9%) than men 97 (17.1%). The main dermatophytes isolated were: T. soudanense in 318 cases (56.18%), T. rubrum in 104 cases (18.37%), M. langeronii in 72 cases (12.72%), M. canis in 36 cases (6.36%), and T. mentagrophytes in 26 cases (4.60%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident increase in trichophytic tinea. This study showed that tinea is endemic in Senegal mainly among women between 20 and 29 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  2. A simulation study of spine biofidelity in the hybrid-III 6-year-old ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Hu, Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    Because of the lack of pediatric biomechanical data, Hybrid-III (HIII) child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are essentially scaled from the mid-size male ATD based on the geometric considerations. These ATDs inherit a rigid thoracic spine from the adult HIII ATDs, which has been criticized as unrealistic. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore possible design modifications for improving the spine biofidelity of the HIII 6-year-old ATD. A previously developed and validated HIII 6-year-old MADYMO ATD model was used as the baseline model to investigate the effects of design modifications on the spine biofidelity of the current ATD. Several sets of child volunteer and cadaver test data were considered as the design targets, including child volunteer low-speed crash test data, pediatric cadaver cervical spine tensile test data, and child cadaver crash test data. ATD design modifications include adding an additional joint to the thoracic spine region and changing the joint characteristics at the cervical and lumbar spine regions. Optimization techniques were used to match simulation results to each set of test results. The results indicate that the translational characteristics of the cervical and lumbar spine in the current child ATD need to be reduced to achieve realistic spine flexibility. Adding an additional joint at the thoracic spine region with degree of freedom in both flexion/extension and tension would significantly improve the ATD biofidelity in terms of predicting the overall spine curvature and head excursion in frontal crashes. Future ATD spine modification should focus on reducing the neck and lumbar tension stiffness and adding additional flexibility both in flexion/extension and tension at the thoracic spine region. The child ATD model developed in this study can be used as an important tool to improve child ATD biofidelity and child restraint system design in motor vehicle crashes.

  3. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  4. Routine Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG administration in VLBW infants: a retrospective, 6-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Lista, Gianluca; Gallo, Elena; Marangione, Paola; Priolo, Claudio; Fontana, Paola; Guardione, Roberta; Farina, Daniele

    2011-03-01

    In preterm neonates, use of probiotic mixtures is increasingly popular and is effective in preventing NEC, fungal colonization, and improving feeding tolerance. However, concerns exist about safety and tolerability of long-lasting administration of living microrganisms to not-immunocompetent hosts. We report a 6-year, two-NICUs experience of routinary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) use in VLBW infants. Clinical charts review, retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to two Italian NICUs in the years 2003-2008. Standard protocol of LGG administration consisted of 3 x 10⁹ CFU/day, in single oral dose, since 4th day-of-life, for 4-to-6-week courses. Nutritional policy relied on administration of fresh, expressed mother's milk, supplementation with preterm formula if needed. Data about LGG safety and tolerability, infections, feeding tolerance, microbiological clinical and surveillance cultures were retrieved and analysed. Complete data were obtained for 743 of 811 VLBW infants. Mean birth-weight was 1056 g; mean gestational age 29.5 weeks. A total of 17,108 LGG doses were administered (mean 23.1/infant). No adverse effects or intolerances putatively attributable to LGG occurred. Overall, 5350 clinical and surveillance cultures from 13 different sites/devices were performed (mean: 7.2 cultures from 6.5 different sites/infant). None ever grew LGG, or other Lactobacilli. No clinical sepsis episode was attributable to LGG. Full enteral feeding was achieved at 19.2 mean days-of-life; 73% of infants were exclusively/partially breastfed. Fourteen NEC cases occurred (=1.9%), with 5 (=0.7%) being>2b stage. Routinary supplementation of probiotic LGG in a large, 6-year VLBW infants Italian cohort proved microbiologically safe and clinically well tolerated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact Atopic dermatitis on the life quality of childrens 1-6 year

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    Mansoureh Shariati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most prevalent skin diseases in the world. Although, the disorder is not fatal, it can cause life quality reduction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of atopic dermatitis on life quality of 1-6-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The current study is a descriptive and analytical one designed to assess quality of life (QOL in 1-6-year-old children with atopic dermatitis in Kurdistan province (West of Iran. All the children who attended skin clinic of Besat Hospital, Sanandaj- Iran, during 2014 and 2016, participated in the study. Quality of life questionnaires were used to obtain data. Parents of the participating children were asked to complete the questionnaire. Index of Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD was used to determine the severity of the disease. The study data were analysis using Stata-12 software. Results: During the study, 53 children with atopic dermatitis were identified and 66.04% were male. According to the classification of SCORAD index, 54.36% of the children (19 subjects were included in the moderate group (SCORAD 14-40 and 63.46% (33 persons in the severe group (SCORAD> 40. Mean of life quality score was 9.24 ± 10.48 (range 0-30 and there was no statistically significant difference between the genders (P >0.05. Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between the quality of life and pain severity in AD children; and children with atopic dermatitis had low quality of life and itching, wound, discomfort and sleep disorder, were the factors that mainly impact on their life quality.

  6. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference. The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI (rho = 0.81. Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Glycol Ethers and Neurocognitive Abilities in 6-Year-Old Children: The PELAGIE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, Rémi; Garlantézec, Ronan; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Trowbridge, Jessica; Warembourg, Charline; Monfort, Christine; Le Gléau, Florent; Jourdin, Marylène; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Glycol ethers (GE) are widely used organic solvents. Despite the potential neurotoxicity of several families of organic solvents, little is known about the impact of GE on the neurodevelopment of infants and children. We investigated the relation between urinary concentrations of GE metabolites in pregnant women and neurocognitive abilities in their 6-year-old children in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. Five GE metabolites were measured in first morning void urine samples of 204 French pregnant women in early pregnancy (stimulation at home. GE metabolites were detected in 90-100% of maternal urine samples. The WISC Verbal Comprehension score was significantly lower for children with the highest tertile of urinary phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) [β (third vs. first tertile) = -6.53; 95% CI: -11.44, -1.62]. Similarly, the NEPSY Design Copying subtest score was lower in those with the highest tertile of urinary ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) [β (third vs. first tertile) = -0.11; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.00]. The other GE metabolites we studied were not significantly associated with WISC or NEPSY scores. Prenatal urine concentrations of two GE metabolites were associated with lower WISC Verbal Comprehension Index scores and NEPSY Design Copying subscale scores, respectively, at age 6 years. PhAA is the primary metabolite of 2-phenoxyethanol (EGPhE), which is commonly found in cosmetics, and precursors of EAA are frequently used in cleaning agents. Additional research is needed to confirm our findings and further explore potential effects of prenatal GE exposures on neurocognitive performance in children.

  8. Pre- and Postnatal Determinants of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation in 6-Year-Old Children. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, Marlies E. C.; Moll, Henriette A.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Veerkamp, Jaap S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. Objective This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. Study Design This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls). Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight) and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. Results A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. Conclusion This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH. PMID:24988443

  9. Influence of the Diameter of Dental Implants Replacing Single Molars: 3- to 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Jose Alfredo; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Francischone Junior, Carlos Eduardo; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the implant diameter on marginal bone remodeling around dental implants replacing single molars after a follow-up period of 3 to 6 years. Patients who received dental implants with an external hexagon platform in healed sites to support a single metal-ceramic crown in the molar region were recalled to the office. The implantation sites and implant length information were recorded, and the implants were divided according to the implant diameter: regular (RP) or wide (WP). Each implant was assessed by digital periapical radiography, using a sensor holder for the paralleling technique. The marginal bone remodeling was determined as the distance from the implant platform to the first bone-to-implant contact, and the known implant length was used to calibrate the images in the computer software. The follow-up measurements were compared with those obtained from the radiograph taken at the time of prosthetic loading to determine the late bone remodeling. The independent t test was used to compare data. A total of 67 implants from 46 patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 ± 1.0 years. The RP group comprised 36 implants from 29 patients (mean age: 58.3 ± 10.6 years), while 31 implants from 17 patients (mean age: 56.9 ± 11.5 years) were included in the WP group. The RP group presented lower survival rates (86.1%) than the WP group (100.0%). Similar marginal bone loss (P implants exhibited lower incidence failures, the bone levels were similar after the prosthetic loading around regular- and wide-diameter implants supporting single molar crowns.

  10. Hair nicotine at 15 months old, tobacco exposure and wheeze or asthma from 15 months to 6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattemore, Philip K; Silvers, Karen M; Frampton, Chris M; Wickens, Kristin; Ingham, Tristram; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian; Town, G Ian; Epton, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age and prior parent-reported smoking exposure, and the risk of wheezing and current asthma from 15 months to 6 years of age. We measured hair nicotine levels at 15 months of age in 376 of 535 infants enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Christchurch, New Zealand. We obtained detailed information from parents about smoking exposure during pregnancy and in the home at 3 and 15 months of age. Data for demographics, wheezing, and asthma were obtained from yearly questionnaires up to age 6 years. We assessed hair nicotine levels in relation to reported smoke exposure in pregnancy and up to age 15 months, and the association between high levels of hair nicotine and annual reports of current wheeze and current asthma using multiple logistic regression. Hair nicotine increased with numbers of smokers and daily cigarettes smoked at home, and was also strongly associated with smoking in pregnancy. High level of hair nicotine was associated with increased risk of wheeze (Odds ratio 2.30, P = 0.001) and, though not significant, of current asthma (Odds ratio 2.02, P = 0.056) at 15 months of age, after controlling for socio-economic status, ethnicity, body mass index, respiratory infections in the first 3 months of life, and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. At older ages the associations were non-significant. In children aged 15 months hair nicotine level was related to smoking exposure, and was associated with increased risk of wheeze and asthma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. epair of a furcation perforation with mineral trioxide aggregate: A case report with 6 year follow-ups

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    Nahid Mohammadzadeh-Akhlagi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: One of the most common reasons for the failure of endodontic treatment is root perforation. Perforations might occur due to carious lesions, tooth resorption or they might be iatrogenic during endodontic treatment or in most cases they might occur during post space preparation. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of chronic pain on tooth #30 during last 6 months and sensitive to bite since a few days ago. There was a mild swelling on the gingival tissue in the furcation area in the intraoral examination, with a narrow strip-shaped pocket measuring 3 mm in depth. Radiographic examination revealed an incomplete root canal treatment of the tooth. A prefabricated post had been placed in the distal root, with an incorrect path toward the furcation area. There was a small radiolucency in the furcation area and a pronounced radiolucency around the mesial root of the tooth. After removal of the post, hemorrhage was observed in the furcation area. The diameter of the perforation was approximately 1 mm. The perforated area was sealed with Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. In the next session when setting of MTA was evaluated and confirmed, retreatment of the tooth was done. After 6 months, no swelling or sensitivity was observed and after 6 year follow-ups radiographic examination revealed that the lesion had almost resolved. CONCLUSION: In the present case, the lesion of furcation perforation was small in size, but the time interval between the occurrence of perforation and the repair procedure was long, success was achieved due to the control of the aseptic conditions, control of hemorrhage and proper placement of the repair material, which was confirmed in the 6 year follow-ups.

  12. Pre- and postnatal determinants of deciduous molar hypomineralisation in 6-year-old children. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies E C Elfrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls. Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. RESULTS: A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH.

  13. Local androgen inactivation in abdominal visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Richard, Christian; Bélanger, Chantal; Dupont, Pierre; Daris, Marleen; Laberge, Philippe; Luu-The, Van; Tchernof, André

    2003-12-01

    We examined the expression and activity of two enzymes from the aldoketoreductase (AKR) family 1C, namely type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD-5, AKR1C3) and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD-3, AKR1C2) in female sc and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocyte primary cultures. 17beta-HSD-5 preferentially synthesizes testosterone from the inactive adrenal precursor androstenedione, whereas 3alpha-HSD-3 inactivates dihydrotestosterone. mRNAs of both enzymes were detected in adipose tissue from the omental and sc compartments. Real-time PCR quantification indicated a 3-fold higher 3alpha-HSD-3 expression compared with 17beta-HSD-5, and the expression of both enzymes tended to be higher in the sc vs. the omental depot. Accordingly, dose-response and time-course experiments performed in preadipocyte primary cultures indicated that 3alpha-HSD activity was higher than 17beta-HSD activity (13-fold maximum velocity difference). We measured 3alpha-HSD activity in omental and sc adipose tissue samples of 32 women for whom body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CT, respectively. We found that androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue through 3alpha-HSD activity was significantly higher in women with elevated vs. low visceral adipose tissue accumulation (1.7-fold difference; P < 0.05). Moreover, omental adipose tissue 3alpha-HSD activity was positively and significantly associated with CT-measured visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and omental adipocyte diameter (r = 0.42; P < 0.02). These results indicate that local androgen inactivation is a predominant reaction in female abdominal adipose tissue, with the greatest conversion rates observed in the presence of abdominal visceral obesity. Increased androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue of abdominally obese women may impact locally on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism.

  14. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  15. Alanine aminotransferase and the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian men and women : The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R. K.; Dekker, J. M.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C. D A; Bouter, L. M.; Heine, R. J.; Diamant, M.

    Aims: To study the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based study in Caucasian men and women. Methods: The association of ALT with the 6-year risk of the metabolic syndrome in 1097 subjects, aged 50-75 years, was assessed

  16. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  17. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  18. Factors associated with dental caries in children aged 4-6 years old

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    Nur Widayati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the dental health problems. Dental caries are formed because there was leftover food that sticks to the teeth, which eventually lead to tooth calcification. Impact, teeth become brittle, hollow, even broken.Dental caries experience a loss of power to make a child chewing and digestive disruption, which resulted in growth of less than the maximum. This study aims to determine the relationship of parents’ behavior towards the maintenance of dental health of children (feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk, teeth maintenance, inspection tooth and mouth with dental caries in the TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun village Turi District of Lamongan. This study Analytics whose data is collected with a cross sectional sample of kindergarten children aged 4–6 years with a total sample of 49 children. The collection of primary data through interviews parents TK R.A Bustanussholihin student using questionnaires and secondary data obtained from the agency are in the region of the profile data TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun Village of Turi District of Lamongan. This study used a correlation coefficient of contingency. Based on the results of the contingency coefficient correlation test showed that the factors that have a strong relationship is the habit of feeding the sweet, sticky, and drink milk with a value of P = 0.504. While the factors that have a weak link is the habit of maintaining dental hygiene habits of children and child oral examination . From this study it can be concluded that there is a relationship or a strong correlation between feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk with the incidence of dental caries in children aged 4–6. So as to prevent dental caries severity we need to hold counseling on feeding sweet, soft and gooey on the effect of dental caries as well as how it should be formula feeding or breast milk to the child to prevent rampant caries. Keywords: dental caries, sweetened

  19. Micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zenong; Moore, Justin B; Johnson, Maribeth H; Vernon, Marlo M; Grimstvedt, Megan; Gutin, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To examine race and sex differences in adiposity measured by DXA in a large sample of young children and to identify both micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity. Cross-sectional. Elementary school children (N = 495) from the southeastern United States participated. Anthropometrics, percentage body fat via DXA, and psychosocial variables via questionnaire were assessed in the Fall of 2003. Community-level sociodemographic data and built-environment variables via geographic information system were collected in Spring 2009. Data analyses were completed in the Spring of 2010. Percentage body fat in white children was higher than in nonwhite children. Higher percentage body fat and poorer cardiovascular fitness were found in females compared with males. Percentage body fat was higher in children who had lower athletic competence and lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of minority residents. This study provides preliminary support for the social-ecological model to explain variance in adiposity in children. Developers of health promotion programs for children living in minority neighborhoods should consider factors at multiple levels of the ecological model when designing and implementing programs.

  20. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  1. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  2. Pathology of digestive organs at adiposity (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Meshcherjakov V.L.; Volkov S.V.; Kozlova I.V.; Anisimova E.V.

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted demonstration of communication of adiposity with occurrence of diseases of digestive organs. The problem urgency is caused by steady increase in number of patients with adiposity, involving in pathological process of vitals. Clinical changes from digestive organs at patients with adiposity can be the diversified, presence « two-dimensional syndromes», caused multiorgans a pathology is characteristic

  3. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  4. Psychomotor development index in children younger than 6 years from Argentine provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Masautis, Alicia; Nunes, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a psychomotor development index (PDI) for each Argentine province. Using a national, probabilistic, and stratified sample of 13 323 male and female children younger than 6 years selected for the National Survey on Nutrition and Health (Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud, ENNyS 2004), we estimated the PDI per province based on compliance with 10 developmental milestones. The median age at attainment (median age) of each milestone was estimated adjusting a logistic regression. The PDI was estimated as 100* (1 + b), where "b" is the regression coefficient of y= a + b x, where "y" is the median age as per the national reference (x) minus the median age at attainment of a milestone. The theoretical value expected for the PDI was 100. The PDI per province ranged between 72.1 and 106.4. Most provinces showed a negative regression coefficient, which indicated a progressive increase of the delay in the age at attainment of milestones. The correlation coefficient between the PDI per province and infant mortality in 2005was extremely high: -0.85, suggesting that both indicators share similar biological and social determinants. The PDI was negative because the higher the mortality, the lower the PDI. We have now a positive health indicator available in Argentina: the psychomotor development index, which is a low-cost, easy to collect, and reliable tool that may be used in national health statistics. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. [Ulcerative colitis in a 6-year-old boy with severe coeliac disease - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewcz, Agnieszka; Kominek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine elicited by the gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible people. In coeliac patients there is higher incidence of other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The coexistence of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is rare. The spectrum of presentation of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease may be similar. However, those disorders require various therapeutic approaches. Thus, early recognition of the overlap between coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is crucial to apply appropriate treatment and to prevent possible complications. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with a delay in physical and psychomotor development, rickets, severe anaemia and bloody diarrhoea. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease and ulcerative disease. The coexistence of both disorders is extremely rare in childhood. However, ulcerative colitis should be considered in coeliac children on restrictive gluten-free diet with persistent diarrhoea or bleeding from lower gastrointestinal tract. Screening for coeliac disease should be considered in children with ulcerative colitis with impaired physical development and lack of remission despite of proper treatment. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  6. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Factitious Oral Ulcers in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Santana Pinto Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factitious ulcers are characterized by self-inflicted lesions with multifactorial origin. These lesions are frequently found in head, neck, and hands. This report shows a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with factitious oral ulcers that occurred after the self-biting of buccal vestibule and nail-scratching of gingival tissue. Clinically, a significant swelling was observed, hard on palpation, located at the right lower third of the face, next to the posterior area of the mandible. In the intraoral examination, ulcers at different healing stages were noted on the swelling area. During the anamnesis, the father reported a change in his familial structure that triggers psychological stress, providing the clues to the presumptive diagnosis of factitious oral ulcers. We prescribed the topical use of Gingilone® three times a day to control the local pain and inflammation. At 7-day follow-up, we noticed the reduction of extraoral swelling and the initial healing of the ulcers. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed at 30-day follow-up, with the lasting remission of oral lesions. The treatments of factitious oral ulcers should be individually tailored for each patient, focused on a multidisciplinary approach, including psychotherapy and periodic clinical control. To the best of our knowledge, gaps of evidence lead to the lack of standardized clinical protocols on this issue.

  7. Epidemiology and cost implications of candidemia, a 6-year analysis from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kilic, Aysegul; Alp, Emine; Cevahir, Fatma; Ture, Zeynep; Yozgat, Nuran

    2017-03-01

    Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days. In total, 351 patients of candidemia were included. Median age of the patients was 45 (0-88) and 55.1% of them were male. Overall, 48.1% of the candidemia episodes (169/351) were due to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis (25.1%), C. glabrata (11.7%). Length of hospital stay was longer with a median of 20 days among patients with non-albicans candidemia. Presence of a central venous catheter was found to be an associated risk for candidemia caused by non-albicans strains. Annual incidence of candidemia increased from 0.10 to 0.30 cases/1000 patient days. Antifungal use was increased over years correlated with the cost paid for it. The policy against candidemia should be specified by each institution with respect to candidemia prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal use and costs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Retaking the first steps towards symbolisation. A 6-year-old emerges from adhesive identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudenschild, T R

    1997-08-01

    The author begins by reviewing, mainly with reference to the ideas of Bion, the development of the sense of identity and the transition from primitive modes of object-relating involving adhesive identification to more advanced forms. The major part of the paper comprises a clinical account of a three-year period in the analysis of an initially 6-year-old borderline girl, who communicated with the analyst mainly in drawings. The development of the patient's capacity for symbolisation and of her level of communication is illustrated by examples of her productions from different phases of her therapy. The author contends that if the analyst can accept and symbolise the primitive relationship, the analysand can develop his or her own symbolisation capacity based on the introjection of a comprehensive object. After two years of analysis the patient is shown to have acquired an ability to contain her own emotions when she draws a volcano to represent her rage. Later, after a significant dream in which a man appears for the first time, she is seen relating on a more advanced level, having given up her adhesive defence, although the necessary process of mourning for the primitive object is stated to be still in progress.

  9. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  10. Prevalence of malocclusion and related oral habits in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renata Reis; Nayme, Joao Guilherme; Garbin, Artenio José; Saliba, Nemre; Garbin, Cléa Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas

    2012-01-01

    To verify the prevalence of malocclusion and the influence of harmful oral habits on deciduous dentition in 5- and 6-year-old children enrolled in Brazilian public elementary schools during 2010. Exams were conducted in 1385 children from 56 Brazilian elementary schools using the method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for epidemiological surveys on oral health. Information about the type of arch, social and economic data and harmful oral habits of the children were collected through a structured questionnaire. In relation to canine occlusion, a high prevalence of Class I (74.5%), followed by Class II (19.4%), was found. Among all participants, 22% showed high overjet, 7.8% showed edge-to-edge occlusion and 2.3% showed anterior crossbite. In relation to overbite, 13.2% had short overbite, 14.3% open bite and 16.8% high overbite. The presence of posterior crossbite occurred in 14.6% of children. Maxillae predominantly exhibited the type I arch (67.9%) and mandibles predominantly exhibited type II (51.7%). In relation to harmful oral habits, 43.4% used a pacifier, 84.8% used a bottle and finger sucking was reported by 17.2%. There was a high prevalence of malocclusion associated with oral habits harmful to deciduous dentition.

  11. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 6 Year Olds of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr Bafghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric disorder in school age children and has a negative effect on the individual’s general functions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in preschool 6 year old children in Yazd in 2005 and the influence of gender, birth weight, birth order and parental education on ADHD. Methods: 400 preschool children including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected randomly through sampling method and the data of the cross sectional research was collected via compiled questionnaires based on the DSM-IV criteria and interview of parents. Data of this investigation was analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The results showed that general prevalence of ADHD was 16/3% and more in boys (19/5% than girls (13%. Most of the parents of the affected children were illiterate or uneducated. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, birth weight, order and ADHD frequency. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of ADHD among children in Yazd and its undesirable outcome, it is recommended to have a preventive mental health program for screening and treatment.

  12. Clinical characteristics of COPD syndrome: A 6-year follow-up study of adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljamo, Tuula; Hamari, Anna; Sotkasiira, Marjo; Nieminen, Pentti

    2015-01-01

    There is little quantitative information about the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among adult smokers and of what happens to patients who have already developed COPD. To examine the development and performance of COPD status over time, and the clinical characteristics of new COPD cases according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2007 and 2011 classifications. Healthy asymptomatic smokers were recruited through newspaper announcements. They filled in questionnaires and had an individualized assessment of their health history during all three visits (visit 1, visit 2 after three years, visit 3 after six years). Of the eligible 621 heavy smokers, 572 attended visit 2. A total of 513 subjects completed the 6-year follow-up examination. According to GOLD 2007, COPD was present in 22.8% (n = 117) of these smokers. The severity of COPD changed during the years of follow-up. Furthermore, health status and prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms both in the smokers with normal lung function and in the COPD groups varied over the time period. GOLD 2011 recognized the complex patient subgroups better than GOLD 2007. Variability in chronic symptoms or in health status correlated poorly with the severity of airway limitation.

  13. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  14. Junk food consumption and screen time: association with childhood adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Alaimo, Katherine; Betz, Heather Hayes; Paek, Hye-Jin; Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2013-05-01

    To determine the joint association of junk food consumption (JFC) and screen time (ST) with adiposity in children. Two hundred fourteen (121 girls, 93 boys) third-to-fifth-grade students (54% Hispanic, 35% African American, 8% white) completed a lifestyle behavior survey, which included self-reported JFC and ST, as part of a school-based lifestyle intervention program. Neither JFC nor ST, independently or jointly, was associated with adiposity measures. JFC and ST were significantly correlated (r = .375). The low achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations and high prevalence of overweight/obesity in this mostly minority, low socioeconomic status population indicates a potential focus for intervention.

  15. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Demetra D; Pierce, Gary L; Walker, Ashley E; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-09-15

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18-79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4-42.2 kg/m(2)], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI and percent body fat (percent BF via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)], and indexes of abdominal adiposity [waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]. In a subgroup (n = 74), we also measured total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), and subcutaneous fat (ASF) using computed tomography. Based on multiple linear regression, NID was negatively related to BMI [part correlation coefficient (r(part)) = -0.19, P = 0.004] and abdominal adiposity (WC, r(part) = -0.22; WHR, r(part) = -0.19; TAF, r(part) = -0.36; AVF, r(part) = -0.36; and ASF, r(part) = -0.30; all P ≤ 0.009) independent of sex, but only tended to be related to total percent BF (r(part) = -0.12, P = 0.07). In a subgroup of subjects with the highest compared with the lowest amount of AVF, NID was 35% lower (P = 0.003). Accounting for systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and brachial artery diameter reduced or abolished some of the relations between NID and adiposity. In conclusion, NID is or tends to be negatively associated with measures of total adiposity (BMI and percent BF, respectively) but is consistently and more strongly negatively associated with abdominal adiposity. Adiposity may influence NID in part via other cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  17. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  18. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1996-04-01

    The regulation of adipose tissue distribution is an important problem in view of the close epidemiological and metabolic associations between centralized fat accumulation and disease. With visceral fat accumulation multiple endocrine perturbations are found, including elevated cortisol and androgens in women, as well as low growth hormone (GH) and, in men, testosterone (T) secretion. These abnormalities probably derive from a hypersensitive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with hyperinsulinemia related to a marked insulin resistance as a consequence. These hormonal changes exert profound effects on adipose tissue metabolism and distribution. At the adipocyte level cortisol and insulin promote lipid accumulation by expressing lipoprotein lipase activity, while T, GH and probably estrogens exert opposite effects. The consequences will most likely be more expressed in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissues because of a higher cellularity, innervation and blood flow. Furthermore, the density of cortisol and androgen receptors seems to be higher in this than other adipose tissue regions. The endocrine perturbations found in visceral obesity with an abundance of the lipid accumulating hormones cortisol and insulin, and a relatively low secretion of the lipid mobilizing sex steroid hormones and GH would therefore be expected to be followed by visceral fat accumulation. The potential significance of local synthesis of steroid hormones in adipose tissue requires more attention. Although studies in vitro are informative when elucidating detailed mechanisms of hormonal interactions, they might not give a true picture of the regional integrated regulation of adipose tissue lipid storage and mobilization. Such information can be obtained by regional measurements of lipid mobilization by free fatty acid turnover or by microdialysis techniques, both showing lower rates of mobilization in leg than in upper body adipose tissues. More detailed information can be obtained by

  19. Analysis of association of gene variants with obesity traits in New Zealand European children at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mohanraj; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; Murphy, Rinki; McCowan, Lesley M E; Shelling, Andrew N; On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group, G

    2017-07-25

    Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age. We recruited 1208 children of mothers from the New Zealand centre of the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Eighty common genetic variants associated with obesity traits were evaluated by the Sequenom assay. Body mass index standardised scores (BMI z-scores) and percentage body fat (PBF; measured by bio-impedance assay (BIA)) were used as anthropometric measures of obesity. A positive correlation was found between BMI z-scores and PBF (p obesity and obesity traits in New Zealand European children.

  20. Comparison of Methods for Analyzing Human Adipose Tissue Macrophage Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harteneck, Debra; Jaeger, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inflammation, obesity, and adverse metabolic conditions is associated with adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). This study compared the measurements of human ATM using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ...

  1. Increase in Adiposity of Type 2 Diabetes Patients following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were placed on a combination of endurance and strengthening exercises for 12 weeks. The participants were thereafter observed for another 12 weeks without exercises. The adiposity variables measured in both phases of the study include: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and ...

  2. Tuberculosis drug-resistance in Lisbon, Portugal: a 6-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Macedo, R; Silva, C; Pinto, C; Furtado, C; Brum, L; Portugal, I

    2011-09-01

    Multidrug-resistance and extensive drug-resistance pose a serious threat to tuberculosis management in Portugal. The country has high TB incidence rates in comparison with other European Union countries, with the Lisbon Health Region being one of the most affected. In the present study we have analysed a convenience sample of 3025 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, recovered over a 6-year period (2001-2006) in the Lisbon Health Region, regarding drug-resistance both to first-line and second-line drugs. Moreover, 100 of these isolates were also genotyped by 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit - Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. We have compared each year and observed the existence of 22 different resistance profiles, with MDR-TB rates ranging between 9.9% and 15.2% and XDR-TB rates, relative to the number of MDR-TB isolates, between 44.3% and 66.1% (excluding 1 year here considered as an outlier). A steady increase in the fraction of MDR-TB isolates resistant to all first-line drugs was also noticed. The genotyping analysis of MDR-TB isolates revealed six clusters, of which three (Lisboa3, Lisboa4 and Q1) were related to XDR-TB. Our results show that active transmission of MDR- and XDR-TB is taking place and that the high prevalence of observed XDR-TB is due to the continued transmission of particular genetic clusters. Enforcement of the implementation of genotyping in diagnostic routines would lead to early detection of resistant cases. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Cognitive outcome of very-low-birthweight infants at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Egashira, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Tomona; Murata, Noriko; Yokota, Goro; Matsuo, Koji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Egashira, Tomoko; Iwanaga, Manabu; Mizukami, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the cognitive function in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) at 6 years of age and investigate significant factors during neonatal intensive care unit admission that affect cognitive outcomes. One hundred and eighty-nine VLBWI (28.4 weeks, 1024 g), including 93 extremely low-birthweight (EL) infants whose birthweight was IQ tests, four factor indices and 13 subtest scores. Regression analyses were performed to analyze the cognitive indices and clinical variables during neonatal intensive care unit admission. The full-scale IQ (FIQ) in the EL infants was 85.3 ± 13.4, which was significantly lower than the 91.8 ± 9.7 observed in the VL infants. The verbal IQ and performance IQ in the EL infants were also lower than those observed in the VL infants. The rate of difference between verbal IQ and performance IQ >14 was 20% in the EL infants and 22% in the VL infants. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant relation between FIQ and HC (P = 0.002) and FIQ and dexamethasone (P = 0.012). In comparison with that observed in the VL infants, the intelligence quotient of the EL infants was inferior and exhibited more inter-individual variation. Intra-individual imbalances of the cognitive function were highly observed irrespective of the EL or VL status. Restriction of intrauterine brain growth and greater doses of dexamethasone may be harmful for subsequent cognitive outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Attending to relations: Proportional reasoning in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-03-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task in which the proportional information was presented either continuously (units cannot be counted) or discretely (countable units; numerical information available). In the discrete conditions, older children showed numerical interference-responding based on the number of pieces instead of the proportion of pieces. However, older children easily overcame this poor strategy selection on discrete trials if they first had some experience with continuous, proportional strategies, suggesting this prevalent reliance on numerical information may be malleable. Younger children, on the other hand, showed difficulty with the proportion task, but showed evidence of proportional reasoning in a simplified estimation-style task, suggesting that younger children may still be developing their proportional and numerical skills in task-dependent ways. Lastly, across both age groups, performance on the proportional reasoning task in continuous contexts, but not discrete contexts, was related to more general analogical reasoning skills. Findings suggest that children's proportional reasoning abilities are actively developing between the ages of 3 and 6 and may depend on domain general reasoning skills. We discuss the implications for this work for both cognitive development and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Lessons learned and way forward from 6 years of Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve and qualify algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, several validated (multi-) decadal time series of different aerosol parameters from complementary sensors are available: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), stratospheric extinction profiles, a qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD; absorption information and aerosol layer height are in an evaluation phase and the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used for selected regions. Validation (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account in an iterative evolution cycle. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. The use of an ensemble method was tested, where several algorithms are applied to the same sensor. The presentation will summarize and discuss the lessons learned from the 6 years of intensive collaboration and highlight major achievements (significantly improved AOD quality, fine mode AOD, dust AOD, pixel level uncertainties, ensemble approach); also limitations and remaining deficits shall be discussed. An outlook will discuss the way forward for the continuous algorithm improvement and re-processing together with opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products.

  6. Retrospective analysis of HDFN due to ABO incompatibility in a single institution over 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteocci, A; De Rosa, A; Buffone, E; Pierelli, L

    2018-01-25

    To study the rate of ABO haemolytic anaemia of fetus and newborn (HDFN) in one institution over 6 years. ABO major incompatibility between mothers and their newborns occurs in about 10% of births. So, mothers with an O blood group may form IgG-class antibodies against A and B antigens, which could pass across the placenta and lead to a variable degree of HDFN in the newborn. At our institution, we have reviewed data regarding ABO-based HDFN in the last 6 years. We found that, in 28 089 deliveries, an ABO major incompatibility between mothers and newborns occurs in 11% of cases, with 72% of O/A and 28% of O/B incompatibility. In turn, 23% of these newborns had an eluate-confirmed positive direct antiglobulin test [DAT; 74% (511) were due to anti-A and 26% (179) to anti-B], with 1·0% requiring invasive treatments (exchange transfusion or intravenous immunoglobulin). Overall, 2·5% of the total newborns had a positive DAT for an anti-A or anti-B antibody, and 0·11% required invasive treatment in addition to phototherapy for their HDFN. Serological ABO HDFN is a relatively frequent event when an O-A/O-B incompatibility between mothers and their newborn occurs and, in most cases, translates into a self-limiting disease, with a small number of newborns requiring invasive treatments. The DAT test, although not predictive of disease severity, appears to be a useful tool to monitor babies born from O-A/O-B-incompatible pregnancies and to identify those who may require treatment. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  8. Metabolic alterations in adipose tissue during the early phase of experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoener, P; Vietheer, A; Sayk, F; Schaaf, B; Lehnert, H; Dodt, C

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy homeostasis; however, there is only little knowledge about its metabolic activity during critical illness or sepsis. We assessed adipose tissue metabolic activity and local blood flow during experimental endotoxemia in otherwise healthy humans. In a prospective, placebo controlled and randomized experiment we measured changes in lactate, glycerol, and pyruvate concentrations in microdialysate samples of femoral adipose tissue after an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 ng/kg). Intravenous endotoxin caused an early and constant increase in interstitial pyruvate, while formation of lactate in adipose tissue was not affected. In contrast, lactate levels in serum were elevated significantly after 90 min (pendotoxemia. While adipose tissue is a major source of serum glycerol and lactate in humans during physiological conditions, it contributes only little to increased serum lactate and glycerol levels during endotoxemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  10. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...... levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated...

  11. Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall...... and in the splanchnic tissues by the Fick principle after catheterizations of an artery, a subcutaneous vein draining adipose tissue, and a hepatic vein, and measurements of regional adipose tissue and splanchnic blood flows. In control studies without IL-6 infusion subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was studied...... infusion. It is concluded that IL-6 elicits lipolytic effects in human adipose tissue in vivo, and that IL-6 also has effects on the splanchnic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism....

  12. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  13. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  14. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  15. Associations Between Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome Over Time: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the association between changes in adiposity traits including anthropometric and fat mass indicators and changes in metabolic syndrome traits including metabolic syndrome clustering and individual components over time. We also assessed the shared genetic and environmental correlations between the two traits. Participants were 284 South Korean twin individuals and 279 nontwin family members had complete data for changes in adiposity traits and metabolic syndrome traits of the Healthy Twin study. Mixed linear model and bivariate variance-component analysis were applied. Over a period of 3.1 ± 0.6 years of study, changes in adiposity traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass, and fat mass to lean mass ratio] had significant associations with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering [high blood pressure, high serum glucose, high triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] after adjusting for intra-familial and sibling correlations, age, sex, baseline metabolic syndrome clustering, and socioeconomic factors and health behaviors at follow-up. Change in BMI associated significantly with changes in individual metabolic syndrome components compared to other adiposity traits. Change in metabolic syndrome component TG was a better predictor of changes in adiposity traits compared to changes in other metabolic components. These associations were explained by significant environmental correlations but not by genetic correlations. Changes in anthropometric and fat mass indicators were positively associated with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering and those associations appeared to be regulated by environmental influences.

  16. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  17. Kerosene poisoning in childhood: a 6-year prospective study at the Princess Rahmat Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotar, Ali M

    2005-12-01

    Poisoning due to drugs is influenced to a large extent by the population's socioeconomic and cultural status. The purpose of our study was to determine and present the pattern of poisoning with kerosene in Princess Rahmat hospital, Irbid, Jordan, and to assess the effects of variables such as age, season, sex and agent on poisoning frequency in Princess Rahmat hospital, northern Jordan. This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 122 cases of poisoning with kerosene who were hospitalized in Princess Rahmat hospital, northern Jordan, during a six-year period from 1996 to 2001. The data collected include: age, sex, seasonal variation, material ingested, symptomatic or not on admission, time and place of ingestion, history of similar problem among the patient or his siblings, whether vomiting was induced by the parent before seeking medical help or not and the outcome regarding mortality and morbidity. Chi-square and values were considered for the statistical analysis. In a 6-year prospective study of kerosene poisoning in children admitted to the Rahmat Hospital, between January 1996 and December 2001, a total of 122 children (under 11 years of age). Among the children 48 (39.3%) were girls and 74 (60.6%) were boys. Majority (80.1%) were below 2 years. The largest group of patients was admitted during the summer months. The most commonly observed symptoms were cough (67.2%), tachypnea (56.5%), fever (54.1%), and vomiting (27.8%). About one third of the patients showed signs of central nervous system (CNS) impairment, including drowsiness, restlessness, stupor, and convulsions. 1) There is a higher risk of kerosene poisoning during the hot months of the year; 2) the respiratory system is the main target organ affected; 3) pneumonia is in most cases interstitial and bilateral; 4) vomiting after hydrocarbon ingestion is related to the rate of development of pneumonia; 5) symptoms of CNS impairment were correlated with hypoxemia, pneumonia, and fever; and 6

  18. Beverage Intake During Pregnancy and Childhood Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fernandez-Barres, Silvia; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M; Oken, Emily

    2017-08-01

    To examine associations of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverage intake during pregnancy with adiposity in midchildhood (median age of 7.7 years). We studied 1078 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective prebirth cohort study. Exposures were sugary and nonsugary beverage intake assessed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy by using a food frequency questionnaire. Main outcome measures were offspring overall adiposity (BMI z score, fat mass index [FMI, kg/m 2 ] from dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry, and sum of subscapular [SS] and triceps [TR] skinfold thicknesses) and central adiposity (SS:TR ratio and waist circumference). In the second trimester, mean (SD) SSB intake was 0.6 (0.9) servings per day. Thirty-two percent of mothers were multiracial or people of color, 68% were college graduates, and 10% smoked during pregnancy. In midchildhood, mean (SD) BMI z score was 0.38 (1.00), and the FMI was 4.4 (1.9) kg/m 2 . In multivariable models adjusted for multiple maternal and child covariates, each additional serving per day of SSB was associated with higher BMI z scores (0.07 U; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.01 to 0.15), FMI (0.15 kg/m 2 ; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.30), SS + TR (0.85 mm; 95% CI: 0.06 to 1.64), and waist circumference (0.65 cm; 95% CI: 0.01 to 1.28). Stratified models suggested that the associations were due primarily to maternal, not child, SSB intake and to sugary soda rather than fruit drinks or juice. We did not find differences between boys and girls, nor did we observe the effects of sugar-free soda or of first-trimester beverage intake. Higher SSB intake during the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with greater adiposity in midchildhood. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Total and specific dietary polyphenol intakes and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged general population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Feuillet, T; Touvier, M; Olié, V; Andreeva, V; Hercberg, S; Galan, P; Fezeu, L K

    2017-09-20

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested antiobesogenic agents. Prospective evidence in general population of an association between polyphenol intakes and anthropometry is lacking. To assess the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over a 6-year period. Individual intakes of 264 different polyphenols (mg day -1 ) were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database and the mean of 6-17 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996. BMI in kg m -2 and WC in cm were measured in 1995-1996, 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. Linear mixed-effect models allowed for the assessment of longitudinal associations between energy-adjusted quartiles of total polyphenol intake as well as intake of 15 polyphenol classes and changes of these respective polyphenol classes in anthropometry over the 6 years of follow-up. Adjustment variables included sex, age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, dietary intakes and health status. Participants in the highest quartile of intake of flavanones (BMI change: -0.28 (-0.43; -0.13), P=0.009), flavones (BMI change: -0.29 (-0.44; -0.14), P=0.008) and lignans (BMI change: -0.28 (-1.63; -0.09), P=0.01) experienced a less notable increase in BMI over time compared with their counterparts in the bottom quartile of intake of the respective polyphenol classes. Participants in the highest quartile of intake of flavanones (WC change: -1.39 (-2.02; -0.92), P=0.001), flavones (WC change: -1.57 (-2.32; -0.92), P=0.001), hydroxycinnamic acids (WC change: -1.27 (-1.92; -0.63), P=0.01), lignans (WC change: -1.16 (-1.80; -0.51), P=0.006) and total polyphenol intake (WC change: -1.39 (-2.05; -0.74), P=0.001) experienced a less notable increase in WC over time compared with their counterparts in the bottom quartile of intake of the respective polyphenols. Dietary polyphenol intakes may help reduce weight gain over time in the general population. This could have important public health implications because

  20. The Effect of Distraction Technique on the Pain of Dressing Change among 3-6 Year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kaheni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn dressings, debridement, surgical incisions, skin grafting and physical therapy are some of painful treatments of burn. According to the studies, distraction techniques have a significant effect on patients’ pain. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of distraction on pain of dressing change in second degree burn in 3-6 year-old children. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study, was conducted on 80 hospitalized children with second degree burn in 2015. Playing a video computer game for children during the dressing change procedure was the intervention for the interventional group. Also the intensity of pain was measured by behavioral pain scale for children (FLCC scale during dressing. This scale was completed for patients without no intervention in the control group during dressing. Results Pain intensity mean in the interventional group (2.575 ± 1.807 had significant changes in comparison with the control group (8.025 ± 1.187 (P

  1. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of problem behavior in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, Eva M; Hofland, Laura; van der Stelt, Odin; van der Wal, Marcel F; Koot, Hans M; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2012-08-01

    Human studies that have investigated the association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and offspring's behavioral outcomes are scant and inconclusive. We prospectively investigated the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and children's problem behavior at age 5 to 6 years. Mediation by fetal growth restriction and gestational age as well as effect modification by the child's gender and maternal smoking was tested. In a community based multiethnic birth cohort, dietary caffeine intake (coffee, caffeinated tea, and cola) was measured (maternal self-report, n = 8202) around the 16th week of gestation. At age 5, children's overall problem behavior, emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention problems, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behavior were rated by both mother and teacher (n = 3439) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, cohabitant status, education, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, child's gender, family size, and prenatal maternal anxiety. Caffeine intake was not associated with a higher risk for behavior problems or with suboptimal prosocial behavior. No evidence was found for mediation by fetal growth restriction or gestational age, nor for effect modification by the child's gender. Results did not provide evidence for developmental programming influences of intrauterine exposure to caffeine on offspring's problem behavior at age 5. Present results give no indication to advise pregnant women to reduce their caffeine intake to prevent behavior problems in their children.

  2. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  3. Excess abdominal adiposity remains correlated with altered lipid concentrations in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L; Katz, L D; Nadel, E R

    1999-04-01

    To determine associations between overall adiposity, absolute and relative abdominal adiposity, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data. Subjects were 21 healthy, untrained older women (71 +/- 1 y) entering a randomized, controlled aerobic training program. Overall adiposity was assessed by anthropometry and the body mass index (BMI=kg/m2). Absolute and relative abdominal adiposity was determined by computed tomography (CT) and circumference measures. Fasting serum lipid concentrations of total-, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C) and triglycerides (TGs) were determined by standard enzymatic procedures. Compared to the measures of overall adiposity, we observed much stronger correlations between measures more specific to absolute or relative abdominal adiposity and lipid concentrations. Visceral fat area was the strongest correlate of HDL-C (r = -0.75; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.86; P correlated with TGs (r = 0.54; P HDL-C (r= -0.69; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.75; P adiposity remains an important correlate of lipid metabolism, even in healthy older women of normal weight. Thus, overall obesity is not a necessary condition for the correlation between excess abdominal fat and metabolic risk among postmenopausal women.

  4. Refractive Errors in 3–6 Year-Old Chinese Children: A Very Low Prevalence of Myopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lixia; Li, Zhen; Zeng, Junwen; Yang, Zhikuan; Morgan, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3–6 years in China. Methods Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex) was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least −0.50 D in the worse eye), hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye) and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye). Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. Results The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. Conclusions Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5–6 yearsin most conditions. PMID:24205064

  5. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  6. Validation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of pericardial adipose tissue volume

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    Sanders Prashanthan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. To date its assessment has been restricted to the use of surrogate echocardiographic indices such as measurement of epicardial fat thickness over the right ventricular free wall, which have limitations. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR offers the potential to non-invasively assess total PAT, however like other imaging modalities, CMR has not yet been validated for this purpose. Thus, we sought to describe a novel technique for assessing total PAT with validation in an ovine model. Methods 11 merino sheep were studied. A standard clinical series of ventricular short axis CMR images (1.5T Siemens Sonata were obtained during mechanical ventilation breath-holds. Beginning at the mitral annulus, consecutive end-diastolic ventricular images were used to determine the area and volume of epicardial, paracardial and pericardial adipose tissue. In addition adipose thickness was measured at the right ventricular free wall. Following euthanasia, the paracardial adipose tissue was removed from the ventricle and weighed to allow comparison with corresponding CMR measurements. Results There was a strong correlation between CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume and ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.89, p ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.003, p = 0.878. Conclusion In this ovine model, CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume, but not the corresponding and conventional measure of paracardial adipose thickness over the RV free wall, accurately reflected paracardial adipose tissue mass. This study validates for the first time, the use of clinically utilised CMR sequences for the accurate and reproducible assessment of pericardial adiposity. Furthermore this non-invasive modality does not use ionising radiation and therefore is ideally suited for future studies of PAT and its role in cardiovascular risk prediction and

  7. Physical Activity and Adiposity-related Inflammation: The MESA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Allison, Matthew A; Cushman, Mary; Jenny, Nancy S; Miles, Mary P; Larsen, Britta; Lakoski, Susan G; Michos, Erin D; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Physical activity is associated with decreased adiposity-related inflammation in adults. Whether this association is independent of central obesity is unknown but important for understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing cardiometabolic disease risk through physical activity. This study examined whether associations of physical activity and obesity-related inflammatory markers were independent of central adiposity. Between 2002 and 2005, 1970 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis completed detailed health history and physical activity questionnaires, underwent physical measurements including computed tomography to quantify abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and measurements of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin. Statistical analyses included analysis of covariance and multivariable-adjusted regression. The mean (range) age of participants was 64.7 (55-84) yr and 50% were women. After adjustment for age and sex, and compared with the lowest quartile, inflammatory markers in the highest quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 16% higher for adiponectin and 30%, 26%, and 9% lower for leptin, interleukin-6, and resistin, respectively (P central adiposity (P central adiposity (P > 0.05). There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity or sex. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a more favorable profile of inflammatory markers, independent of relevant cardiometabolic disease risk factors including central obesity.

  8. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    are among the age groups with the highest use. Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use. Low parental educational level was associated with increased antibiotic use. Parents' income or employment status was not found to be associated with high antibiotic use.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...

  9. Body fat and blood rheology: Evaluation of the association between different adiposity indices and blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina Barbara; Gnasso, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, new measures of body adiposity have been introduced: lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and body shape index (ABSI). These indices have been demonstrated to better associate with cardiovascular disease than other measures of adiposity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if LAP or BAI better associate with blood viscosity than other measures of adiposity (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, W/HR; waist-to-height ratio, W/HtR). 344 subjects were recruited for the present investigation. Exclusion criteria were: diabetes, elevated triglycerides, smoking and drug use. Blood lipids and glucose were measured by routine methods. Blood and plasma viscosity were measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Adiposity measures were computed as previously described. In simple correlation analyses, blood viscosity (BV) correlated with BMI, BAI, and LAP in males and with LAP in females. Correlations between plasma viscosity and adiposity indices were weak and not statistically significant. Other variables significantly related with BV were: gender, HDL- and LDL-Cholesterol, and triglycerides (p index is strongly associated to blood viscosity. This result, along with previous evidence, identifies LAP index as a potential cardiovascular risk marker.

  10. Relationship of Adipocyte Size with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ved Prakash; Seenu, V.; Sharma, M. C.; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Nandita; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions. Objectives We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians. Methodology Eighty (40 males and 40 females) non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2–3 level (computed tomography) and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP). During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination. Results Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF), total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR), the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity. Conclusion Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity. PMID:25251402

  11. Relationship of adipocyte size with adiposity and metabolic risk factors in Asian Indians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash Meena

    Full Text Available Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions.We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians.Eighty (40 males and 40 females non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2-3 level (computed tomography and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP. During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination.Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR, the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity.Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity.

  12. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  13. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Davillas

    Full Text Available Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age.To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF%- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan.Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+ of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013 were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12 and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated.Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures or early 50s (all BMI measures and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to 50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation.We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years.

  14. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  15. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC...

  16. The Reflecting Heliometer of Rio de Janeiro after 6 years of activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscardin, S. C.; Sigismondi, C.; Penna, J. L.; D'Avila, V.; Reis-Neto, E.; Andrei, A. H.

    Started its regular, daily operational phase in 2011, by the occasion of the Symp264 in the XXVII IAU GA at Rio de Janeiro, the results so far obtained show that the Heliometer of the Observatorio Nacional fulfilled its planed performance of single measurement to the level of few tens of milli-arcsecond, freely pivoting around the heliolatitudes without systematic deviations or error enhancement. We present and discuss the astrometric additions required on ground based astronomic programs. We also discuss instrumental and observations terms, namely the constancy of the basic heliometric angle, against which the measurements are made, and the independence to meteorological and pointing conditions.

  17. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...... and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...

  18. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed...... in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body...... that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol....

  19. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  20. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9.5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 3±2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38% of fathers were overweight/ obese (BMI≥25.0 kg/m²), but only 4% of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI≥18.2 kg/m²). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population.

  1. Adipose tissue oxygenation: Effects on metabolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity there is a concomitant increase in white adipose tissue dysfunction, with the tissue moving toward a proinflammatory phenotype. Adipose tissue hypoxia has been proposed as a key underlying mechanism triggering tissue dysfunction but data from human, in vivo studies, to support this hypothesis is limited. Human adipose tissue oxygenation has been investigated by direct assessment of tissue oxygen tension (pO2) or by expression of hypoxia-sensitive gene...

  2. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  3. Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, K.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Jenab, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer

  4. Breast-feeding duration and child eating characteristics in relation to later vegetable intake in 2-6-year-old children in ten studies throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire Wt; Jager, Gerry; Olsen, Annemarie; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Boer, Eric; Zeinstra, Gertrude G

    2018-04-10

    Breast-feeding is thought to facilitate young children's acceptance of new foods, including vegetables, but the evidence for this relationship appears inconsistent across studies. Increasing children's vegetable intake remains challenging; therefore the present study aimed to investigate whether breast-feeding duration predicts vegetable intake in 2-6-year-old children. Actual vegetable intake was measured in studies across three European countries. General linear model analyses with breast-feeding duration, sex and age of the child and maternal education as variables were used to predict children's vegetable intake per country. Additionally, the relationships between child eating behaviour characteristics (asked through the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) and vegetable intake were investigated via Pearson correlations. Daycare centres, schools and home settings in Denmark, Greece and the Netherlands. Children aged 2-6 years (n 750). Breast-feeding duration was positively associated with children's vegetable intake at 2-6 years old in Denmark (Pchildren's vegetable intake and a positive relationship between vegetable liking and intake. The present study found that breast-feeding duration is a predictor of later vegetable intake, but that current child eating behaviour characteristics, such as vegetable liking, food neophobia and enjoyment of food, also influence vegetable intake. Besides encouragement of breast-feeding duration, strategies that support vegetable liking and food enjoyment and decrease food neophobia are needed to support young children's vegetable intake.

  5. Interpreting IceCube 6-year HESE data as an evidence for hundred TeV decaying Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Chianese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of a single astrophysical power-law flux to explain the IceCube 6-year HESE extraterrestrial events yields a large spectral index that is in tension with gamma-ray observations and the 6-year up-going muon neutrinos data. Adopting a spectral index belonging to the range [2.0,2.2], which is compatible with the one deduced by the analysis performed on the 6-year up-going muon neutrinos data and with p–p astrophysical sources, the latest IceCube data show an up to 2.6σ excess in the number of events in the energy range 40–200 TeV. We interpret such an excess as a decaying Dark Matter signal and we perform a likelihood-ratio statistical test to compare the two-component scenario with respect to the single-component one.

  6. Interpreting IceCube 6-year HESE data as an evidence for hundred TeV decaying Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Marco; Miele, Gennaro; Morisi, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    The assumption of a single astrophysical power-law flux to explain the IceCube 6-year HESE extraterrestrial events yields a large spectral index that is in tension with gamma-ray observations and the 6-year up-going muon neutrinos data. Adopting a spectral index belonging to the range [ 2.0 , 2.2 ], which is compatible with the one deduced by the analysis performed on the 6-year up-going muon neutrinos data and with p-p astrophysical sources, the latest IceCube data show an up to 2.6 σ excess in the number of events in the energy range 40-200 TeV. We interpret such an excess as a decaying Dark Matter signal and we perform a likelihood-ratio statistical test to compare the two-component scenario with respect to the single-component one.

  7. Does gender discrimination transformed its face over few generations? exploring gender inequalities among under-6 year children in rural Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences can be in any stage in the life cycle including before birth (feticide/sex selective abortions which have been objectively documented. This study tries to identify the gender differentials among the children which is a basic step in cascade process of female discrimination in the society. Objective: To study the gender differentials among children under 6 years in households of rural Ballabgarh, Haryana in terms of nutrition, health care seeking, social aspects and to see whether they differ by socio economic status. Methods: Two hundred households were selected purposively from four villages (50 households each by multi stage sampling during Mar – June 2010. Pre tested interview schedule was used to assess gender differences in nutrition (breast feeding, 'z' score; in health care seeking and in social aspects (Expenditure on birth related ceremonies and toys and dresses. Differences are measured in means or proportions. Determinants of Gender differentials were identified by logistic regression. Results: Girls were breast fed for five months lesser than boys (P < 0.02. Even though occurrences of common childhood illnesses were equal between the two, expenditures incurred to treat these illnesses were more among the boys (Boys Vs girls: Rs 181.3 Vs Rs 123.9. Proportion of illnesses treated from health facilities located outside the villages was higher among the boys [boys (22.2%, girls (11.4%]. Expenditures incurred during birth related social ceremonies were higher for boys (Rs 20311 and Rs 2487.5 respectively for boys and girls. Conclusion: In this patriarchal society, socio cultural norms have produced the gender gap which can have adverse impact on health of the female children.

  8. Step-down versus outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for personality disorders: 6-year follow-up of the Ullevål personality project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although psychotherapy is considered the treatment of choice for patients with personality disorders (PDs), there is no consensus about the optimal level of care for this group of patients. This study reports the results from the 6-year follow-up of the Ullevål Personality Project (UPP), a randomized clinical trial comparing outpatient individual psychotherapy with a long-term step-down treatment program that included a short-term day hospital treatment followed by combined group and individual psychotherapy. Methods The UPP included 113 patients with PDs. Outcome was evaluated after 8 months, 18 months, 3 years and 6 years and was based on a wide range of clinical measures, such as psychosocial functioning, interpersonal problems, symptom severity, and axis I and II diagnoses. Results At the 6-year follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences in outcome between the treatment groups. Effect sizes ranged from medium to large for all outcome variables in both treatment arms. However, patients in the outpatient group had a marked decline in psychosocial functioning during the period between the 3- and 6-year follow-ups; while psychosocial functioning continued to improve in the step-down group during the same period. This difference between groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that both hospital-based long-term step-down treatment and long-term outpatient individual psychotherapy may improve symptoms and psychosocial functioning in poorly functioning PD patients. Social and interpersonal functioning continued to improve in the step-down group during the post-treatment phase, indicating that longer-term changes were stimulated during treatment. Trial registration NCT00378248. PMID:24758722

  9. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, J.S. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Aust-Agder, Sykehusvn 1, N-4800 Arendal (Norway); Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O. [MR Center, Medical Section, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway); Vik, T. [Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim (Norway); Brubakk, A.M. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-06-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  11. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  12. Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Maillot, M; Bellisle, F

    2006-12-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem, with a rapidly increasing frequency worldwide. Identification of critical periods for the development of childhood and adolescent obesity could be very useful for targeting prevention measures. Weight status in early childhood is a poor predictor of adult adiposity status, and most obese adults were not obese as children. We first proposed to use the body mass index (BMI) charts to monitor individual BMI development. The adiposity rebound (AR) corresponds to the second rise in BMI curve that occurs between ages 5 and 7 years. It is not as direct a measure as BMI at any age, but because it involves the examination of several points during growth, and because it is identified at a time when adiposity level clearly change directions, this method provides information that can help us understand individual changes and the development of health risks. An early AR is associated with an increased risk of overweight. It is inversely associated with bone age, and reflects accelerated growth. The early AR recorded in most obese subjects and the striking difference in the mean age at AR between obese subjects (3 years) and non-obese subjects (6 years) suggest that factors have operated very early in life. The typical pattern associated with an early AR is a low BMI followed by increased BMI level after the rebound. This pattern is recorded in children of recent generations as compared to those of previous generations. This is owing to the trend of a steeper increase of height as compared to weight in the first years of life. This typical BMI pattern (low, followed by high body fatness level) is associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Low body fatness before the AR suggests that an energy deficit had occurred at an early stage of growth. It can be attributable to the high-protein, low-fat diet fed to infants at a time of high energy needs, the former triggering height velocity and

  13. Liver Adiposity and Metabolic Profile in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C. Rankin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify liver adiposity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and to determine its association with metabolic profile in men with spinal cord injury (SCI. Materials and Methods. MRI analysis of liver adiposity by fat signal fraction (FSF and visceral adipose tissue (VAT was completed on twenty participants. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was conducted to measure glucose effectiveness (Sg and insulin sensitivity (Si. Lipid panel, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. Results. Average hepatic FSF was 3.7%±2.1. FSF was positively related to TG, non-HDL-C, fasting glucose, HbA1c, VAT, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. FSF was negatively related to Si and testosterone. FSF was positively related to VAT (r=0.48, p=0.032 and TNF-α (r=0.51, p=0.016 independent of age, level of injury (LOI, and time since injury (TSI. The associations between FSF and metabolic profile were independent of VAT. Conclusions. MRI noninvasively estimated hepatic adiposity in men with chronic SCI. FSF was associated with dysfunction in metabolic profile, central adiposity, and inflammation. Importantly, liver adiposity influenced metabolic profile independently of VAT. These findings highlight the significance of quantifying liver adiposity after SCI to attenuate the development of metabolic disorders.

  14. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  15. Does youth adiposity, or change in adiposity from youth to adulthood, predict metabolically healthy obesity in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K J; Bessell, E; Magnussen, C G; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) do not have the metabolic complications usually associated with obesity. To examine whether youth adiposity, or change in adiposity from youth to adulthood, predicts MHO 20 years later. A national sample of 2410 Australian participants had height, weight and waist circumference (WC) measured in 1985 (7-15 years old) and 2004-2006 (26-36 years old). A fasting blood sample was taken in 2004-2006. MHO was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg m(-2) , normal fasting glucose (1.036 mmol L(-1) men, > 1.295 mmol L(-1) women), blood pressure (youth BMI (or WC) z-score or change in BMI (or WC) z-score from youth to adulthood, adjusted for sex and youth age. In total 323 individuals were obese at follow-up, 79 (24.5%) were MHO. Adult MHO was not associated with youth BMI (RR: 1.00, 95%CI: 0.85-1.19) or WC (RR: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.79-1.11). Individuals were less likely to be MHO if they had larger increases in BMI (BMI RR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.57-0.97) or WC (RR: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.55-0.90) from youth to adulthood. Change in adiposity from youth to adulthood predicted adult MHO better than youth adiposity alone. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  17. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  18. Perirenal Adiposity is Associated With Lower Progression-Free Survival From Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Coletta, Adriana M; Allen, Pamela K; Parikh, Aaroh M; Cox-Mattin, Matthes; Meyer, Larissa A; Sun, Charlotte C; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Lu, Karen H; Klopp, Ann H

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is linked with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, the link between abdominal obesity and survival after diagnosis of ovarian cancer is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of abdominal obesity on progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Among 258 patients, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, along with perirenal adipose tissue thickness (a visceral adiposity proxy measure) was retrospectively measured from abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans obtained within 6 months of ovarian cancer diagnosis. Progression-free survival was computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine relationships between measures of abdominal obesity and clinical variables in relation to progression-free survival. Patients with perirenal adipose tissue thickness greater than 5 mm(median) had lower rates of progression-free survival at 5 years compared with patients with perirenal adipose tissue thickness less than 5 mm (45.6% vs 53.8%, respectively). Perirenal adipose tissue thickness less than 5 mm was associated with lower rates of progression-free survival on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.82). There was no correlation with other metrics of abdominal adiposity on progression-free survival in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our data suggest that perirenal adipose, but not body mass index, visceral, or subcutaneous fat volume that were measured within 6 months from diagnosis, is associated with lower rates of progression-free survival in ovarian cancer.

  19. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  20. Cross-lagged associations between children's stress and adiposity: the Children's Body Composition and Stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Boone, Liesbet; Clays, Els; Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    The public health threats stress and adiposity have previously been associated with each other. Longitudinal studies are needed to reveal whether this association is bidirectional and the moderating factors. In the longitudinal Children's Body Composition and Stress study, 316 children (aged 5-12 years) had measures of stress (questionnaires concerning negative life events, problem behavior, and emotions) and adiposity (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and fat percentage) in three waves at 1-year intervals. The bidirectionality of the association between stress and adiposity was examined using cross-lagged analyses. We tested moderation by cortisol and life-style (physical activity, screen time, food consumption, eating behavior and sleep duration). Adiposity (body mass index: β = 0.48 and fat percentage: β = 0.18; p stress levels, but stress was not directly related to subsequent increases in adiposity indices. Cortisol and life-style factors displayed a moderating effect on the association between stress and adiposity. Stress was positively associated with adiposity in children with high cortisol awakening patterns (β = 0.204; p = .020) and high sweet food consumption (β = 0.190; p = .031), whereas stress was associated with lower adiposity in the most active children (β = -0.163; p = .022). Stress is associated with the development of children's adiposity, but the effects depend on cortisol levels and life-style factors. This creates new perspectives for multifactorial obesity prevention programs. Our results also highlight the adverse effect of an unhealthy body composition on children's psychological well-being.

  1. Increased adiposity in animals due to a human virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Israel, B A; Kolesar, J M; Mayhew, G F; Cook, M E; Atkinson, R L

    2000-08-01

    Four animal models of virus-induced obesity including adiposity induced by an avian adenovirus have been described previously. This is the first report of adiposity induced in animals by a human virus. We investigated the adiposity promoting effect of a human adenovirus (Ad-36) in two different animal models. Due to the novel nature of the findings we replicated the experiments using a chicken model three times and a mammal model once. In four separate experiments, chickens and mice were inoculated with human adenovirus Ad-36. Weight matched groups inoculated with tissue culture media were used as non-infected controls in each experiment. Ad-36 inoculated and uninfected control groups were housed in separate rooms under biosafety level 2 or better containment. The first experiment included an additional weight matched group of chickens that was inoculated with CELO (chick embryo lethal orphan virus), an avian adenovirus. Food intakes and body weights were measured weekly. At the time of sacrifice blood was drawn and visceral fat was carefully separated and weighed. Total body fat was determined by chemical extraction of carcass fat. Animals inoculated with Ad-36 developed a syndrome of increased adipose tissue and paradoxically low levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. This syndrome was not seen in chickens inoculated with CELO virus. Sections of the brain and hypothalamus of Ad-36 inoculated animals did not show any overt histopathological changes. Ad-36 DNA could be detected in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscles of randomly selected animals for as long as 16 weeks after Ad-36 inoculation. Data from these animal models suggest that the role of viral disease in the etiology of human obesity must be considered.

  2. Does general movements quality in term infants predict cerebral palsy and milder forms of limited mobility at 6 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate in term infants associations between quality of general movements and developmental outcome in term infants at 6 years with either cerebral palsy (CP) or limited mobility without CP. METHOD: Participants of this prospective study were 145 term infants (86 male, 59 female). Their

  3. Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Outcomes During 6 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Amouzeshi, Zahra; Abbasi Teshnizi, Mohammad; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Hosseinzadeh Maleki, Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    Given the ongoing controversy over the risks and benefits of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), we aimed to compare time trends in off- and on-pump CABG long-term outcomes. In this prospective cohort study, the patients who underwent primary isolated non-emergent CABG in Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2006 were followed for 6 years. The patients were contacted to obtain long-term follow-up data such as death, rehospitalization, myocardial infarction, and normal physical activity. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software (V: 16) using t-test, Fisher's Exact, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests, and relative risk. The significant level was set at Ppump CABG. The mean age of the patients was 59.0±11.31 years, and n=43 (70.5%) were men. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of outcomes during the 6 years (e.g., death, rehospitalization, myocardial infarction, and normal physical activity). There was 1 (5.0%) death, overall. Risk-adjusted death did not differ significantly between the off-pump and on-pump groups during the 6 years (RR, 0.952; 95% CI 0.866 to 1.048).According to the results, the outcomes were similar between off-pump and on-pump CABG in patients who underwent primary isolated non-emergent CABG during the 6-year follow-up phase.

  4. Long-term degradation of enamel and dentin bonds: 6-year results in vitro vs. in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Krämer, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Frankenberger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate marginal integrity of direct resin composite restorations before and after thermo-mechanical loading in vitro, and before and after 6 years of clinical service in a prospective clinical trial. Methods For the in vitro part, MO cavities with the proximal box beneath the

  5. The Effect of Coordinated Teaching Method Practices on Some Motor Skills of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effects of Coordinated Teaching Method activities applied for 10 weeks on 6-year-old children, and to examine the effects of these activities on the development of some motor skills in children. Research Methods: The "Experimental Research Model with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group"…

  6. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Chen

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is an important cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years. These patients usually have a low insulin reserve and severe ketoacidosis upon diagnosis. A high index of suspicion in the presence of classic symptoms of diabetes in young children is important to prevent complications.

  7. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures : 6-year results of a multicenter clinical trial on 3 different implant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, HJA; Geertman, ME; Raghoebar, GM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this multicenter prospective clinical trial was to compare clinical outcome and post-treatment care and patient satisfaction with different implant systems used for mandibular overdenture treatment during a 6-year follow-up period. Patients and Methods: A total of 87 edentulous

  8. Family- and school-based predictors of energy balance-related behaviours in children: a 6-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine family- and school-based predictors of breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption and physical activity (PA) and moderating effects of gender and socio-economic status (SES). Design Longitudinal study (6-year follow-up), including a questionnaire about dietary and activity

  9. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  10. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  12. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors Among Residents Younger Than 6 Years, Puerto Rico--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Timothy; Rivera García, Brenda; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A; Azofeifa, Alejandro; OʼNeill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist about blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), evaluated household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children younger than 6 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 2010. We used a population-based, cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years. We estimated the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLLs and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. The analytic data set included 355 households and 439 children younger than 6 years throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children younger than 6 years was 1.57 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.88). The weighted prevalence of children younger than 6 years with BLLs of 5 μg/dL or more was 3.18% (95% CI, 0.93-5.43) and for BLLs of 10 μg/dL or more was 0.50% (95% CI, 0-1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence, and maternal education of less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years is comparable with the most recent (2007-2010) US national estimate (BLLs ≥5 μg/dL = 2.6% [95% CI = 1.6-4.0]). Our findings suggest that targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children younger than 6 years can replace island-wide or insurance-specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico.

  13. Normative personality trait development in adulthood: A 6-year cohort-sequential growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojev, Petar; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects. Extraversion decreased as people aged, with the most pronounced declines occurring in young adulthood, and then again in old age. Agreeableness, indexed with a measure focusing on empathy, decreased in young adulthood and remained relatively unchanged thereafter. Conscientiousness increased among young adults then leveled off and remained fairly consistent for the rest of the adult life span. Neuroticism and openness to experience decreased as people aged. However, the models suggest that these latter effects may also be partially due to cohort differences, as older people showed lower levels of neuroticism and openness to experience more generally. Honesty-humility showed a pronounced and consistent increase across the adult life span. These analyses of large-scale longitudinal national probability panel data indicate that different dimensions of personality follow distinct developmental processes throughout adulthood. Our findings also highlight the importance of young adulthood (up to about the age of 30) in personality trait development, as well as continuing change throughout the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Coarse woody debris and soil respiration 6 years post-tornado in a Piedmont forest blowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, C.; Peterson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Severe wind disturbances can rapidly change carbon pools and fluxes in forests, causing a site to switch from a carbon sink to a source in a matter of minutes. Moreover, salvage logging after a disturbance can result in disturbed and compacted soil, altered woody debris carbon pools, and seedling mortality, all of which may further alter carbon dynamics beyond that caused by the disturbance itself. We measured down dead wood and soil respiration in the summer of 2017 at Boggs Creek Recreation Area in the Piedmont of northeast Georgia, the site of a severe tornado in 2011. Down dead wood and soil respiration were compared in control (intact forest), salvaged, and unsalvaged areas. Megagrams per hectare of down dead wood was significantly higher in the unsalvaged condition than the control or salvage logging condition (ANOVAs, p<0.05 in both cases). Conversely, the volume of down dead wood was not significantly different in the control when compared to the salvage logging condition (p=0.99). Soil respiration was significantly higher in the salvage logged condition than the control (p<0.05), but was not significantly different between the unsalvaged condition and the control (p=0.30) or the unsalvaged condition and the salvaged condition (p=0.58). This research shows that wind disturbances have a lasting impact on the amount of down dead wood in a forest, and salvage logging may lead to greater soil respiration years after the initial disturbance, both of which will influence the time elapsed before a disturbed forest switches from carbon source to carbon sink. Further research is needed to determine the duration of these effects, along with the carbon consequences for other forest carbon pools.

  15. Predictive factors of persistent infantile atopic dermatitis up to 6 years old in Taiwan: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M M-H; Tseng, W-N; Ou, C-Y; Hsu, T-Y; Kuo, H-C; Yang, K D

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis affects 15-30% of children worldwide. Onset of disease usually occurs within the first year of life, over half of which regress by 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors related to the persistence of infantile atopic dermatitis. In this birth cohort study, patients were enrolled prenatally and followed until 6 years of age; 246 patients had infantile atopic dermatitis at 6 months of age. Family history, maternal and paternal total and specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and cord blood IgE were recorded. Clinical examination, questionnaire survey, and blood samples for total and specific IgE of the children were collected at each follow-up visit. Of the 246 patients with infantile atopic dermatitis at 6 months of age, 48 patients had persisted atopic dermatitis at 6 years of age (19.5%). Risk factors associated with persistent infantile atopic dermatitis included egg white sensitization (odds ratio: 3.801, P = 0.020), and atopic dermatitis involving two or more areas at 6 months old (odds ratio: 2.921, P = 0.018) after multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Patients with persistent infantile atopic dermatitis had a higher risk of asthma before 6 years old (39.6% vs 24.2%, P = 0.032). Egg white sensitization and the initial involvement of two or more areas at 6 months of age were associated with the persistent infantile atopic dermatitis. Patients with persistent infantile atopic dermatitis are more likely to develop asthma by 6 years of age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Depressive symptom clusters as predictors of 6-year increases in insulin resistance: data from the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambaty, Tasneem; Stewart, Jesse C; Muldoon, Matthew F; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2014-06-01

    To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between two depressive symptom clusters-the cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative clusters--and insulin resistance, a marker of prediabetes. Participants were 269 adults aged 50 to 70 years without diabetes enrolled in the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project, a prospective cohort study. At baseline and 6-year visits, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and underwent a blood draw to quantify fasting insulin and glucose. We examined baseline BDI-II total, cognitive-affective, and somatic-vegetative scores as predictors of 6-year change in the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA) score, an estimate of insulin resistance computed from fasting insulin and glucose. We also examined baseline HOMA score as a predictor of 6-year change in BDI-II total and subscale scores. Regression analyses, adjusted for demographic factors and baseline HOMA score, revealed that the baseline BDI-II somatic-vegetative score (β = 0.14, p = .025), but not the cognitive-affective (β = 0.001, p = .98) or total (β = 0.10, p = .11) scores, predicted 6-year HOMA change. This result persisted in models controlling for anxiety symptoms and hostility. Several factors were examined as candidate mediators; however, only change in body mass index was a significant mediator (p = .042), accounting for 23% of the observed association. Baseline HOMA score did not predict 6-year change in BDI-II total or subscale scores (all p values >.56). Among adults aged 50 to 70 years, the somatic-vegetative symptoms of depression (e.g., fatigue, sleep disturbance, and appetite changes) may worsen insulin resistance and increase diabetes risk, partly, by increasing body mass index.

  17. A clinical analysis of 4- and 6-year follow-up results after cervical disc replacement surgery using the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Jan; van Loon, Johan; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Lipscomb, Bailey

    2010-03-01

    In this study, long-term results are presented from clinical studies of the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis at University Hospital Gasthuisberg in Leuven, Belgium. A total of 98 patients (89 with 1-level and 9 with 2-level implantations) agreed to participate in follow-up studies for up to 10 years postoperatively. This article focuses on the 4- and 6-year results. Patients in one of the clinical studies had either radiculopathy or myelopathy associated with spondylosis and/or disc herniations that did not respond to conservative treatment. Patients from the other clinical study received commercially available Bryan devices and the study protocol did not have specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. More than 90% of the patients were considered to have radiculopathy. Clinical measurements discussed in the article include the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Neck Disability Index, numerical ratings of neck and arm pain, neurological outcomes, and Odom classification. Angular motion findings from lateral flexion-extension radiographs are also presented. The occurrence of adverse events and second surgeries are examined as an indicator of device safety. The clinical outcomes at 4 and 6 years postoperatively appear consistent with the previously reported results at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The mean angular motion results at 4 and 6 years postoperatively for 1-level patients were 7.3 and 7.7 degrees, respectively. Two-level patients had slightly less motion at 4 and 6 years postoperatively with mean caudad values of 5.7 and 6.0 degrees, respectively, and cephalad values of 4.2 and 6.2 degrees, respectively. Efforts were made to capture adverse events, regardless of their nature and relatedness to the study surgery. This effort resulted in a relatively high number of recorded events. However, only 6 patients experienced events that were judged by the investigator to be related, either possibly or definitely, to the Bryan device. These events included device migration

  18. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  19. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  20. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... metabolism during a 3 h post-exercise period. Six subjects were studied twice. In one experiment, they exercised for 90 min at 40% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2,max) and in the other experiment they exercised at 60% VO2,max for 60 min. For both experiments, catheters were inserted in an artery......, a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease...

  1. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration......-time: T, 44 +/- 9 min (n = 7); S, 102 +/- 23 min (n = 5); P training enhances insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, interstitial glycerol data suggest that training also increases insulin sensitivity of lipolysis...

  2. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  3. Sustained Obesity and Depressive Symptoms over 6 Years: Race by Gender Differences in the Health and Retirement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julia D.; Assari, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although obesity and physical activity influence psychosocial well-being, these effects may vary based on race, gender, and their intersection. Using 6-year follow-up data of a nationally representative sample of adults over age of 50 in the United States, this study aimed to explore race by gender differences in additive effects of sustained high body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on sustained depressive symptoms (CES-D) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 (2004–2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), an ongoing national cohort started in 1992. The study enrolled a representative sample of Americans (n = 19,280) over the age of 50. Latent factors were used to calculate sustained high BMI and physical activity (predictors) and sustained poor SRH and high depressive symptoms (outcomes) based on measurements in 2004, 2006, and 2010. Age, education, and income were confounders. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the additive effects of BMI and physical activity on depressive symptoms and SRH, where the groups were defined based on race by gender. Results: Group differences were apparent in the direction and significance of the association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms. The association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms was positive and significant for White women (B = 0.03, p = 0.007) and non-significant for White men (B = −0.03, p = 0.062), Black men (B = −0.02, p = 0.564) and Black women (B = 0.03, p = 0.110). No group differences were found in the paths from sustained physical activity to depressive symptoms, or from physical activity or BMI to SRH. Conclusion: Sustained high BMI and high depressive symptoms after age 50 are positively associated only for White women. As the association between sustained health problems such as depression and obesity are not universal across race and gender groups, clinical and public health

  4. Sustained Obesity and Depressive Symptoms over 6 Years: Race by Gender Differences in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julia D; Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although obesity and physical activity influence psychosocial well-being, these effects may vary based on race, gender, and their intersection. Using 6-year follow-up data of a nationally representative sample of adults over age of 50 in the United States, this study aimed to explore race by gender differences in additive effects of sustained high body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on sustained depressive symptoms (CES-D) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 (2004-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), an ongoing national cohort started in 1992. The study enrolled a representative sample of Americans ( n = 19,280) over the age of 50. Latent factors were used to calculate sustained high BMI and physical activity (predictors) and sustained poor SRH and high depressive symptoms (outcomes) based on measurements in 2004, 2006, and 2010. Age, education, and income were confounders. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the additive effects of BMI and physical activity on depressive symptoms and SRH, where the groups were defined based on race by gender. Results: Group differences were apparent in the direction and significance of the association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms. The association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms was positive and significant for White women ( B = 0.03, p = 0.007) and non-significant for White men ( B = -0.03, p = 0.062), Black men ( B = -0.02, p = 0.564) and Black women ( B = 0.03, p = 0.110). No group differences were found in the paths from sustained physical activity to depressive symptoms, or from physical activity or BMI to SRH. Conclusion: Sustained high BMI and high depressive symptoms after age 50 are positively associated only for White women. As the association between sustained health problems such as depression and obesity are not universal across race and gender groups, clinical and public health

  5. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Zhang, Qixu; Beahm, Elisabeth K

    2013-11-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were proved by immunohistochemical analysis and DNA quantification. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed a three-dimensional nanofibrous architecture in hDAM. The hDAM included collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and vascular endothelial growth factor, but lacked major histocompatibility complex antigen I. hASC viability and proliferation on hDAM were proven in vitro. hDAM implanted subcutaneously in Fischer rats did not cause an immunogenic response, and it underwent remodeling, as indicated by host cell infiltration, neovascularization, and adipose tissue formation. Fresh fat grafts (Coleman technique) and engineered fat grafts (hDAM combined with hASCs) were implanted subcutaneously in nude rats. The implanted engineered fat grafts maintained their volume for 8 weeks, and the hASCs contributed to adipose tissue formation. In summary, the combination of hDAM and hASCs provides not only a clinically translatable platform for adipose tissue engineering, but also a vehicle for elucidating fat grafting mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adiposity, insulin and lipid metabolism in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, J A; Silva, K D R R; Wright, J W; Williams, C M

    2002-04-01

    To investigate relationships between body fat and its distribution and carbohydrate and lipid tolerance using statistical comparisons in post-menopausal women. Sequential meal, postprandial study (600 min) which included a mixed standard breakfast (30 g fat) and lunch (44 g fat) given at 0 and 270 min, respectively, after an overnight fast. Twenty-eight post-menopausal women with a diverse range of body weight (body mass index (BMI), mean 27.2, range 20.5-38.8 kg/m2) and abdominal fat deposition (waist, mean 86.4, range 63.5-124.0 cm). Women with BMI 37 kg/m2, age > 80 y and taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were excluded. Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess total and regional fat deposits. The concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, insulin (ins), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 were analysed in plasma collected at baseline (fasted state) and at 13 postprandial time points for a 600 min period. Insulin concentrations in the fasted and fed state were significantly correlated with all measures of adiposity (BMI, waist, waist-hip ratio (W/H), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and sum of skinfold thickness (SSk)). After controlling for BMI, waist remained significantly and positively associated with fasted insulin (r=0.559) with waist contributing 53% to the variability after multiple regression analysis. After controlling for waist, BMI remained significantly correlated with postprandial (IAUC) insulin (r=0.535) contributing 66% of the variability of this measurement. No association was found between any measures of adiposity and glucose concentrations, although insulin concentration in relation to glucose concentration (glucose-insulin ratio) was significantly negatively correlated with all measures of adiposity. A significant positive correlation was found between fasted TAG and BMI (r=0.416), waist (r=0.393) and Ssk (r=0.457) and

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis: demonstration of progression between 1 and 6 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Neal R.; Crabbe, Jeffrey P.; McQueen, Fiona M.

    2004-01-01

    To describe the changes seen in the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging obtained at 1 year and 6 years. A cohort of patients with RA has been studied prospectively from symptom onset. MR scans of the dominant wrist in 31 patients obtained at 1 year and 6 years were compared for bone erosions, marrow signal change (oedema), synovial thickness and tenosynovitis. Twenty-two patients had an increase in erosion score in the interval and three patients showed a decrease in erosion score suggesting erosion healing. Fourteen patients had an increase in oedema score in the interval and eight patients had a decrease in oedema score. Synovial thickness increased in 13 patients and decreased in eight. Tenosynovitis increased in 15 patients and decreased in five. Bone erosions developed immediately adjacent to the tenosynovitis in two patients. MR imaging is useful in following the progress of bone erosions, marrow oedema, synovitis and tenosynovitis in RA. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis: demonstration of progression between 1 and 6 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Neal R. [Auckland Hospital, Department of Radiology, Private Bag 92024, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Radiology Group, Auckland (New Zealand); Crabbe, Jeffrey P. [Auckland Radiology Group, Auckland (New Zealand); McQueen, Fiona M. [Auckland Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2004-12-01

    To describe the changes seen in the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging obtained at 1 year and 6 years. A cohort of patients with RA has been studied prospectively from symptom onset. MR scans of the dominant wrist in 31 patients obtained at 1 year and 6 years were compared for bone erosions, marrow signal change (oedema), synovial thickness and tenosynovitis. Twenty-two patients had an increase in erosion score in the interval and three patients showed a decrease in erosion score suggesting erosion healing. Fourteen patients had an increase in oedema score in the interval and eight patients had a decrease in oedema score. Synovial thickness increased in 13 patients and decreased in eight. Tenosynovitis increased in 15 patients and decreased in five. Bone erosions developed immediately adjacent to the tenosynovitis in two patients. MR imaging is useful in following the progress of bone erosions, marrow oedema, synovitis and tenosynovitis in RA. (orig.)

  9. Determinants of incident hyperglycemia 6 years after delivery in young rural Indian mothers: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Smita R; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Niranjan V; Lubree, Himangi G; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Pasarkar, Rashmi V; Bhat, Dattatray S; Naik, Sadanand S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2007-10-01

    To study determinants of incident hyperglycemia in rural Indian mothers 6 years after delivery. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study collected information in six villages near Pune on prepregnant characteristics and nutrition, physical activity, and glucose tolerance during pregnancy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was repeated 6 years after delivery. A total of 597 mothers had an OGTT at 28 weeks' gestation; 3 had gestational diabetes (by World Health Organization 1999 criteria). Six years later, 42 of 509 originally normal glucose-tolerant mothers were hyperglycemic (8 diabetic, 20 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 with impaired fasting glucose). The hyperglycemic women had shorter legs and thicker skinfolds before pregnancy (P predispose to hyperglycemia in young rural Indian women. International cut points of diabetes risk factors are largely irrelevant in these women.

  10. Relationship of Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Mediated by Inflammation in a Group of Overweight and Obese Chilean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Laura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mild chronic inflammatory state associated with obesity may be an important link between adiposity and insulin resistance (IR. In a sample of 137 overweight and obese Chilean adolescents, we assessed associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, IR and adiposity; explored sex differences; and evaluated whether hs-CRP mediated the relationship between adiposity and IR. Positive relationships between hs-CRP, IR and 2 measures of adiposity were found. Hs-CRP was associated with waist circumference (WC in boys and fat mass index (FMI in girls. Using path analysis, we found that hs-CRP mediated the relationship between adiposity (WC and FMI and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p

  11. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI...

  12. Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Outcomes During 6 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amouzeshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the ongoing controversy over the risks and benefits of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG, we aimed to compare time trends in off- and on-pump CABG long-term outcomes. In this prospective cohort study, the patients who underwent primary isolated non-emergent CABG in Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2006 were followed for 6 years. The patients were contacted to obtain long-term follow-up data such as death, rehospitalization, myocardial infarction, and normal physical activity. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software (V: 16 using t-test, Fisher's Exact, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests, and relative risk. The significant level was set at P<0.05.The study included 61 patients of whom n=40 (65.6% underwent off-pump CABG. The mean age of the patients was 59.0±11.31 years, and n=43 (70.5% were men. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of outcomes during the 6 years (e.g., death, rehospitalization, myocardial infarction, and normal physical activity. There was 1 (5.0% death, overall. Risk-adjusted death did not differ significantly between the off-pump and on-pump groups during the 6 years (RR, 0.952; 95% CI 0.866 to 1.048.According to the results, the outcomes were similar between off-pump and on-pump CABG in patients who underwent primary isolated non-emergent CABG during the 6-year follow-up phase.

  13. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Bromley, Rebecca L; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal exposure are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of age. Methods: In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and Februa...

  14. The prevalence and risk factors of gingivitis in a population of 6-year-old children in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam; Hoda Shamsaddin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gingivitis is a reversible inflammation of gingival tissue. The prevalence of gingivitis is different in various communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gingivitis among 6-year-old (± 3 months) children of Rayen, Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 279 children (129 boys and 150 girls) from all Rayen’s nursery schools and primary schools were selected. Data collected through clinical examination with the consent o...

  15. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Hua; Tan, Zang-Wen; Jia, Ni; Fan, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Shuai-Ming; Lü, Yan-Yu; Chen, Li; Dai, Yao-Hua

    2013-06-01

    The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known. Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data. The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China. We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008. A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used. A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included. We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level. The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 µg/dl (median: 4.90 µg/dl; IQR: 3.20 - 7.00 µg/dl). Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥ 10.00 µg/dl among 0- to 6-year-old children was 7.57%. But the proportion of blood lead level ≥ 5.00 but walking or playing for long time on the street, not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels. The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries. However, children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age, male sex, and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  16. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  17. Social and biological early life influences on the prevalence of open bite in Brazilian 6-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; De Oliveira Latorre, Maria Do Rosário Dias; Sheiham, Aubrey; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora, César Gomes; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of social and biological risk factors for open bite on the primary dentition. The aim of this study was to assess the early-life risk factors affecting anterior open bite. A cross-sectional study using a birth cohort was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil. A sample of 400, 6-year-old children was employed. The Foster and Hamilton criteria were used to classify open bite. Data concerning social conditions, and perinatal and childhood health and behaviour were obtained from birth to 12 months of age and during the fifth year of the children's lives. Unconditional bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. The prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.3%. Risk factors included: a maternal age of between 30 and 39 years, as compared with children whose mothers were younger; breast-feeding for pacifier sucking between 12 months and 5 years, as compared to no sucking or a shorter duration of sucking; and the presence of finger-sucking at 6 years of age. Open bite in the primary dentition was associated with older mothers, early weaning, dental caries occurrence, long-term use of a pacifier and finger-sucking at 6 years of age. These findings support the common risk approach for intervention to prevent open bite in the primary dentition.

  18. Significant Axial Elongation with Minimal Change in Refraction in 3- to 6-Year-Old Chinese Preschoolers: The Shenzhen Kindergarten Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxing; Fu, Min; Ding, Xiaohu; Morgan, Ian G; Zeng, Yangfa; He, Mingguang

    2017-12-01

    To document the distribution of ocular biometry and to evaluate its associations with refraction in a group of Chinese preschoolers. Population-based cross-sectional study. A total of 1133 preschoolers 3 to 6 years of age from 8 representative kindergartens. Biometric measurements including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius of curvature (CR) were obtained from partial-coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) before cycloplegia. Lens power (LP) and AL-to-CR ratio were calculated. Cycloplegic refraction (3 drops of 1% cyclopentolate) was measured using an autorefractor (KR8800; Topcon Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was calculated. Biometric and refractive parameters were assessed as a function of age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associations between refraction and ocular biometry. Ocular biometric distributions and their relationships to refraction. Among the 1127 children (99.5%) with successful cycloplegic refraction, mean SER was 1.37±0.63 diopters (D). Prevalence of myopia increased from 0% at 3 years of age to 3.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.0%-6.5%) at 6 years of age. Biometric parameters followed Gaussian distributions with means of 22.39±0.68 mm for AL, 7.79±0.25 mm for CR, and 24.61±1.42 D for calculated LP; and non-Gaussian distributions with means of 3.34±0.24 mm for ACD and 2.88±0.06 for AL-to-CR ratio. Axial length, ACD, and AL-to-CR ratio increased from 3 to 6 years of age, CR remained stable, whereas LP declined. Overall, SER declined slightly. For the SER variance, AL explained 18.6% and AL-to-CR ratio explained 39.8%, whereas AL, CR, and LP accounted for 80.0% after adjusting for age and gender. Young Chinese children are predominantly mildly hyperopic, with a low prevalence of myopia by the age of 6 years. An increase of 1 mm in AL was associated with only 0.45 D of myopic change. Decreases in

  19. Thermogenic potential and physiological relevance of human epicardial adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, K; Richard, D

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range. Recent advances have further indicated that human epicardial fat exhibits beige fat-like features. Here we provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of human epicardial fat, and further discuss whether its thermogenic properties can serve as a target for the therapeutic management of coronary heart disease in humans. PMID:27152172

  20. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  1. Impact of adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices on eating in the absence of hunger and caloric compensation in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E; Issanchou, S; Chabanet, C; Boggio, V; Nicklaus, S

    2015-06-01

    Between the ages of 3 and 5 years, children may become less responsive to internal cues of satiation and more responsive to external cues, which may induce overeating and lead to weight gain. This study aimed to compare eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and caloric compensation in 3- to 6-year-old children, and to relate the measurements with children's adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices. According to a within-subject three sequential condition design, food intake in children (n=236) was measured at lunch during three sessions, once a week. The same meal (565 kcal) was offered at each session. The first session (control) was only composed of the meal. Thirty minutes before the second meal, children were offered an energy preload (137 kcal; caloric compensation condition). Ten minutes after the third meal, children were exposed to a post-meal snack (430 kcal; EAH condition). Individual caloric compensation score (COMPX) and EAH score were calculated. Maternal characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Child anthropometrics were measured by a medical doctor. On average, children compensated 52±4% of the energy preload and ate 24±1% of the energy provided by their meal in the absence of hunger. COMPX and EAH score were not correlated and did not vary with children's adiposity or age. EAH score was higher in boys (P=0.006). Maternal use of food as reward was associated with higher EAH score (P=0.01) but greater COMPX (P=0.005). As early as the age of 3 years children did not fully compensate the energy brought by a snack and ate in the absence of hunger. Parents should be advised to avoid these situations where overeating may occur and to limit the use of food as reward.

  2. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  3. HIV Persistence in Adipose Tissue Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jacob; Lewis, Dorothy E

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue. However, based on viral outgrowth assays, adipose-resident CD4 T cells are latently infected with virus that is replication-competent and infectious. Additionally, adipocytes interact with CD4 T cells and macrophages to promote immune cell activation and inflammation which may be supportive for HIV persistence. Antiviral effector cells, such as CD8 T cells and NK/NKT cells, are abundant in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection and typically exceed CD4 T cells, whereas B cells are largely absent from adipose tissue of humans and monkeys. Additionally, CD8 T cells in adipose tissue of HIV patients are activated and have a late differentiated phenotype, with unique TCR clonotypes of less diversity relative to blood CD8 T cells. With respect to the distribution of antiretroviral drugs in adipose tissue, data is limited, but there may be class-specific penetration of fat depots. The trafficking of infected immune cells within adipose tissues is a common event during HIV/SIV infection of humans and monkeys, but the virus may be mostly transcriptionally dormant. Viral replication may occur less in adipose tissue compared to other major reservoirs, such as lymphoid tissue, but replication competence and infectiousness of adipose latent virus are comparable to other tissues. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, inflammatory interactions among adipocytes and CD4 T cells and macrophages, and

  4. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated. PMID:25752539

  5. Population adiposity and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian

    2009-08-01

    The increasing global prevalence of overweight and obesity has serious implications for the environment, as well as for health. We estimate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of increases in the population distribution of body mass index (BMI). We estimated the food energy required to maintain basal metabolic rate in two hypothetical adult populations using the Schofield equations for males and females. Additional greenhouse gas emissions due to higher fuel energy use for transporting a heavier population were estimated. Compared with a normal population distribution of BMI, a population with 40% obese requires 19% more food energy for its total energy expenditure. Greenhouse gas emissions from food production and car travel due to increases in adiposity in a population of 1 billion are estimated to be between 0.4 Giga tonnes (GT) and 1.0 GT of carbon dioxide equivalents per year. The maintenance of a healthy BMI has important environmental benefits in terms of lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  7. Effects of male hypogonadism on regional adipose tissue fatty acid storage and lipogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Santosa

    Full Text Available Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1 underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2 consumed an experimental meal containing [(3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation; 3 received infusions of [U-(13C]palmitate and [1-(14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (FFA storage (adipose biopsies. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS, and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05. Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans.

  8. Visceral adipose tissue quantification using Lunar Prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, David L; Rothney, Megan P; Oates, Mary K; Xia, Yi; Wacker, Wynn K; Binkley, Neil C

    2013-01-01

    A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) application to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in the android region of a total body DXA scan has recently been developed. This new application, CoreScan, has been validated on the Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer against volumetric computed tomography. The geometric assumptions underlying the CoreScan model are the same on the Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer. However, differences between the peak X-ray voltage and detector array configurations may lead to differences in VAT quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Prodigy and iDXA CoreScan values and to characterize differences in VAT precision between the instruments. Data from volunteers with paired Prodigy and iDXA measurements were used to define empirical adjustments to the VAT algorithm parameters (n=59) and validate performance on Prodigy (n=62). Prodigy VAT measurements were highly correlated to iDXA (r=0.984). The mean of the Prodigy-iDXA VAT volume differences was -13.8cm³ with a 95% confidence interval of -45 to +17cm³. The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement for the 2 methods were -252 to +224cm³. Measurement of short-term precision showed that measurement error variance on iDXA was smaller (pProdigy (coefficient of variance: 7.3% vs 9.8%). Precision results are in agreement with previous reports on the differences between Prodigy and iDXA for body composition measures. Prodigy and iDXA measures of VAT are similar, but the lower precision of the Prodigy may require investigators to target larger changes in VAT. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  10. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Tilstam, Pathricia V; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert; Bucala, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF- β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  11. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  12. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  13. Safety and efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase beta in children aged younger than 6 years with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Young Bae; Cho, Sung Yoon; Lee, Jieun; Kwun, Yonghee; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Idursulfase beta (Hunterase®) has been used for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) aged 6 years or older since 2012 in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ERT with idursulfase beta in Hunter syndrome children younger than 6 years. This study was a 52-week, single center, single arm, open-label clinical trial (NCT01645189). Idursulfase beta (0.5mg/kg/week) was administered intravenously for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was safety assessed by adverse events (AEs). Secondary endpoints included vital signs, physical examination, ECG, laboratory tests, anti-idursulfase antibodies, and efficacy represented by changes in urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) at week 53 from baseline. In addition, growth indices and developmental milestones (Denver II test) were evaluated as exploratory variables. All six patients experienced at least one AE. A total of 109 AEs were reported. One patient experienced a serious AE (hospitalization due to gastroenteritis) that was considered not to be treatment related. One patient (16.7%) experienced infusion-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs), developing urticaria six times and a cough five times. There were no serious ADRs and no clinically significant changes in vital signs, physical exam, laboratory parameters, or ECG. Of the six patients, four (66.7%) showed anti-idursulfase antibodies and neutralizing antibodies on at least one occasion during the study. At week 53, urinary GAG was significantly reduced by -35.1±30.6mgGAG/g creatine from baseline (P=0.038). This study indicates that the safety and efficacy of idursulfase beta are similar to those reported in Hunter syndrome patients aged 6 years or older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body adiposity index and incident hypertension: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Urdiales, D; Artero, E G; Sui, X; España-Romero, V; Lee, DC; Blair, S N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The body adiposity index (BAI) has been recently proposed as a new method to estimate the percentage of body fat. The association between BAI and hypertension risk has not been investigated yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of BAI to predict hypertension in males and females compared with traditional body adiposity measures. Methods and Results The present follow-up analysis comprised 10 309 individuals (2259 females) free of hypertension from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, who completed a baseline examination during 1988–2003. Body adiposity measures included BAI, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, percentage of body fat and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Incident hypertension was ascertained from responses to mail-back surveys between 1990 and 2004. During an average of 9.1 years of follow-up, 872 subjects (107 females) became hypertensive. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) showed that males in the highest categories of all body adiposity measures showed a higher incident risk of hypertension (HRs ranged from 1.37 to 2.09). Females showed a higher incident risk of hypertension only in the highest categories of BAI, BMI and WHR (HRs ranged from 1.84 to 3.36). Conclusion Our results suggest that in order to predict incident hypertension BAI could be considered as an alternative to traditional body adiposity measures. PMID:24974319

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of the Thermogenic Adipose Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambeat, Audrey; Gulyaeva, Olga; Dempersmier, Jon; Sul, Hei Sook

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of triglycerides, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy by producing heat to maintain body temperature by burning glucose and fatty acids in a process called adaptive thermogenesis. The presence of an inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, and its beneficial effects for maintaining body weight and glucose and lipid homeostasis, has raised intense interest in understanding the regulation of thermogenesis. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the thermogenic adipose program may provide excellent targets for therapeutics against obesity and diabetes. Here we review recent research on the role of epigenetics in the thermogenic gene program, focusing on DNA methylation and histone modifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An adipose woman with progressive dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haene, E.G.M.; Fintelman, H.; Ditmars, M.J. van; Gruyl, J. de; Jacobs, A.S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A cardio-nuclear examination was done on an adipose woman with progressive dyspnea. The dyspnea was caused by an intrapulmonary process. After examination of the operation-preperate the process appeared to be a thymuscyst. (Auth.)

  17. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  18. Long-term degradation of enamel and dentin bonds: 6-year results in vitro vs. in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Krämer, Norbert; Feilzer, Albert J; Frankenberger, Roland

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate marginal integrity of direct resin composite restorations before and after thermo-mechanical loading in vitro, and before and after 6 years of clinical service in a prospective clinical trial. For the in vitro part, MO cavities with the proximal box beneath the cemento-enamel junction were prepared in 32 extracted human third molars. The specimens were randomly assigned to four groups (n=8) and received bonded resin composite restorations (two groups each Grandio bonded with Solobond M and Tetric Ceram bonded with Syntac). Specimens were subjected to three different aging protocols: 6-year water storage (WS), thermo-mechanical loading (TML; 100,000×50N; 2500×+5/+55°C), and 6-year water storage plus thermo-mechanical loading (WS+TML). Initially and after aging, marginal qualities in enamel and dentin were evaluated using replicas at 200× magnification (SEM). For the in vivo part, 30 patients received 68 direct resin composite restorations of the same materials in a prospective clinical trial. Replicas of 11 selected subjects per group were assessed for marginal quality under a SEM at 200×. in vitro, all initial results showed nearly 100% gap-free margins. For TML, percentages of gap-free margins dropped to 87-90% in enamel and to 58-66% in dentin (p<0.05). For WS, enamel margins still were at 97-99% whereas dentin margins exhibited 67-75% gap-free margins, and for WS+TML, enamel margins were at 85-87% and dentin margins at 42-52% gap-free margins. In vivo, gap-free enamel margins were reduced from initially 86-90% to 74-80% after 6 years of clinical service (p<0.05). Proximally exposed dentin margins were not recordable by impressions, however, clinically no considerable problems like recurrent caries or discolorations were detected. In vitro, hydrolytic degradation supports mechanical fatigue in dentin-composite bonds over time. In vivo, wear phenomena are superimposing marginal quality aspects. Gaps between enamel and resin composite did not play

  19. Primary vaginal calculus secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ince, Emine; Ezer, Semire Serin; Temiz, Abdülkerim; Demir, Senay; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2009-07-01

    Primary vaginal stones are extremely rare in children and may be mistaken for bladder calculi on plain radiography. We present a case of a large vaginal calculus in a 6-year-old girl who had an imperforate hymen and urethrovaginal fistula. Hymenotomy and urethrovaginal fistula repair were performed, and the vaginal stone was extracted. It was postulated that the vaginal calculus originated from stasis of urine through the urethrovaginal fistula in the obstructed vagina. This is a unique case of a vaginal calculus with a congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with an imperforate hymen.

  20. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-01-01

    To determine breath- holding spells (BHS) prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25%) had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months). Seventy percent of cases (23) had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis) and the commonest frequency was one spell per month...

  1. Human adipose tissue blood flow during prolonged exercise, III. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade, nicotinic acid and glucose infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J

    1981-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in six male subjects by the 133Xe-washout technique during 3-4 h of exercise at a work load corresponding to an oxygen uptake of about 1.71/min. The measurements were done during control conditions, during blockade of lipolysis by nicotinic...... with the hypothesis that adipose tissue vasodilation during exercise is secondary to metabolic events connected to lipolysis....

  2. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  3. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  4. Are ICSI adolescents at risk for increased adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, Florence; Painter, Rebecca; Bonduelle, Maryse; Roelants, Mathieu; Devroey, Paul; De Schepper, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the development of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including a more central body fat distribution. It is still unclear if IVF and more specifically ICSI, can permanently and detrimentally affect body fat accumulation in the human offspring. Therefore, adiposity and body fat distribution in 14-year-old adolescents born after ICSI were investigated. Body composition data, including anthropometry (weight, height and BMI), skinfold thicknesses (peripheral: triceps and biceps skinfolds; central: supra-iliacal and subscapular skinfolds; total: sum of the four skinfolds) and circumferences (waist, mid-upper arm) were compared between 217 ICSI singletons (116 boys, 101 girls) and 223 singletons (115 boys, 108 girls) born after spontaneous conception (SC). ICSI teenagers were part of a previously published ICSI cohort followed since birth; SC controls were recruited from schools in the surroundings. Among all boys, no differences in body composition measurements were found between the ICSI and SC group, taking into account confounding variables. In boys with more advanced pubertal stages, a significantly higher sum of peripheral skinfolds was found in the ICSI group compared with the SC group (difference 3.5 mm, 95% confidence interval 0.3-6.6). In girls, peripheral adiposity assessed by skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference, and central adiposity assessed by skinfolds and waist circumference as well as total adiposity assessed by BMI, the sum of four skinfold thicknesses and skinfold-derived body fat percentage were significantly higher in the ICSI group compared with the SC group, taking into account confounding variables (all Pfat patterns in adolescents born after fertility treatment is mandatory in order to assess their risk for developing obesity and its related adverse health effects in adulthood.

  5. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  6. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  7. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  8. Toothbrushing frequency among 4-6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 4-6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother-child (aged 4-6 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P toothbrushing was observed at a relative frequency of 12.8% in children and 18.4% in mothers. About 43.7% of children brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53-2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08-1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77). The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children.

  9. Does general movements quality in term infants predict cerebral palsy and milder forms of limited mobility at 6 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Patricia A M; Bakker, Saskia C M; Jonker, Arnold J H; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate in term infants associations between quality of general movements and developmental outcome in term infants at 6 years with either cerebral palsy (CP) or limited mobility without CP. Participants of this prospective study were 145 term infants (86 male, 59 female). Their general movements quality was assessed at 'writhing' and 'fidgety' general movements age (3wks and 13wks post term). The assessment at 6 years consisted of a neurological examination, including assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND), evaluation of mobility with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and of behaviour and learning problems with questionnaires. Definitely abnormal general movements at writhing age were not associated with CP, whereas definitely abnormal general movements at fidgety age were (sensitivity 60%; specificity 91%; positive predictive value 19%, negative predictive value 98%). In children without CP, general movements quality was not associated with limited mobility, but it was associated to a minor extent with MND. In term infants, definitely abnormal general movements at fidgety age do predict CP, but with lower accuracy than in preterm infants. General movements quality does not predict limited mobility in children without CP. The study supports suggestions that predictive value of general movements assessment in term infants is lower than that in preterm infants. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Cosmetic surgery survey of american society of oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery members and a 6-year comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zinaria Y; Oester, Alan E; Stinnett, Sandra; Morris, Carrie; Woodward, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    To examine the current cosmetic practices of American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgery members using a survey and compare those results with a similar survey that was performed 6 years prior, and to determine the types and breadth of cosmetic procedures that are currently performed within the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. A 49-question survey was sent to members of American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgery by post mail and/or electronic mail in 2007. The questions covered surgeon demographics, cosmetic practice design, and preferences for aesthetic procedures and commercial equipment and products. Frequencies and percentages of responses were obtained for each question individually. Responses to similar questions in a 2001 survey were compared with those in the current survey. Two hundred fifty-seven members of 488 responded (53%). Eighty-two percent of respondents (208 of 253) performed some type of cosmetic procedure. Fifty-five percent of respondents reported that less than 25% of their practice consisted of cosmetic procedures and services. Thirty-one percent of respondents reported that 25% to 75% of their practice was cosmetic. A slightly higher percentage of respondents reported that more of their practice consisted of cosmetic procedures and services compared with 6 years ago; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.895). A lower percentage of respondents injected Botox cosmetic (p = 0.02), offered ablative laser skin resurfacing (p < 0.001), and performed rhytidectomy (p < 0.001) in 2007 compared with 2001.

  11. The role of pause as a prosodic boundary marker: language ERP studies in German 3- and 6-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Claudia; Schipke, Christine S; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-07-01

    Spoken language is hierarchically structured into prosodic units divided by prosodic breaks. The largest prosodic breaks in an utterance are intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), which are defined by three acoustic cues, namely, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pausing. Previous studies have revealed that the electrophysiological marker of IPB perception, the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), is established between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, we examined the neural activity underlying IPB perception in children by targeting their reliance on pausing; hypothesized to be a key boundary cue in German. To evaluate the role of pausing, we tested IPB perception without the boundary pause, but with pitch change and preboundary lengthening. We tested children at the age of 3 years, when the CPS in response to IPBs has just emerged, and at 6 years, when language abilities are further developed. Results revealed that 6-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, show the CPS in response to IPBs without full prosodic marking. These results indicate developmental differences with respect to the role of pausing as a prosodic boundary cue in German. The correlation of children's IPB perception and their syntactic abilities further corroborates the close prosody-syntax interaction in children's advancing ability to process phrase structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...

  13. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  14. Association between yogurt consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome over 6 years in the SUN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martí, Amelia; Pimenta, Adriano M; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-02-21

    The role of yogurt consumption in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not fully understood and the available epidemiologic evidence is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the association between total, whole-fat, or low-fat yogurt consumption and the risk of developing MetS. Yogurt consumption was assessed at baseline through a 136-item validated FFQ. MetS was defined following the harmonized definition for MetS according to the AHA and the IDF criteria. Logistic regression models were used. During the first 6-y of follow-up of the SUN cohort, 306 incident cases of MetS were identified. Frequent consumption [≥875 g/week (≥7 servings/week) versus ≤ 250 g/week (2 servings/week)] of total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption showed non-significant inverse associations with MetS [OR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.60-1.18); 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68-1.41); and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.39-1.02) respectively]. Only one component of the MetS, central adiposity, was inversely associated with total and whole-fat yogurt consumption [OR = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74-0.98) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.99) respectively]. In the joint assessment of exposure to total yogurt consumption and fruit consumption, those in the highest category of total yogurt consumption, and having a high fruit consumption (above the median ≥264.5 g/day) exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS [OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38-0.99)] compared with those in the lowest category of total yogurt consumption and had fruit consumption below the study median. No significant association between yogurt consumption and MetS was apparent. Only one component out of the 5 MetS criteria, central adiposity, was inversely associated with high yogurt consumption. The combination of high consumption of both yogurt and fruit was inversely associated with the development of MetS.

  15. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Lindgren

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580 informative for adult waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio (WHR. We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11 and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9. A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8. The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Willer, Cristen J.; Herrera, Blanca M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Lim, Noha; Scheet, Paul; Soranzo, Nicole; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Chambers, John C.; Drong, Alexander; Luan, Jian'an; Lyon, Helen N.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sanna, Serena; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Zhao, Jing Hua; Almgren, Peter; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Amanda J.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Cooper, Cyrus; Crawford, Gabriel; Doering, Angela; Dominiczak, Anna; Doney, Alex S. F.; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Guido; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Groves, Christopher J.; Grundy, Scott; Guiducci, Candace; Hadley, David; Hamsten, Anders; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hofman, Albert; Holle, Rolf; Holloway, John W.; Illig, Thomas; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Leonie C.; Jameson, Karen; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karpe, Fredrik; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Andrew P.; Munroe, Patricia; Narisu, Narisu; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Payne, Felicity; Peden, John F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Renström, Frida; Ruokonen, Aimo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Scott, Laura J.; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Song, Kijoung; Yuan, Xin; Stringham, Heather M.; Swift, Amy J.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Walters, G. Bragi; Weedon, Michael N.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Zhang, Cuilin; Zhang, Weihua; Caulfield, Mark J.; Collins, Francis S.; Davey Smith, George; Day, Ian N. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hu, Frank B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kong, Augustine; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Laakso, Markku; Lakatta, Edward; Mooser, Vincent; Morris, Andrew D.; Peltonen, Leena; Samani, Nilesh J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Strachan, David P.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia, Hugh; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Groop, Leif; Hunter, David J.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schlessinger, David; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Stefansson, Kari; Mohlke, Karen L.; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy for the GIANT consortium, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9×10−11) and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9×10−9). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6×10−8). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity. PMID:19557161

  17. Effect of centrifugation and washing on adipose graft viability: a new method to improve graft efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Laurence; Bencharif, Karima; Girard, Anne-Claire; Gence, Lydie; Delarue, Pierre; Hulard, Olivier; Festy, Franck; Roche, Regis

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue grafting is a promising method in the field of surgical filling. We studied the effect of centrifugation on fat grafts, and we propose an optimised protocol for the improvement of adipose tissue viability. Adipose tissue was subjected to different centrifugations, and the volumes of interstitial liquid and oil released were measured to choose the optimal condition. Tissue from this condition was then compared to tissue obtained from two traditional techniques: strong centrifugation (commonly 3 min at 3000 rpm/900 g), and decantation, by injecting into immunodeficient mice. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed 24 h post-injection, and after 1 month of grafting the state of the lipografts was evaluated through macroscopic and histological analysis, with oil gap area measurement. Strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious for adipose tissue because it leads to until threefold more adipocyte death compared to low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, mice injected with strong centrifuged and non-centrifuged adipose tissue have higher rates of blood IL-6 and MCP-1, compared to those grafted with soft centrifuged fat. Moreover, extensive lipid vacuoles were detectable on histological sections of the non-centrifuged lipografts, whereas lipografts from soft centrifugation contain a higher amount of connective tissue containing collagen fibres. It is necessary to wash and centrifuge adipose tissue before reinjection in order to remove infiltration liquid and associated toxic molecules, which in the long term are deleterious for the graft. However, strong centrifugation is not recommended since it leads very quickly to greater adipocyte death. Thus, soft centrifugation (400 g/1 min), preceded by washings, seems to be the most appropriate protocol for the reinjection of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published

  18. Sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth: a systematic review of reviews and analysis of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Wiesner, Glen

    2017-03-28

    Sedentary behaviour (sitting time) has becoming a very popular topic for research and translation since early studies on TV viewing in children in the 1980s. The most studied area for sedentary behaviour health outcomes has been adiposity in young people. However, the literature is replete with inconsistencies. We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide a comprehensive analysis of evidence and state-of-the-art synthesis on whether sedentary behaviours are associated with adiposity in young people, and to what extent any association can be considered 'causal'. Searches yielded 29 systematic reviews of over 450 separate papers. We analysed results by observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal) and intervention designs. Small associations were reported for screen time and adiposity from cross-sectional evidence, but associations were less consistent from longitudinal studies. Studies using objective accelerometer measures of sedentary behaviour yielded null associations. Most studies assessed BMI/BMI-z. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour produced modest effects for weight status and adiposity. Accounting for effects from sedentary behaviour reduction alone is difficult as many interventions included additional changes in behaviour, such as physical activity and dietary intake. Analysis of causality guided by the classic Bradford Hill criteria concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth, although a small dose-response association exists. Associations between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in children and adolescents are small to very small and there is little to no evidence that this association is causal. This remains a complex field with different exposure and outcome measures and research designs. But claims for 'clear' associations between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth, and certainly for causality, are premature or misguided.

  19. Novel therapy for pancreatic fistula using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hirokazu; Kokuryo, Toshio; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Shibata, Rei; Gotoh, Momokazu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ito, Akira; Nagino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Given that no studies have reported the use of adipose-derived stem cell sheets for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas, it is unclear whether adipose-derived stem cell sheets are effective at preventing this complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapy for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose. The rat pancreatic duct (splenic duct) and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma were transected to induce a pancreatic fistula. Adipose-derived stem cell sheets with or without mannose treatment were attached to the pancreatic transection stump. Amylase and lipase levels were measured in both the ascites and serum. The expression of 40 cytokines in human adipose-derived stem cells with and without mannose treatment was investigated using a multiplex assay. The adipose-derived stem cell sheets remained at the initial attachment site at 48 hours after operation. Macroscopically, more severe degeneration and adhesion in the peritoneal cavity were observed in the untreated rats than in the rats treated with adipose-derived stem cell sheets. The levels of ascitic amylase in the untreated, adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-treated, and adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-with-mannose-treated rats were 10.7 ± 2.9 × 10 4 U/L, 2.6 ± 0.9 × 10 4 U/L, and 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10 4 U/L, respectively. The levels of ascitic lipase in the untreated, adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-treated and adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-with-mannose-treated rats were 9.5 ± 2.9 × 10 3 U/L, 4.0 ± 3.3 × 10 3 U/L, and 0.4 ± 0.2 × 10 3 U/L, respectively. Significant differences were found in both the ascitic and serum levels of amylase and lipase between the untreated rats and the rats treated with adipose-derived stem cell sheets with mannose (P derived stem cells treated with mannose than in human adipose-derived stem cells treated without mannose. Adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated

  20. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z...

  1. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. The objective was to compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. Th...

  2. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu; Jaafar, Nasruddin

    2012-11-16

    This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT) component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, Pcaries occurrence and residence (urban/rural) (OR=1.80, Pcaries, affected persons (IDp) observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt) in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. The majority of 12-year-old school children (70%) were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30%) of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth caries at six years old to predict future caries incidence at 12-year-olds, which could be obtained at

  3. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  4. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  5. Vasoconstrictor effect of high FFA/albumin ratios in adipose tissue in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1985-01-01

    Subcutaneous or perirenal adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe-washout technique before and after intravenous injection or infusion of Intralipid in six anesthetized, otherwise intact mongrel dogs. In four anesthetized mongrel puppies adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... as well as in young dogs after this treatment. The administration of Intralipid did not per se induce the vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction took place simultaneously with increasing FFA/albumin molar ratios. The results support our previous findings in perfused fat pads that high molar FFA...

  6. Lung injury caused by greenstick fracture of the scapular body in a 6-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Jin; Wang, Sung Il; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2016-04-01

    Complications caused by a scapular body fracture are rare, and usually occur due to concomitant injuries or nonunion. Intrathoracic displacement of a fractured scapula has only been described in two reports involving adolescents. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old boy with a parenchymal lung injury caused by a greenstick fracture fragment of the scapular body after being struck by a dump truck. Three-dimensional CT (3D CT) scan showed an incomplete fractured fragment impaling the left lung parenchyma resulting in pneumothorax, parenchymal contusion, and pneumatocele in the left upper lobe. The patient underwent emergency open reduction of the scapular fracture and chest tube insertion. A rare subtype of scapular fracture with resultant fragment rotation and intrathoracic penetration can injure the lung parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, lung injury caused by incomplete fracture of the scapula in patients younger than 10 years has not been reported previously.

  7. Perspective-taking skills of 6-year-old children: preschool attendance and mothers' and fathers' education and empathetic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Vuslat; Akyol, Aysel Köksal

    2008-10-01

    The purpose was to assess whether children's sex, duration of nursery school attendance, and mothers' and fathers' educational levels were associated with any statistically significant differences in perceptual, cognitive, and emotional perspective-taking skills. The relation between these skills and parents' empathetic skill was also of interest. 100 children aged 6 years (49 girls, 51 boys) and their parents participated in the research. Data were collected through a Personal Information Form, the Perspective-taking Test, and the Empathetic Skills Scale-Form B. Analysis suggested that sex, duration of nursery school attendance, and mothers' and fathers' educational levels did not affect perspective-taking skills. There was no significant correlation between the perspective-taking skills of children and the empathetic skills of their parents.

  8. Immediate implant placement following minimally invasive extraction: A case report with a 6-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sung Fu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Single tooth replacement with a dental implant has become an increasingly favored treatment option in the anterior maxilla; however, bone resorption following maxillary anterior tooth extraction is very common and often compromises gingival tissue for the implant restoration. Achieving predictable peri-implant esthetics requires a proper understanding and preservation of the osseous and gingival tissue surrounding the failing tooth. Therefore, the key to maintaining the interproximal papillae is to preserve the osseous support with minimally invasive extraction. An immediate implant insertion after tooth extraction may maintain the crest bone and the interdental papillae, thus achieving peri-implant esthetics. This article describes the detailed treatment planning and meticulous techniques in immediate implant placement that reduce treatment time and maintain functional as well as esthetic results through a 6-year follow-up.

  9. Consolidated findings from 6 years research on the age-differentiated design of human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sebastian; Bützler, Jennifer; Jochems, Nicole; Schlick, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The fast aging of many western and eastern societies and their increasing reliance on information technology create a compelling need to reconsider older users' interactions with computers. This paper summarizes the results of 6 years of research on the age-differentiated design of human-computer interaction. The well-known model of human information processing served as the theoretical framework. The model components ''sensory processing'', ''perception'', ''working memory'', ''decision and response selection'' and ''response execution'' were analyzed exemplarily in task settings on project management. In seven empirical studies with a total number of 405 participants between 20 and 77 years the human-computer interaction was analyzed regarding effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. For most but not all studies the results reveal that age-induced differences in human-computer interaction can best be compensated by an ergonomic ''design for all''. In some cases however an age-specific approach is favorable.

  10. Significant caries index values and related factors in 5-6-year-old children in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namal, N; Yüceokur, A A; Can, G

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate significant caries (SiC) index values and related factors in Turkish children aged 5-6 years old, children from 5 nursery schools in Istanbul were included in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic information and data about oral care habits were obtained from the records and from parents. Of 542 students examined, the mean decayed/missing/filled primary teeth (dmft) index was 3.74 (SD 3.49) and the SiC index was 7.75 (SD 2.56). About 76.8% of the children had experienced dental caries. Logistic regression analysis of the SiC index for dmft showed that risk factors for poor dental status were low mother's education (OR 2.04) and irregular toothbrushing versus once-a-day brushing (OR 4.09) or twice-a-day brushing (OR 4.20).

  11. Incidence and clinical presentation of acute otitis media in children aged <6 years in European medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, J G; Silfverdal, S A; Giaquinto, C; Carmona, A; Larcombe, J H; Garcia-Sicilia, J; Fuat, A; Garces-Sanchez, M; Basanta, M L Arroba; Hiraldo, E Muñoz; Cantarutti, L; Kroeniger, W; Vollmar, J; Holl, K; Pirçon, J Y; Rosenlund, M R

    2014-08-01

    We conducted an epidemiological, observational cohort study to determine the incidence and complications of acute otitis media (AOM) in children aged <6 years. Data on physician-diagnosed AOM were collected from retrospective review of medical charts for the year preceding enrolment and then prospectively in the year following enrolment. The study included 5776 children in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. AOM incidence was 256/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 243-270] in the prospective study period. Incidence was lowest in Italy (195, 95% CI 171-222) and highest in Spain (328, 95% CI 296-363). Complications were documented in <1% of episodes. Spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation was documented in 7% of episodes. Both retrospective and prospective study results were similar and show the high incidence during childhood in these five European countries. Differences by country may reflect true differences and differences in social structure and diagnostic procedures.

  12. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine breath- holding spells (BHS prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25% had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months. Seventy percent of cases (23 had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis and the commonest frequency was one spell per month (78.79%. Painful experience and falling and striking the head wee the common triggering factors (79% and 76% respectively and there was significant association between BHS and history of fallin and severe striking of the head. There was no significant associations between BHS and sex, birth weight, birth order, delivery method, type of labor initiating and duration of labor.

  13. IceCube results from point-like source searches using 6 years of through-going muon data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenders Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the geographic South Pole was designed to study and discover high energy neutrinos coming from both galactic and extra-galactic astrophysical sources. Track-like events induced by charged-current muon-neutrino interactions close to the IceCube detector give an angular resolution better than 1∘ above TeV energies. We present here the results of searches for point-like astrophysical neutrino sources on the full sky using 6 years of detector livetime, of which three years use the complete IceCube detector. Within 2000 days of detector livetime, IceCube is sensitive to a steady flux substantially below E2∂ϕ/∂E = 10−12 TeV cm−2 s−1 in the northern sky for neutrino energies above 10 TeV.

  14. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshad Mohamed Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.

  15. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  16. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  17. Traumatic globe luxation in a 6-year-old girl playing with a tube of wrapping paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Sardos, Alexandre; Hamel, Patrick

    2007-08-01

    A 6-year-old girl was playing by herself with a tube of gift wrap just before the winter holidays. In a panic, she came upstairs from the den with a protruding right eye. When used as a make-believe telescope, the tube of wrapping paper was the perfect diameter to fit within the orbit's bony limits and around the globe. A small force to the tip of the tube held up to the eye was sufficient to propel the eyelids backward while luxating the globe forward. Visual acuity in the eye deteriorated within 2 hours but the vision loss was reversed entirely with prompt reduction under general anesthesia. While not intended as such, the gift-wrap tube has long been a popular play instrument for children around the holidays. This case illustrates the risk of luxating an eye with a gift-wrap tube and the benefits of prompt reduction of a traumatically luxated globe with traumatic optic neuropathy.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells in cardiac regeneration: a detailed progress report of the last 6 years (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aastha; Singh, Abhishek; Sen, Dwaipayan

    2016-06-04

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been used for cardiovascular regenerative therapy for decades. These cells have been established as one of the potential therapeutic agents, following several tests in animal models and clinical trials. In the process, various sources of mesenchymal stem cells have been identified which help in cardiac regeneration by either revitalizing the cardiac stem cells or revascularizing the arteries and veins of the heart. Although mesenchymal cell therapy has achieved considerable admiration, some challenges still remain that need to be overcome in order to establish it as a successful technique. This in-depth review is an attempt to summarize the major sources of mesenchymal stem cells involved in myocardial regeneration, the significant mechanisms involved in the process with a focus on studies (human and animal) conducted in the last 6 years and the challenges that remain to be addressed.

  19. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  20. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  1. Toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother–child (aged 4–6 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P toothbrushing was observed at a relative frequency of 12.8% in children and 18.4% in mothers. About 43.7% of children brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53–2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08–1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02–1.77). Conclusion: The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children. PMID:28348618

  2. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p work incapacity as compared to SCM, but did increase healthcare consumption and treatment costs. It is concluded that the intensity of case management alone is not sufficient to improve rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims.

  3. A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial trauma in shiraz, iran: a 6-year- study of 768 patients (2004-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabion, Hr; Tabrizi, R; Aliabadi, E; Gholami, M; Zarei, K

    2014-03-01

    Information about the etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospectively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women), whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women) .The other etiologies were assaults (5.2%), sport related injuries (1.3%) and firearm injuries (1%). Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6%) patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%), which would be for the reason that schools open in this month. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%), probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz.

  4. A 6-year investigation into types of dental trauma treated in a paediatric dentistry clinic in Eastern Anatolia region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Ozge; Yilmaz, Yucel; Zehir, Cigdem; Sahin, Hakan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, the effective factors and the applied treatments for dental trauma among children aged 1-15 years from Eastern Anatolia in a 6-year period. The total frequency of trauma in this study was calculated as 4.9% during a 6-year period. The males were found to have more traumatic injury than females (P < 0.05). Also, the permanent teeth were more vulnerable to dental trauma than the primary teeth (P < 0.05). The highest frequency of traumas in the primary teeth was observed at the age of 5, whereas the rate for the permanent teeth was at the age of 10. The teeth mostly influenced by the traumas were the upper central incisors in both primary and permanent teeth. It was in October that traumas were mostly seen for the permanent teeth and in June for the primary teeth. The most frequent source of trauma in both genders and in both primary and permanent teeth were falls. The most common type of trauma in the primary teeth was lateral luxation, while it was enamel-dentin crown fracture in the permanent ones. Soft tissue injuries were observed in 143 of 653 dental traumatized children. The most common method of treatment was examination and follow up for the primary teeth, and only direct restoration for the permanent teeth without any endodontic treatment. 15% of the patients applied for treatment 1 year after injury event. Therefore, it was concluded that the patients, parents and teachers living in Eastern Anatolia should be informed about the necessity of early treatment of dental traumas and the consequence of a delay.

  5. Health of Southern Tasmanian 4- to 6-year-old children in out-of-home care compared to peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Marie; Jayakar, Anagha; Clemens, Tom; Galanos, Zaharenia; Newbery, Louise; Whelan, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    To compare the health of 4- to 6-year-old children in out-of-home care (OOHC) in Southern Tasmania with their peers. Demographic and health data collection and prospective health assessment of all 4- to 6-year olds in OOHC in Southern Tasmania on 30 August 2011 was undertaken. Data were compared to Tasmanian and/or Australian peers. A total of 109 of 129 children aged 4 to 6 years were included in the study. Time in OOHC was on average 38 (range 0-76) months. Premature birth (18%), low birthweight (20%) and congenital malformations (10%) were more common compared to peers. Antenatal exposure to illicit or abused substances (71%), alcohol (51%) and cigarettes (79%) were very high. Vertically acquired hepatitis C was diagnosed in 2% with 33% exposed. Immunisation completion was 78% compared to 92.9% of Tasmanian peers. Obesity (11% vs. 6% Tasmanian children), hearing impairment (7% vs. 1% Tasmanian children) and dental caries (61% vs. 45% Tasmanian children) were all higher than peers. Hospitalisation due to injury was more than twice that of Tasmanian peers (32.1 vs. 12.6 per 1000 per year). Developmental delay was 50% on screening. Emotional or behavioural difficulties were seen in 54%. Children in OOHC have high health needs. Comprehensive health assessments offer an opportunity to better identify and manage these needs. High hepatitis C exposure in utero was unexpected. This study highlights the need for comprehensive health screening assessments for all children in OOHC. OOHC clinic data can be helpful in planning broad interventions for children in OOHC. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. SU-F-T-101: Insight into Dosimetry Workload and Planning Timelines: A 6 Year Review at One Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R; Popple, R; Smith, H; Fiveash, J [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To elucidate realistic clinical treatment planning workload and timelines to improve understanding for patients, payers, and other institutions involved in radiotherapy processes. Methods: A web based tool was developed using Oracle Express (Oracle Corp, Redwood City, CA) which allowed communication between the physicians and staff about the current state of the patient plan. For 6 years, all patient courses were logged and time-stamped in 22 discreet steps which detailed start and stop times for simulation, contouring, and treatment planning tasks. This data was combined with the treatment planning database (TPDB) using the Eclipse Scripting API (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) to cross-identify plans between the two systems. This time data was analyzed across our dosimetry staff and treatment modality. Results: In 6 years, 110,477 patient statuses were time-logged for 9683 courses of treatment using our internal software. The courses contained 8305 unique patients who were binned into one of 11 diagnosis site categories. 8253 courses could be reconciled against the TPDB using timestamp data from patient statuses. The average planning volume per dosimetrist was 375.8 ± 142.4 plans per year with the average number of planning revisions per dosimetrist of 71.0 ± 27.1 plans per year. The median treatment planning times by modality ranged from to 48.3 hours for IMRT plans 5 fields or less to 119.6 hours for IMRT with 8 or more fields. Two arc VMAT, three arc VMAT, and 3D plans median times were 89.1 hours, 113.8 hours, and 50.9 hours respectively. Conclusion: Using our web based tool, we have demonstrated the ability to quantify treatment planning timelines and workloads which could help in setting appropriate expectations for patients, payers, and hospital administration. COI: Author received monies from Varian Medical Systems for research and teaching honorarium.

  7. SU-F-T-101: Insight into Dosimetry Workload and Planning Timelines: A 6 Year Review at One Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardan, R; Popple, R; Smith, H; Fiveash, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate realistic clinical treatment planning workload and timelines to improve understanding for patients, payers, and other institutions involved in radiotherapy processes. Methods: A web based tool was developed using Oracle Express (Oracle Corp, Redwood City, CA) which allowed communication between the physicians and staff about the current state of the patient plan. For 6 years, all patient courses were logged and time-stamped in 22 discreet steps which detailed start and stop times for simulation, contouring, and treatment planning tasks. This data was combined with the treatment planning database (TPDB) using the Eclipse Scripting API (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) to cross-identify plans between the two systems. This time data was analyzed across our dosimetry staff and treatment modality. Results: In 6 years, 110,477 patient statuses were time-logged for 9683 courses of treatment using our internal software. The courses contained 8305 unique patients who were binned into one of 11 diagnosis site categories. 8253 courses could be reconciled against the TPDB using timestamp data from patient statuses. The average planning volume per dosimetrist was 375.8 ± 142.4 plans per year with the average number of planning revisions per dosimetrist of 71.0 ± 27.1 plans per year. The median treatment planning times by modality ranged from to 48.3 hours for IMRT plans 5 fields or less to 119.6 hours for IMRT with 8 or more fields. Two arc VMAT, three arc VMAT, and 3D plans median times were 89.1 hours, 113.8 hours, and 50.9 hours respectively. Conclusion: Using our web based tool, we have demonstrated the ability to quantify treatment planning timelines and workloads which could help in setting appropriate expectations for patients, payers, and hospital administration. COI: Author received monies from Varian Medical Systems for research and teaching honorarium.

  8. Normal defecation pattern, frequency of constipation and factors related to constipation in Turkish children 0-6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaay, Pınar; Eğrıtaş, Odul; Dalgiç, Buket

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to figure out defecation features, constipation frequency, reasons and factors effecting on functional constipation in 0-6 years old children. This descriptive study had been carried out in Gazi University School of Medicine Pediatric polyclinics between February-June 2007 and 1018 children aged 0-6 years were included. The study comprises data about defecation pattern and prevalence of constipation. Children were divided into five groups according to the age. Their parents were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Physical examinations, stool frequency according to the age, feeding patterns, age and gender distributions, major complaints and associated factors were all investigated. Among 1018 children there were 526 (51.7%) boys and 492 (48.3%) girls. One hundred ninety five (88.2%) infants were exclusively breastfed, 42 children (17.8%) were getting additional feeding in 0-6 months age group. Forty-eight of 1018 children (4.7%) were diagnosed as constipated. Twenty-eight (58.3%) were male and 20 (41.7%) were female. Parents of the constipated children defined the major complaints with defecation as discomfort (33%), pain (25%), seldom defecation (21%), hard stools (17%) and rectal bleeding (4%). Eighteen parents (37.5%) thought that constipation is related to dietary type. Refraining from school toilet was defined by seven parents (14.6%). Constipation may predict serious organic problems in newborns; however organic problems are not encountered in 95% of bigger children. These cases are described as functional constipation. Dietary factors and refraining from school toilets have to be considered during treatment.

  9. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Vogels, Anton G C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits provided to the entire population. A total of 1630 children participated (response rate, 84%). Before the visit, parents completed a questionnaire with questions about their approach to discipline (punishment and rewards). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between discipline practices and child, parent, and family factors. Parental punishment prevalence was 21.9% for spanking and 80.3% for other punishment practices, such as time-outs. The prevalence of rewards as a discipline strategy was 32.2% for granting privileges and 86.3% for cuddling/complimenting. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that spanking was more likely in families in which the mothers have low and medium levels of education and in families of non-Dutch ethnicity. Other punishment practices (eg, time-outs, verbal reprimands, and holding) were more likely in families of Dutch ethnicity. Granting privileges was more likely in families of non-Dutch ethnicity, who lived in large cities, whose income was below the poverty level, in unemployed families, and in small families. Cuddling and complimenting were more likely in families with a high maternal educational level, in families of Dutch ethnicity, and in small families. These findings show the importance of considering social and economic factors when identifying and supporting parents with parenting/rearing challenges. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-22

    According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.

  11. Prospective association of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... at baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...... relationships was observed. We found less strong associations of CRF with increase in CVD risk factor levels after adjusting for adiposity; however, increasing CRF was still favorably associated with decrease in CVD risk factor levels among boys. Results suggest that any effort to shift the population...

  12. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  13. Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J

    2004-03-12

    The adiposity rebound is the second rise in body mass index that occurs between 3 and 7 years. An early age at adiposity rebound is known to be a risk factor for later obesity. The aim here is to clarify the connection between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness. Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both in original (kg/m2) and standard deviation (SD) score units, are studied in five hypothetical subjects. Two aspects of the body mass index curve, the body mass index centile and the rate of body mass index centile crossing, determine a child's age at rebound. A high centile and upward centile crossing are both associated separately with an early rebound, while a low centile and/or downward centile crossing correspond to a late rebound. Early adiposity rebound is a risk factor for later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later in childhood and adulthood. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect". The association of centile crossing with later obesity is statistical not physiological, and it applies at all ages not just at rebound, so adiposity rebound cannot be considered a critical period for future obesity. Body mass index centile crossing is a more direct indicator of the underlying drive to fatness. An early age at adiposity rebound predicts later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. Body mass index centile crossing is more direct than the timing of adiposity rebound for predicting later fatness.

  14. Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole TJ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adiposity rebound is the second rise in body mass index that occurs between 3 and 7 years. An early age at adiposity rebound is known to be a risk factor for later obesity. The aim here is to clarify the connection between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness. Discussion Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both in original (kg/m2 and standard deviation (SD score units, are studied in five hypothetical subjects. Two aspects of the body mass index curve, the body mass index centile and the rate of body mass index centile crossing, determine a child's age at rebound. A high centile and upward centile crossing are both associated separately with an early rebound, while a low centile and/or downward centile crossing correspond to a late rebound. Early adiposity rebound is a risk factor for later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later in childhood and adulthood. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect". The association of centile crossing with later obesity is statistical not physiological, and it applies at all ages not just at rebound, so adiposity rebound cannot be considered a critical period for future obesity. Body mass index centile crossing is a more direct indicator of the underlying drive to fatness. Summary An early age at adiposity rebound predicts later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. Body mass index centile crossing is more direct than the timing of adiposity rebound for predicting later fatness.

  15. Identification of cardiometabolic risk: visceral adiposity index versus triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Maciel, Pablo M; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can identify cardiometabolic risk and cardiovascular disease. The visceral adiposity index is a sex-specific index, in which measurements of body mass index and waist circumference are combined with TG and HDL-C concentrations. The current analysis was initiated to see if the visceral adiposity index would improve the ability of the TG/HDL-C to identify increased cardiometabolic risk and outcome. Cardiometabolic data were obtained in 2003 from 926 apparently healthy individuals, 796 of whom were evaluated in 2012 for evidence of incident cardiovascular disease. The relationship between TG/HDL-C and values for visceral adiposity index was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The relative risks for first cardiovascular event between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C sex-specific cut points, and in the top quartile of visceral adiposity index versus the remaining 3 quartiles, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. TG/HDL-C concentration and visceral adiposity index were highly correlated (r = 0.99) in both men and women. Although more men (133 vs121) and women (73 vs 59) were identified as being at "high risk" by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, the individual cardiometabolic risk factors were essentially identical with either index used. However, the hazard ratio of developing cardiovascular disease was significantly increased in individuals with an elevated TG/HDL-C, whereas it was not the case when the visceral adiposity index was used to define "high risk." The visceral adiposity index does not identify individuals with an adverse cardiometabolic profile any better than the TG/HDL-C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Muñoz, María J; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Córdova Pérez, Nydia; Vázquez Martínez, Ana Laura; Tepach Gutiérrez, Nayive; Vega García, Sara; Rocha Cruz, Alberto; Díaz Martínez, Alma; Saucedo García, Renata; Zárate Treviño, Arturo; González Escudero, Eduardo Alberto; Degollado Córdova, José Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with several obesity-related parameters and with insulin resistance. Echocardiographic assessment of this tissue is an easy and reliable marker of cardiometabolic risk. However, there are insufficient studies on the relationship between epicardial fat and insulin resistance during the postmenopausal period, when cardiovascular risk increases in women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, body mass index, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and body composition analysis. A positive correlation was observed between epicardial fat and visceral adipose tissue, body mass index, and waist circumference. The values of these correlations of epicardial fat thickness overlying the aorta-right ventricle were r = 0.505 (P < .003), r = 0.545 (P < .001), and r = 0.515 (P < .003), respectively. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome than in those without this syndrome (mean [standard deviation], 544.2 [122.9] vs 363.6 [162.3] mm(2); P = .03). Epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography was associated with visceral adipose tissue and other obesity parameters. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial fat may be a simple and reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    ) z score in the intervention groups at the end of the intervention (6 to 12 months): mean difference (MD) -0.3 units (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.4 to -0.2); P overweight or obese preschool children