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Sample records for adipose tissue treatment

  1. The role of adipose tissue and obesity in causing treatment resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Xia eSheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is responsible for ~90,000 cancer deaths per year, increasing cancer incidence and impairing its treatment. Obesity has also been shown to impact hematological malignancies, through as yet unknown mechanisms. Adipocytes are present in bone marrow and the microenvironments of many types of cancer, and have been found to promote cancer cell survival. In this review, we explore several ways in which obesity might cause leukemia treatment resistance. Obese patients may be at a treatment disadvantage due to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy and dosage capping based on ideal body weight. The adipose tissue provides fuel to cancer cells in the form of amino acids and free fatty acids. Adipocytes have been shown to cause cancer cells to resist chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In addition, obese adipose tissue is phenotypically altered, producing a milieu of pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines, some of which have been linked to cancer progression. Given the prevalence of obesity, understanding its role and adipose tissue in ALL treatment is necessary for evaluating current treatment regimen and revealing new therapeutic targets.

  2. A review of the aesthetic treatment of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: background, implications, and therapeutic options.

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    Friedmann, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    The demand for aesthetic body sculpting procedures has expanded precipitously in recent years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) deposits of the central abdomen are especially common areas of concern for both males and females. To review the available literature regarding the underlying pathophysiology of subcutaneous fat accumulation in the abdominal area and available treatment options. A MEDLINE and Google Scholar search was performed accordingly. The preferential accumulation of SAT in the central abdomen is attributable to the reduced lipolytic sensitivity of its adipocytes. A number of therapeutic options are available for the treatment of central abdominal adiposity. Cryolipolysis, high-intensity focused ultrasound, nonthermal ultrasound, radiofrequency, and injection adipolysis lead to adipocyte destruction through multiple different mechanisms. Nonablative modalities such as injection lipolysis mobilize fat stores from viable adipocytes, although its effects may be curtailed in obese patients. Liposuction through tumescent technique, however, mechanically extricates SAT. Although tumescent liposuction remains the gold standard for SAT removal, less invasive ablative and nonablative options for targeting localized deposits of adipose tissue now permeate the aesthetic marketplace. Limited results associated with these modalities mandate multiple sessions or combination treatment paradigms.

  3. A new approach for adipose tissue treatment and body contouring using radiofrequency-assisted liposuction.

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    Paul, Malcolm; Mulholland, Robert Stephen

    2009-09-01

    A new liposuction technology for adipocyte lipolysis and uniform three-dimensional tissue heating and contraction is presented. The technology is based on bipolar radiofrequency energy applied to the subcutaneous adipose tissue and subdermal skin surface. Preliminary clinical results, thermal monitoring, and histologic biopsies of the treated tissue demonstrate rapid preaspiration liquefaction of adipose tissue, coagulation of subcutaneous blood vessels, and uniform sustained heating of tissue.

  4. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  5. Locally Induced Adipose Tissue Browning by Microneedle Patch for Obesity Treatment.

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    Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Qiongming; Yu, Jicheng; Yu, Shuangjiang; Wang, Jinqiang; Qiang, Li; Gu, Zhen

    2017-09-26

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation. This microneedle-based patch can effectively deliver browning agents to the subcutaneous adipocytes in a sustained manner and switch on the "browning" at the targeted region. It is demonstrated that this patch reduces treated fat pad size, increases whole body energy expenditure, and improves type-2 diabetes in vivo in a diet-induced obesity mouse model.

  6. Significance of adipose tissue-derived stem cells regulate CD4+ T cell immune in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

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    Yong-lin XIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs are genetically engineered seed cells with immunomodulatory effects, widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on CD4+ T cell subsets, including T helper cell (Th 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg, and its clinical significance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.005

  7. Autologous rabbit adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of bone injuries with distraction osteogenesis.

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    Sunay, Ozgur; Can, Geylani; Cakir, Zeynep; Denek, Ziya; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Erbil, Guven; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Baran, Yusuf

    2013-06-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a higher capacity for proliferation and differentiation compared with other cell lineages. Although distraction osteogenesis is the most important therapy for treating bone defects, this treatment is restricted in many situations. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and osteoblasts differentiated from adipose tissue-derived MSCs in the treatment of bone defects. Bone defects were produced in the tibias of New Zealand rabbits that had previously undergone adipose tissue extraction. Tibial osteotomy was performed, and a distractor was placed on the right leg of the rabbits. The rabbits were placed in control (group I), stem cell (group II) and osteoblast-differentiated stem cell (group III) treatment groups. The rabbits were sacrificed, and the defect area was evaluated by radiologic, biomechanical and histopathologic tests to examine the therapeutic effects of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Radiologic analyses revealed that callus density and the ossification rate increased in group III compared with group I and group II. In biomechanical tests, the highest ossification rate was observed in group III. Histopathologic studies showed that the quality of newly formed bone and the number of cells active in bone formation were significantly higher in group III rabbits compared with group I and group II rabbits. These data reveal that osteoblasts differentiated from adipose tissue-derived MSCs shorten the consolidation period of distraction osteogenesis. Stem cells could be used as an effective treatment for bone defects. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pioglitazone treatment reduces adipose tissue inflammation through reduction of mast cell and macrophage number and by improving vascularity.

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    Michael Spencer

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in insulin resistant subjects contains inflammatory cells and extracellular matrix components. This study examined adipose pathology of insulin resistant subjects who were treated with pioglitazone or fish oil.Adipose biopsies were examined from nine insulin resistant subjects before/after treatment with pioglitazone 45 mg/day for 12 weeks and also from 19 subjects who were treated with fish oil (1,860 mg EPA, 1,500 mg DHA daily. These studies were performed in a clinical research center setting.Pioglitazone treatment increased the cross-sectional area of adipocytes by 18% (p = 0.01, and also increased capillary density without affecting larger vessels. Pioglitazone treatment decreased total adipose macrophage number by 26%, with a 56% decrease in M1 macrophages and an increase in M2 macrophages. Mast cells were more abundant in obese versus lean subjects, and were decreased from 24 to 13 cells/mm(2 (p = 0.02 in patients treated with pioglitazone, but not in subjects treated with FO. Although there were no changes in total collagen protein, pioglitazone increased the amount of elastin protein in adipose by 6-fold.The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone increased adipocyte size yet improved other features of adipose, increasing capillary number and reducing mast cells and inflammatory macrophages. The increase in elastin may better permit adipocyte expansion without triggering cell necrosis and an inflammatory reaction.

  9. Meal fat storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue: comparison of pioglitazone and glipizide treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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    Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Pattan, Vishwanath; Rizza, Robert A; Jensen, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-(14)C]triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue biopsies were collected 6 and 24 h later to measure meal fatty acid storage. The portion of meal fatty acids stored in upper body sc and lower body sc adipose tissue did not differ between non-DM and T2DM subjects either at 6 or 24 h. Likewise, meal fatty acid storage did not differ between the T2DM participants treated with pioglitazone or glipizide. We conclude that meal fatty acid storage in upper body and lower body sc adipose tissue is not abnormal in T2DM patients treated with pioglitazone or glipizide.

  10. Adipose tissue as mesenchymal stem cells source in equine tendinitis treatment

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    Armando de Mattos Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendinitis is an important high-relapse-rate disease, which compromises equine performance and may result in early athletic life end to affected animals. Many therapies have been set to treat equine tendinitis; however, just few result in improved relapse rates, quality of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased biomechanical resistance of the treated tissue. Due to advances in the regenerative medicine, promising results were initially obtained through the implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC derived from the bone marrow in the equine tendon injury. Since then, many studies have been using MSCs from different sources for therapeutic means in equine. The adipose tissue has appeared as feasible MSC source. There are promising results involving equine tendinitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AdMSCs.

  11. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

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    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  12. Effects of prolonged treatment of lactating goats with bovine somatotropin on aspects of adipose tissue and liver metabolism.

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    Vernon, R G; Faulkner, A; Finley, E; Watt, P W; Zammit, V A

    1995-05-01

    The effects of prolonged (22 weeks) treatment of lactating goats with bovine somatotropin on the metabolism of adipose tissue and liver has been investigated. Somatotropin treatment resulted in smaller adipocytes, decreased rate of fatty acid synthesis and decreased total acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity of adipocytes, but with no change in the proportion of this enzyme in the active state. The rate of acylglycerol glycerol synthesis from glucose of adipocytes tended to decrease as did total glucose utilization by the tissue. Glucose conversion to lactate was unchanged by somatotropin treatment but glucose conversion to other products was decreased. Maximum response of adipose tissue to insulin was unchanged but the sensitivity to insulin decreased on somatotropin treatment. Treatment with somatotropin had no effect on basal lipolysis and decreased maximum response to the beta-agonist isoproterenol, but this probably reflects the rate of isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis varying with cell volume in adipocytes. No apparent change in response either to alpha 2-adrenergic agonists or to adenosine was apparent. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was unchanged in adipocyte membranes but the number of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors increased. The rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis in vitro, the activity of key gluconeogenic enzymes and the modulation of the rate of gluconeogenesis by butyrate were unchanged except for the effect of this latter agent on gluconeogenesis from propionate. Hepatic ketogenic activity, as indicated by the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-CoA-transferase-1 and the concentrations of carnitine and acyl carnitines, was unchanged by treatment. Thus at the end of a prolonged period of treatment with somatotropin in lactating goats, lipid synthesis in adipose tissue is still decreased but no effects on liver lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were apparent.

  13. Long-term pioglitazone treatment enhances lipolysis in rat adipose tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Maxová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Kurtz, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2008), s. 1848-1853 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME791; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604; GA MZd NR9387; GA MZd(CZ) NR9359 Grant - others:EURATools(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pioglitazone * adipose tissue * lipolysis Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2008

  14. Endothelial and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Abnormalities in Obesity-Related Vascular Dysfunction: Novel Targets for Treatment.

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    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine

    2017-06-01

    The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT is in intimate contact with the vessel wall, hence affecting vascular function and structure. In lean individuals, PVAT exerts anticontractile and anti-inflammatory activities to protect the vasculature. In obesity, instead, these beneficial properties are lost and PVAT releases inflammatory mediators, promotes oxidative stress, and contributes to vascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms elicited by these outside-in signals include resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin and activation of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. A number of adipokines and gut hormones, which are important modulators of food intake, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, have also positive vascular actions. This feature makes them promising tools for targeting both the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity, a view supported by recent large-scale clinical trials indicating that novel drugs for type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular potential may translate into clinically significant benefits. There is, therefore, real hope that unleashing the power of fat- and gut-derived substances might provide effective dual-action therapies for obesity and its complications.

  15. PEDF expression is inhibited by insulin treatment in adipose tissue via suppressing 11β-HSD1.

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    Yinli Zhou

    Full Text Available Early intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients; while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, an anti-angiogenic factor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesize that PEDF might be down regulated by insulin and then lead to the improved insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients during insulin therapy. We addressed this issue by investigating insulin regulation of PEDF expression in diabetic conditions. The results showed that serum PEDF was reduced by 15% in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients after insulin therapy. In adipose tissue of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, PEDF expression was associated with TNF-α elevation and it could be decreased both in serum and in adipose tissue by insulin treatment. In adipocytes, PEDF was induced by TNF-α through activation of NF-κB. The response was inhibited by knockdown and enhanced by over expression of NF-κB p65. However, PEDF expression was indirectly, not directly, induced by NF-κB which promoted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 expression in adipocytes. 11β-HSD1 is likely to stimulate PEDF expression through production of active form of glucocorticoids as dexamethasone induced PEDF expression in adipose tissue. Insulin inhibited PEDF by down-regulating 11β-HSD1 expression. The results suggest that PEDF activity is induced by inflammation and decreased by insulin through targeting 11β-HSD1/glucocorticoid pathway in adipose tissue of diabetic patients.

  16. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  17. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the obese type 2 diabetic ZDF rat with adipose tissue-derived stem cells

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    Garcia, MM; Fandel, TM; Lin, G; Shindel, AW; Banie, L; Lin, CS; Lue, TF

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), is a major complication of type-II diabetes, and many diabetic men with ED are refractory to common ED therapies. Aim To determine whether autologous adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) injected into the penis of impotent obese type-II diabetic rats survive and improve erectile function. Main outcome measures Intracorporal pressure (ICP) increase with cavernous nerve (CN) electrostimulation, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and serum glucose and testosterone assays. Methods Twenty-two 10-week old male fatty type-II diabetic ZDF rats underwent weight and blood glucose measurement every 2 weeks. At age 22 weeks, all animals underwent unilateral CN electrostimulation and ICP measurement to confirm impotence, and paragonadal adipose tissue (5 grams) was harvested and digested to yield 1.5 million ADSC. Impotent animals were randomized to ADSC treatment and sham control groups. At age 23 weeks, treatment group animals underwent penile injection of 1.5 million ADSC; control group animals received only PBS. Erectile function studies were repeated at age 26 weeks, followed by harvest of tissue and serum. Results Pre- and post-treatment stimulation ICP increase was significantly different between groups (ppenis appear to survive and improve erectile function. Autologous ADSC therapy is a promising approach to treat diabetic impotence. PMID:20104670

  18. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

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    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  19. Adipose tissue oxygenation: Effects on metabolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity there is a concomitant increase in white adipose tissue dysfunction, with the tissue moving toward a proinflammatory phenotype. Adipose tissue hypoxia has been proposed as a key underlying mechanism triggering tissue dysfunction but data from human, in vivo studies, to support this hypothesis is limited. Human adipose tissue oxygenation has been investigated by direct assessment of tissue oxygen tension (pO2) or by expression of hypoxia-sensitive gene...

  20. Unlock the thermogenic potential of adipose tissue: pharmacological modulation and implications for treatment of diabetes and obesity

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    Xiao-Rong ePeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is considered an interesting target organ for the treatment of metabolic disease due to its high metabolic capacity. Non-shivering thermogenesis, once activated, can lead to enhanced partitioning and oxidation of fuels in adipose tissues, and reduce the burden of glucose and lipids on other metabolic organs such as liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle. Sustained long-term activation of BAT may also lead to meaningful bodyweight loss. In this review, we discuss three different drug classes (the thiazolidinedione (TZD class of PPAR agonists, 3 adrenergic receptor agonists and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 analogues that have been proposed to regulate BAT and beige recruitment or activation, or both, and which have been tested in both rodent and human. The learnings from these classes suggest that restoration of functional BAT and beige mass as well as improved activation might be required to fully realize the metabolic potential of these tissues. Whether this can be achieved without the undesired cardiovascular side-effects exhibited by the TZD PPAR agonists and 3 adrenergic receptor agonists remains to be resolved.

  1. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

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    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  2. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

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    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  3. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

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    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  5. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  6. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...... and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...

  7. AUTOTRANSPLANTATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS FROM ADIPOSE TISSUE – INNOVATIVE PATHOGENETIC METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH INCISIONAL HERNIAS (FIRST CASES REPORT

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    V. G. Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a complex technology of receiving a biological transplant with autologous mesenchymal stem cells from the adipose tissue is presented. Possibility of successful clinical performance of reconstruction of extensive defects of anterior belly wall with the use of a multicomponent biological transplant with autologous mesenchy- mal stem cells from the adipose tissue, differentiated in the fibroblast direction is shown. The use of the proposed method of plasticity promotes the improvement of quality of surgical treatment, expansies the scope of cellular technologies in practical health care, improves the patients quality of life in the postoperative period. 

  8. Transplantation of Adipose Tissue and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Tool to Study Metabolic Physiology and for Treatment of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thien T.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Humans and other mammals have three main fat depots - visceral white fat, subcutaneous white fat, and brown fat - each possessing unique cell-autonomous properties. In contrast to visceral fat which can induce detrimental metabolic effects, subcutaneous white fat and brown fat have potential beneficial metabolic effects, including improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy consumption, which might be transferred by transplantation of these fat tissues. In addition, fat contains adipose...

  9. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

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    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  10. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

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    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  11. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin improves glycemic control, white adipose tissue metabolism and reproductive axis of diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2018-04-15

    Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

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    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  13. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

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    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  14. USE OF AUTOLOGOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE DERIVED STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CHONDRAL LESIONS

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    Vinay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be caused by aging, heredity and injury from trauma or disease. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, containing large amount of stem cells and other regenerative cells, can be easily obtained from loose connective tissue that is associated with adipose tissue. Here we evaluated safety and clinical efficacy of freshly isolated autologous SVF cells in patients with grade 2 - 4 degenerative osteoarthritis (OA. A total of 31 patients underwent standard liposuction under local anesthesia and SVF cells were isolated and prepared for application into joints. A total of 61 joints, mainly knee and hip joints, were treated with a single dose of SVF cells. 19 patients were fol lowed for minimum 6 weeks for safety and efficacy. Modified KOOS Clinical Score was used to evaluate clinical effect and was based on pain, non - steroid analgesic usage, limping, extent of joint movement, and stiffness evaluation before and at pre - operative , 1 week post - op, 1 month and 6 weeks after the treatment. No serious side effects, systemic infection or cancer was associated with SVF cell therapy. All patients improved after the treatment. Average KOOS score improved from pre - operative 37.5 to post - op erative 6 week average 66.6. All sub scale parameter for pain, symptoms, activity of living & quality of life are also improved. Higher grade of OA were associated with slower healing. In conclusion, here we report a novel and promising treatment approach for patients with degenerative OA that is safe, cost - effective, and relying only on autologous cells, and can be used as one of the minimal invasive treatment modality for osteoarthritis

  15. Influence of low energy laser irradiation on the clinical treatment potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

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    Xuan LIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of low level gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs laser irradiation on proliferation, cytokine secretion and adipogenic differentiation of cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs, and to find a safe and effective method for improving clinical treatment effect of ADSC. Methods  The cultured hADSCs from human adipose tissue were treated by using 650nm GaAlAs laser irradiation at a single of 2, 4 and 8J/cm2 respectively. Cell proliferation was quantified by MTT assay, cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA, and adipogenic differentiation was examined by oil red staining respectively. In addition, the expression profiles of putative hADSC surface markers were determined by real-time PCR. Results  MTT assay showed that treatment with GaAlAs laser irradiation at 4J/cm2 and 8J/cm2 (especially 4J/cm2 markedly promoted ADSCs proliferation from day 4 to day 6 after irradiation, when compared with the unirradiated group (P<0.05. ELISA results showed that the concentrations of VEGF, PDGF and TGF-βin culture supernatant were 287.5±15.2pg/ml, 36.0±0.7ng/ ml, and 292.6±10.5pg/ml when hADSCs were exposed to 4J/cm2 GaAlAs laser, and they were significantly higher than those of unirradiated group (145.3±21.6pg/ml, 26.7±0.6ng/ml and 130.6±6.0pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05. Quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of cell surface marker CD13, CD29, CD44 and CD90 in hADSCs exposed to 4J/cm2 GaAlAs laser were 1.19, 22.05, 4.38 and 7.22 fold of those in unirradiated group (P<0.05. And the oil red staining revealed that GaAlAs laser irradiation could markedly accelerate the adipogenic differentiation of hADSCs (P<0.05. Conclusions  Low energy laser irradiation is a simple, safe and effective method, which can enhance the proliferation, cytokine secretion and adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, may help to improve the therapeutic effect of ADSCs by clinical transformation application

  16. Elevated Expression of Dkk-1 by Glucocorticoid Treatment Impairs Bone Regenerative Capacity of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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    Kato, Toshiki; Khanh, Vuong Cat; Sato, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Kenichi; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Sugaya, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Mishima, Hajime; Ohneda, Osamu

    2018-01-15

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones used as anti-inflammatory treatments. However, this strong immunomodulation causes undesirable side effects that impair bones, such as osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid therapy is a major risk factor for developing steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femur head (ONFH). Since ONFH is incurable, therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate into osteoblasts are a first-line choice. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) are often used as a source of stem cell therapy for ONFH, but their proliferative activity is impaired after steroid treatment. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) may be an attractive alternative source; however, it is unknown whether AT-MSCs from steroid-induced ONFH (sAT-MSCs) have the same differentiation ability as BM-MSCs or normal AT-MSCs (nAT-MSCs). In this study, we demonstrate that nAT-MSCs chronically exposed to glucocorticoids show lower alkaline phosphatase activity leading to reduced osteogenic differentiation ability. This impaired osteogenesis is mediated by high expression of Dickkopf1 (Dkk-1) that inhibits wnt/β-catenin signaling. Increased Dkk-1 also causes impaired osteogenesis along with reductions in bone regenerative capacity in sAT-MSCs. Of note, plasma Dkk-1 levels are elevated in steroid-induced ONFH patients. Collectively, our findings suggest that glucocorticoid-induced expression of Dkk-1 could be a key factor in modulating the differentiation ability of MSCs used for ONFH and other stem cell therapies.

  17. HIV Persistence in Adipose Tissue Reservoirs.

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    Couturier, Jacob; Lewis, Dorothy E

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue. However, based on viral outgrowth assays, adipose-resident CD4 T cells are latently infected with virus that is replication-competent and infectious. Additionally, adipocytes interact with CD4 T cells and macrophages to promote immune cell activation and inflammation which may be supportive for HIV persistence. Antiviral effector cells, such as CD8 T cells and NK/NKT cells, are abundant in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection and typically exceed CD4 T cells, whereas B cells are largely absent from adipose tissue of humans and monkeys. Additionally, CD8 T cells in adipose tissue of HIV patients are activated and have a late differentiated phenotype, with unique TCR clonotypes of less diversity relative to blood CD8 T cells. With respect to the distribution of antiretroviral drugs in adipose tissue, data is limited, but there may be class-specific penetration of fat depots. The trafficking of infected immune cells within adipose tissues is a common event during HIV/SIV infection of humans and monkeys, but the virus may be mostly transcriptionally dormant. Viral replication may occur less in adipose tissue compared to other major reservoirs, such as lymphoid tissue, but replication competence and infectiousness of adipose latent virus are comparable to other tissues. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, inflammatory interactions among adipocytes and CD4 T cells and macrophages, and

  18. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

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    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

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    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  20. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  1. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

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    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  2. Treatment of early-stage pressure ulcers by using autologous adipose tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  3. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

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    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  4. Insulin resistance causes inflammation in adipose tissue.

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    Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Albert, Verena; Woelnerhanssen, Bettina; Frei, Irina C; Weissenberger, Diana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Clement, Nicolas; Moes, Suzette; Colombi, Marco; Meier, Jerome A; Swierczynska, Marta M; Jenö, Paul; Beglinger, Christoph; Peterli, Ralph; Hall, Michael N

    2018-03-12

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.

  5. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Zhang, Qixu; Beahm, Elisabeth K

    2013-11-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were proved by immunohistochemical analysis and DNA quantification. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed a three-dimensional nanofibrous architecture in hDAM. The hDAM included collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and vascular endothelial growth factor, but lacked major histocompatibility complex antigen I. hASC viability and proliferation on hDAM were proven in vitro. hDAM implanted subcutaneously in Fischer rats did not cause an immunogenic response, and it underwent remodeling, as indicated by host cell infiltration, neovascularization, and adipose tissue formation. Fresh fat grafts (Coleman technique) and engineered fat grafts (hDAM combined with hASCs) were implanted subcutaneously in nude rats. The implanted engineered fat grafts maintained their volume for 8 weeks, and the hASCs contributed to adipose tissue formation. In summary, the combination of hDAM and hASCs provides not only a clinically translatable platform for adipose tissue engineering, but also a vehicle for elucidating fat grafting mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Wasserman, Daniel; Avram, Mathew M

    2009-12-01

    Controlled cold exposure has long been reported to be a cause of panniculitis in cases such as popsicle panniculitis. Cryolipolysis is a new technology that uses cold exposure, or energy extraction, to result in localized panniculitis and modulation of fat. Presently, the Zeltiq cryolipolysis device is FDA cleared for skin cooling, as well as various other indications, but not for lipolysis. There is, however, a pending premarket notification for noninvasive fat layer reduction. Initial animal and human studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the superficial fat layer thickness, ranging from 20% to 80%, following a single cryolipolysis treatment. The decrease in fat thickness occurs gradually over the first 3 months following treatment, and is most pronounced in patients with limited, discrete fat bulges. Erythema of the skin, bruising, and temporary numbness at the treatment site are commonly observed following treatment with the device, though these effects largely resolve in approximately 1 week. To date, there have been no reports of scarring, ulceration, or alterations in blood lipid or liver function profiles. Cryolipolysis is a new, noninvasive treatment option that may be of benefit in the treatment of excess adipose tissue.

  7. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  8. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  9. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J

    2001-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased trabecular bone mass and increased adipocyte formation in bone marrow. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share common precursor cells present in the bone marrow stroma, it has been proposed that an inverse relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast...... proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV....../TV %) using the point-counting technique. Bone size did not differ between the two groups. In troglitazone-treated mice, AV/TV was significantly higher than in control mice (4.7+/-2.1% vs. 0.2+/-0.3%, respectively, mean +/- SD, P

  10. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...

  11. Mycobacterium canettii Infection of Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Poncin, Isabelle; Weber, Pascal; Drancourt, Michel; Canaan, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissues were shown to host Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is persisting inside mature adipocytes. It remains unknown whether this holds true for Mycobacterium canettii , a rare representative of the M. tuberculosis complex responsible for lymphatic and pulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we infected primary murine white and brown pre-adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes with M. canettii and M. tuberculosis as a positive control. Both mycobacteria were able to infect 18-22% of challenged primary murine pre-adipocytes; and to replicate within these cells during a 7-day experiment with the intracellular inoculums being significantly higher in brown than in white pre-adipocytes for M. canettii ( p = 0.02) and M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.03). Further in-vitro infection of 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes yielded 9% of infected cells by M. canettii and 17% of infected cells by M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.001). Interestingly, M. canettii replicated and accumulated intra-cytosolic lipid inclusions within mature adipocytes over a 12-day experiment; while M. tuberculosis stopped replicating at day 3 post-infection. These results indicate that brown pre-adipocytes could be one of the potential targets for M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria; and illustrate differential outcome of M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria into adipose tissues. While white adipose tissue is an unlikely sanctuary for M. canettii , it is still an open question whether M. canettii and M. tuberculosis could persist in brown adipose tissues.

  12. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyutin, R V; Zapohlska, K M; Palyanytsya, S S; Sirman, V M; Sokolov, M F

    2015-03-01

    Experimental investigation were conducted with the objective to determine a stem cells, capacity to differentiate in adipogenic direction, if they were obtained from adipose tissue. The investigation results have witnessed, that the cells, obtained from adipose tissue, are capable for a tissue-speciphic differentiation in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and, principally--in adipogenic direction, what confirms a multypotent nature of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue constitutes an alternative to the bone marrow, as a source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which may be applied in further investigations, concerning determination of their defense possibility for the transplanted autologous adipose tissue from the tissue resorption, made in a lipophiling way.

  14. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  15. Quantification of visceral adipose tissue in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with frequent overweight and abdominal obesity. Quantifying visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in PCOS patients can be a tool to assess metabolic risk and monitor effects of treatment. The latest dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology...

  16. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into 14C-lipids in ... of the importance of obesity to cardiovascular problems,. NIDDM and insulin resistance ... genesis in liver and adipose tissue caused by manganese treatment of rats fed a high fat diet ...

  17. The Facial Adipose Tissue: A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja; Trujillo, Oscar; Kristen, Quick; Isac, Kerelos; Zorko, Julia; Fam, Maria; Okonkwo, Kasie; Mian, Asima; Thanh, Hyunh; Koban, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Steinke, Hanno; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Recent advantages in the anatomical understanding of the face have turned the focus toward the subcutaneous and deep facial fat compartments. During facial aging, these fat-filled compartments undergo substantial changes along with other structures in the face. Soft tissue filler and fat grafting are valid methods to fight the signs of facial aging, but little is known about their precise effect on the facial fat. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the facial fat compartments in terms of anatomical location, histologic appearance, immune-histochemical characteristics, cellular interactions, and therapeutic options. Three different types of facial adipose tissue can be identified, which are located either superficially (dermal white adipose tissue) or deep (subcutaneous white adipose tissue): fibrous (perioral locations), structural (major parts of the midface), and deposit (buccal fat pad and deep temporal fat pad). These various fat types differ in the size of the adipocytes and the collagenous composition of their extracellular matrix and thus in their mechanical properties. Minimal invasive (e.g., soft tissue fillers or fat grafting) and surgical interventions aiming to restore the youthful face have to account for the different fat properties in various facial areas. However, little is known about the macro- and microscopic characteristics of the facial fat tissue in different compartments and future studies are needed to reveal new insights to better understand the process of aging and how to fight its signs best. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: There is increasing evidence of cross-talk between the heart, body metabolism, and adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have recently emerged as the prime candidate for a mediator. In patients with heart failure (HF), infusion of NPs...... increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...... and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin was 1.20 [95...

  19. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2014-09-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin Tissue Engineering: Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Zimoch, Jakub; Biedermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Perception of the adipose tissue has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) ultimately transformed paradigm of this tissue from a passive energy depot into a promising stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. As compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs are more easily accessible and their isolation yields higher amount of stem cells. Therefore, the ASCs are of high interest for stem cell-based therapies and skin tissue engineering. Currently, freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which may be used directly without any expansion, was also assessed to be highly effective in treating skin radiation injuries, burns, or nonhealing wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In this paper, we review the characteristics of SVF and ASCs and the efficacy of their treatment for skin injuries and disorders.

  1. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.

  2. Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra Jeong Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that ex-vivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here.

  3. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... venous glycerol concentrations increased substantially from rest to exercise but were similar both at rest and during later stages of exercise. In contrast, during the initial approximately 40 min of exercise, calculated glycerol concentration was significantly lower (approximately 40%) than measured...... and continuous prolonged exercise. However, during shorter periods of exercise (

  4. Adipose tissue in muscle : a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  5. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  6. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Tilstam, Pathricia V; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert; Bucala, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF- β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  7. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M Pagnotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell pool (MSC that gives rise also to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally-supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot, or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone - a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk - mice demonstrate a 5-fold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  8. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  9. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  10. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  11. Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF%, suggesting that obesity is associated with lower BAT activity. Here, we examined BAT activity in morbidly obese subjects and its role in cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT after applying a personalized cooling protocol. We hypothesize that morbidly obese subjects show reduced BAT activity upon cold exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After applying a personalized cooling protocol for maximal non-shivering conditions, BAT activity was determined using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT. Cold-induced BAT activity was detected in three out of 15 morbidly obese subjects. Combined with results from lean to morbidly obese subjects (n = 39 from previous study, the collective data show a highly significant correlation between BAT activity and body composition (P<0.001, respectively explaining 64% and 60% of the variance in BMI (r = 0.8; P<0.001 and BF% (r = 0.75; P<0.001. Obese individuals demonstrate a blunted CIT combined with low BAT activity. Only in BAT-positive subjects (n = 26 mean energy expenditure was increased significantly upon cold exposure (51.5±6.7 J/s versus 44.0±5.1 J/s, P = 0.001, and the increase was significantly higher compared to BAT-negative subjects (+15.5±8.9% versus +3.6±8.9%, P = 0.001, indicating a role for BAT in CIT in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in an extremely large range of body compositions, BAT activity is highly correlated with BMI and BF%. BAT-positive subjects showed higher CIT, indicating that BAT is also in humans involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Increasing BAT activity could be a therapeutic target in (morbid obesity.

  12. Brain–gut–adipose-tissue communication pathways at a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ‘side effects’ of our modern lifestyle is a range of metabolic diseases: the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases has grown to pandemic proportions. This increase, which shows no sign of reversing course, has occurred despite education and new treatment options, and is largely due to a lack of knowledge about the precise pathology and etiology of metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. To maintain energy homeostasis, the brain must tightly monitor the peripheral energy state. This monitoring is also extremely important for the brain’s survival, because the brain does not store energy but depends solely on a continuous supply of nutrients from the general circulation. Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. After central integration of these inputs, the brain generates neuronal and hormonal outputs to balance energy intake with expenditure. Miscommunication between the gut, brain and adipose tissue, or the degradation of input signals once inside the brain, lead to the brain misunderstanding the peripheral energy state. Under certain circumstances, the brain responds to this miscommunication by increasing energy intake and production, eventually causing metabolic disorders. This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders.

  13. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals ... Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India; Molecular Medicine Unit, ...

  14. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol,

  15. A hot interaction between immune cells and adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic as well as adipose tissue inflammation contributes to the development of obesity-associated diseases. This thesis describes three targets to battle this chronic inflammation in a model of diet-induced obesity in mice. First, we studied inflammation in obese white - and brown adipose tissue

  16. Mechanisms of inflammatory responses in obese adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, S.Y.; Yewei, Ji; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The fields of immunology and metabolism are rapidly converging on adipose tissue. During obesity, many immune cells infiltrate or populate in adipose tissue and promote a low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies to date have suggested that perturbation of inflammation is critically linked to nutrient

  17. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In order to visualize the mechanisms involved in the gene expression and regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, cDNA microarray containing 9 024 cDNA was used to construct gene ...

  18. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  19. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-07-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. To evaluate this hypothesis, the effects of chronic testosterone administration in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol supplementation were examined in this study. Chronic testosterone administration decreased BW, FI, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and adipocyte size in OVX rats, whereas it increased BW, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. In addition, chronic testosterone administration increased hypothalamic CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it did not alter CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats, indicating that conversion of testosterone to estrogens in the hypothalamus may be activated in testosterone-administered OVX rats. Furthermore, chronic testosterone administration decreased hypothalamic TNF-α mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it increased hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels in visceral and subcutaneous WAT and liver were not changed by chronic testosterone administration in both groups. These data indicate that the effects of chronic testosterone administration on BW, FI, WAT weight, and adipocyte size were changed by estradiol treatment in female rats. Testosterone has facilitative effects on BW gain, FI, and adiposity under the estradiol-supplemented condition, whereas it has inhibitory effects in the non-supplemented condition. Differences in the responses of hypothalamic factors, such as aromatase and inflammatory cytokines, to testosterone might underlie these opposite effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucocorticoids Suppress the Browning of Adipose Tissue via miR-19b in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yi-Fan; Yu, Jing; Sheng, Yun-Lu; Huang, Min; Kong, Xiao-Cen; Di, Wenj-Juan; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Hong; Liang, Hui; Ding, Guo-Xian

    2018-01-01

    Physiological levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) are required for proper metabolic control, and excessive GC action has been linked to a variety of pandemic metabolic diseases. MicroRNA (miRNA)-19b plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced metabolic diseases. This study explored the potential of miRNA-based therapeutics targeting adipose tissue. Our results showed that overexpressed miR-19b in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of adipose browning and oxygen consumption rate. The inhibition of miR-19b blocked DEX-mediated suppression of the expression of browning marker genes as well as the oxygen consumption rate in differentiated SVF cells derived from subcutaneous and brown adipose tissue. Overexpressed miR-19b in SVF cells derived from brown adipose tissue had the same effects as DEX treatment on the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and energy expenditure. Glucocorticoids transcriptionally regulate the expression of miR-19b via a GC receptor-mediated direct DNA binding mechanism. This study confirmed that miR-19b is an essential target for GC-mediated control of adipose tissue browning. It is hoped that the plasticity of the adipose organ can be exploited in the next generation of therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  1. Physiological Aging: Links Among Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, Diabetes, and Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Michael B; Justice, Jamie N; Nicklas, Barbara J; Kirkland, James L

    2017-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These processes synergistically promote chronic sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid redistribution away from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Without intervention, these effects contribute to age-related systemic metabolic dysfunction, physical limitations, and frailty. Thus adipose tissue dysfunction may be a fundamental contributor to the elevated risk of chronic disease, disability, and adverse health outcomes with advancing age. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  2. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue was fo...

  3. Adipose tissue remodeling in lipedema: adipocyte death and concurrent regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hirotaka; Araki, Jun; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Higashino, Takuya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Lipedema is a disease with unknown etiology presenting as bilateral and symmetric enlargement of the lower extremities due to subcutaneous deposition of the adipose tissue. Here we describe the histopathological features of the lipedema tissue and nonaffected adipose tissue obtained from a typical patient with severe lipedema. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated degenerative and regenerative changes of the lipedema tissue, characterized by crown-like structures (necrotizing adipocytes surrounded by infiltrating CD68+ macrophages; a feature commonly seen in obese adipose tissue) and proliferation of adipose-derived stem/progenitor/stromal cells (Ki67+CD34+ cells), respectively. These findings suggested increased adipogenesis in the lipedema tissue, which may further lead to hypoxia similar to that seen in obesity, resulting in adipocyte necrosis and macrophage recruitment. The confinement to the lower extremities and the difference from systemic obesity warrants further elucidation in future studies.

  4. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical and laboratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Merino, E M; Usón-Casaús, J M; Zaragoza-Bayle, C; Duque-Carrasco, J; Mariñas-Pardo, L; Hermida-Prieto, M; Barrera-Chacón, R; Gualtieri, M

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental colitis, and promising clinical results have been obtained in humans with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of adipose tissue-derived MSC (ASC) therapy in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eleven dogs with confirmed IBD received one ASC intravascular (IV) infusion (2 × 10(6) cells/kg bodyweight). The outcome measures were clinical response based on percentage reduction of the validated Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) and Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index (CCECAI), as well as normalisation of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, folate and cobalamin serum concentrations at day 42 post-treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare variables before and after treatment. No acute reaction to ASC infusion and no side effects were reported during follow-up in any dog. Six weeks post-treatment, the CIBDAI and CCECAI decreased significantly and albumin, cobalamin and folate concentrations increased substantially. Differences in CRP concentrations pre- and post-treatment were not significant (P = 0.050). Clinical remission (defined by a reduction of initial CIBDAI and CCECAI >75%) occurred in 9/11 dogs at day 42. The two remaining dogs showed a partial response with reduction percentages of 69.2% and 71.4%. In conclusion, a single IV infusion of allogeneic ASCs was well tolerated and appeared to produce clinical benefits in dogs with severe IBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  6. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  7. Brown Adipose Tissue Bioenergetics: A New Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon‐Dominguez, María; Alcalá, Martín; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Viana, Marta; Serra, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT. Based on XF Seahorse Technology, we assessed the appropriate weight of the explants, the exact concentration of each inhibitor in the reaction, and the specific incubation time to optimize bioenergetics measurements. Our results show that BAT basal oxygen consumption is mostly due to proton leak. In addition, BAT presents higher basal oxygen consumption than white adipose tissue and a positive response to b‐adrenergic stimulation. Considering the whole tissue and not just subcellular populations is a direct approach that provides a realistic view of physiological respiration. In addition, it can be adapted to analyze the effect of potential activators of thermogenesis, or to assess the use of fatty acids or glucose as a source of energy. PMID:28435771

  8. Treatment with TUG891, a free fatty acid receptor 4 agonist, restores adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction following chronic sleep fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, D; Qiao, Z; Almendros, I; Zheng, J; Khalyfa, A; Shimpukade, B; Ulven, T

    2016-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF), a frequent occurrence in multiple sleep and other diseases leads to increased food intake and insulin resistance via increased macrophage activation and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) is reduced in pediatric sleep apnea patients and FFA4 agonists have been proposed in the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Male mice were subjected to SF exposures for 6 weeks, and treated during the last 2 weeks with either TUG891, a potent and selective FFA4 agonist, or vehicle (Veh). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests and VWAT insulin sensitivity tests were conducted (phosphorylated Akt/total Akt), along with flow cytometric assessments of VWAT macrophage polarity, and T-cell lymphocyte subsets. SF-TUG891 mice showed reduction in food consumption, weight gain and VWAT mass. Furthermore, TUG891 treatment ameliorated glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test responses and increased VWAT p-Akt/Akt responses to insulin. Increases in M1/M2 macrophages and decreased Treg counts in VWAT associated with SF were markedly improved by TUG891, and VWAT macrophages from TUG891-treated mice had markedly attenuated insulin resistance effects on naïve cultured adipocytes. Treatment with an FFA4 agonist reverses SF-induced food intake increases and gains in body weight, and significantly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, interventional dietary or pharmaceutical strategies aimed at increasing FFA4 activity may serve as potentially useful adjunctive therapies for sleep disorders accompanied by metabolic morbidity.

  9. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose ...

  10. The Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma to the Treatment of Chronic Equine Laminitis: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Mario; Conti, Virna; Biacca, Cristiano; Battaglia, Beatrice; Pecorari, Laura; Piana, Francesco; Gnudi, Giacomo; Leonardi, Fabio; Ramoni, Roberto; Basini, Giuseppina; Dotti, Silvia; Renzi, Sabrina; Ferrari, Maura; Grolli, Stefano

    2017-10-11

    Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity. According to this assumption, an experimental protocol based on the local intravenous administration of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (aMSCs) in combination with PRP was developed for the treatment of horses affected by chronic laminitis. Nine horses with severely compromised venograms (showing grade III and IV laminitis) that had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional therapies were enrolled. aMSCs and PRP (15 × 10⁶ cells resuspended in 15 mL of PRP) were injected into the lateral or medial digital vein three times, at one-month intervals. The first administration was performed with allogeneic aMSCs, while for the following administrations, autologous aMSCs were used. There was no adverse short-term reaction to the intravenous injection of aMSCs. In the long term, venograms outlined, in all subjects, a progressive amelioration of the vascularization of the foot. An improvement in the structure and function of the hoof was also observed. No adverse events were reported during the follow-up, and the horses returned to a comfortable quality of life. Although the number of animals enrolled in the study is limited, both clinical observations and venography demonstrated an enhancement in the condition of all

  11. Altered white adipose tissue protein profile in C57BL/6J mice displaying delipidative, inflammatory, and browning characteristics after bitter melon seed oil treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsien Hsieh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO, which is rich in cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linolenic acid, is more potent than soybean oil in attenuating body fat deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive insight into how white adipose tissue (WAT is affected by BMSO administration and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the anti-adiposity effect of BMSO. METHODS AND RESULTS: A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the WAT of mice fed diets with or without BMSO for 11 wks. The WAT was also analyzed histologically for morphological changes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (pH 4-7 revealed 32 spots showing a statistically significant difference (P2-fold change. Combined with histological evidence of macrophage infiltration and brown adipocyte recruitment, the proteomic and immunoblotting data showed that the WAT in mice subjected to long-term high dose BMSO administration was characterized by reduced caveolae formation, increased ROS insult, tissue remodeling/repair, mitochondria uncoupling, and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, this last change being putatively related to an increased inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: The anti-adiposity effect of BMSO is associated with WAT delipidation, inflammation, and browning. Some novel proteins participating in these processes were identified. In addition, the BMSO-mediated WAT browning may account for the increased inflammation without causing adverse metabolic effects.

  12. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  13. Innate immunity orchestrates adipose tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na

    2017-06-23

    Obesity is strongly associated with multiple diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, etc. Adipose tissue (AT), mainly brown AT (BAT) and white AT (WAT), is an important metabolic and endocrine organ that maintains whole-body homeostasis. BAT contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis in a cold environment; WAT stores energy and produces adipokines that fine-tune metabolic and inflammatory responses. Obesity is often characterized by over-expansion and inflammation of WAT where inflammatory cells/mediators are abundant, especially pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation and leading to insulin resistance and metabolic complications. Macrophages constitute the major component of innate immunity and can be activated as a M1 or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype in response to environmental stimuli. Polarized M1 macrophage causes AT inflammation, whereas polarized M2 macrophage promotes WAT remodeling into the BAT phenotype, also known as WAT browning/beiging, which enhances insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. This review will discuss the regulation of AT homeostasis in relation to innate immunity.

  14. Activation of brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Maya, Yoshifumi; Wagner, Martin; Arias-Loza, Paula; Werner, Rudolf A; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) attracts growing interest as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Hyperthyroidism is well-known to increase BAT activity, but the role of hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between different thyroid hormone (TH) states and BAT activity. FDG-PET studies were retrospectively evaluated in thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy both at euthyroidism during TH replacement or at hypothyroidism after TH cessation. Serum TH levels were compared between patients with active BAT and control patients with non-active BAT matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Additionally, animal experiments with controls (n = 5) and hypothyroid rats (n = 5) were performed. Out of 124 patients, 6 patients with active BAT were identified. These patients showed significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than matched controls (P hypothyroid animals showed BAT activation at room temperature (24 °C), whereas controls did not (P hypothyroidism, which might be the result of a feedback mechanism to maintain body temperature in a state of reduced basal thermogenesis. Future research needs to explore the underlying mechanistic and biological implications.

  15. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, A.R.G.; Sertié, R.A.L.; Oliveira, A.C.; Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  16. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  17. Adipose Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Viability and Differentiating Features for Orthopaedic Reparative Applications: Banking of Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Roato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of articular cartilage also due to reduced chondrogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from patients. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs (ATD-MSCs, representing an effective tool for reparative medicine, particularly for treatment of osteoarthritis, due to their chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capability. The treatment of symptomatic knee arthritis with ATD-MSCs proved effective with a single infusion, but multiple infusions could be also more efficacious. Here we studied some crucial aspects of adipose tissue banking procedures, evaluating ATD-MSCs viability, and differentiation capability after cryopreservation, to guarantee the quality of the tissue for multiple infusions. We reported that the presence of local anesthetic during lipoaspiration negatively affects cell viability of cryopreserved adipose tissue and cell growth of ATD-MSCs in culture. We observed that DMSO guarantees a faster growth of ATD-MSCs in culture than trehalose. At last, ATD-MSCs derived from fresh and cryopreserved samples at −80°C and −196°C showed viability and differentiation ability comparable to fresh samples. These data indicate that cryopreservation of adipose tissue at −80°C and −196°C is equivalent and preserves the content of ATD-MSCs in Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF, guaranteeing the differentiation ability of ATD-MSCs.

  18. Update on cryopreservation of adipose tissue and adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong; Pu, Lee L Q

    2015-04-01

    This article first discusses some fundamentals of cryobiology and challenges for cell and tissue cryopreservation. Then, the results of cryopreservation of adipose cells and tissues, including adipose-derived stem cells, in the last decade are reviewed. In addition, from the viewpoint of cryobiology, some desired future work in fat cryopreservation is proposed that would benefit the optimization, standardization, and better application of such techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  20. Assessment of in situ adipose tissue inflammation by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Ove; Henriksen, Jens H

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and specifically adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, is part of the pathophysiology of obesity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Local AT protein assessment methods are limited, and AT inflammation studies have therefore primarily examined inflammatory gene expression. We therefore...

  1. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  2. Omental adipose tissue fibrosis and insulin resistance in severe obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmi, V; Cardellini, M; Cinti, F; Corgosinho, F; Cardolini, I; D'Adamo, M; Zingaretti, M C; Bellia, A; Lauro, D; Gentileschi, P; Federici, M; Cinti, S; Sbraccia, P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The unresolved chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity leads to interstitial deposition of fibrogenic proteins as reparative process. The contribution of omental adipose tissue (oWAT) fibrosis to obesity-related complications remains controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oWAT fibrosis may be related to insulin resistance in severely obese population. Subjects/Methods: Forty obese subjects were studied by glucose clamp befor...

  3. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sidossis, Labros S.; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT w...

  4. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, José M

    2007-02-01

    Several pathophysiological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reduction with intensive glucose control in diabetics, therapies that result in weight gain (PPAR agonists), and presence of some of the metabolic traits among some lipodystrophies. We propose the functional failure of an organ, in this case, the adipose tissue as a model to interpret its manifestations and to reconcile some of the apparent paradox. A cornerstone of this model is the failure of the adipose tissue to buffer postprandial lipids. In addition, homeostatic feedback loops guide physiological and pathological adipose tissue activities. Fat turnover is determined by a complex equilibrium in which insulin is a main factor but not the only one. Chronically inadequate energy balance may be a key factor, stressing the system. In this situation, an adipose tissue functional failure occurs resulting in changes in systemic energy delivery, impaired glucose consumption and activation of self-regulatory mechanisms that extend their influence to whole body homeostasis system. These include changes in adipokines secretion and vascular effects. The functional capacity of the adipose tissue varies among subjects explaining the incomplete overlapping among the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Variations at multiple gene loci will be partially responsible for these interindividual differences. Two of those candidate genes, the adiponectin (APM1) and the perilipin (PLIN) genes, are discussed in more detail.

  5. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in oral mucosa tissue engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... urethral reconstruction. Specifically, tissue-engineered oral mucosa holds great prospect for urethroplasty. Mesenchymal stem cells within the stromal-vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue, that is, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), have been used in skin repair with satisfactory results.

  6. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  7. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  8. Growth hormone and adipose tissue: beyond the adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Lubbers, Ellen; Munn, Rachel; Kopchick, John J

    2011-06-01

    The last two decades have seen resurgence in research focused on adipose tissue. In part, the enhanced interest stems from an alarming increase in obesity rates worldwide. However, an understanding that this once simple tissue is significantly more intricate and interactive than previously realized has fostered additional attention. While few would argue that growth hormone (GH) radically alters fat mass, newer findings revealing the complexity of adipose tissue requires that GH's influence on this tissue be reexamined. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the more recent understanding of adipose tissue and to summarize our current knowledge of how GH may influence and contribute to these newer complexities of this tissue with special focus on the available data from mice with altered GH action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  10. Visceral adipose tissue quantification using Lunar Prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, David L; Rothney, Megan P; Oates, Mary K; Xia, Yi; Wacker, Wynn K; Binkley, Neil C

    2013-01-01

    A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) application to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in the android region of a total body DXA scan has recently been developed. This new application, CoreScan, has been validated on the Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer against volumetric computed tomography. The geometric assumptions underlying the CoreScan model are the same on the Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer. However, differences between the peak X-ray voltage and detector array configurations may lead to differences in VAT quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Prodigy and iDXA CoreScan values and to characterize differences in VAT precision between the instruments. Data from volunteers with paired Prodigy and iDXA measurements were used to define empirical adjustments to the VAT algorithm parameters (n=59) and validate performance on Prodigy (n=62). Prodigy VAT measurements were highly correlated to iDXA (r=0.984). The mean of the Prodigy-iDXA VAT volume differences was -13.8cm³ with a 95% confidence interval of -45 to +17cm³. The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement for the 2 methods were -252 to +224cm³. Measurement of short-term precision showed that measurement error variance on iDXA was smaller (pProdigy (coefficient of variance: 7.3% vs 9.8%). Precision results are in agreement with previous reports on the differences between Prodigy and iDXA for body composition measures. Prodigy and iDXA measures of VAT are similar, but the lower precision of the Prodigy may require investigators to target larger changes in VAT. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Implications of thermogenic adipose tissues for metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Christian; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-08-01

    Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors. This multifaceted alignment regulates thermogenic demands to environmental circumstances in dependence on available energy resources. This review summarizes the current knowledge how thermogenic tissues can be targeted to combat the burden of diseases with a special focus on lipid metabolism and diseases related to lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Limitations of ractopamine to affect adipose tissue metabolism in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C Y; Grant, A L; Kim, K H; Ji, S Q; Hancock, D L; Anderson, D B; Mills, S E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the temporal effect of ractopamine (Rac), a phenethanolamine, on adipose lipogenic enzyme activity and gene expression, 20 crossbred barrows were fed Rac (20 mg/kg of diet) for 0, 1, 8, or 24 d before slaughter (105 +/- 1 kg). Ractopamine had no effect (P > .05) on the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or malic enzyme in either the middle or outer layers of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Similarly, mRNA abundance for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and the glucose transport proteins Glut 1 and Glut 4 were not affected by Rac in either adipose depot. Despite the inability of Rac to affect adipose tissue metabolism, Rac increased nitrogen retention, longissimus muscle area, and alpha-actin gene expression in skeletal muscle. Results indicate that Rac was not a functional beta-adrenergic agonist toward adipose tissue in this study. We suggest that the response to Rac in adipose tissue is masked by a combination of factors including tissue insensitivity, Rac-dose limitation, inherent partial agonism of Rac, and beta-adrenoceptor down-regulation.

  13. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  14. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  15. Hypothalamic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic action similar to BAT. These data provide evidence indicating BAT/beige cells as a potential target for combating obesity and diabetes. Recent discoveries of active BAT and beige cells in adult humans have further highlighted this potential. Growing studies have also shown the importance of central nervous system in the control of BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning using animal models. This review is focused on central neural thermoregulation, particularly addressing our current understanding of the importance of hypothalamic neural signaling in the regulation of BAT/beige thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.

  16. Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francisco J; Holt, Dolly J; Vargas, Vanessa; Yockman, James; Boudina, Sihem; Atkinson, Donald; Grainger, David W; Revelo, Monica P; Sherman, Warren; Bull, David A; Patel, Amit N

    2014-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 µm in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein one, central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid organs. These depots maintain body temperature during cold exposure by warming the blood before its distribution to the periphery. They also ensure an optimal temperature for biochemical reactions within solid organs. BAT had been thought to involute throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent studies, however, have confirmed the presence of active BAT in adult humans with depots residing in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and suprarenal regions. While human pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into functional brown adipocytes in vitro and brown adipocyte progenitor cells have been identified in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, multipotent metabolically active BAT-derived stem cells from a single depot have not been identified in adult humans to date. Here, we demonstrate a clonogenic population of metabolically active BAT stem cells residing in adult humans that can: (a) be expanded in vitro; (b) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential; and (c) functionally differentiate into metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our study defines a new target stem cell population that can be activated to restore energy homeostasis in vivo for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  17. The Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma to the Treatment of Chronic Equine Laminitis: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Angelone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and platelet-rich plasma (PRP might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity. According to this assumption, an experimental protocol based on the local intravenous administration of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (aMSCs in combination with PRP was developed for the treatment of horses affected by chronic laminitis. Nine horses with severely compromised venograms (showing grade III and IV laminitis that had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional therapies were enrolled. aMSCs and PRP (15 × 106 cells resuspended in 15 mL of PRP were injected into the lateral or medial digital vein three times, at one-month intervals. The first administration was performed with allogeneic aMSCs, while for the following administrations, autologous aMSCs were used. There was no adverse short-term reaction to the intravenous injection of aMSCs. In the long term, venograms outlined, in all subjects, a progressive amelioration of the vascularization of the foot. An improvement in the structure and function of the hoof was also observed. No adverse events were reported during the follow-up, and the horses returned to a comfortable quality of life. Although the number of animals enrolled in the study is limited, both clinical observations and venography demonstrated an enhancement in the

  18. Effects of platelet-rich plasma, adipose-derived stem cells, and stromal vascular fraction on the survival of human transplanted adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Traditional adipose tissue transplantation has unpredictable viability and poor absorption rates. Recent studies have reported that treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) are related to increased survival of grafted adipose tissue. This study was the first simultaneous comparison of graft survival in combination with PRP, ASCs, and SVF. Adipose tissues were mixed with each other, injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice, and evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Human adipocytes were grossly maintained in the ASCs and SVF mixtures. Survival of the adipose tissues with PRP was observed at 4 weeks and with SVF at 8 and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, volume reduction in the ASCs and SVF mixtures were 36.9% and 32.1%, respectively, which were significantly different from that of the control group without adjuvant treatment, 51.0%. Neovascular structures were rarely observed in any of the groups. Our results suggest that the technique of adding ASCs or SVF to transplanted adipose tissue might be more effective than the conventional grafting method. An autologous adipose tissue graft in combination with ASCs or SVF may potentially contribute to stabilization of engraftment.

  19. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals.

  20. Increased Ratio of Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Septic Patients Is Associated With Adverse Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsak, Chawika; Lee, Joseph G H; Boyd, John H; Coxson, Harvey O; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may contribute differentially to the septic inflammatory response. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with altered sepsis outcome. A retrospective analysis from a cohort of sepsis patients admitted between 2004 and 2009. A mixed medical-surgical ICU at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients older than 16 years old who had sepsis and underwent abdominal CT scan (n = 257) for clinical reasons. None. We measured the visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and calculated the visceral adipose tissue-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. Visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was not correlated with body mass index (r = -0.015, p = NS) and therefore provides additional unique information independent of body mass index. Sepsis patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue had greater 90-day mortality than patients with lower visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue (log-rank test, linear-by linear association p ratios of 2.01 (95% CI, 1.01-3.99) for the third visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile compared with the first quartile and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.15-4.69) for the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile when compared with the first quartile. Increased mortality for patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was found for both patients with body mass index less than 25 kg/m (p = 0.004) and for body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m (p = 0.023). Furthermore, we found significantly greater need for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and ICU stay in patients in the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile. The ratio of proinflammatory (interleukin-8) to anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) plasma cytokine levels was greater in patients with

  1. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  2. Local androgen inactivation in abdominal visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Richard, Christian; Bélanger, Chantal; Dupont, Pierre; Daris, Marleen; Laberge, Philippe; Luu-The, Van; Tchernof, André

    2003-12-01

    We examined the expression and activity of two enzymes from the aldoketoreductase (AKR) family 1C, namely type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD-5, AKR1C3) and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD-3, AKR1C2) in female sc and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocyte primary cultures. 17beta-HSD-5 preferentially synthesizes testosterone from the inactive adrenal precursor androstenedione, whereas 3alpha-HSD-3 inactivates dihydrotestosterone. mRNAs of both enzymes were detected in adipose tissue from the omental and sc compartments. Real-time PCR quantification indicated a 3-fold higher 3alpha-HSD-3 expression compared with 17beta-HSD-5, and the expression of both enzymes tended to be higher in the sc vs. the omental depot. Accordingly, dose-response and time-course experiments performed in preadipocyte primary cultures indicated that 3alpha-HSD activity was higher than 17beta-HSD activity (13-fold maximum velocity difference). We measured 3alpha-HSD activity in omental and sc adipose tissue samples of 32 women for whom body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CT, respectively. We found that androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue through 3alpha-HSD activity was significantly higher in women with elevated vs. low visceral adipose tissue accumulation (1.7-fold difference; P < 0.05). Moreover, omental adipose tissue 3alpha-HSD activity was positively and significantly associated with CT-measured visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and omental adipocyte diameter (r = 0.42; P < 0.02). These results indicate that local androgen inactivation is a predominant reaction in female abdominal adipose tissue, with the greatest conversion rates observed in the presence of abdominal visceral obesity. Increased androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue of abdominally obese women may impact locally on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism.

  3. Factors affecting adipose tissue development in chickens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Kim, Woo Kyun; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce. The purpose of this review is to describe factors regulating adipogenesis in chickens, with an emphasis on dietary factors and the broiler. Results from many studies have demonstrated effects of dietary nutrient composition on adipose tissue development and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and β, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins orchestrate a series of cellular events that lead to an increase in activity of fatty acid transport proteins and enzymes that are responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development may provide a practical strategy to affect body composition of the commercial broiler while providing insights on diets that maximize conversion into muscle rather than fat and affect depot-dependent deposition of lipids. Because of the propensity to overeat and become obese, the broiler chicken also represents an attractive biomedical model for eating disorders and obesity in humans. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    and provides a major protein source from meat and eggs throughout the world. Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by ..... important role in cholesterol homeostasis (Bhattacharyya et al 1993). Cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and transported either directly ...

  5. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Cho J. A., Park H., Lim E. H. and Lee K. W. 2011 MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. J. Genet. 90, 81–93] ... capability, however there are considerable challenges to the use of these cells for ... tissues including brain, blood, muscle, skin, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood ...

  6. Adipose Tissue Tumours in Port Harcourt (A ten year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Adipose tissue tumors are one of the commonest soft tissue tumors. Though not given much attention in medical practice and in literature, it posed cosmetic problems. The location and size of the tumor determined the symptoms which ranges from dyspnea to a feeling of fullness and discomfort on motion.

  7. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ : implications for childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly considered as an inflammatory disorder. In adults, obesity induces inflammation of adipose tissue (AT). Through the release of inflammatory lipids and immune mediating proteins called adipokines, AT inflammation spreads to other tissues ranging from liver and muscle to the

  8. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI...

  9. Defective regulation of adipose tissue autophagy in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, C E; Rodrigues, V S; Gomes, F S; Moura, R F de; Victorio, S C; Bombassaro, B; Chaim, E A; Pareja, J C; Geloneze, B; Velloso, L A; Araujo, E P

    2013-11-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated process that has an important role in the control of a wide range of cellular functions, such as organelle recycling, nutrient availability and tissue differentiation. A recent study has shown an increased autophagic activity in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, and a role for autophagy in obesity-associated insulin resistance was proposed. Body mass reduction is the most efficient approach to tackle insulin resistance in over-weight subjects; however, the impact of weight loss in adipose tissue autophagy is unknown. Adipose tissue autophagy was evaluated in mice and humans. First, a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes was maintained on a 15-day, 40% caloric restriction. At baseline, markers of autophagy were increased in obese mice as compared with lean controls. Upon caloric restriction, autophagy increased in the lean mice, whereas it decreased in the obese mice. The reintroduction of ad libitum feeding was sufficient to rapidly reduce autophagy in the lean mice and increase autophagy in the obese mice. In the second part of the study, autophagy was evaluated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of nine obese-non-diabetic and six obese-diabetic subjects undergoing bariatric surgery for body mass reduction. Specimens were collected during the surgery and approximately 1 year later. Markers of systemic inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor-1α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were evaluated. As in the mouse model, human obesity was associated with increased autophagy, and body mass reduction led to an attenuation of autophagy in the adipose tissue. Obesity and caloric overfeeding are associated with the defective regulation of autophagy in the adipose tissue. The studies in obese-diabetic subjects undergoing improved metabolic control following calorie restriction suggest that autophagy and inflammation are regulated independently.

  10. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.

    1995-01-01

    /d) was significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long......The association between habitual fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, and the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat was studied in 24 healthy young volunteers. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated from three 7-d weighed food records made at months 0, 5, and 8...... of the 8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g...

  11. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  12. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Defined as an excess of adipose tissue, obesity remains one of the greatest healthcare epidemics of the 21st century. With no definitive treatment, attention has shifted to understanding the role of adipokines in obesity. This review provides an introduction to the salient obesity-related adipokines and their possible application as a treatment for obesity.

  13. Adipose tissue and adipokines: the association with and application of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Joseph, Frank

    2014-01-01

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Defined as an excess of adipose tissue, obesity remains one of the greatest healthcare epidemics of the 21st century. With no definitive treatment, attention has shifted to understanding the role of adipokines in obesity. This review provides an introduction to the salient obesity-related adipokines and their possible application as a treatment for obesity.

  14. Fructose consumption enhances glucocorticoid action in rat visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać, Biljana N; Djordjevic, Ana D; Vasiljević, Ana D; Milutinović, Danijela D Vojnović; Veličković, Nataša A; Nestorović, Nataša M; Matić, Gordana M

    2013-06-01

    The rise in consumption of refined sugars high in fructose appears to be an important factor for the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose has been shown to be involved in genesis and progression of the syndrome through deregulation of metabolic pathways in adipose tissue. There is evidence that enhanced glucocorticoid regeneration within adipose tissue, mediated by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 (11βHSD1), may contribute to adiposity and metabolic disease. 11βHSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). We hypothesized that harmful effects of long-term high fructose consumption could be mediated by alterations in prereceptor glucocorticoid metabolism and glucocorticoid signaling in the adipose tissue of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week drinking of 10% fructose solution on dyslipidemia, adipose tissue histology and both plasma and tissue corticosterone level. Prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids was characterized by determining 11βHSD1 and H6PDH mRNA and protein levels. Glucocorticoid signaling was examined at the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and compartmental redistribution, as well as at the level of expression of its target genes (GR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase). Fructose diet led to increased 11βHSD1 and H6PDH expression and elevated corticosterone level within the adipose tissue, which was paralleled with enhanced GR nuclear accumulation. Although the animals did not develop obesity, nonesterified fatty acid and plasma triglyceride levels were elevated, indicating that fructose, through enhanced prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids, could set the environment for possible later onset of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1996-04-01

    The regulation of adipose tissue distribution is an important problem in view of the close epidemiological and metabolic associations between centralized fat accumulation and disease. With visceral fat accumulation multiple endocrine perturbations are found, including elevated cortisol and androgens in women, as well as low growth hormone (GH) and, in men, testosterone (T) secretion. These abnormalities probably derive from a hypersensitive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with hyperinsulinemia related to a marked insulin resistance as a consequence. These hormonal changes exert profound effects on adipose tissue metabolism and distribution. At the adipocyte level cortisol and insulin promote lipid accumulation by expressing lipoprotein lipase activity, while T, GH and probably estrogens exert opposite effects. The consequences will most likely be more expressed in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissues because of a higher cellularity, innervation and blood flow. Furthermore, the density of cortisol and androgen receptors seems to be higher in this than other adipose tissue regions. The endocrine perturbations found in visceral obesity with an abundance of the lipid accumulating hormones cortisol and insulin, and a relatively low secretion of the lipid mobilizing sex steroid hormones and GH would therefore be expected to be followed by visceral fat accumulation. The potential significance of local synthesis of steroid hormones in adipose tissue requires more attention. Although studies in vitro are informative when elucidating detailed mechanisms of hormonal interactions, they might not give a true picture of the regional integrated regulation of adipose tissue lipid storage and mobilization. Such information can be obtained by regional measurements of lipid mobilization by free fatty acid turnover or by microdialysis techniques, both showing lower rates of mobilization in leg than in upper body adipose tissues. More detailed information can be obtained by

  16. Adipose HIF-1α causes obesity by suppressing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jonathan C; Devera, Ronald; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yao, Qiaoling; Rathore, Aman; Younas, Haris; Halberg, Nils; Scherer, Philipp E; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups. We assessed weight gain, food intake, calorimetry, activity, and oxygen consumption and transcriptional changes in isolated white and brown adipocytes. At 22 °C, HIF-1α++ mice exhibited accelerated weight gain, cold and glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and decreased energy expenditure without changes in food intake or activity. These changes were absent or minimal at thermoneutrality. In brown adipocytes of HIF-1α++ mice, oxygen consumption decreased ~50 % in association with reduced mitochondrial content, uncoupling protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1α). In conclusion, adipose HIF-1α overexpression inhibits thermogenesis and cellular respiration in brown adipose tissue, promoting obesity in the setting of reduced ambient temperature. Constitutive HIF-1α activation in adipose tissue promotes weight gain in mice. The weight gain is associated with reduced brown adipose tissue function and oxygen consumption. Reduced oxygen consumption may be mediated by reductions in mitochondria.

  17. Chagas disease, adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fnu Nagajyothi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection of the adipose tissue of mice triggers the local expression of inflammatory mediators and a reduction in the expression of the adipokine adiponectin. T. cruzi can be detected in adipose tissue by PCR 300 days post-infection. Infection of cultured adipocytes results in increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and a reduction in the expression of adiponectin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ³, both of which are negative regulators of inflammation. Infection also results in the upregulation of cyclin D1, the Notch pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a reduction in the expression of caveolin-1. Thus, T. cruzi infection of cultured adipocytes leads to an upregulation of the inflammatory process. Since adiponectin null mice have a cardiomyopathic phenotype, it is possible that the reduction in adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Adipose tissue may serve as a reservoir for T. cruzi from which parasites can become reactivated during periods of immunosuppression. T. cruzi infection of mice often results in hypoglycemia. In contrast, hyperglycemia as observed in diabetes results in increased parasitemia and mortality. Adipose tissue is an important target tissue of T. cruzi and the infection of this tissue is associated with a profound impact on systemic metabolism, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  19. Vitamin D and adipose tissue - more than storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OHD. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g. in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR -/- and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 -/- mouse models: Both VDR -/- and CYP27B1 -/- models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  20. Vitamin D and adipose tissue-more than storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR(-/-)) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 (-/-)) mouse models: Both VDR(-/-) and CYP27B1(-/-) models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  1. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  2. Metabolically Active Three-Dimensional Brown Adipose Tissue Engineered from White Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica P; Anderson, Amy E; McCartney, Annemarie; Ory, Xavier; Ma, Garret; Pappalardo, Elisa; Bader, Joel; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2017-04-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from several sources, human white adipose tissue (WAT), rat WAT, and rat BAT, then differentiated toward both white and brown adipogenic lineages in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. ASCs derived from WAT were successfully differentiated in 3D poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels into mature adipocytes with BAT phenotype and function, including high uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein expression and increased metabolic activity (basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and maximum respiration). By utilizing this "browning" process, the abundant and accessible WAT stem cell population can be engineered into 3D tissue constructs with the metabolic capacity of native BAT, ultimately for therapeutic intervention in vivo and as a tool for studying BAT and its metabolic properties.

  3. Wound healing potential of adipose tissue stem cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, You Kyung; Ban, Jae-Jun; Lee, Mijung; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2017-03-25

    Adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) are considered as a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by stem cell secretory factors showed beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and augmentation of endogenous repair. Delayed cutaneous wound healing is implicated in many conditions such as diabetes, aging, stress and alcohol consumption. However, the effects of cell-free extract of ATSCs (ATSC-Ex) containing secretome on wound healing process have not been investigated. In this study, ATSC-Ex was topically applied on the cutaneous wound and healing speed was examined. As a result, wound closure was much faster in the cell-free extract treated wound than control wound at 4, 6, 8 days after application of ATSC-Ex. Dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) production are critical aspects of wound healing, and the effects of ATSC-Ex on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) was examined. ATSC-Ex augmented HDF proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and migration ability was enhanced by extract treatment. Representative ECM proteins, collagen type I and matrix metalloproteinase-1, are significantly up-regulated by treatment of ATSC-Ex. Our results suggest that the ATSC-Ex have improving effect of wound healing and can be the potential therapeutic candidate for cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vasoconstrictor effect of high FFA/albumin ratios in adipose tissue in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1985-01-01

    Subcutaneous or perirenal adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe-washout technique before and after intravenous injection or infusion of Intralipid in six anesthetized, otherwise intact mongrel dogs. In four anesthetized mongrel puppies adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... as well as in young dogs after this treatment. The administration of Intralipid did not per se induce the vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction took place simultaneously with increasing FFA/albumin molar ratios. The results support our previous findings in perfused fat pads that high molar FFA...

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue in Clinical Applications for Dermatological Indications and Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Gaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating at multiple levels of control, mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs communicate with organ systems to adjust immune response, provide signals for differentiation, migration, enzymatic reactions, and to equilibrate the regenerative demands of balanced tissue homeostasis. The identification of the mechanisms by which ADSCs accomplish these functions for dermatological rejuvenation and wound healing has great potential to identify novel targets for the treatment of disorders and combat aging. Herein, we review new insights into the role of adipose-derived stem cells in the maintenance of dermal and epidermal homeostasis, and recent advances in clinical applications of ADSCs related to dermatology.

  6. Visceral adipose tissue area measurement at a single level: can it represent visceral adipose tissue volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumura, Yusuke; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Nishimura, Hideho

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) needs to be accurate and sensitive to change for risk monitoring. The purpose of this study is to determine the CT slice location where VAT area can best reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. 60 plain abdominal CT images from 30 males [mean age (range) 51 (41-68) years, mean body weight (range) 71.1 (101.9-50.9) kg] who underwent workplace screenings twice within a 1-year interval were evaluated. Automatically calculated and manually corrected areas of the VAT of various scan levels using "freeform curve" region of interest on CT were recorded and compared with body weight changes. The strongest correlations of VAT area with VAT volume and body weight changes were shown in a slice 3 cm above the lower margin of L3 with r values of 0.853 and 0.902, respectively. VAT area measurement at a single level 3 cm above the lower margin of the L3 vertebra is feasible and can reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. Advances in knowledge: As VAT area at a CT slice 3cm above the lower margin of L3 can best reflect interval changes in VAT volume and body weight, VAT area measurement should be selected at this location.

  7. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  8. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  9. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  10. Comparison of Methods for Analyzing Human Adipose Tissue Macrophage Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harteneck, Debra; Jaeger, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inflammation, obesity, and adverse metabolic conditions is associated with adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). This study compared the measurements of human ATM using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ...

  11. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst...

  12. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one population of adult stem cells that can self renew and differentiate into multiple lineages. Because of advantages in method and quantity of acquisition, ADSCs are gaining attention as an alternative source of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we ...

  13. 12- and 15-Lipoxygenases in Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Banumathi K.; Lieb, David C.; Dobrian, Anca D.; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The lipoxygenases (LOs) are principal enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue, and in particular visceral adipose tissue, plays a primary role in the development of the inflammation seen in these conditions. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites act as upstream regulators of many of the cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in adipose tissue. While the role that 12- and 15-LO play in chronically inflamed adipose tissue is becoming clearer, there are still many questions that remain unanswered regarding their activation, signaling pathways, and roles in healthy fat. 12- and 15-LO also generate products with anti-inflammatory properties that are under investigation. Therefore, 12- and 15-LO have the potential to be very important targets for therapeutics aimed at reducing insulin resistance and the comorbid conditions associated with obesity. PMID:22951339

  14. Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health. PMID:24701352

  15. Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health.

  16. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  17. Isolation of Stromal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Maria; Oltolina, Francesca; Antonini, Silvia; Zamperone, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue has been shown to be particularly advantageous as source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of its easy accessibility, and the possibility of obtaining stem cells in high yields. MSCs are obtained from the so-called Stromal Vascular Fraction, (SVF), exploiting their property of adhering to plastic surfaces and can be further purified by positive or negative immunomagnetic selection with appropriately chosen antibodies. These cells (Stromal Stem Cells, SSCs) can then be directly analyzed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, or expanded for further applications, e.g., for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The methodology described here in detail for SSCs isolated from mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue can be applied to human tissues, such as epicardium.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER stress is increased in omental adipose tissue of women with GDM, and if ER stress can also upregulate inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. ER stress markers IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese compared to lean pregnant women. ER stress was also increased in adipose tissue of women with GDM compared to BMI-matched normal glucose tolerant (NGT women. Thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, induced upregulated secretion of mature IL-1α and IL-1β in human omental adipose tissue explants primed with bacterial endotoxin LPS, the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inhibition of capase-1 with Ac-YVAD-CHO resulted in decreased IL-1α and IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of pannexin-1 with carbenoxolone suppressed IL-1β secretion only. Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs metformin and glibenclamide also reduced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion in infection and cytokine-primed adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated ER stress to activate the inflammasome in pregnant adipose tissue. Therefore, increased ER stress may contribute towards the pathophysiology of obesity in pregnancy and GDM.

  19. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  20. Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    individual cell types within human adipose tissue interact to regulate adipose tissue physiology . Specifically, we have developed the molecular and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0251 TITLE: “Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal

  1. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Andi Asadul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In searching for the best source of stem cells, researcher found adipose stem cells as one of the ideal source due to its easiness in harvesting and its potential for differentiating into other cell lineage. METHODS: We isolated stem cells from adipose tissue, cultured and confirmed its immunophenotype using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD73, CD90, CD105 were expressed, which represent immunophenotype of mesenchymal stem cells.  CONCLUSION...

  2. Differential gene expression profile in pig adipose tissue treated with/without clenbuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xue M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clenbuterol, a beta-agonist, can dramatically reduce pig adipose accumulation at high dosages. However, it has been banned in pig production because people who eat pig products treated with clenbuterol can be poisoned by the clenbuterol residues. To understand the molecular mechanism for this fat reduction, cDNA microarray, real-time PCR, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectra were used to study the differential gene expression profiles of pig adipose tissues treated with/without clenbuterol. The objective of this research is to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate clenbuterol induced reduction of adipose accumulation. Results Clenbuterol was found to improve the lean meat percentage about 10 percent (P Conclusion Pig fat accumulation was reduced dramatically with clenbuterol treatment. Histological sections and global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol in pigs identified profound changes in adipose cells. With clenbuterol stimulation, adipose cell volumes decreased and their gene expression profile changed, which indicate some metabolism processes have been also altered. Although the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes are not completely known, higher expressions of these molecules in adipose tissue might contribute to the reduction of fat accumulation. Among these genes, five lipid metabolism related genes were of special interest for further study, including apoD and apoR. The apoR expression was increased at both the RNA and protein levels. The apoR may be one of the critical molecules through which clenbuterol reduces fat accumulation.

  3. Alteration of local adipose tissue trace element homeostasis as a possible mechanism of obesity-related insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Sinitskii, Anton I; Popova, Elizaveta V; Nemereshina, Olga N; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms of association between obesity and the related metabolic disturbances in general and insulin resistance in particular are extensively studied. Taking into account a key role of adipose tissue insulin resistance in the development of systemic obesity-related insulin resistance, the estimation of mechanisms linking increased adiposity and impaired insulin signaling in adipocytes will allow to develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to treatment of these states. A number of trace elements like chromium, zinc, and vanadium have been shown to take part in insulin signaling via various mechanisms. Taking into account a key role of adipocyte in systemic carbohydrate homeostasis it can be asked if trace element homeostasis in adipose tissue may influence regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism. We hypothesize that caloric excess through currently unknown mechanisms results in decreased chromium, vanadium, and zinc content in adipocytes. Decreased content of trace elements in the adipose tissue causes impairment of intra-adipocyte insulin signaling subsequently leading to adipose tissue insulin resistance. The latter significantly contributes to systemic insulin resistance and further metabolic disruption in obesity. It is also possible that decreased adipose tissue trace element content is associated with dysregulation of insulin-sensitizing and proinflammatory adipokines also leading to insulin resistance. We hypothesize that insulin resistance and adipokine dysbalance increase the severity of obesity subsequently aggravating alteration of adipose tissue trace element balance. Single indications of high relative adipose tissue trace element content, decreased Cr, V, and Zn content in obese adipose tissue, and tight association between fat tissue chromium, vanadium, and zinc levels and metabolic parameters in obesity may be useful for hypothesis validation. If our hypothesis will be confirmed by later studies, adipose tissue chromium

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  15. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG

  17. Adipose-derived stem cell differentiation as a basic tool for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers. This review summarizes the currently known characteristics of ASCs and achievements in adipogenic and endothelial differentiation in vitro. Further, the interdependency of adipogenesis and angiogenesis based on the crosstalk of endothelial cells, stem cells and adipocytes is addressed at the molecular level. Finally, achievements and limitations of current co-culture conditions for the construction of vascularized adipose tissue are evaluated. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Parallels in Immunometabolic Adipose Tissue Dysfunction with Ageing and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Trim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ageing, like obesity, is often associated with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory processes resulting in morbidity from diseases characterised by poor metabolic control, insulin insensitivity, and inflammation. Ageing populations also exhibit a decline in immune competence referred to as immunosenescence, which contributes to, or might be driven by chronic, low-grade inflammation termed “inflammageing”. In recent years, animal and human studies have started to uncover a role for immune cells within the stromal fraction of adipose tissue in driving the health complications that come with obesity, but relatively little work has been conducted in the context of immunometabolic adipose function in ageing. It is now clear that aberrant immune function within adipose tissue in obesity—including an accumulation of pro-inflammatory immune cell populations—plays a major role in the development of systemic chronic, low-grade inflammation, and limiting the function of adipocytes leading to an impaired fat handling capacity. As a consequence, these changes increase the chance of multiorgan dysfunction and disease onset. Considering the important role of the immune system in obesity-associated metabolic and inflammatory diseases, it is critically important to further understand the interplay between immunological processes and adipose tissue function, establishing whether this interaction contributes to age-associated immunometabolic dysfunction and inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarise how the interaction between adipose tissue and the immune system changes with ageing, likely contributing to the age-associated increase in inflammatory activity and loss of metabolic control. To understand the potential mechanisms involved, parallels will be drawn to the current knowledge derived from investigations in obesity. We also highlight gaps in research and propose potential future directions based on the current evidence.

  19. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...... was found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...

  20. Changes in white adipose tissue metabolism induced by resveratrol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Noemí

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remarkable range of biological functions have been ascribed to resveratrol. Recently, this polyphenol has been shown to have body fat lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to assess some of the potential underlying mechanisms of action which take place in adipose tissue. Methods Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and treated with 30 mg resveratrol/kg body weight/d. All rats were fed an obesogenic diet and after six weeks of treatment white adipose tissues were dissected. Lipoprotein lipase activity was assessed by fluorimetry, acetyl-CoA carboxylase by radiometry, and malic enzyme, glucose-6P-dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase by spectrophotometry. Gene expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase, PPAR-gamma, SREBP-1c and perilipin were assessed by Real time RT-PCR. The amount of resveratrol metabolites in adipose tissue was measured by chromatography. Results There was no difference in the final body weight of the rats; however, adipose tissues were significantly decreased in the resveratrol-treated group. Resveratrol reduced the activity of lipogenic enzymes, as well as that of heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase. Moreover, a significant reduction was induced by this polyphenol in hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA levels. No significant changes were observed in other genes. Total amount of resveratrol metabolites in adipose tissue was 2.66 ± 0.55 nmol/g tissue. Conclusions It can be proposed that the body fat-lowering effect of resveratrol is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in fatty acid uptake from circulating triacylglycerols and also in de novo lipogenesis.

  1. Heterogeneous response of adipose tissue to cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bertevello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia causes disruption of lipid metabolism. Since it has been well established that the various adipose tissue depots demonstrate different responses to stimuli, we assessed the effect of cachexia on some biochemical and morphological parameters of adipocytes obtained from the mesenteric (MES, retroperitoneal (RPAT, and epididymal (EAT adipose tissues of rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, compared with controls. Relative weight and total fat content of tissues did not differ between tumor-bearing rats and controls, but fatty acid composition was modified by cachexia. Adipocyte dimensions were increased in MES and RPAT from tumor-bearing rats, but not in EAT, in relation to control. Ultrastructural alterations were observed in the adipocytes of tumor-bearing rat RPAT (membrane projections and EAT (nuclear bodies.

  2. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Angel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-07-15

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Intrinsic regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Nielsen, Steen Levin; Paaske, W

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies on intact human subcutaneous tissue have shown, that blood flow remains constant during minor changes in perfusion pressure. This so-called autoregulatory response has not been demonstrable in isolated preparations of adipose tissue. In the present study on isolated, denervated...... subcutaneous tissue in female rabbits only 2 of 12 expts. revealed an autoregulatory response during reduction in arterial perfusion pressure. Effluent blood flow from the tissue in the control state was 15.5 ml/100 g-min (S.D. 6.4, n = 12) corresponding to slight vasodilatation of the exposed tissue...... is more susceptible to surgical exposure of the tissue. During elevation of arterial perfusion pressure blood flow in the isolated tissue showed a transient increase and then almost returned to the level during normotension, indicating an elevated vascular resistance. Raising of venous pressure elicited...

  4. Lipid profiling of in vitro cell models of adipogenic differentiation: relationships with mouse adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A.; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Baker, Paul R.S.; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MSALL. Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-...

  5. Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  6. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents. Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle, as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose or not-specialized (liver, muscle tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  7. Adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue after percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spener, Roberta França; Breda, João Roberto; Pires, Adilson Casemiro; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva; Souto, Ricardo Peres do

    2011-01-01

    The classical view of adipose tissue as a passive reservoir for energy storage is no longer valid. In the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to have endocrine functions and the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes is adiponectin. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is distributed around coronary arteries and endovascular injury, caused by the presence of intracoronary bare-metal stent (BMS), could promote inflammatory changes in the periadvential fat, contributing to vascular restenosis. We sought to determine gene expression of inflammatory mediator in pericardial adipose tissue after bare-metal stent implantation and vascular restenosis that had been referred to operative treatment. Paired samples of PAT were harvested at the time of elective coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in 11 patients (n = 22), one sample was obtained of the tissue around BMS area and another sample around coronary artery without stent. Local expression of adiponectin was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using Taq DNA polymerase. In two samples, there was no gene expression of adiponectin. We are able to identify adiponectin in 20 samples, however, the pattern of gene expression were heterogeneous.We did not notice specificity when we compared PAT obtained near BMS area or far from BMS area. There were no correlation between adiponectin gene expression and presence of BMS.

  8. [The adipose tissue as a regulatory center of the metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Alaniz, Miriam H; Takada, Julie; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Lima, Fabio Bessa

    2006-04-01

    The recent progress in the research about the metabolic properties of the adipose tissue and the discovery of its ability to produce hormones that are very active in pathophysiologic as well as physiologic processes is rebuilding the concepts about its biology. Its involvement in conditions like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, dislipidemias and chronic and acute inflammatory processes indicate that the understanding of its functional capacities may contribute to improve the prognosis of those diseases whose prevalence increased in a preoccupying manner. Here we review some functional aspects of adipocytes, such as the metabolism, its influence on energy homeostasis, its endocrine ability and the adipogenesis, i.e., the potential of pre-adipocytes present in adipose tissue stroma to differentiate into new adipocytes and regenerate the tissue. In addition, we are including some studies on the relationship between the adipose tissue and the pineal gland, a new and poorly known, although, as will be seen, very promising aspect of adipocyte physiology together with its possible favorable repercussions to the therapy of the obesity related diseases.

  9. Adipose tissue biglycan as a potential anti-inflammatory target of sodium salicylate in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adapala Venkata J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation in adipose tissue (AT during obesity causes impaired AT function. Although multiple extracellular matrix (ECM proteins are expressed in AT their potential role in adipose tissue inflammation is unclear. Biglycan, a pro-inflammatory ECM gene, is highly enriched in adipose tissue. However, whether it is correlated with adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We provide evidence in support of a strong association between biglycan expression and inflammatory status of adipose tissue. Methods C57BL6 mice were fed either a control (10% fat calories or a high fat diet (HFD (60% fat calories for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the expression of biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα. Biglycan knockout or wild type were also fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and the expression of inflammatory genes in the mesenteric adipose tissue was examined. To test anti-inflammatory treatment on biglycan expression, a group of mice were fed either the low fat or high fat diet for eight weeks supplemented with either saline or sodium salicylate @ 25mg/100ml in their drinking water. Results Mice on HFD had an increase in ECM genes (BGN and COL1A1, inflammatory genes (IL-6 and TNFα in both the subcutaneous and epididymal depots. However, correlation analysis only shows a positive correlation between biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα expression. In addition, lower expression of IL-6 and CD68 was found in the mesenteric adipose tissue of biglycan knockout mice compared to the wild type. Sodium salicylate treatment reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of BGN, COL1A1, and COL6A1 and a concurrent downregulation of TNFα and IL-6 and TLR4 expression. Salicylate also lowered the serum TGFβ1 levels. Conclusion Biglycan expression correlates with adipose tissue inflammation, especially in the subcutaneous depot compared to the epididymal depot. This is supported by the greater effect of sodium salicylate in attenuating both inflammatory and ECM gene

  10. Effects of pioglitazone on adipose tissue remodeling within the setting of obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, C J; Eckhardt, M; Gagen, K; Dong, M; Chen, W; Laurent, D; Burkey, B F

    2001-08-01

    Obesity and dysfunctional energy partitioning can lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones shift the energy balance toward storage, leading to an increase in whole-body adiposity. These studies examine the effects of pioglitazone (Pio) on adipose tissue physiology, accumulation, and distribution in female Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Pio treatment (up to 28 days) decreased the insulin-resistant and hyperlipidemic states and increased food consumption and whole-body adiposity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis and weights of fat pads demonstrated that the increase in adiposity was not only limited to the major fat depots but also to fat deposition throughout the body. Adipocyte sizing profiles, fat pad histology, and DNA content show that Pio treatment increased the number of small adipocytes because of both the appearance of new adipocytes and the shrinkage and/or disappearance of existing mature adipocytes. The remodeling was time dependent, with new small adipocytes appearing in clusters throughout the fat pad, and accompanied by a three- to fourfold increase in citrate synthase and fatty acid synthase activity. The appearance of new fat cells and the increase in fat mass were depot specific, with a rank order of responsiveness of ovarian > retroperitoneal > subcutaneous. This differential depot effect resulted in a redistribution of the fat mass in the abdominal region such that there was an increase in the visceral:subcutaneous ratio, as confirmed by MRI analysis. Although the increased adiposity is paradoxical to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, the quantitative increase of adipose mass should be viewed in context of the qualitative changes in adipose tissue, including the remodeling of adipocytes to a smaller size with higher lipid storage potential. This shift in energy balance is likely to result in lower circulating free fatty acid levels, ultimately improving insulin sensitivity and the

  11. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  12. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  13. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  14. Lsd1 Ablation Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming of Brown Adipose Tissue

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    Delphine Duteil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous work indicated that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1 can positively regulate the oxidative and thermogenic capacities of white and beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the role of Lsd1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT and find that BAT-selective Lsd1 ablation induces a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. This shift is associated with downregulation of BAT-specific and upregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT-selective gene expression. This results in the accumulation of di- and triacylglycerides and culminates in a profound whitening of BAT in aged Lsd1-deficient mice. Further studies show that Lsd1 maintains BAT properties via a dual role. It activates BAT-selective gene expression in concert with the transcription factor Nrf1 and represses WAT-selective genes through recruitment of the CoREST complex. In conclusion, our data uncover Lsd1 as a key regulator of gene expression and metabolic function in BAT.

  15. Thermogenic potential and physiological relevance of human epicardial adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, K; Richard, D

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range. Recent advances have further indicated that human epicardial fat exhibits beige fat-like features. Here we provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of human epicardial fat, and further discuss whether its thermogenic properties can serve as a target for the therapeutic management of coronary heart disease in humans. PMID:27152172

  16. Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Andrew; Subramanian, Gayathri; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2016-04-22

    Musculoskeletal tissues are constantly under mechanical strains within their microenvironment. Yet, little is understood about the effect of in vivo mechanical milieu strains on cell development and function. Thus, this review article outlines the in vivo mechanical environment of bone, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and ligaments, and tabulates the mechanical strain and stress in these tissues during physiological condition, vigorous, and moderate activities. This review article further discusses the principles of mechanical loading platforms to create physiologically relevant mechanical milieu in vitro for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. A special emphasis is placed on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an emerging valuable tool for regenerative musculoskeletal tissue engineering, as they are easily isolated, expanded, and able to differentiate into any musculoskeletal tissue. Finally, it highlights the current state-of-the art in ADSCs-guided musculoskeletal tissue regeneration under mechanical loading.

  17. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, G. Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; de Souza, Jonas; Gandy, Jeff; Mavangira, Vengai; Lock, Adam L.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.

    2017-01-01

    The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of ...

  18. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circ...

  19. Systems genetic analysis of brown adipose tissue function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Saba, L. M.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Trnovská, J.; Škop, V.; Hüttl, M.; Marková, I.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Smith, H.; Tabakoff, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2018), s. 52-66 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * coexpression modules * quantitative trait locus * recombinant inbred strains * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Human genetics Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2016

  20. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz T; Bomfim GF; Webb RC

    2013-01-01

    Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle...

  1. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation.

  2. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Eslamizad, M

    2015-01-01

    ) days in milk (DIM), body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and mammary gland nutrient uptake was measured. Weekly blood samples were obtained during the experiment and daily blood samples were taken...... from –7 to 7 DIM. Postpartum feed intake and milk yield was not affected by PG allocation. The body content of lipid was not affected by treatment, but tended to decrease from 4 to 29 DIM with both treatments. Except for the first week postpartum, no difference in plasma nonesterified fatty acids...... not differ between treatments. Additionally, the change in abundance of proteins in adipose tissue biopsies from prepartum to 4 DIM was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, the different variables to assess body fat mobilization were concurrent and showed that a 4-wk postpartum PG allocation had limited...

  3. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  4. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  5. Functionally enhanced brown adipose tissue in Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Justin; Bartke, Andrzej

    2017-01-02

    Reduced insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin signaling (IIS) has been linked to extended longevity in species ranging from yeast to mammals. In mammals, this is exemplified in Ames dwarf (Prop1 df/df ) mice, which have a 40%-60% increase in longevity (males and females, respectively) due to their recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation that results in lack of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Our laboratory has previously shown that Ames dwarf mice have functionally unique white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, insulin sensitivity. Because GH and thyroid hormone are integral to adipose tissue development and function, we hypothesized that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Ames dwarf mice may also be functionally unique and/or enhanced. Here, we elaborate on our recent findings, which demonstrate that BAT is functionally enhanced in Ames dwarf mice, and suggest that BAT removal in these mice results in utilization of WAT depots as an energy source. We also discuss how our findings compare to those in other long-lived dwarf mice with altered IIS, which unlike Ames dwarf mice, are essentially euthyroid. Lastly, we provide some insights into the implications of these findings and discuss some of the necessary future work in this area.

  6. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO 2 -FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO 2 -FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[ 14 C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO 2 -FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO 2 -OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO 2 -FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO 2 -OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO 2 -FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Comparison of chondrocytes produced from adipose tissue-derived stem cells and cartilage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, Aysenur; Yenigun, Alper; Yenigun, Vildan Betul; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan

    2013-05-01

    Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is poor after a cartilage defect occurs by trauma, surgical, and other reasons. Importance of producing chondrocytes from stem cells and using tissues to repair a defect is getting popular. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of injectable cartilage produced by chondrocytes differentiated from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocyte cells isolated directly from cartilage tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue and characterized by cell-surface markers. Then, they were differentiated to chondrocyte cells. The function of differentiated chondrocyte cells was compared with chondrocyte cells directly isolated from cartilage tissue in terms of collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion. Then, both chondrocyte cell types were injected to rats' left ears in liquid and gel form, and histologic evaluation was done 3 weeks after the injection. Adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the CD44 and CD73 mesenchymal markers. Differentiated chondrocyte cells and chondrocyte cells directly isolated from cartilage tissue had relative collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion results. However, histologic evaluations did not show any cartilage formation after both chondrocyte cell types were injected to rats. Strong CD44- and CD73-positive expression indicated that adipose-derived cells had the stem cell characters. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion results demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells were successfully differentiated to chondrocyte cells.

  8. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  9. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  10. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  11. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  13. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfan He; Feng Lu

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and recon...

  14. Extracellular vesicles from adipose tissue - a potential role in obesity and type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xuan; Salomon, Carlos; Freeman, Dilys J.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and its pathological sequelae, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dysfunction in the adipose tissue response to storing excess fatty acids as triglyceride can lead to adipose tissue inflammation and spillover of fatty acids from this tissue and accumulation of fatty acids as lipid droplets in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from adipocytes and...

  15. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  16. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  17. Advantages of Sheep Infrapatellar Fat Pad Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Parviz; Soleimanirad, Jafar; Roshangar, Leila; Shafaei, Hajar; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study has been to evaluate adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) from infrapatellar fat pad and characterize their cell surface markers using anti-human antibodies, as adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) have great potential for cellular therapies to restore injured tissues. Adipose tissue was obtained from infrapatellar fat pad of sheep. Surface markers evaluated by flow cytometry. In order to evaluate cell adhesion, the Polycaprolactone (PCL) was sterilized under Ultraviolet (UV) light and about 1×10(5) cells were seeded on PCL. Then, ASCs- PCL construct were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (Mira3 Te Scan, Czech Republic). We showed that adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) maintain their fibroblastic-like morphology during different subcultures and cell adhesion. They were positive for CD44 and CD90 markers and negative for CD31 and Cd45 markers by human antibodies. Our results suggest that ASCs surface markers can be characterized by anti-human antibodies in sheep. As stem cells, they can be used in tissue engineering.

  18. The effect of diabetes on the wound healing potential of adipose-tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Yun Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Yoo, Gyeol; Rhie, Jong Won

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus affects the wound-healing-promoting potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells, we designed a wound-healing model using diabetic mice. We compared the degree of wound healing between wounds treated with normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells and wounds treated with diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells. We evaluated the wound-healing rate, the epithelial tongue distance, the area of granulation tissue, the number of capillary and the number of Ki-67-stained cells. The wound-healing rate was significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group; it was also significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the control group. Although the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group showed a better wound-healing rate than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. Similar trends were observed for the other parameters examined: re-epithelisation and keratinocyte proliferation; granulation tissue formation; and dermal regeneration. However, with regard to the number of capillary, diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells retained their ability to promote neovasculisation and angiogenesis. These results reflect the general impairment of the therapeutic potential of diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells in vivo. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Linkage between Breast Cancer, Hypoxia, and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Rausch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe development of breast cancer cells is linked to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α influences metastasis through neovascularization. Hypoxia seems to decrease the responsiveness to hormonal treatment due to loss of estrogen receptors (ERs. Obesity is discussed to increase hypoxia in adipocytes, which promotes a favorable environment for tumor cells in mammary fat tissue, whereas, tumor cells profit from good oxygen supply and are influenced by its deprivation as target regions within tumors show. This review gives an overview of the current state on research of hypoxia and breast cancer in human adipose tissue.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed (2000–2016 by applying hypoxia and/or adipocytes and breast cancer as keywords. Review articles were excluded as well as languages other than English or German. There was no restriction regarding the study design or type of breast cancer. A total of 35 papers were found. Eight studies were excluded due to missing at least two of the three keywords. One paper was removed due to Russian language, and one was dismissed due to lack of adherence. Seven papers were identified as reviews. After applying exclusion criteria, 18 articles were eligible for inclusion.ResultsTwo articles describe the impairment of mammary epithelial cell polarization through hypoxic preconditioning. A high amount of adipocytes enhances cancer progression due to the increased expression of HIF-1α which causes the loss of ER α protein as stated in four articles. Four articles analyzed that increased activation of HIF’s induces a series of transcriptions resulting in tumor angiogenesis. HIF inhibition, especially when combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy, holds strong potential for tumor suppression as stated in further four articles. In two articles there is evidence of a strong connection between hypoxia, oxidative stress and a poor prognosis for breast cancer via HIF regulated

  20. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. J.; van Ham, S. M.; Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M. N.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Schouten, T. E.; Ritt, M. J. P. F.; van Milligen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction that can be easily isolated and provides a rich source of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC). These ASC are a potential source of cells for tissue engineering. We studied whether the yield and growth characteristics of ASC were

  1. Adipose Tissue, Inflammation (Meta-inflammation and Obesity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced inflammation contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. CONTENT:The last decade has seen a sharp increase in our appreciation for the macrophage as a critical regulator of metabolic status in obesity. Activation of adipose tissue (AT macrophages within fat depots is coupled with the development of obesity-induced proinflammatory state and insulin resistance (IR. The activation of classically activated M1 macrophages at the expense of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages has been causally linked to the development of AT inflammation and metabolic syndrome, a pathophysiological state aptly termed as ‘metainflammation’. It is recognized that several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, are implicated in disrupting insulin signaling. Our developing appreciation of links among obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular disease will require multiple complementary approaches to leverage new concepts into translatable outcomes. Careful characterization of human patients, particularly analysis of AT distribution, will be needed to stratify subjects that are most likely obese/metabolically healthy from those that are obese/metabolically unhealthy. SUMMARY: It has been suggested that individuals with the condition known as metabolically healthy obese (MHO may not have the same increased risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities as their non-metabolically healthy counterparts. A complications-centric model for the medical management of obesity emphasizes the identification and staging of complications, and treatment paradigm directed at patients who would gain the most benefit from weight loss. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, M1/M2 macrophage.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  3. Differential gene expression profile in pig adipose tissue treated with/without clenbuterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; He, Qiang; Liu, Qiu Y; Guo, Wei; Deng, Xue M; Zhang, Wei W; Hu, Xiao X; Li, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Background Clenbuterol, a beta-agonist, can dramatically reduce pig adipose accumulation at high dosages. However, it has been banned in pig production because people who eat pig products treated with clenbuterol can be poisoned by the clenbuterol residues. To understand the molecular mechanism for this fat reduction, cDNA microarray, real-time PCR, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectra were used to study the differential gene expression profiles of pig adipose tissues treated with/without clenbuterol. The objective of this research is to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate clenbuterol induced reduction of adipose accumulation. Results Clenbuterol was found to improve the lean meat percentage about 10 percent (P clenbuterol. The mRNA abundance levels of 82 genes (ESTs) were found to be statistically differentially expressed based on the Student t-test (P clenbuterol treatment. Histological sections and global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol in pigs identified profound changes in adipose cells. With clenbuterol stimulation, adipose cell volumes decreased and their gene expression profile changed, which indicate some metabolism processes have been also altered. Although the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes are not completely known, higher expressions of these molecules in adipose tissue might contribute to the reduction of fat accumulation. Among these genes, five lipid metabolism related genes were of special interest for further study, including apoD and apoR. The apoR expression was increased at both the RNA and protein levels. The apoR may be one of the critical molecules through which clenbuterol reduces fat accumulation. PMID:18039366

  4. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J.; White, Thomas A.; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M.; Verzosa, Grace C.; Stout, Michael B.; Mazula, Daniel L.; Palmer, Allyson K.; Baker, Darren J.; Jensen, Michael D.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Miller, Jordan D.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M.; Kirkland, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16INK4a promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. PMID:26983960

  5. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondřej; Brauner, Petr; Jílková, Zuzana; Staňková, B.; Tvrzická, E.; Bryhn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2009), s. 361-369 ISSN 0029-6651. [Meeting of the Nutrition Society. Edinburgh, 07.04.2009-08.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/08/0664; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * DHA * adipose tissue Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.321, year: 2009

  6. Role of the sympathoadrenergic system in adipose tissue metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Lorentsen, J; Enevoldsen, L H

    2001-01-01

    .8 +/- 0.7 ml (100 g)(-1) min(-1) (Cl), 0.6 +/- 0.3 ml (100 g)(-1) min(-1) (Um)). Accordingly, in both adipose tissues lipolysis increased less in SCI compared with healthy subjects, indicating that circulating catecholamines are important for the exercise-induced increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue...... (P important for the exercise-induced increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis while sympathetic nerve activity is not....

  7. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically expl...

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. ...

  9. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    OpenAIRE

    Westerink, Jan; Visseren, Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The...

  10. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose-derived stem cells enclosed within an injectable carboxymethylcellulose-based hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogushi, Yuko; Sakai, Shinji; Kawakami, Koei

    2013-11-01

    In situ gelation of an aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose derivative bearing phenolic hydroxyl groups (CMC-Ph) that contained suspended adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was studied in vitro and in vivo for evaluating feasibility in adipose tissue-engineering strategies. The rat ASCs that were enclosed in the CMC-Ph gels through a horseradish peroxidase-catalysed reaction showed 92.8% viability, good proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Ten weeks after the subcutaneous injection of ASCs-suspending CMC-Ph for in situ gelation, clearly visible new vascularized adipose tissue formed at the injection site. The number of blood vessels and the area occupied by adipose tissues were five and eight times larger, respectively, than those found in the implanted acellular gel. The adipogenesis and neovascularization were further enhanced by incorporation of fibroblast growth factor into the CMC-Ph gel containing ASCs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce persistent bone-like tissue in osteonecrotic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jaewoo

    2012-01-01

    Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, of the femoral head is a debilitating disorder that commonly affects 30- to 50-year-old individuals. Currently, definitive treatment is limited to total hip replacement. However, recent studies have demonstrated bone regeneration in the femoral head after the infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, local injection of adipose tissue-derived stem cells has been shown to regenerate medullary bone-like tissue 3 months after treatment. However, there have been no long-term follow-up studies on humans treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells for osteonecrosis. To determine if treatment with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma leads to the regeneration of medullary bone-like tissue and long-term reduction of hip pain in patients with femoral head osteonecrosis. This report of two clinical cases was in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Also, the Korean Food and Drug Administration has allowed the use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in medical treatments since 2009. To obtain ADSCs, lipoaspirates were obtained from lower abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The stromal vascular fraction was separated from the lipoaspirates by centrifugation after treatment with collagenase. The stem-cell-containing stromal vascular fraction was mixed with calcium chloride-activated platelet rich plasma and hyaluronic acid, and this mixture was then injected into the diseased hip. The affected hip was reinjected with calcium chloride-activated platelet rich plasma weekly for 4 weeks. Patients were subjected to pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Two patients (34- and 39-year-old men) with femoral head osteonecrosis and severe hip pain were treated with adipose-derived stem cells. The MRI scans of the affected hip in both patients showed segmental areas of low signal intensity (T1 axial views) in the subchondral bones with a "double

  12. Tracking of autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology after intralesional treatment of artificial equine tendon lesions : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geburek, Florian; Mundle, Kathrin; Conrad, Sabine; Hellige, Maren; Walliser, Ulrich; van Schie, Hans T M; van Weeren, René; Skutella, Thomas; Stadler, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) are frequently used to treat equine tendinopathies. Up to now, knowledge about the fate of autologous AT-MSCs after intralesional injection into equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is very limited. The purpose of

  13. The fractionation of adipose tissue procedure to obtain stromal vascular fractions for regenerative purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Joris A.; Stevens, Hieronymus P.; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be

  14. Phenotypical and functional characterization of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varma, Maikel J. Oedayrajsingh; Breuls, Roel G. M.; Schouten, Tabitha E.; Jurgens, Wouter J. F. M.; Bontkes, Hetty J.; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.; van Ham, S. Marieke; van Milligen, Florine J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that is a rich source of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs are multipotent and in vitro-expanded ASCs have the capacity to differentiate, into amongst others, adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myocytes. For tissue

  15. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Beaton

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans.

  16. VLDL triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Nielsen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is closely linked to accumulation of lipid outside adipose tissue (ectopic fat storage). VLDL particles transport lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues. However, whether abnormalities in VLDL-triglyceride storage in muscle and adipose tissue exist in ty...

  17. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  18. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    (range: 3-90 days). The patients were studied under two different conditions. Firstly, during the day in the erect position, awake (sitting, standing and quiet walking) and secondly, during night hours in the supine position, asleep. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal adipose tissue blood flow......Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 days...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  19. Growth Hormone's Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O

    2017-07-26

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass. However, AT and its resident adipocytes are significantly more dynamic and elaborate than once thought and require one not to use the reduction in absolute mass as a readout of efficacy alone. Paradoxically, therapies that reduce GH action may ultimately prove to be healthier, in part because GH also possesses potent anti-insulin activities along with concerns that GH may promote the growth of certain cancers. This review will briefly summarize some of the newer complexities of AT relevant to GH action and describe the current understanding of how GH influences this tissue using data from both humans and mice. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic use of GH or GH antagonists in obesity, as well as important gaps in knowledge regarding GH and AT.

  20. Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, K; Gauthier, M-S; Garneau, P Y; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda ). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (Psurgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (Psurgery. Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Laura; Dijkman, Petra E; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-07-01

    In regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are the most promising cell types for cell-based therapies. As a new source for multipotent stem cells, human adipose tissue has been introduced. These so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies. Their main advantage over mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, e.g. from bone marrow, is that they can be easily and repeatable harvested using minimally invasive techniques with low morbidity. ADSCs are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types of the tri-germ lineages, including e.g. osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, ADSCs are characterized by immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. Their secretion of trophic factors enforces the therapeutic and regenerative outcome in a wide range of applications. Taken together, these particular attributes of ADSCs make them highly relevant for clinical applications. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of ADSCs is enormous. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the possible therapeutic applications of ADSCs with regard to their differentiation potential into the tri-germ lineages. Moreover, the relevant advancements made in the field, regulatory aspects as well as other challenges and obstacles will be highlighted.

  2. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  3. MicroRNA Transcriptomes Relate Intermuscular Adipose Tissue to Metabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhou Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular adipose tissue is located between the muscle fiber bundles in skeletal muscles, and has similar metabolic features to visceral adipose tissue, which has been found to be related to a number of obesity-related diseases. Although various miRNAs are known to play crucial roles in adipose deposition and adipogenesis, the microRNA transcriptome of intermuscular adipose tissue has not, until now, been studied. Here, we sequenced the miRNA transcriptomes of porcine intermuscular adipose tissue by small RNA-sequencing and compared it to a representative subcutaneous adipose tissue. We found that the inflammation- and diabetes-related miRNAs were significantly enriched in the intermuscular rather than in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. A functional enrichment analysis of the genes predicted to be targeted by the enriched miRNAs also indicated that intermuscular adipose tissue was associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. Our results suggest that the intermuscular adipose tissue should be recognized as a potential metabolic risk factor of obesity.

  4. The impact of currently used oral antihyperglycemic drugs on dysfunctional adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić-Naglić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with pandemic frequency, often accompanied by chronic metabolic and organic complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is among the most common metabolic complications of obesity. The first step in the treatment of T2DM is medical nutrition therapy combined with moderate physical activity and with advice to patients to reduce their body weight. Pharmacotherapy starts with metformin, and in the case of inadequate therapeutic response, another antihyperglycemic agent should be added. The most clinical experience exists with sulfonylurea agents, but their use is limited due to high incidence of hypoglycemia and increase in body weight. Based on the fact that dysfunction of adipose tissue can lead to the development of chronic degenerative complications, precise use of drugs with a favorable effect on the functionality of adipose tissue represents an imperative of modern T2DM treatment. Antihyperglycemic drugs of choice in obese individuals are those which cause maturation of adipocytes, improvement of secretion of protective adipokines, and redistribution of fat mass from visceral to subcutaneous depots. Oral antihyperglycemic agents that can affect the functionality of adipose tissue are metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones.

  5. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Baptista, Leandra Santos

    2017-01-01

    The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity.

  6. The cold-induced lipokine 12,13-diHOME promotes fatty acid transport into brown adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynes, Matthew D; Leiria, Luiz O; Lundh, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT....... Mechanistically, 12,13-diHOME increased fatty acid (FA) uptake into brown adipocytes by promoting the translocation of the FA transporters FATP1 and CD36 to the cell membrane. These data suggest that 12,13-diHOME, or a functional analog, could be developed as a treatment for metabolic disorders....

  7. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouche, Lies; Marques, Mirna B; Ingels, Catherine; Gunst, Jan; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; D'Hoore, André; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2

  8. Remodeling of adipose tissue at experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Konovalova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is chronіc disease whith progressive selective destruction of β- cells pancreatic islets (of Langerhans and whith development of absolute insulin failure. Active immune mechanisms take part in pathogenesis of this disease. Recently many publication appeared which report about the role of adipose tissue. In such way adipose tissue is not only the main metabolic regulator and endocrine organ synthesizing more than 30 regulatory proteins- adipokines, but it is one of the organs of immune system. Dysregulation of adipose tissue leads to morphological restructuring- remodeling of adipocytes, and the development of inflammation of adipose tissue in its turn is integral component of progression of many diseases. The aim of research The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional state of parapancreatic fibre adipocytes in male Wistar rats in experimental diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods The study has been carried out on 20 male Wistar rats with weight 115-135 g. The animals were divided into 2 groups. The control group, which were injected 0,5 ml 0,1 М citrate buffer intraperitoneally (1group. Rats with 7 day experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus were in the 2nd group. Adipose tissue was examined on the seventh day. For histological examination sections were colored with haematoxylin and eosin. Images were taken by using a fluorescence microscope PrimoStar(ZEISS,Germany with a computer-assisted video system AxioCam 5c (ZEISS,Germany including the NIH-Image software (NIH Image version 1·46. All statistical analyses were performed using EXCEL MS Office 2010 (Microsoft Corp., USA, STATISTICA 6.0 (Stat-Soft, 2001 software. Results were expressed as mean values ± SEM. Differences were considered statistically significant if the p value was <0.05. Results Injection of streptozotocin to experimental animals led to the development of experimental diabetes mellitus

  9. New adipose tissue formation by human adipose-derived stem cells with hyaluronic acid gel in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler.

  10. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source.

  11. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  12. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumalla, Ravi Kumar; Gunasekaran, Manoj Kumar; Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Bencharif, Karima; Gence, Lydie; Festy, Franck; Césari, Maya; Roche, Régis; Hoareau, Laurence

    2012-12-21

    On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid--LA and PA) and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid--EPA, DHA and OA) with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1). In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA), we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  13. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murumalla Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Methods Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid - LA and PA and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid - EPA, DHA and OA with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1. In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA, we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. Results None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. Conclusions This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  14. The effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue in overweight adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vissers

    Full Text Available Excessive visceral adipose tissue appears to trigger a cascade of metabolic disturbances that seem to coexist with ectopic fat storage in muscle, liver, heart and the ß-cell. Therefore, the reduction of visceral adipose tissue potentially plays a pivotal role in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe the overall effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue and to provide an overview of the effect of different exercise regimes, without caloric restriction, on visceral adipose tissue in obese persons. A systematic literature search was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The initial search resulted in 87 articles after removing duplicates. After screening on title, abstract and full-text 15 articles (totalling 852 subjects fulfilled the a priori inclusion criteria. The quality of each eligible study was assessed in duplicate with "The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies". Using random-effects weights, the standardized mean difference (Hedge's g of the change in visceral adipose tissue was -0.497 with a 95% confidence interval of -0.655 to -0.340. The Z-value was -6.183 and the p-value (two tailed was <0.001. A subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, type of training and intensity. Aerobic training of moderate or high intensity has the highest potential to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight males and females. These results suggest that an aerobic exercise program, without hypocaloric diet, can show beneficial effects to reduce visceral adipose tissue with more than 30 cm(2 (on CT analysis in women and more than 40 cm(2 in men, even after 12 weeks.

  15. Extensive characterization and comparison of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue : Potential use in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsuur, H.N.; Weijers, E.M.; Niessen, F.B.; Gefen, A.; Koolwijk, P.; Gibbs, S.; van den Broek, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells

  16. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall...... and in the splanchnic tissues by the Fick principle after catheterizations of an artery, a subcutaneous vein draining adipose tissue, and a hepatic vein, and measurements of regional adipose tissue and splanchnic blood flows. In control studies without IL-6 infusion subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was studied...... infusion. It is concluded that IL-6 elicits lipolytic effects in human adipose tissue in vivo, and that IL-6 also has effects on the splanchnic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism....

  18. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T.; Ones, Tunc; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  19. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  20. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M; Verzosa, Grace C; Stout, Michael B; Mazula, Daniel L; Palmer, Allyson K; Baker, Darren J; Jensen, Michael D; Torbenson, Michael S; Miller, Jordan D; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M; Kirkland, James L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16(INK4a) promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Perivascular Adipose Tissue Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Promotes Vascular Inflammation and Aneurysm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Tomoki; Suzuki, Jun; Hamaguchi, Mika; Suehiro, Chika; Tanino, Akiko; Nagao, Tomoaki; Uetani, Teruyoshi; Aono, Jun; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kurata, Mie; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Okura, Takafumi; Yasugi, Takumi; Izutani, Hironori; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ikeda, Shuntaro

    2017-10-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue exhibits characteristics of active local inflammation, which contributes to the development of atherosclerotic disease as a complication of obesity/metabolic syndrome. However, the precise role of perivascular adipose tissue in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that genetic deletion of angiotensin II type 1a (AT 1a ) receptor in perivascular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) can attenuate aortic aneurysm formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice, we performed adipose tissue transplantation experiments by using an angiotensin II-induced aneurysm murine model, in which we transplanted VAT from ApoE -/- or ApoE -/- AT 1a -/- donor mice onto the abdominal aorta of ApoE -/- recipient mice. Compared with ApoE -/- VAT transplantation, ApoE -/- AT 1a -/- VAT transplantation markedly attenuated aortic aneurysm formation, macrophage infiltration, and gelatinolytic activity in the abdominal aorta. AT 1a receptor activation led to the polarization of macrophages in perivascular VAT toward the proinflammatory phenotype. Moreover, osteopontin expression and gelatinolytic activity were considerably lower in ApoE -/- AT 1a -/- perivascular VAT than in ApoE -/- perivascular VAT, and angiotensin II-induced osteopontin secretion from adipocytes was eliminated after deletion of AT 1a receptor in adipocytes. Notably, induction of macrophage migration by conditioned medium from angiotensin II-stimulated wild-type adipocytes was suppressed by treatment with an osteopontin-neutralizing antibody, and ApoE -/- OPN -/- VAT transplantation more potently attenuated aortic aneurysm formation than ApoE -/- VAT transplantation. Our findings indicate a previously unrecognized effect of AT 1a receptor in perivascular VAT on the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2010-01-01

    abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples...

  3. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  5. Contact with existing adipose tissue is inductive for adipogenesis in matrigel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, John L

    2006-07-01

    The effect of adipose tissue on inductive adipogenesis within Matrigel (BD Biosciences) was assessed by using a murine chamber model containing a vascular pedicle. Three-chamber configurations that varied in the access to an adipose tissue source were used, including sealed- and open-chamber groups that had no access and limited access, respectively, to the surrounding adipose tissue, and a sealed-chamber group in which adipose tissue was placed as an autograft. All groups showed neovascularization, but varied in the amount of adipogenesis seen in direct relation to their access to preexisting adipose tissue: open chambers showed strong adipogenesis, whereas the sealed chambers had little or no adipose tissue; adipogenesis was restored in the autograft chamber group that contained 2- to 5-mg fat autografts. These showed significantly more adipogenesis than the sealed chambers with no autograft ( p < 0.01). Autografts with 1mg of fat were capable of producing adipogenesis but did so less consistently than the larger autografts. These findings have important implications for adipose tissue engineering strategies and for understanding de novo production of adipose tissue.

  6. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  7. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  8. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory states of adipose tissue in transgenic mice bearing a single TCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayaka; Taniguchi, Kaori; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance and consequent multiple metabolic diseases. In addition to M1 macrophage infiltration, multiple involvements of adipose tissue T lymphocytes in the progression of inflammation have been highlighted recently. Here, we isolated a specific Vα5/Vβ8.2 TCR-bearing T cell that accumulated in obese adipose tissue of mice, and generated transgenic mice expressing this TCR. Under lean conditions with a normal chow diet, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells and M2 macrophages increased in adipose tissue with ageing in wild-type mice, but not in transgenic mice. However, both mice exhibited no obvious adipose tissue inflammation such as the formation of crown-like structures (CLSs) of infiltrating macrophages. When fed a high-fat diet, the proportion of adipose tissue Treg cells was markedly small at a similar level in transgenic and wild-type mice. Both types of mice exhibited comparable inflammatory states in adipose tissue, including vast formation of macrophage CLSs, accompanied by insulin resistance. Together, our findings suggest that the absence of an increase in Treg cells and M2 macrophages is not sufficient to initiate inflammatory macrophage infiltration in lean adipose tissue and also provide a new view about the involvement of T cells in promoting obesity-associated inflammation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology.

  9. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  10. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visseren Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss and/or direct effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Weight loss, as a result of diet, pharmacology and surgery, positively influences plasma adipokines and systemic inflammation. Several classes of drugs influence systemic inflammation directly through their anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR-γ agonism positively influences adipose tissue inflammation in several classes of intervention such as the thiazolidinediones and perhaps salicylates, CB1-antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Furthermore, within drug classes there are differential effects of individual pharmacologic agents on adipose tissue function. It can be concluded that several commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have unintended influences on adipose tissue function. Improving adipose tissue function may contribute to reducing the risk of vascular diseases and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the fore...

  12. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazu731079@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inoguchi, Toyoshi, E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Batchuluun, Battsetseg, E-mail: battsetseg.batchuluun@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sugiyama, Naonobu, E-mail: nao1@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kunihisa, E-mail: nihisak@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, 1-1-1 Zokumyoin, Chikushino, Fukuoka 818-8502 (Japan); Sonoda, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takayanagi, Ryoichi, E-mail: takayana@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  13. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent

  14. Regulation of lipogenesis by glucocorticoids and insulin in human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Gathercole

    Full Text Available Patients with glucocorticoid (GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, develop a classic phenotype characterized by central obesity and insulin resistance. GCs are known to increase the release of fatty acids from adipose, by stimulating lipolysis, however, the impact of GCs on the processes that regulate lipid accumulation has not been explored. Intracellular levels of active GC are dependent upon the activity of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 and we have hypothesized that 11β-HSD1 activity can regulate lipid homeostasis in human adipose tissue (Chub-S7 cell line and primary cultures of human subcutaneous (sc and omental (om adipocytes. Across adipocyte differentiation, lipogenesis increased whilst β-oxidation decreased. GC treatment decreased lipogenesis but did not alter rates of β-oxidation in Chub-S7 cells, whilst insulin increased lipogenesis in all adipocyte cell models. Low dose Dexamethasone pre-treatment (5 nM of Chub-S7 cells augmented the ability of insulin to stimulate lipogenesis and there was no evidence of adipose tissue insulin resistance in primary sc cells. Both cortisol and cortisone decreased lipogenesis; selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition completely abolished cortisone-mediated repression of lipogenesis. GCs have potent actions upon lipid homeostasis and these effects are dependent upon interactions with insulin. These in vitro data suggest that manipulation of GC availability through selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition modifies lipid homeostasis in human adipocytes.

  15. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  16. Metabolic alterations in adipose tissue during the early phase of experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoener, P; Vietheer, A; Sayk, F; Schaaf, B; Lehnert, H; Dodt, C

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy homeostasis; however, there is only little knowledge about its metabolic activity during critical illness or sepsis. We assessed adipose tissue metabolic activity and local blood flow during experimental endotoxemia in otherwise healthy humans. In a prospective, placebo controlled and randomized experiment we measured changes in lactate, glycerol, and pyruvate concentrations in microdialysate samples of femoral adipose tissue after an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 ng/kg). Intravenous endotoxin caused an early and constant increase in interstitial pyruvate, while formation of lactate in adipose tissue was not affected. In contrast, lactate levels in serum were elevated significantly after 90 min (pendotoxemia. While adipose tissue is a major source of serum glycerol and lactate in humans during physiological conditions, it contributes only little to increased serum lactate and glycerol levels during endotoxemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  18. Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmett, Matthew J.; Lim, Hee-Woong; Jager, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease1. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold...... are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1...... of oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in brown adipose tissue. HDAC3 coactivation of ERRα is mediated by deacetylation of PGC-1α and is required for the transcription of Ucp1, Ppargc1a (encoding PGC-1α), and oxidative phosphorylation genes. Importantly, HDAC3 promotes the basal transcription of these genes...

  19. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...... levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated...

  20. Effect of training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis determined by microdialysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1995-01-01

    glycerol concentrations (Tr: 129 +/- 36 microM; Sed: 119 +/- 56) did not differ between groups. It is concluded that in intact subcutaneous adipose tissue epinephrine-stimulated blood flow is enhanced, whereas lipolytic sensitivity to epinephrine is the same in trained compared with untrained subjects.......Trained humans (Tr) have a higher fat oxidation during submaximal physical work than sedentary humans (Sed). To investigate whether this reflects a higher adipose tissue lipolytic sensitivity to catecholamines, we infused epinephrine (0.3 nmol.kg-1.min-1) for 65 min in six athletes and six...... sedentary young men. Glycerol was measured in arterial blood, and intercellular glycerol concentrations in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by microdialysis. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by 133Xe-washout technique. From these measurements adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated...

  1. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ: An Update on Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvido Smitka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is recognized as an active endocrine organ that produces a number of endocrine substances referred to as “adipokines” including leptin, adiponectin, adipolin, visfatin, omentin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and progranulin (PGRN which play an important role in the food intake regulation and significantly influence insulin sensitivity and in some cases directly affect insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The review summarizes current knowledge about adipose tissue-derived hormones and their influence on energy homeostasis regulation. The possible therapeutic potential of these adipokines in the treatment of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory response, obesity, eating disorders, progression of atherosclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes is discussed.

  2. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in the VMH prevented E2-induced increase in BAT-mediated thermogenesis and weight loss. Notably, fluctuations in E2 levels during estrous cycle also modulate this integrated physiological network. Together, these findings demonstrate that E2 regulation of the VMH AMPK-SNS-BAT axis is an important determinant of energy balance and suggest that dysregulation in this axis may account for the common changes in energy homeostasis and obesity linked to dysfunction of the female gonadal axis. PMID:24856932

  3. Brown adipose tissue: The heat is on the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Hindle, Allyson G; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2016-06-01

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has gained significant scientific interest since the discovery of functional BAT in adult humans. The thermogenic properties of BAT are well recognized; however, data generated in the last decade in both rodents and humans reveal therapeutic potential for BAT against metabolic disorders and obesity. Here we review the current literature in light of a potential role for BAT in beneficially mediating cardiovascular health. We focus mainly on BAT's actions in obesity, vascular tone, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss the recently discovered endocrine factors that have a potential beneficial role in cardiovascular health. These BAT-secreted factors may have a favorable effect against cardiovascular risk either through their metabolic role or by directly affecting the heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

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    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  5. The evolution of the adipose tissue: a neglected enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Enzo; Malagoli, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    The complexity of the anatomical distribution and functions of adipose tissue (AT) has been rarely analyzed in an evolutionary perspective. From yeast to man lipid droplets are stored mainly in the form of triglycerides in order to provide energy during periods when energy demands exceed caloric intake. This simple scenario is in agreement with the recent discovery of a highly conserved family of proteins for fat storage in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, the evolutionary history of organs such as the fat body in insects, playing a role in immunity and other functions besides energy storage and thermal insulation, and of differently distributed subtypes of AT in vertebrates is much less clear. These topics still await a systematic investigation using up-to-date technologies and approaches that would provide information useful for understanding the role of different AT subtypes in normal/physiological conditions or in metabolic pathologies of humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  7. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  8. Aging and Adipose Tissue: Potential Interventions for Diabetes and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Kirkland, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction occurs with aging and has systemic effects, including peripheral insulin resistance, ectopic lipid deposition, and inflammation. Fundamental aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence and progenitor cell dysfunction, occur in adipose tissue with aging and may serve as potential therapeutic targets in age-related disease. In this review, we examine the role of adipose tissue in healthy individuals and explore how aging leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, redistribution, and changes in gene regulation. Adipose tissue plays a central role in longevity, and interventions restricted to adipose tissue may impact lifespan. Conversely, obesity may represent a state of accelerated aging. We discuss the potential therapeutic potential of targeting basic aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence, in adipose tissue, using type II diabetes and regenerative medicine as examples. We make the case that aging should not be neglected in the study of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine strategies, as elderly patients make up a large portion of individuals in need of such therapies. PMID:26924669

  9. Impact of training state on fasting-induced regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investig......Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study...... was to investigate 1) fasting-induced regulation of lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis in human adipose tissue as well as 2) the impact of training state on basal oxidative capacity and fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue. Untrained (VO2max 55ml......RNA content were higher in trained subjects than untrained subjects. In addition, trained subjects had higher adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase Ser660 phosphorylation and adipose triglyceride lipase protein content as well as higher plasma free fatty acids concentration than untrained subjects during...

  10. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Storm, A C; Eslamizad, M; Kuhla, B; Larsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal pulse dose of either 500g of tap water (n=4) or 500g of PG (n=5) once a day. The PG was given with the morning feeding for 4 wk postpartum (treatment period), followed by a 4-wk follow-up period. All cows were fed the same prepartum and postpartum diets. At -16 (±3), 4 (±0), 15 (±1) and 29 (±2) days in milk (DIM), body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and mammary gland nutrient uptake was measured. Weekly blood samples were obtained during the experiment and daily blood samples were taken from -7 to 7 DIM. Postpartum feed intake and milk yield was not affected by PG allocation. The body content of lipid was not affected by treatment, but tended to decrease from 4 to 29 DIM with both treatments. Except for the first week postpartum, no difference in plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was noted between treatments in the treatment period. Yet, PG allocation resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and increased plasma concentrations of glucose. In the follow-up period, plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and BHB did not differ between treatments. Additionally, the change in abundance of proteins in adipose tissue biopsies from prepartum to 4 DIM was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, the different variables to assess body fat mobilization were concurrent and showed that a 4-wk postpartum PG allocation had limited effect on adipose tissue mobilization. The main effect was an enhanced glucogenic status with PG. No carry-over effect of PG allocation was recorded for production or plasma metabolites

  11. Thermogenic activation represses autophagy in brown adipose tissue.

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    Cairó, M; Villarroya, J; Cereijo, R; Campderrós, L; Giralt, M; Villarroya, F

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is an adaptive process, essential for energy expenditure and involved in the control of obesity. Obesity is associated with abnormally increased autophagy in white adipose tissue. Autophagy has been proposed as relevant for brown-vs-white adipocyte differentiation; however, its role in the response of BAT to thermogenic activation is unknown. The effects of thermogenic activation on autophagy in BAT were analyzed in vivo by exposing mice to 24 h cold condition. The effects of norepinephrine (NE), cAMP and modulators of lysosomal activity were determined in differentiated brown adipocytes in the primary culture. Transcript expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and specific proteins were determined by immunoblot. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as confocal microscopy analysis after incubation with specific antibodies or reagents coupled to fluorescent emission, were performed in BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, respectively. Autophagy is repressed in association with cold-induced thermogenic activation of BAT in mice. This effect was mimicked by NE action in brown adipocytes, acting mainly through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway. Inhibition of autophagy in brown adipocytes leads to an increase in UCP1 protein and uncoupled respiration, suggesting a repressing role for autophagy in relation to the activity of BAT thermogenic machinery. Under basal conditions, brown adipocytes show signs of active lipophagy, which is suppressed by a cAMP-mediated thermogenic stimulus. Our results show a noradrenergic-mediated inverse relationship between autophagy and thermogenic activity in BAT and point toward autophagy repression as a component of brown adipocyte adaptive mechanisms to activate thermogenesis.

  12. Basic fibroblast growth factor-treated adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell infusion to ameliorate liver cirrhosis via paracrine hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Ping; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Piao, Jing-Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Murata, Masaharu; Kawano, Takahito; Hamano, Nobuhito; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies show that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have potential clinical applications. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor-treated adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells infusion on a liver fibrosis rat model and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were infused into carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis rats through caudal vein. Liver functions and pathological changes were assessed. A co-culture model was used to clarify the potential mechanism. Basic fibroblast growth factor treatment markedly improved the proliferation, differentiation, and hepatocyte growth factor expression ability of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Although adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells infusion alone slightly ameliorated liver functions and suppressed fibrosis progression, basic fibroblast growth factor-treatment significantly enhanced the therapeutic effect in association with elevated hepatocyte growth factor expression. Moreover, double immunofluorescence staining confirmed that the infused cells located in fibrosis area. Furthermore, co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell led to induction of hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation. However, these effects were significantly weakened by knockdown of hepatocyte growth factor. Mechanism investigation revealed that co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells activated c-jun N-terminal kinase-p53 signaling in hepatic stellate cell and promoted apoptosis. Basic fibroblast growth factor treatment enhanced the therapeutic effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and secretion of hepatocyte growth factor from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells plays a critical role in amelioration of liver injury and regression of fibrosis. © 2015 Journal of

  13. Sexual dimorphism in hepatic, adipose tissue and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in obese humans

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    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipid metabolism differ between men and women, and women tend to have better whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. This may be explained, in part, by differences in sex hormones and adipose tissue distribution. Few studies have investigated gender differences in hepatic, adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity between severely obese men and women. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences in glucose metabolism between severely obese men and women using tissue-specific measurements of insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was compared between age and body mass index (BMI-matched obese men and women by a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose. Basal endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue and peripheral tissues were assessed. Liver fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subset of included subjects. We included 46 obese men and women (age, 48±2 vs 46±2 years, p=0.591; BMI, 41±1 vs 41±1 kg/m2, p=0.832. There was no difference in basal endogenous glucose production (14.4±1.0 vs 15.3±0.5 µmol•kg fat-free mass-1•min-1, p=0.410, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids, 71.6±3.6 vs 76.1±2.6%, p=0.314 or peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated rate of disappearance of glucose, 26.2±2.1 vs 22.7±1.7 µmol•kg-1•min-1, p=0.211. Obese men were characterized by lower hepatic insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, 61.7±4.1 vs 72.8±2.5% in men vs women, resp., p=0.028. Finally, these observations could not be explained by differences in liver fat content (men vs women, 16.5±3.1 vs 16.0±2.5%, p=0.913, n=27.We conclude that obese men have lower hepatic, but comparable adipose tissue and peripheral tissue, insulin sensitivity compared to similarly obese women. Hepatic insulin resistance may

  14. Ovariectomy and overeating palatable, energy-dense food increase subcutaneous adipose tissue more than intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

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    Gloy Viktoria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA adipose tissue (AT. This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to environmentally stimulated overeating, in which IAAT and subcutaneous (S AT increase in similar proportions. The effect of menopause on adiposity is thought to be due to the decreased secretion of ovarian estrogens. Ovariectomy in rats and other animals is a commonly used model of menopause. It is well known that ovariectomy increases adiposity and that this can be reversed by estradiol treatment, but whether ovariectomy selectively increases IAAT has not been measured directly. Therefore, we used micro-computed tomography (microCT to investigate this question in both chow-fed and dietary-obese rats. Methods Ovariectomized, ovariectomized and estradiol treated, and sham-operated (intact rats were fed chow or chow plus Ensure (Abbott Nutrition; n = 7/group. Total (T AT, IAAT and SAT were measured periodically by microCT. Regional distribution of AT was expressed as IAAT as a percentage of TAT (%IAAT. Excesses in these measures were calculated with respect to chow-fed intact rats to control for normal maturational changes. Chemical analysis of fat was done in chow-fed intact and ovariectomized rats at study end. Data were analyzed by t-tests and planned comparisons. Results Body mass, TAT, total fat mass, fat-free body mass, and %IAAT all increased in chow-fed intact rats during the 41 d study. In chow-fed rats, ovariectomy increased excess body mass, TAT, fat mass, fat-free body mass, and SAT, but had little effect on IAAT, in chow-fed rats, leading to a decrease in %IAAT. Ensure feeding markedly increased SAT, IAAT and TAT and did not significantly affect %IAAT. Ovariectomy had similar effects in Ensure-fed rats as in chow-fed rats, although less statistically reliable. Estradiol treatment prevented all the effects of

  15. Cytokine-Rich Adipose Tissue Extract Production from Water-Assisted Lipoaspirate: Methodology for Clinical Use

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    Jenny Lopez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proper functioning wound healing strategies are sparse. Adequate vascular formation to the injured area, as well as replacement of the volume loss, is fundamental in soft tissue repair. Tissue engineering strategies have been proposed for the treatment of these injury sites. Novel cell-free substance, human adipose tissue extract (ATE, has been previously shown to induce in vitro angiogenesis and adipogenesis and in vivo soft tissue formation. This study reports the translation of ATE preparation from laboratory to the operating room (OR. ATE samples for this study were derived from adipose tissue obtained with the water-jet assisted liposuction technique from 27 healthy patients. The variables studied included incubation time (15, 30, and 45 min, temperature (room temperature vs. 37°C, and filter type to determine the optimal method yielding the most consistent total protein content, as well as consistent and high expression of adipose-derived growth factors and cytokines, including: vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor. Following the optimization, samples were produced in the OR and tested for their sterility. No significant differences were observed when comparing extract incubation time points or incubation temperature. Nonetheless, when studying the different filter types used, a syringe filter with PES membrane with larger filter area showed significantly higher protein concentration (p ≤ 0.018. When studying the different growth factor concentrations, ELISA results showed less variation in cytokine concentrations in the OR samples with the optimized protocol. All of the OR samples were tested sterile. The devised protocol is an easy and reproducible OR-ready method for ATE generation. As an attractive source of growth factors, ATE is a promising alternative in the vast field of tissue engineering. Its clinical applications include

  16. Testosterone stimulates adipose tissue 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in a depot-specific manner in children.

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    Zhu, Lijun; Hou, Miao; Sun, Bin; Burén, Jonas; Zhang, Li; Yi, Jun; Hernell, Olle; Li, Xiaonan

    2010-07-01

    Activation of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) in adipose tissue results in the production of excess tissue glucocorticoids and the induction of adiposity and visceral obesity in particular. Androgens may affect body fat distribution by regulating the local metabolism of cortisol. Our objective was to study 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in abdominal sc and omental (om) adipose tissue in children after in vitro testosterone and cortisol treatment. Paired fat biopsies (sc and om) were obtained from 19 boys (age 6-14 yr, body mass index 14.6-25.3 kg/m(2), BMI sd score SDS -1.6-3.1) undergoing open abdominal surgery. Pieces of adipose tissue were incubated with testosterone, cortisol, or both hormones for 24 h, whereupon mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) were measured by real-time PCR, and 11beta-HSD1 enzyme activity was determined. Testosterone treatment up-regulated 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression compared with control incubations in the absence of testosterone (P Testosterone and cortisol both increased 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in om but not sc adipose tissue in a depot-specific manner by 2.5- and 2.9-fold, respectively (P Testosterone and cortisol stimulated 11beta-HSD1 and H6PDH mRNA expression and 11beta-HSD1 activity in om but not in sc adipose tissue. This suggests that these hormones may contribute to fat distribution and accumulation during childhood.

  17. Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troike, Katie M; Henry, Brooke E; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Young, Jonathan A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2017-06-18

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  19. Characteristics of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells and therapeutic comparisons between syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cell transplantation in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Wha; Shin, Il Seob; Park, So Young; Yoon, Eun Ji; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the intravenous administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells was a promising therapeutic option for autoimmune thyroiditis even when the cells were transplanted into a xenogeneic model without an immunosuppressant. Therefore, we explored the comparison between the therapeutic effects of syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells on an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis mouse model. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with porcine thyroglobulin. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells derived from C57BL/6 mice (syngeneic) or BALB/c mice (allogeneic) or saline as a vehicle control were administered intravenously four times weekly. Blood and tissue samples were collected 1 week after the last transplantation. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells from mice were able to differentiate into multiple lineages in vitro; however, mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells did not have immunophenotypes identical to those from humans. Syngeneic and allogeneic administrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells reduced thyroglobulin autoantibodies and the inflammatory immune response, protected against lymphocyte infiltration into the thyroid, and restored the Th1/Th2 balance without any adverse effects. However, different humoral immune responses were observed for infused cells from different stem cell sources. The strongest humoral immune response was induced by xenogeneic transplantation, followed by allogeneic and syngeneic administration, in that order. The stem cells were mostly found in the spleen, not the thyroid. This migration might be because the stem cells primarily function in systemic immune modulation, due to being given prior to disease induction. In this study, we confirmed that there were equal effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in treating autoimmune thyroiditis between syngeneic and allogeneic transplantations.

  20. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Lu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  1. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfan He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  2. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...

  3. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

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    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  4. Macrophages Undergo M1-to-M2 Transition in Adipose Tissue Regeneration in a Rat Tissue Engineering Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Xu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhifa; Dai, Taiqiang; Ma, Chao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model. Neo-adipose tissue was generated 6 weeks after implantation. Macrophages were obvious in the chamber constructs 3 days after implantation, peaked at day 7, and significantly decreased thereafter. At day 3, macrophages were predominantly M1 macrophages (CCR7+), and there were few M2 macrophages (CD206+). At day 7, the percentage of M2 macrophages significantly increased and remained stable at day 14. M2 macrophages became the predominant macrophage population at 42 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated transition of cytokines from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, which was consistent with the transition of macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2. These results showed distinct transition of macrophage phenotypes from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 in adipose tissue regeneration in our tissue engineering model. This study provides new insight into macrophage phenotype transition in the regeneration of adipose tissue. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rorα deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-α (Rorα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Rorα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Rorα-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Pparα, Errα, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1β, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Rorα-deficient mice. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Intratunical Injection of Genetically Modified Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells with Human Interferon α-2b for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Tunica Albugineal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ahmet; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Lasker, George F; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Braun, Stephen E; Kim, Hogyoung; Kadowitz, Philip J; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J

    2015-07-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has frequently been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) and may further compromise coitus. To investigate the efficacy of intratunical injection of genetically modified rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) expressing human interferon α-2b (ADSCs-IFN) in decreasing fibrosis and restoring erectile function in a rat model of tunica albugineal fibrosis (TAF). A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old; 300-350 g) were randomly divided in six equal groups: (i) sham group (50 μL saline-injected into the tunica albuginea [TA]); (ii) TAF group (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1 [0.5 μg/50 μL] injected into the TA); (iii) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) control ADSCs injected same day; (iv) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) ADSCs-IFN injected same day; (v) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) control ADSCs injected after 30 days; and (vi) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) ADSCs-IFN injected after 30 days. Rat allogeneic ADSCs were harvested from inguinal fat tissue. Forty-five days following the TGF-β1 injection, erectile function was assessed, and penile tissues were harvested for further evaluations. In the same-day injection groups, intratunical injection of ADSCs and ADSC-IFN improved erectile response observed upon stimulation of cavernous nerve compared with TAF group. Intratunical ADSC-IFN injection at day 30 improved erectile responses 3.1, 1.8, and 1.3 fold at voltages of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0, respectively, when compared with TAF group. Furthermore, at voltages of 2.5 and 5.0, treatment on day 30 with ADSCs-IFN improved erectile responses 1.6- and 1.3-fold over treatment with ADSCs alone. Local injection of ADSCs or ADSCs-IFN reduced Peyronie's-like manifestations, and these effects might be associated with a decrease in the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study documents that transplantation of genetically modified ADSCs, with or without human IFN α-2b, attenuated Peyronie's-like changes and enhanced

  7. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valid method to estimate visceral adipose tissue in adult patients with Prader-Willi syndrome during treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarescu, Nicoleta Cristina; Jørgensen, Anders Palmstrøm; Godang, Kristin; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey; Bollerslev, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is established as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the radiation exposure and cost of computed tomography (CT) measurements limits its daily clinical use. The main objective of this study was to compare the degree of agreement between VAT measurements by a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) application and one of the standard methods, CT, in a population of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) before and after GH treatment. Furthermore, we tested whether VAT estimations by these two methods are equivalent in assessing the metabolic risk in this population. Data from the Norwegian population of a multicenter study in adults with genetically proven PWS were used. Subjects with complete anthropometry, biochemical, and imagistic measurements at all study visits (baseline and after 12 and 24 months of GH treatment) (n = 14, six men) were included. VAT was quantified both using CT scans (GE Lightspeed 16 Pro) of the abdomen at L2-L3 level and a total body DXA scan (GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy). VAT DXA was strongly associated with VAT CT at baseline (r = 0.97) and after 12 (r = 0.90) and 24 months (r = 0.89) of GH treatment (all P HOMA-IR) was found for VAT DXA (r = 0.76, P = .001) and VAT CT (r = 0.75, P = .002), respectively. VAT can be accurately estimated by DXA, in patients with PWS, and might contribute to the assessment of the metabolic risk.

  8. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. The effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Henriksen, O; Enevoldsen, L H

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that adipose tissue lipolysis is enhanced in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined the effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid mobilisation and measured the acute effects of exercise on the co-ordination of adipose tissue...

  17. Essential role of CD11a in CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-cells, particularly CD8+ T-cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue and the role of CD11a, a beta2 integrin. CD8+ T-cells in adipose tissue of obese mice showed activated phe...

  18. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  19. β3-adrenoceptor agonist prevents alterations of muscle diacylglycerol and adipose tissue phospholipids induced by a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Christian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet has been associated with alterations in lipid content and composition in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Administration of β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR agonists was recently reported to prevent insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet, such as the cafeteria diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a selective β3-AR agonist (ZD7114 could prevent alterations of the lipid profile of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipids induced by a cafeteria diet. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a cafeteria diet were treated orally with either the β3-AR agonist ZD7114 (1 mg/kg per day or the vehicle for 60 days. Rats fed a chow diet were used as a reference group. In addition to the determination of body weight and insulin plasma level, lipid content and fatty acid composition in gastronemius and in epididymal adipose tissue were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, at the end of the study. Results In addition to higher body weights and plasma insulin concentrations, rats fed a cafeteria diet had greater triacylglycerol (TAG and diacylglycerol (DAG accumulation in skeletal muscle, contrary to animals fed a chow diet. As expected, ZD7114 treatment prevented the excessive weight gain and hyperinsulinemia induced by the cafeteria diet. Furthermore, in ZD7114 treated rats, intramyocellular DAG levels were lower and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, in adipose tissue phospholipids was higher than in animals fed a cafeteria diet. Conclusions These results show that activation of the β3-AR was able to prevent lipid alterations in muscle and adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet. These changes in intramyocellular DAG levels and adipose tissue PL composition may contribute to the improved insulin sensitivity associated with β3-AR activation.

  20. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  1. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  2. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  3. Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Steiner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long‐term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged. Study of the lipolytic and lipogenic pathways has identified several regulatory proteins modulated by alcohol that contribute to these effects. Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter‐4 availability at the membrane. As an endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT releases several adipokines that are negatively modulated following chronic alcohol consumption including adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. When these effects are combined with the enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators that are induced by chronic alcohol, a proinflammatory state develops within WAT, contributing to the observed lipodystrophy. Lastly, while chronic alcohol intake may enhance thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT, definitive mechanistic evidence is currently lacking. Overall, both WAT and BAT depots are impacted by chronic alcohol intake and the resulting lipodystrophy contributes to fat accumulation in peripheral organs, thereby enhancing the pathological state accompanying chronic alcohol use disorder.

  4. Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Matthew J; Lim, Hee-Woong; Jager, Jennifer; Richter, Hannah J; Adlanmerini, Marine; Peed, Lindsey C; Briggs, Erika R; Steger, David J; Ma, Tao; Sims, Carrie A; Baur, Joseph A; Pei, Liming; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Seale, Patrick; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2017-06-22

    Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is nearly absent in brown adipose tissue lacking HDAC3, and there is also marked downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes resulting in diminished mitochondrial respiration. Remarkably, although HDAC3 acts canonically as a transcriptional corepressor, it functions as a coactivator of oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in brown adipose tissue. HDAC3 coactivation of ERRα is mediated by deacetylation of PGC-1α and is required for the transcription of Ucp1, Ppargc1a (encoding PGC-1α), and oxidative phosphorylation genes. Importantly, HDAC3 promotes the basal transcription of these genes independently of adrenergic stimulation. Thus, HDAC3 uniquely primes Ucp1 and the thermogenic transcriptional program to maintain a critical capacity for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue that can be rapidly engaged upon exposure to dangerously cold temperature.

  5. Calcium sensing receptor as a novel mediator of adipose tissue dysfunction: mechanisms and potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bravo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. White adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Among the regulators of white adipose tissue physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor has arisen as a potential mediator of white adipose tissue dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that calcium-sensing receptor activation in the visceral (i.e. unhealthy white adipose tissue is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to calcium-sensing receptor activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in white adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of white adipose tissue dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that calcium-sensing receptor may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic.

  6. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n=8; body mass index [BMI]: 23±1 kg/m2) and obese (n=8; BMI: 35±5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor's BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) with

  7. Deformations experienced in the human skin, adipose tissue, and fascia in osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Ji, Zhiming; Stecco, Antonio; Findley, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine techniques involve compressive and tangential forces to target the fascia. These forces are transmitted to the skin and adipose tissue before the fascia is encountered. Knowing the extent of deformation of these 2 tissue layers relative to the fascia will assist osteopathic physicians in evaluating techniques for manual therapies and adjusting these therapies to reduce patient discomfort and improve results. To determine the magnitude of the forces transmitted to the skin, adipose tissue, and fascia, and to determine the magnitude of deformation produced in the skin and adipose tissue relative to the fascia using a mathematical model. The large deformation theory of elasticity, valid for 3-dimensional deformations, was used to evaluate the forces that need to be applied such that a specified deformation is produced in any region of the skin, adipose tissue, or fascia layers. Similarly, if the forces are specified, then the deformation produced can be determined. The normal and tangential forces required to produce a deformation of 9% compression and 4% shear for the skin were 50 N and 11 N, respectively. Normal and tangential forces of about 100 N and 22 N were found for a similar deformation of fascia. For adipose tissue, these forces were 36 N and 8 N, respectively. In addition, the skin experienced more compression and shear-about 1.5 times as much as the fascia, and the adipose tissue experienced about 2.5 to 3.5 times the deformation of the fascia and 50% more than the skin when a given force was applied to the skin. The forces applied to the surface of the skin were transmitted through this layer and the adipose layer entirely to the fascia. Therefore, the skin and adipose tissue experienced the same magnitude of force as the fascia. However, the skin and adipose tissue experienced more compression and shear than the fascia. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  8. Dietary effects on the formation of dolichyl monophosphate mannose by microsomal preparations of rat adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, John J.; Tepperman, Helen; Tepperman, Jay

    1980-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from rat adipose tissue catalyse the transfer of [14C]mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to an endogenous acceptor forming a [14C]mannosyl lipid. The mannosyl lipid co-chromatographs with hen oviduct dolichyl monophosphate β-mannose on three solvent systems. It is stable to mild alkaline hydrolysis, but strong alkaline treatment yields a compound that co-migrates with mannose 1-phosphate. The mannosyl lipid is labile to mild acid hydrolysis, yielding [14C]mannose. Formation...

  9. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    (range: 3-90 days). The patients were studied under two different conditions. Firstly, during the day in the erect position, awake (sitting, standing and quiet walking) and secondly, during night hours in the supine position, asleep. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal adipose tissue blood flow...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  11. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7......), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower...

  12. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  13. Tissue Sodium Content is Elevated in the Skin and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Women with Lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, Rachelle; Marton, Adriana; Donahue, Paula M C; Mahany, Helen B; Lants, Sarah K; Wang, Ping; Beckman, Joshua A; Donahue, Manus J; Titze, Jens

    2018-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that tissue sodium and adipose content are elevated in patients with lipedema; if confirmed, this could establish precedence for tissue sodium and adipose content representing a discriminatory biomarker for lipedema. Participants with lipedema (n = 10) and control (n = 11) volunteers matched for biological sex, age, BMI, and calf circumference were scanned with 3.0-T sodium and conventional proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standardized tissue sodium content was quantified in the calf skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and muscle. Dixon MRI was employed to quantify tissue fat and water volumes of the calf. Nonparametric statistical tests were applied to compare regional sodium content and fat-to-water volume between groups (significance: two-sided P ≤ 0.05). Skin (P = 0.01) and SAT (P = 0.04) sodium content were elevated in lipedema (skin: 14.9 ± 2.9 mmol/L; SAT: 11.9 ± 3.1 mmol/L) relative to control participants (skin: 11.9 ± 2.0 mmol/L; SAT: 9.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L). Relative fat-to-water volume in the calf was elevated in lipedema (1.2 ± 0.48 ratio) relative to control participants (0.63 ± 0.26 ratio; P lipedema, potentially providing objective imaging-based biomarkers for differentially diagnosing the under-recognized condition of lipedema from obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed...... in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body...... that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol....

  15. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  16. Diet and adipose tissue distributions: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary quality affects cardiometabolic risk, yet its pathways of influence on regional adipose tissue depots involved in metabolic and diabetes risk are not well established. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary quality and regional adiposity. We investigated 5079 individuals in...

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor - Activation Promotes Infiltration of Alternatively Activated Macrophages into Adipose Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.N.C.; Keshtkar Ghiasabadi, S.; Laak, van der J.; Kersten, A.H.; Müller, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent data suggest that during

  18. PPARγ activation promotes infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages into adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Rinke; Duval, C.N.C.; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Laak, van der Jeroen; Kersten, Sander; Muller, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNFalpha and IL-6. Recent data suggest that during diet-induced obesity the

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation promotes infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages into adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.; Keshtkar, S.; Laak, J. ter; Kersten, S.; Muller, M.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent data suggest that during

  20. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunesova, M.; Hlavaty, P.; Tvrzicka, E.; Stankova, B.; Kalouskova, P.; Viguerie, N.; Larsen, T.M.; van Baak, M.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Kafatos, A.; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hill, M.; Langin, D.; Zak, A.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. To assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES

  1. Reconstruction of epidural fat with engineered adipose tissue from adipose derived stem cells and PLGA in the rabbit dorsal laminectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianli; Chen, Yingchun; Yue, Yunlong; Sun, Jian; Cui, Lei

    2012-10-01

    Epidural fibrosis resulted from epidural fat destruction following laminectomy operation is regarded as a main cause of failed back surgery syndrome, which represents one of the most common complications in spine surgery. Up to now, the effectiveness of currently available treatments to prevent such a syndrome is quite limited. In the present study, we aimed to restore epidural fat using adipose tissue engineered from adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) in a rabbit dorsal laminectomy model. ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were first expanded to passage 3, seeded on porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) scaffold and then adipogenically induced for 7 days in vitro to form cell-scaffold complex. Laminectomy sites were created at T13-L1 level in each animal. The laminectomy defect was implanted either with cell-scaffold complex or PLGA scaffold alone. Non-treated defect was also included as a control. The animals were subjected to MRI evaluation at 1, 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery, and sacrificed at 24 weeks for gross and histological observation. It was demonstrated by MRI evaluation that scar tissue of coarse and high density was formed within laminectomy site in PLGA alone and non-treated groups as early as 12 weeks. However, the defect implanted with engineered adipose had formed a continuous linear adipose tissue regenerated along the spinal cord at 24 weeks. Histologically, a distinct area of adipose tissue just overlaying the dura mater could be identified in cell-scaffold complex treated group at 24 weeks post-operation. Regeneration of epidural fat was further confirmed by positive Oil Red O staining. As to the defect treated with PLGA alone or left untreated, either fine or dense scar tissue adhering to the dura mater was observed. Moreover, we could track the implanted ASCs labeled by magnetic nanoparticles within epidural area for as long as four weeks by MRI detection. Thus, adipose tissue engineered from ASCs exhibited great potential in restoration

  2. Treatment with TUG891, a free fatty acid receptor 4 agonist, restores adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction following chronic sleep fragmentation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozal, D; Qiao, Z; Almendros, I

    2016-01-01

    in pediatric sleep apnea patients and FFA4 agonists have been proposed in the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction.METHODS: Male mice were subjected to SF exposures for 6 weeks, and treated during the last 2 weeks with either TUG891, a potent and selective FFA4 agonist, or vehicle (Veh). Glucose...... and insulin tolerance tests and VWAT insulin sensitivity tests were conducted (phosphorylated AKT/total AKT), along with flowcytometric assessments of VWAT macrophage polarity, and T-cell lymphocyte subsets.RESULTS: SF-TUG891 mice showed reduction in food consumption, weight gain, and VWAT mass. Furthermore......, TUG891 treatment ameliorated GTT and ITT responses and increased VWAT p-AKT/AKT responses to insulin. Increases in M1/M2 macrophages and decreased Treg counts in VWAT associated with SF were markedly improved by TUG891, and VWAT macrophages from TUG891-treated mice had markedly attenuated insulin...

  3. A FSI-based structural approach for micromechanical characterization of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Behzad; Sabzalinejad, Masoumeh; Haddad, Seyed M. H.; Fatouraee, Nasser; Samani, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel computational method for micromechanical modeling of adipose tissue. The model can be regarded as the first step for developing an inversion based framework that uses adipose stiffness data obtained from elastography to determine its microstructural alterations. Such information can be used as biomarkers for diseases associated with adipose tissue microstructure alteration (e.g. adipose tissue fibrosis and inflammation in obesity). In contrast to previous studies, the presented model follows a multiphase structure which accounts for both solid and fluid components as well as their mechanical interaction. In the model, the lipid droplets and extracellular matrix were considered as the fluid and solid phase, respectively. As such, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem was solved using finite element method. In order to gain insight into how microstructural characteristics influence the macro scale mechanical properties of the adipose tissue, a compression mechanical test was simulated using the FSI model and its results were fitted to corresponding experimental data. The simulation procedure was performed for adipocytes in healthy conditions while the stiffness of extracellular matrix in normal adipose tissue was found by varying it systematically within an optimization process until the simulation response agreed with experimental data. Results obtained in this study are encouraging and show the capability of the proposed model to capture adipose tissue macroscale mechanical behavior based on its microstructure under health and different pathological conditions.

  4. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Wu, De; Feng, Bin

    2017-10-18

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  5. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  6. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Li, Lixia; Wu, De

    2017-01-01

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. PMID:29057818

  7. Effect of single intralesional treatment of surgically induced equine superficial digital flexor tendon core lesions with adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells : a controlled experimental trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geburek, Florian; Roggel, Florian; van Schie, Hans T M; Beineke, Andreas; Estrada, Roberto; Weber, Kathrin; Hellige, Maren; Rohn, Karl; Jagodzinski, Michael; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Conrad, Sabine; Skutella, Thomas; van de Lest, Chris; van Weeren, René; Stadler, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of tendon disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single intralesional implantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) on artificial lesions in

  8. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a t......Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep...... with a time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial....... Conclusions: Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. Moreover, our data set provides...

  9. Exploring the Crosstalk between Adipose Tissue and the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a clinical entity critically involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is characterised by variable expansion of adipose tissue (AT) mass across the body as well as by phenotypic alterations in AT. AT is able to secrete a diverse spectrum of biologically active substances called adipocytokines, which reach the cardiovascular system via both endocrine and paracrine routes, potentially regulating a variety of physiological and pathophysiological responses in the vasculature and heart. Such responses include regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as cell proliferation, migration and hypertrophy. Furthermore, clinical observations such as the “obesity paradox,” namely the fact that moderately obese patients with CVD have favourable clinical outcome, strongly indicate that the biological “quality” of AT may be far more crucial than its overall mass in the regulation of CVD pathogenesis. In this work, we describe the anatomical and biological diversity of AT in health and metabolic disease; we next explore its association with CVD and, importantly, novel evidence for its dynamic crosstalk with the cardiovascular system, which could regulate CVD pathogenesis. PMID:28955384

  10. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; de Souza, Jonas; Gandy, Jeff; Mavangira, Vengai; Lock, Adam L; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2017-01-01

    The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis. However, the effect of lipolysis intensity during the transition from gestation to lactation on fatty acid substrate availability and subsequent AT oxylipid biosynthesis is currently unknown. We hypothesized that in periparturient dairy cows, alterations in AT and plasma fatty acids and oxylipid profiles coincide with changes in lipolysis intensity and stage of lactation. Blood and subcutaneous AT samples were collected from periparturient cows at -27±7 (G1) and -10±5 (G2) d prepartum and at 8±3 d postpartum (PP). Targeted lipidomic analysis was performed on plasma and AT using HPLC-MS/MS. We report that FFA concentrations increased as parturition approached and were highest at PP. Cows exhibiting high lipolysis rate at PP (FFA>1.0 mEq/L) had higher body condition scores at G1 compared to cows with low lipolysis rate (FFAoxylipids including 5- and 15-HETE and 13-HODE. These results support a role for certain linoleic and arachidonic acid-derived oxylipids as positive and negative modulators of AT inflammation during periparturient lipolysis.

  11. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eTremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants (POPs. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health and well-being or global ecological protection.

  12. Brown adipose tissue: Updates in cellular and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16. The sympathetic nervous system centrally regulates thermogenesis through norepinephrine, which acts on the adrenergic receptors of BAT. This bound leads to the initialization of the many pathways that may activate thermogenesis in acute and/or chronic ways. In summary, this mini-review aims to demonstrate the latest advances in the knowledge of BAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of adipose tissue for autologous fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Sieber, David A; Van Beek, Allen L; Cunningham, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Fat grafting is a common procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, but variable graft retention limits its utility. Unpredictable clinical outcomes with fat grafting can be explained in part by the lack of standardized protocols for harvesting, processing, and transplanting adipose tissue (AT). Historically, plastic surgeons have relied on trial and error and their clinical experience to develop fat grafting protocols. Optimization of fat grafting protocols requires systematic assessment of the impact that key variables have on the quality of the AT preparation at each step of the procedure. In this article, we review recent findings regarding the composition and quality of AT prepared for fat grafting and the strengths and limitations of existing AT characterization assays. We discuss the need for an assessment of the viability of intact AT (ie, conventionally harvested AT that has not been disrupted further) by means of an operator-independent, quantitative assay that can be performed in real time and generates reproducible data. Promising assays for the characterization of cell product quality have been developed for other therapeutic applications, such as transplantation of pancreatic islet cells. The development or adaptation of a gold-standard assay to determine the quality of an AT preparation may help to standardize fat grafting protocols and improve clinical outcomes. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Ablation Outcome of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Yun, Chun-Ho; Lai, Yau-Huei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Yu; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Epicardial fat was closely related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been proposed to be a convenient imaging tool in assessing epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the EAT thickness measured on TTE was a useful parameter in predicting procedural outcomes of AF ablations. Methods and Results A total of 227 paroxysmal AF (PAF) and 56 non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF) patients receiving catheter ablations from 2008-2010 were enrolled. Echocardiography-derived regional EAT thickness from parasternal long-axis view was quantified for each patient. Free of recurrence was defined as the absence of atrial arrhythmias without using antiarrhythmic agents after ablations. The mean EAT thickness of the study population was 6.1 ± 0.8 mm. Non-PAF patients had a thicker EAT than that of PAF patients (7.0 ± 0.7 mm versus 5.9 ± 0.7 mm, p value EAT thickness were independent predictors of recurrence after catheter ablations. At a cutoff value of 6 mm for PAF and 6.9 mm for non-PAF, the measurement of EAT thickness could help us to identify patients at risk of recurrences. Conclusions EAT thickness may serve as a useful parameter in predicting recurrences after AF ablations. Compared to other imaging modalities, TTE can be an alternative choice with less cost and time in assessing the effects of EAT on ablation outcomes. PMID:24066158

  15. Glucocorticoids modulate human brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Hannah; Symonds, Michael E; Law, James; Budge, Helen; Sharkey, Don; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with substantial metabolic capacity and has important roles in the maintenance of body weight and metabolism. Regulation of BAT is primarily mediated through the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) pathway. The in vivo endocrine regulation of this pathway in humans is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the in vivo BAT temperature responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. We studied 8 healthy male volunteers, not pre-selected for BAT presence or activity and without prior BAT cold-activation, on two occasions, following an infusion with hydrocortisone (0.2mg.kg -1 .min -1 for 14h) and saline, respectively. Infusions were given in a randomized double-blind order. They underwent assessment of supraclavicular BAT temperature using infrared thermography following a mixed meal, and during β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (25ng.kg fat-free mass -1 .min -1 for 60min) in the fasting state. During hydrocortisone infusion, BAT temperature increased both under fasting basal conditions and during β-AR stimulation. We observed a BAT temperature threshold, which was not exceeded despite maximal β-AR activation. We conclude that BAT thermogenesis is present in humans under near-normal conditions. Glucocorticoids modulate BAT function, representing important physiological endocrine regulation of body temperature at times of acute stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Han Liu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density B max and dissociation constant K d in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density B max and K d were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both P d values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and B max (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  18. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  19. Automated adipose study for assessing cancerous human breast tissue using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu; Yao, Xinwen; Chang, Ernest W.; Bin Amir, Syed A.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death in women in the United States. In human breast tissue, adipose cells are infiltrated or replaced by cancer cells during the development of breast tumor. Therefore, an adipose map can be an indicator of identifying cancerous region. We developed an automated classification method to generate adipose map within human breast. To facilitate the automated classification, we first mask the B-scans from OCT volumes by comparing the signal noise ratio with a threshold. Then, the image was divided into multiple blocks with a size of 30 pixels by 30 pixels. In each block, we extracted texture features such as local standard deviation, entropy, homogeneity, and coarseness. The features of each block were input to a probabilistic model, relevance vector machine (RVM), which was trained prior to the experiment, to classify tissue types. For each block within the B-scan, RVM identified the region with adipose tissue. We calculated the adipose ratio as the number of blocks identified as adipose over the total number of blocks within the B-scan. We obtained OCT images from patients (n = 19) in Columbia medical center. We automatically generated the adipose maps from 24 B-scans including normal samples (n = 16) and cancerous samples (n = 8). We found the adipose regions show an isolated pattern that in cancerous tissue while a clustered pattern in normal tissue. Moreover, the adipose ratio (52.30 ± 29.42%) in normal tissue was higher than the that in cancerous tissue (12.41 ± 10.07%).

  20. Growth hormone signaling in muscle and adipose tissue of obese human subjects: associations with measures of body composition and interaction with resveratrol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Berthil F; Poulsen, Morten M; Escande, Carlos; Pedersen, Steen B; Møller, Niels; Chini, Eduardo N; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is reduced in obesity, despite normal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels, but the association between obesity and the GH signaling is unknown. Furthermore, SIRT1, an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase, reduces hepatic IGF-1 production in mice via blunting of GH-induced STAT5 signaling. To study GH signaling in muscle and fat in obese subjects and the interaction with concomitant administration of the putative SIRT1 activator resveratrol, and to assess the effects of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on GH regulated genes in vitro. Twenty-four obese males were examined in a randomized, double blinded, parallel-group study with resveratrol or placebo treatment for 5 weeks followed by a GH bolus. Muscle and fat biopsies were collected before and after GH. Body composition was assessed by DEXA and MRI. (1) Effect of body composition and age on GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation and IGF-1, SOCS2, and CISH mRNA in muscle and fat. (2) The impact of resveratrol treatment on GH activity. (3) Impact of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on effects of GH in vitro. Significant GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle and fat in obese subjects was recorded together with increased CISH and SOCS2 mRNA. GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle correlated positively with age [r = 0.53, p body composition. Resveratrol administration had no impact on body composition, serum IGF-1, or GH signaling in vivo, and SIRT1 knock down or inhibition did not affect GH signaling in vitro. (1) GH induced STAT5b phosphorylation is detectable in muscle and fat in adult males with simple obesity, but is not determined by body composition. (2) Resveratrol supplementation does not impact circulating IGF-1 levels or GH signaling in human muscle and fat. (3) Our data speak against a major impact of SIRT1on GH action in human subjects.

  1. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2015-10-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be "epithelial"-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727.

  2. Adipose tissue deficiency and chronic inflammation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2DM is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic

  3. Omental adipose tissue is a more suitable source of canine Mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Francisca; Flores, Estefania; Cattaneo, Gino; Bruna, Flavia; Conget, Paulette

    2017-06-08

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool in veterinary medicine. Currently the subcutaneous adipose tissue is the leading source of MSCs in dogs. MSCs derived from distinct fat depots have shown dissimilarities in their accessibility and therapeutic potential. The aims of our work were to determine the suitability of omental adipose tissue as a source of MSCs, according to sampling success, cell yield and paracrine properties of isolated cells, and compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue. While sampling success of omental adipose tissue was 100% (14 collections from14 donors) for subcutaneous adipose tissue it was 71% (10 collections from 14 donors). MSCs could be isolated from both sources. Cell yield was significantly higher for omental than for subcutaneous adipose tissue (38 ± 1 vs. 30 ± 1 CFU-F/g tissue, p cell proliferation potential (73 ± 1 vs. 74 ± 1 CDPL) and cell senescence (at passage 10, both cultures presented enlarged cells with cytoplasmic vacuoles and cellular debris). Omental- and subcutaneous-derived MSCs expressed at the same level bFGF, PDGF, HGF, VEGF, ANG1 and IL-10. Irrespective of the source, isolated MSCs induced proliferation, migration and vascularization of target cells, and inhibited the activation of T lymphocytes. Compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, omental adipose tissue is a more suitable source of MSCs in dogs. Since it can be procured from donors with any body condition, its collection procedure is always feasible, its cell yield is high and the MSCs isolated from it have desirable differentiation and paracrine potentials.

  4. Carboxylesterase 1 gene duplication and mRNA expression in adipose tissue are linked to obesity and metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involved in the control of mRNA expression. Here, we investigated mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic function in a population of elderly twins. Furthermore, the heritability of mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and the effect of gene...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA depletion in adipose tissue of HIV-infected patients with peripheral lipoatrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Marc; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Amellal, Bahia; Gourlain, Karine; Bui, Patrick; Prévot, Marianne; Deleuze, Jean; Morini, Jean-Pierre; Gorin, Isabelle; Calvez, Vincent; Dupin, Nicolas

    2005-05-01

    NRTI-induced host toxicity is proposed to involve cellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. Determinants of cellular mtDNA copy number from HIV-infected patients receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls were investigated from subcutaneous fat samples, and relation with antiretroviral regimen was studied. HIV-infected patients receiving HAART (n = 50), HIV-infected patients not currently under HAART regimen (n = 2) and HIV-seronegative controls (n = 9) of similar age and BMI were enrolled prospectively when undergoing Coleman's lipostructure for correction of facial lipoatrophy or plastic surgery, respectively. After centrifugation, abdominal fat tissue was collected and stored at -80 degrees C. MtDNA analysis was blindly performed after a total DNA extraction from adipose tissue, followed by a real-time PCR quantification. The log of mtDNA copies/cell in adipose tissue [log(DNA)] was compared between groups by means of analysis of variance. The log(DNA) in adipose tissue of HIV-infected patients was significantly lower than in the HIV-seronegative control group (P < 0.0001). In HIV-infected patients, log(DNA) was significantly reduced in the 50 NRTI-treated patients (P < 0.01), but not when considering mtDNA level according to the use of PI or NNRTI in current HAART regimen. In NRTI-treated patients, only stavudine (n = 20) and didanosine (n=14) were significantly and independently associated with reduced mtDNA level (P < 0.0001 and <0.05, respectively). Currently stavudine or didanosine-treated patients had a significant reduced mtDNA level compared to past users (P < 0.0001 and <0.05, respectively). Other clinical, biological, and immuno-virological variables than NRTI did not correlate significantly to adipocyte mtDNA level. This study supports that current treatment by NRTI is a main determinant of mtDNA depletion in adipose tissue of HIV-seropositive patients with peripheral fat wasting. Stavudine or didanosine current intake is significantly

  6. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Andres Contreras

    Full Text Available The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT, which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE, were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis. However, the effect of lipolysis intensity during the transition from gestation to lactation on fatty acid substrate availability and subsequent AT oxylipid biosynthesis is currently unknown. We hypothesized that in periparturient dairy cows, alterations in AT and plasma fatty acids and oxylipid profiles coincide with changes in lipolysis intensity and stage of lactation. Blood and subcutaneous AT samples were collected from periparturient cows at -27±7 (G1 and -10±5 (G2 d prepartum and at 8±3 d postpartum (PP. Targeted lipidomic analysis was performed on plasma and AT using HPLC-MS/MS. We report that FFA concentrations increased as parturition approached and were highest at PP. Cows exhibiting high lipolysis rate at PP (FFA>1.0 mEq/L had higher body condition scores at G1 compared to cows with low lipolysis rate (FFA<1.0 mEq/L. Concentrations of plasma linoleic and arachidonic acids were increased at PP. In AT, 13-HODE, and 5-, 11- and 15-HETE were increased at PP compared to G1 and G2. Concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate were positively correlated with those of 13-HODE and 15-HETE in AT. Plasma concentrations of 5- and 20-HETE were increased at PP. These data demonstrate that prepartum adiposity predisposes cows to intense lipolysis post-partum and may exacerbate AT inflammation because of increased production of pro-inflammatory oxylipids including 5- and 15-HETE and 13-HODE. These results

  7. Uric Acid Secretion from Adipose Tissue and Its Increase in Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  8. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. A.; Roepstorff, Carsten; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however......, whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77......+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue...

  9. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... metabolism during a 3 h post-exercise period. Six subjects were studied twice. In one experiment, they exercised for 90 min at 40% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2,max) and in the other experiment they exercised at 60% VO2,max for 60 min. For both experiments, catheters were inserted in an artery......, a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease...

  10. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  11. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration......-time: T, 44 +/- 9 min (n = 7); S, 102 +/- 23 min (n = 5); P training enhances insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, interstitial glycerol data suggest that training also increases insulin sensitivity of lipolysis...

  12. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  13. Link Between GIP and Osteopontin in Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlqvist, Emma; Osmark, Peter; Kuulasmaa, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis...... and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate OPN expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher...... for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue...

  14. The role of innate immune cells in obese adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Chung, K.-J.; Chavakis, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2013), s. 399-406 ISSN 0340-6245 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Obesity * adipose tissue * inflammation * review * leukocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013

  15. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  16. RNA-seq analysis of bovine intramuscular, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Ni, Hemin; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Zhang, Lupei; Guo, Yong

    2014-03-01

    The deposition of intramuscular fat is an important factor affecting the beef quality, such as flavour and palatability. In this study, for further identifying the differential molecular mechanisms regulating the deposition of fat between intramuscular and external adipose tissues, particularly subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, it was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and compare the transcriptomes among intramuscular, subcutaneous, and perirenal adipose tissues by RNA-Seq. A total of 66,206,912, 55,114,070 and 67,320,426 fragments were sequenced for the intramuscular (IAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) respectively. Among them, total 953, 1,534, 2,026 genes showing differential expression between IAT and SAT, IAT and PAT, SAT and PAT, were identified respectively (FDR fat deposition, especially intramuscular fat, at a fine scale.

  17. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  18. The Pericytic Phenotype of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells Is Promoted by NOTCH2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlizzi, Vincenzo; Kolibabka, Matthias; Burgess, Janette Kay; Hammes, Hans Peter; Harmsen, Martin Conrad

    Long-term diabetes leads to macrovascular and microvascular complication. In diabetic retinopathy (DR), persistent hyperglycemia causes permanent loss of retinal pericytes and aberrant proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells (ECs). Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) may serve to

  19. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  20. The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular smooth muscle cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chao-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing various adipokines and many other substances. Almost all blood vessels are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which has not received research attention until recently. This review will discuss the paracrine actions of PVAT on the growth of underlying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). PVAT can release growth factors and inhibitors. Visfatin is the first identified growth factor derived from PVAT. Decreased adiponectin and increased tumour necrosis factor-α in PVAT play a pathological role for neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury. PVAT-derived angiotensin II, angiotensin 1-7, reactive oxygen species, complement component 3, NO and H(2) S have a paracrine action on VSMC contraction, endothelial or fibroblast function; however, their paracrine actions on VSMC growth remain to be directly verified. Factors such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, leptin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, adrenomedullin, free fatty acids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones can be released from adipose tissue and can regulate VSMC growth. Most of them have been verified for their secretion by PVAT; however, their paracrine functions are unknown. Obesity, vascular injury, aging and infection may affect PVAT, causing adipocyte abnormality and inflammatory cell infiltration, inducing imbalance of PVAT-derived growth factors and inhibitors, leading to VSMC growth and finally resulting in development of proliferative vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis and hypertension. In the future, using cell-specific gene interventions and local treatments may provide definitive evidence for identification of key factor(s) involved in PVAT dysfunction-induced vascular disease and thus may help to develop new therapies. This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  1. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  2. Validation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of pericardial adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Prashanthan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. To date its assessment has been restricted to the use of surrogate echocardiographic indices such as measurement of epicardial fat thickness over the right ventricular free wall, which have limitations. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR offers the potential to non-invasively assess total PAT, however like other imaging modalities, CMR has not yet been validated for this purpose. Thus, we sought to describe a novel technique for assessing total PAT with validation in an ovine model. Methods 11 merino sheep were studied. A standard clinical series of ventricular short axis CMR images (1.5T Siemens Sonata were obtained during mechanical ventilation breath-holds. Beginning at the mitral annulus, consecutive end-diastolic ventricular images were used to determine the area and volume of epicardial, paracardial and pericardial adipose tissue. In addition adipose thickness was measured at the right ventricular free wall. Following euthanasia, the paracardial adipose tissue was removed from the ventricle and weighed to allow comparison with corresponding CMR measurements. Results There was a strong correlation between CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume and ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.89, p ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.003, p = 0.878. Conclusion In this ovine model, CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume, but not the corresponding and conventional measure of paracardial adipose thickness over the RV free wall, accurately reflected paracardial adipose tissue mass. This study validates for the first time, the use of clinically utilised CMR sequences for the accurate and reproducible assessment of pericardial adiposity. Furthermore this non-invasive modality does not use ionising radiation and therefore is ideally suited for future studies of PAT and its role in cardiovascular risk prediction and

  3. Generating an Engineered Adipose Tissue Flap Using an External Suspension Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinlin; Dong, Ziqing; Lei, Chen; Lu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The tissue-engineering chamber technique can generate large volumes of adipose tissue, which provides a potential solution for the complex reconstruction of large soft-tissue defects. However, major drawbacks of this technique are the foreign-body reaction and the volume limitation imposed by the chamber. In this study, the authors developed a novel tissue-engineering method using a specially designed external suspension device that generates an optimized volume of adipose flap and avoids the implantation of foreign material. The rabbits were processed using two different tissue-engineering methods, the external suspension device technique and the traditional tissue-engineering chamber technique. The adipose flaps generated by the external suspension device had a normal adipose tissue structure that was as good as that generated by the traditional tissue-engineering chamber, but the flap volume was much larger. The final volume of the engineered adipose flap grew between weeks 0 and 36 from 5.1 ml to 30.7 ml in the traditional tissue-engineering chamber group and to 80.5 ml in the external suspension device group. During the generation process, there were no marked differences between the two methods in terms of structural and cellular changes of the flap, except that the flaps in the traditional tissue-engineering chamber group had a thicker capsule at the early stage. In addition, the enlarged flaps generated by the external suspension device could be reshaped into specific shapes by the implant chamber. This minimally invasive external suspension device technique can generate large-volume adipose flaps. Combined with a reshaping method, this technique should facilitate clinical application of adipose tissue engineering.

  4. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF, along with hyaluronic acid (HA and platelet-rich plasma (PRP activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM, and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees.

  5. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad; Joseph, Frank

    2014-01-01

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Def...

  6. Metabolic adaptation of white adipose tissue to nutritional and environmental challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of main findings When adipose tissue is present in excessive amounts, as in obesity, it predisposes to a number of pathologies. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial condition as it influences many endogenous genetic, endocrine, and inflammatory pathways. Excess dietary intake is one of the important factors which are responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity. For the understanding of the reciprocity between consumed diet and excessive amounts of adipose tissue, it is essent...

  7. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unkn...

  8. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  9. Effects of glucose and insulin on secretion of amyloid?? by human adipose tissue cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tharp, William G.; Gupta, Dhananjay; Smith, Joshua; Jones, Karen P.; Jones, Amanda M.; Pratley, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease. Overlapping patterns of metabolic dysfunction may be common molecular links between these complex diseases. Amyloid?? (A?) precursor protein and associated ?? and ??secretases are expressed in adipose tissue. A? precursor protein is up?regulated with obesity and correlated to insulin resistance. A? may be secreted by adipose tissue, its production may be regulated through metabolic pathways, and ...

  10. The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vasoconstriction, arterial stiffness, and aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta, Luis; Chang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Since the “rediscovery” of brown adipose tissue in adult humans, significant scientific efforts are being pursued to identify the molecular mechanisms to promote a phenotypic change of white adipocytes into brown-like cells, a process called “browning”. It is well documented that white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and factors released from WAT influence the vascular function and positively correlate with cardiac arrest, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications. Similar to other fat depots,...

  11. Resveratrol Suppresses PAI-1 Gene Expression in a Human In Vitro Model of Inflamed Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Zagotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels are associated with a number of pathophysiological complications; among them is obesity. Resveratrol was proposed to improve obesity-related health problems, but the effect of resveratrol on PAI-1 gene expression in obesity is not completely understood. In this study, we used SGBS adipocytes and a model of human adipose tissue inflammation to examine the effects of resveratrol on the production of PAI-1. Treatment of SGBS adipocytes with resveratrol reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further experiments showed that obesity-associated inflammatory conditions lead to the upregulation of PAI-1 gene expression which was antagonized by resveratrol. Although signaling via PI3K, Sirt1, AMPK, ROS, and Nrf2 appeared to play a significant role in the modulation of PAI-1 gene expression under noninflammatory conditions, those signaling components were not involved in mediating the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 production under inflammatory conditions. Instead, we demonstrate that the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 induction under inflammatory conditions were mediated via inhibition of the NFκB pathway. Together, resveratrol can act as NFκB inhibitor in adipocytes and thus the subsequently reduced PAI-1 expression in inflamed adipose tissue might provide a new insight towards novel treatment options of obesity.

  12. Adipose tissue inflammation and cancer cachexia: the role of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelaender, Marilia C L; Batista, Miguel Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the etiology of many chronic diseases, and has been the focus of much attention in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Similarly, during cancer cachexia, a syndrome that markedly increases cancer-associated morbidity and mortality, local adipose inflammation is reported in animal models and in patients, potentially contributing to the chronic systemic inflammation that constitutes the hallmark of this condition. We discuss, on the basis of information generated by obesity-related studies, the possible relation between adipose tissue inflammation and compromised steroid hormone secretion and action in cachexia.

  13. Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells toward the Smooth Muscle Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Fink, Trine; Maeda, Yasuko; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2018-02-08

    Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The specific contractile properties of cells were verified with both a single cell contraction assay and a gel contraction assay. Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain in adipose-derived stem cell cultures after 2 weeks of induction ( p Cells differentiated in 5% oxygen conditions showed greater contraction effect ( p cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells.

  14. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Fuster, Antonia; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-12-01

    We previously described that the intake of pharmacological doses of beta-carotene (BC) resulted in higher body weight gain in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), an animal model that resembles human subjects in terms of intestinal BC absorption and metabolism. These results were some way unexpected considering the condition of BC as a vitamin A precursor and the previous data in rodents showing these compounds as thermogenic activators. Here, we aimed to characterise in the ferret whether the mentioned changes in body weight could be explained by changes in adipose tissue thermogenic capacity. We studied the effects of 6-month supplementation with BC (0.8 and 3.2 mg/kg per d) on adipose tissue morphology and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content. BC supplementation resulted in higher body weight (the high dose), induced depot- and dose-dependent hypertrophy of white adipocytes, decreased the amount of brown-like multilocular adipocytes in the retroperitoneal depot and decreased UCP1 content in different fat depots. To ascertain whether BC effects could be mediated by retinoic acid (RA), 1 week supplementation with RA (0.25 and 25 mg/kg per d) was also studied. RA treatment resulted in a slight decrease in adiposity, decreased cell lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 content, suggesting that the effects of BC on thermogenic capacity are not through RA. In conclusion, RA, but not BC, may have in the ferret comparable effects with those described in rodents, whereas differences concerning BC and RA treatments may be attributable to the different BC metabolism in the present animal model with a lower conversion of BC to RA compared with rodents.

  15. Arginine nutrition and fetal brown adipose tissue development in diet-induced obese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey Satterfield, M; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Keisler, Duane H; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-10-01

    The global incidence of human obesity has more than doubled over the past three decades. An ovine model of obesity was developed to determine effects of maternal obesity and arginine supplementation on maternal, placental, and fetal parameters of growth, health, and well being. One-hundred-twenty days prior to embryo transfer, ewes were fed either ad libitum (n = 10) to induce obesity or 100% National Research Council-recommended nutrient requirements (n = 10) as controls. Embryos from superovulated ewes with normal body condition were transferred to the uterus of control-fed and obese ewes on day 5.5 post-estrus to generate genetically similar singleton pregnancies. Beginning on day 100 of gestation, obese ewes received intravenous administration of saline or L-arginine-HCl three times daily (81 mg arginine/kg body weight/day) to day 125, whereas control-fed ewes received saline. Fetal growth was assessed at necropsy on day 125. Maternal obesity increased (1) percentages of maternal and fetal carcass lipids and (2) concentrations of leptin, insulin, glucose, glutamate, leucine, lysine and threonine in maternal plasma while reducing (1) concentrations of progesterone, glycine and serine in maternal plasma and (2) amniotic and allantoic fluid volumes. Administration of L-arginine to obese ewes increased arginine and ornithine concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma, amniotic fluid volume, protein content in maternal carcass, and fetal brown adipose tissue (+60%), while reducing maternal lipid content and circulating leptin levels. Fetal or placental weight did not differ among treatments. Results indicate that arginine treatment beneficially reduces maternal adiposity and enhances fetal brown adipose tissue development in obese ewes.

  16. Tracking of autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology after intralesional treatment of artificial equine tendon lesions--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Florian; Mundle, Kathrin; Conrad, Sabine; Hellige, Maren; Walliser, Ulrich; van Schie, Hans T M; van Weeren, René; Skutella, Thomas; Stadler, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) are frequently used to treat equine tendinopathies. Up to now, knowledge about the fate of autologous AT-MSCs after intralesional injection into equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is very limited. The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of intralesionally injected autologous AT-MSCs labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and green fluorescent protein (GFP) over a staggered period of 3 to 9 weeks with standing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. Four adult warmblood horses received a unilateral injection of 10 × 10(6) autologous AT-MSCs into surgically created front-limb SDFT lesions. Administered AT-MSCs expressed lentivirally transduced reporter genes for GFP and were co-labelled with SPIO particles in three horses. The presence of AT-MSCs in SDFTs was evaluated by repeated examinations with standing low-field MRI in two horses and post-mortem in all horses with Prussian blue staining, fluorescence microscopy and with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using anti-GFP antibodies at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks after treatment. AT-MSCs labelled with SPIO particles were detectable in treated SDFTs during each MRI in T2*- and T1-weighted sequences until the end of the observation period. Post-mortem examinations revealed that all treated tendons contained high numbers of SPIO- and GFP-labelled cells. Standing low-field MRI has the potential to track SPIO-labelled AT-MSCs successfully. Histology, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry are efficient tools to detect labelled AT-MSCs after intralesional injection into surgically created equine SDFT lesions. Intralesional injection of 10 × 10(6) AT-MSCs leads to the presence of high numbers of AT-MSCs in and around surgically created tendon lesions for up to 9 weeks. Integration of injected AT-MSCs into healing tendon tissue is an essential pathway after intralesional

  17. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  19. Adipose tissue deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase causes fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Cai, Guo He; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Mitchell, Grant A; Wu, Jiang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver is a major health problem worldwide. People with hereditary deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are reported to develop fatty liver. In this study, systemic and tissue-specific HSL-deficient mice were used as models to explore the underlying mechanism of this association. We found that systemic HSL deficient mice developed fatty liver in an age-dependent fashion between 3 and 8 months of age. To further explore the mechanism of fatty liver in HSL deficiency, liver-specific HSL knockout mice were created. Surprisingly, liver HSL deficiency did not influence liver fat content, suggesting that fatty liver in HSL deficiency is not liver autonomous. Given the importance of adipose tissue in systemic triglyceride metabolism, we created adipose-specific HSL knockout mice and found that adipose HSL deficiency, to a similar extent as systemic HSL deficiency, causes age-dependent fatty liver in mice. Mechanistic study revealed that deficiency of HSL in adipose tissue caused inflammatory macrophage infiltrates, progressive lipodystrophy, abnormal adipokine secretion and systemic insulin resistance. These changes in adipose tissue were associated with a constellation of changes in liver: low levels of fatty acid oxidation, of very low density lipoprotein secretion and of triglyceride hydrolase activity, each favoring the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, HSL-deficient mice revealed a complex interorgan interaction between adipose tissue and liver: the role of HSL in the liver is minimal but adipose tissue deficiency of HSL can cause age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Adipose tissue is a potential target for treating the hepatic steatosis of HSL deficiency.

  20. Alternative mechanism for white adipose tissue lipolysis after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Li; Patsouris, David; Sadri, Ali-Reza; Dai, Xiaojing; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-29

    Extensively burned patients often suffer from sepsis, a complication that enhances post-burn hypermetabolism and contributes to increased incidence of multiple organ failure, morbidity and mortality. Despite the clinical importance of burn sepsis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such infection-related metabolic derangements and organ dysfunction are still largely unknown. We recently found that upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the white adipose tissue (WAT) interacts with the liver via inflammatory and metabolic signals leading to profound hepatic alterations, including hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic fatty infiltration. We therefore hypothesized that burn plus infection causes an increase in lipolysis of WAT after major burn, partially through induction of ER stress, contributing to hyperlipidemia and profound hepatic lipid infiltration. We used a two-hit rat model of 60% total body surface area scald burn, followed by intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 days post-burn. One day later, animals were sacrificed and liver and epididymal WAT (EWAT) samples were collected for gene expression, protein analysis and histological study of inflammasome activation, ER stress, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Our results showed that burn plus LPS profoundly increased lipolysis in WAT associated with significantly increased hepatic lipid infiltration. Burn plus LPS augmented ER stress by upregulating CHOP and activating ATF6, inducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and leading to increased apoptosis and lipolysis in WAT with a distinct enzymatic mechanism related to inhibition of AMPK signaling. In conclusion, burn sepsis causes profound alterations in WAT and liver which are associated with changes in organ function and structure.

  1. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  2. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  3. Regulation of UCP1 in the Browning of Epididymal Adipose Tissue by β3-Adrenergic Agonist: A Role for MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongji Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. White adipose tissue browning may be a promising strategy to combat obesity. UCP1 is strongly induced in White adipose tissue with β3-adrenergic agonist treatment, but the causes of this increase have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to explore more miRNAs involved in the process of browning of visceral adipose tissue. Methods. Total of fourteen mice were randomly divided into control and study group. Study group mice were injected intraperitoneally with CL316243 once daily for seven days; meanwhile the control group were treated with 0.9% NaCl. After a 7-day period, the expression of genes involved in WAT browning and potential UCP1-targeting miRNAs in adipose tissues was analyzed by qPCR. Results. qPCR analysis revealed that UCP1, DIO2, CIDEA, and CPT1B in epididymal adipose tissue were overexpressed in CL316243 group. Furthermore, potential UCP1-targeting miR-9 and miR-338-3p in epididymal adipose tissue were significantly decreased in CL316243 group. Conclusion. This suggests that potential UCP1-targeting miR-9 and miR-338-3p may be involved in the browning of epididymal adipose tissue by regulating UCP1 gene expression. In this study, we demonstrated that this increase of UCP1 is due, at least in part, to the decreased expression of certain UCP1-targeting miRNAs in epididymal adipose tissue compared to control.

  4. Adipose Tissue Hypoxia in Obesity and Its Impact on Preadipocytes and Macrophages: Hypoxia Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses. Hypoxia affects a number of biological functions, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Additionally, reactive oxygen radical (ROS) generation at mitochondria is responsible for propagation of the hypoxic signal. Actually mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, but not oxygen consumption is required for hypoxic HIF-1alpha protein stabilization. Adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity is reduced in obese compared with non-obese adults. In this respect, mitochondrial dysfunction of adipocyte is associated with the overall adiposity. Furthermore, hypoxia also inhibits macrophage migration from the hypoxic adipose tissue. Alterations in oxygen availability of adipose tissue directly affect the macrophage polarization and are responsible from dysregulated adipocytokines production in obesity. Hypoxia also inhibits adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes. In addition to stressed adipocytes, hypoxia contributes to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. Fibrosis is initiated in response to adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity.

  5. Role of arsenic exposure in adipose tissue dysfunction and its possible implication in diabetes pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renu, Kaviyarasi; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Maruyama, Masugi; Arunachlam, Sankarganesh; V G, Abilash

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can stimulate a diverse number of diseases that originate from impaired lipid metabolism in adipose and glucose metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. Arsenic inhibits differentiation of adipocyte and mediates insulin resistance with diminutive information on arsenicosis on lipid storage and lipolysis. This review focused on different mechanisms and pathways involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue during arsenic-induced diabetes. Though arsenic is known to cause type2 diabetes through different mechanisms, the role of adipose tissue in causing type2 diabetes is still unclear. With the existing literature, this review exhibits the effect of arsenic on adipose tissue and its signalling events such as SIRT3- FOXO3a signalling pathway, Ras -MAP -AP-1 cascade, PI(3)-K-Akt pathway, endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP10) and GPCR pathway with role of adipokines. There is a need to elucidate the different types of adipokines which are involved in arsenic-induced diabetes. The exhibited information brings to light that arsenic has negative effects on a white adipose tissue (WAT) by decreasing adipogenesis and enhancing lipolysis. Some of the epidemiological studies show that arsenic would causes obesity. Few studies indicate that arsenic might induces lipodystrophy condition. Further research is needed to evaluate the mechanistic link between arsenic and adipose tissue dysfunction which leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transplantation of Normal Adipose Tissue Improves Blood Flow and Reduces Inflammation in High Fat Fed Mice With Hindlimb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fat deposition is associated with peripheral arterial disease. Adipose tissue has recently been implicated in vascular remodeling and angiogenic activity. We hypothesized that the transplantation of adipose tissues from normal mice improves blood flow perfusion and neovascularization in high-fat diet fed mice.Methods: After 14 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice, unilateral hind limb ischemia was performed. Subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT fat pads were harvested from normal EGFP mice, and subcutaneously transplanted over the region of the adductor muscles of HFD mice. Blood flow was measured using Laser Doppler Scanner. Vascular density, macrophages infiltration, and macrophage polarization were examined by RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry.Results: We found that the transplantation of WAT derived from normal mice improved functional blood flow in HFD-fed mice compared to mice transplanted with BAT and sham-treated mice. WAT transplantation increased the recruitment of pericytes associated with nascent blood vessels, but did not affect capillary formation. Furthermore, transplantation of WAT ameliorated HFD-induced insulin resistance, M2 macrophage predominance and the release of arteriogenic factors in ischemic muscles. Mice receiving WAT also displayed a marked reduction in several proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, mice transplanted with BAT were glucose intolerant and demonstrated increased IL-6 levels in ischemic muscles.Conclusion: These results indicate that transplantation of adipose tissue elicits improvements in blood perfusion and beneficial effects on systemic glucose homeostasis and could be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of diabetic peripheral arterial disease.

  7. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

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    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  8. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

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    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  9. Diet-induced weight loss decreases adipose tissue oxygen tension with parallel changes in adipose tissue phenotype and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R.G.; Roumans, N.J.; Čajlaković, M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Vogel, M.A.A.; Blaak, E.E.; Mariman, E.C.; Baak, van M.A.; Goossens, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO 2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary

  10. Rose hip supplementation increases energy expenditure and induces browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Berger, Karin; Holm, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread chronic disorders defined as excessive fat accumulation, and are major risk factors for several chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and fatty liver. Changes in lifestyle such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet can be crucial tools for treating obesity. Intake of rose hip, the fruit of several plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, has been shown to reduce body fat mass and prevent body weight gain. Thus, the aim of the study was to elucidate potential mechanisms through which rose hip inhibit diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet with (RH) or without (CTR) rose hip supplementation for three months. In vivo indirect calorimetry was monitored, as well as gene expression and protein levels of different adipose depots. Although no differences in energy intake were found compared to the CTR group, RH prevented body weight gain and lowered blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. Indirect calorimetry showed that RH-fed mice have significantly higher EE during the dark phase, despite comparable voluntary activity. Moreover, when challenged with treadmill running, RH-fed mice exhibited higher metabolic rate. Therefore, we hypothesized that RH could stimulate the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic capacity or may induce browning of the white adipose tissue (WAT). Compared to the CTR group, gene expression and protein levels of some brown and "brite" markers, together with genes able to promote brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis (such as ucp1, tbx15 , bmp7, and cidea ), as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, was increased in WAT (but not in BAT) of RH-fed mice. Taken together these results indicate that dietary rose hip prevents body weight gain by increasing whole body EE and inducing browning of WAT. Thus, it has potential therapeutic implication for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  11. Perivascular adipose tissue as a regulator of vascular disease pathogenesis: identifying novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Tarun, Akansha; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2017-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H 2 S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ

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    William T. Festuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT non-shivering thermogenesis impacts energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. Mitochondrial UCP1 in brown fat cells produce heat by dissipating the energy generated by the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. In addition to thermogenesis and despite its small relative size, sympathetically activated BAT constitutes an important glucose, fatty acid and triacylglycerol-clearing organ, and such function could potentially be used to alleviate dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To date, chronic sympathetic innervation and PPARγ activation are the only recognized inducers of BAT recruitment. Here, we review the major differences between these two inducers of BAT recruitment in the regulation of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, lipid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis, glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Whereas BAT recruitment through sympathetic drive translates into functional thermogenic activity, PPARγ-mediated recruitment is associated with a reduction in sympathetic activity leading to increased lipid storage in brown adipocytes. The promising therapeutic role of brown adipose tissue in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic and hyperglycaemic conditions are also discussed.

  13. Regulation of Microvascular Function by Adipose Tissue in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence of an Adipose-Vascular Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanrui; Zhang, Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the general concept has emerged that chronic low-grade inflammation is the condition linking excessive development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by a diminished production of protective factors such as adiponectin and increased detrimental adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoa...

  14. Effect of rate of weight gain of steers during the stocker phase. III. Gene expression of adipose tissues and skeletal muscle in growing-finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, P A; Sharman, E D; Horn, G W; Krehbiel, C R; Starkey, J D

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of stocker production systems differing in growth rate on differential adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression of intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues. Angus steers were assigned to 4 stocker cattle production systems in 2 consecutive years: 1) cottonseed meal-based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CON), 2) ground corn/soybean meal-based supplement while grazing dormant native range (CORN), 3) grazing wheat pasture at a high stocking rate for a low rate of BW gain (LGWP), and 4) grazing wheat pasture at a low stocking rate for a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). Steers were harvested during the stocker phase at similar age (different carcass weight) in Exp. 1 (3 steers/treatment) or at similar carcass weight in Exp. 2 (4 steers/treatment). Adipose tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ [PPARγ], sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 [SREBF1], CAATT/enhancer binding protein β, and delta-like homolog 1) and lipogenic (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GPDH], fatty acid synthase [FASN], and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 [DGAT2]) genes. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes collectively. There was not a treatment × adipose tissue interaction (F-test, P > 0.15) when steers were harvested at similar age, but a treatment × adipose tissue interaction (F-test, P 0.10) on the canonical variate of adipogenic or lipogenic mRNA expression in IM adipose tissue, but faster rates of gain of LGWP and HGWP steers increased (P gain has little influence on differentiation and lipid synthesis of IM adipose tissue at similar carcass weight but faster rates of gain increase differentiation and lipid synthesis of SC and PR adipose tissue even at similar carcass weight.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Muñoz, María J; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Córdova Pérez, Nydia; Vázquez Martínez, Ana Laura; Tepach Gutiérrez, Nayive; Vega García, Sara; Rocha Cruz, Alberto; Díaz Martínez, Alma; Saucedo García, Renata; Zárate Treviño, Arturo; González Escudero, Eduardo Alberto; Degollado Córdova, José Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with several obesity-related parameters and with insulin resistance. Echocardiographic assessment of this tissue is an easy and reliable marker of cardiometabolic risk. However, there are insufficient studies on the relationship between epicardial fat and insulin resistance during the postmenopausal period, when cardiovascular risk increases in women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, body mass index, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and body composition analysis. A positive correlation was observed between epicardial fat and visceral adipose tissue, body mass index, and waist circumference. The values of these correlations of epicardial fat thickness overlying the aorta-right ventricle were r = 0.505 (P < .003), r = 0.545 (P < .001), and r = 0.515 (P < .003), respectively. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome than in those without this syndrome (mean [standard deviation], 544.2 [122.9] vs 363.6 [162.3] mm(2); P = .03). Epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography was associated with visceral adipose tissue and other obesity parameters. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial fat may be a simple and reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Traveling from the hypothalamus to the adipose tissue: The thermogenic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; López, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT. Different hypothalamic areas have the capacity to regulate the thermogenic process in brown and beige adipocytes through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). This review discusses important concepts and discoveries about the central control of thermogenesis as a trip that starts in the hypothalamus, and taking the sympathetic roads to reach brown and beige fat to modulate thermogenic functions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  18. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  19. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  20. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  1. Nutrition-dependent changes of mouse adipose tissue compositions monitored by NMR, MS, and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkova, Yulia; Meusel, Andrej; Breitfeld, Jana; Schleinitz, Dorit; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Dannenberger, Dirk; Kovacs, Peter; Schiller, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Many diseases nowadays are assumed to be genetically determined. Therefore, many knockout mouse models have been established and are widely used. Unfortunately, nutrition (in particular the fat content of food) is often neglected in studies on these disease models. In this study the effects of nutrition on the lipid (triacylglycerol, TAG) compositions of different mouse adipose tissues were investigated. Mice were subjected to different diets [high fat (HF) vs. standard diet (SD)] and different adipose tissue samples (brown, visceral, and subcutaneous fat) were isolated after 12 weeks. Subsequent to lipid extraction, the organic extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI and ESI), high-resolution (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and gas chromatography (GC). In adipose tissue of mice fed with HF diet, (a) decreased double bond contents and (b) decreased fatty acyl chain lengths of tissue TAGs were observed; this trend could be concomitantly monitored by all methods used. However, the adipose tissue still contained significant amounts of slightly unsaturated fatty acyl residues (18:1). Thus, a certain double bond content seems necessary to maintain the properties of adipose tissues.

  2. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  3. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...... not differ between T and S rats (P > 0.05). 4. In conclusion, training increased the amount of HSL and the sensitivity of HSL to stimulation by adrenaline in intra-abdominal adipose tissue, the extent of the change differing between anatomical locations. In contrast, in skeletal muscle the amount of HSL...

  4. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...... and men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  5. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO is regulated in white and brown adipose tissue by obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misty M Thompson

    Full Text Available Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO is an outer-mitochondrial membrane transporter which has many functions including participation in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, production of cellular energy, and is the rate-limiting step in the uptake of cholesterol. TSPO expression is dysregulated during disease pathologies involving changes in tissue energy demands such as cancer, and is up-regulated in activated macrophages during the inflammatory response. Obesity is associated with decreased energy expenditure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation which collectively contribute to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome. Therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of TSPO in adipose tissue may be a feature of disease pathology in obesity. Radioligand binding studies revealed a significant reduction in TSPO ligand binding sites in mitochondrial extracts from both white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT in mouse models of obesity (diet-induced and genetic compared to control animals. We also confirmed a reduction in TSPO gene expression in whole tissue extracts from WAT and BAT. Immunohistochemistry in WAT confirmed TSPO expression in adipocytes but also revealed high-levels of TSPO expression in WAT macrophages in obese animals. No changes in TSPO expression were observed in WAT or BAT after a 17 hour fast or 4 hour cold exposure. Treatment of mice with the TSPO ligand PK11195 resulted in regulation of metabolic genes in WAT. Together, these results suggest a potential role for TSPO in mediating adipose tissue homeostasis.

  6. Regeneration of Skin Surface by Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Adipose Tissue in Laboratory Animals with Infected Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sahab, A. Haydar; Tretyak, S.; Nedzved, M.K.; Baranov, E.V.; Nadyrov, E.; Lobanok, H.H.; Vasilevich, I.B.; Welcome, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental studies in laboratory animals with a simulated infected wound, for which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue were used in its treatment. The following peculiarities of MSCs for regeneration of skin defects are established: faster arrest of inflammation, accelerated wound healing processes, as well as observed stimulation of growth of skin appendages. The results of this study may serve the basis for further research from develo...

  7. Genetic disruption of uncoupling protein 1 in mice renders brown adipose tissue a significant source of FGF21 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Keipert

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Here we show that the genetic ablation of UCP1 increases FGF21 gene expression in adipose tissue. The removal of adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis renders BAT a significant source of endogenous FGF21 under thermal stress. Thus, the thermogenic competence of BAT is not a requirement for FGF21 secretion. Notably, high endogenous FGF21 levels in UCP1-deficient models and subjects may confound pharmacological FGF21 treatments.

  8. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  9. Delivery of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obese Mice Through Remodeling Macrophage Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianwen; Bai, Yang; Wang, Guannan; Song, Qiang; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Qun

    2015-09-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been used to control several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases due to immunosuppressive properties, but their role in obesity-associated inflammation remains unestablished. This study aims to evaluate the effects of ADSCs on obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and insulin resistance. We found that diet-induced obesity caused a remarkable reduction of ADSC fraction in mouse WAT. Delivery of lean mouse-derived ADSCs, which could successfully locate into WAT of obese mice, substantially improved insulin action and metabolic homeostasis of obese mice. ADSC treatment not only reduced adipocyte hypertrophy but also attenuated WAT inflammation by reducing crown-like structures of macrophages and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. Importantly, ADSC treatment remodeled the phenotypes of adipose-resident macrophages from proinflammatory M1 toward anti-inflammatory M2-like subtypes, as characterized by decreased MHC class II-expressing but increased interleukin (IL)-10-producing macrophages together with low expression of TNF-α and IL-12. Coculture of ADSCs through the transwell or conditional medium with induced M1 macrophages also reproduced the phenotypic switch toward M2-like macrophages, which was substantiated by elevated arginase 1, declined inducible nitric oxide synthase, inhibition of NF-κB activity, and activation of STAT3/STAT6. Taken together, our data support that ADSC supplement in obese mice could sustain IL-10-producing M2-like macrophages in WAT through paracrine action, thereby suggesting the crucial role of ADSCs in resolving WAT inflammation, maintaining adipose homeostasis, and proposing a potential ADSC-based approach for the treatment of obesity-related diseases.

  10. The influence of thiazolidinediones on adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo: potential modifiers of intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in meat animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, G J; Poulos, S P; Pringle, T D; Azain, M J

    2008-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are insulin sensitizing agents currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are widely used as adipogenic agents because they are ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a key adipogenic transcription factor. In vivo and in vitro studies of TZD as potential modifiers of intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis are reviewed. Thiazolidinedione-induced adipogenesis has been reported in numerous cell culture systems, including rodent, human, bovine, and porcine adipose tissue stromal-vascular (S-V) cell cultures. Studies of porcine S-V cell cultures derived from semitendinosus muscle show that TZD can potentially modify intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis. Preadipocyte recruitment was TZD-dependent in muscle S-V cultures but TZD-independent in adipose S-V cultures. There appear to be differences between adipocytes in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue, reminiscent of differences observed in adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots. Troglitazone, a TZD, induces marbling adipogenesis without inhibiting myogenesis when cells are grown on laminin precoated culture dishes. Additionally, troglitazone treatment does not increase lipid content in porcine adipose tissue or muscle S-V cell cultures. Thiazolidinedione treatment increases lipid content of muscle in rodents and humans; however, rosiglitazone treatment for 49 d in pigs did not influence muscle lipid content and meat quality, but several significant changes in muscle fatty acid composition were observed. Although timing of treatment with TZD needs to be optimized, evidence suggests these compounds may enhance marbling deposition in swine.

  11. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Pecht

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient.We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65 undergoing elective abdominal surgery.Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05 and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05. Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men.Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  12. Increased visceral adipose tissue and altered adiposity distribution in premenopausal lupus patients: correlation with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, L P C; Paupitz, J A; Caparbo, V F; Bonfa, E; Pereira, R M R

    2018-01-01

    Objective Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and has never been assessed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to evaluate VAT in premenopausal SLE patients. Methods Sixty-three premenopausal SLE patients and 186 age-matched healthy women were included. Demographic, anthropometric, disease and treatment parameters were evaluated. VAT was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with APEX 4.0 software. Results SLE patients had a disease duration of 5.25 ± 3.80 years, SLEDAI activity score of 4.35 ± 5.13, SLICC/ACR-DI of 0.70 ± 0.80, current prednisone dose of 11.60 ± 12.10 mg/day and cumulative glucocorticoid dose of 22.34 ± 12.94 g. Overweight/obese SLE patients and controls had similar VAT parameters ( p > 0.05). Among individuals with BMI  0.05) but patients had higher values of VAT parameters (VAT mass: 260.60 ± 117.23 vs. 194.77 ± 71.42 g, p = 0.001; VAT area: 54.05 ± 24.30 vs. 40.40 ± 14.82 cm 2 , p = 0.001; VAT volume: 281.75 ± 126.81 vs. 210.61 ± 77.29 cm 3 , p = 0.001) and trunk/limb fat mass ratio (0.78 ± 0.21 vs. 0.67 ± 0.12, p = 0.002) compared to controls. In SLE, VAT area correlated with weight ( r = 0.66, p  0.05). Conclusion This study provides original evidence that SLE is associated with increased VAT and altered adiposity distribution. The correlation with traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of current glucocorticoid dose and disease activity, suggests the role of visceral fat as an additional tool for risk assessment in these young patients.

  13. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Karnieli E, Barzilai A, Rafaeloff R and Armoni M 1986 Distribution of glucose transporters in membrane fractions isolated from human adipose cells; relative to cell size; J. Clin. Invest. 78. 1051–1055. Li J, Hu X, Selvakumar P, Russell R R, Cushman S W, Holman. G D and Young L H 2004 Role of the nitric oxide pathway in.

  14. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  15. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2015-08-01

    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold

  16. Cross Talk between Adipose Tissue and Placenta in Obese and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancies via Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthini Jayabalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR. Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body’s major energy reservoir. The role of adipose tissue, however, is not restricted to a “bag of fat.” The adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, secreting various adipokines, enzymes, growth factors, and hormones that take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. In obesity, the greater portion of the adipose tissue comprises fat, and there is increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, macrophage infiltration, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Obesity contributes to systemic IR and its associated metabolic complications. Similar to adipose tissue, the placenta is also an endocrine organ. During pregnancy, the placenta secretes various molecules to maintain pregnancy physiology. In addition, the placenta plays an important role in metabolism and exchange of nutrients between mother and fetus. Inflammation at the placenta may contribute to the severity of maternal IR and her likelihood of developing GDM and may also mediate the adverse consequences of obesity and GDM on the fetus. Interestingly, studies on maternal insulin sensitivity and secretion of placental hormones have not shown a positive correlation between these phenomena. Recently, a great interest in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs has been observed in the literature. EVs are produced by a wide range of cells and are present in all biological fluids. EVs are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Recent evidence points to an association between

  17. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Yolanda F; Lundblad, Tammy M; Ford, Eric A; House, Lawrence M; McGuinness, Owen P

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior.

  18. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

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    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identifi cation of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more diffi cult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fl uid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that refl ect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower refl ection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fl uid collections. The features that facilitate proper identifi cation of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infi ltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identifi cation of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always

  19. Relationship between osteoporosis and adipose tissue leptin and osteoprotegerin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobeha, Pavol; Ukropec, Jozef; Skyba, Peter; Ukropcova, Barbara; Joppa, Pavol; Kurdiova, Timea; Javorsky, Martin; Klimes, Iwar; Tkac, Ivan; Gasperikova, Daniela; Tkacova, Ruzena

    2011-05-01

    The role of fat-bone interactions in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate expressions of leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the adipose tissue, and their relationships to osteoporosis in patients with COPD. In 39 patients with stable COPD, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition was assessed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Serum leptin was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bone turnover markers osteocalcin and β-crosslaps by the electrochemiluminiscence immunoassays. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were analyzed using real-time PCR. Twenty-one patients without, and 18 with osteoporosis were enrolled (35 men; age 62.2 ± 7.3years). Compared to patients without osteoporosis, those with the disease had significantly lower serum levels and adipose tissue expressions of leptin, in association with increased serum β-crosslaps (p=0.028, p=0.034, p=0.022, respectively). Log adipose tissue leptin was inversely related to serum β-crosslaps (p=0.015), and directly to serum leptin (pleptin and OPG expressions predicted femoral T-score independently of age, gender and pulmonary function (pleptin and OPG expressions. Our results suggest that adipose tissue leptin and OPG expressions are related to osteoporosis in patients with COPD, and appear to act as mediators between fat mass and BMD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Echocardiographic Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) Thickness and Angiographically Detected Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, G R; Roy, G C; Siddique, M A; Rahman, M; Ahmed, K; Nahar, F

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a particular form of visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart and there is growing evidence about the physiological and metabolic importance of EAT, especially in the association of cardiovascular risk profiles and the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. This observational, cross sectional study was done to determine the relationship between echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and coronary artery disease (CAD). Total 123 patients with established or suspected coronary artery disease admitted for coronary angiogram in the department of Cardiology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from November 2010 to the end of April 2011 were included in this study. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness measurements by echocardiography were compared with coronary angiographic findings. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness was significantly higher in patients with CAD in comparison to those with normal coronary arteries (6.67±2.24mm vs. 4.61±1.62mm; pEAT thickness increased with the severity of CAD (multi-vessel disease 7.99±2.12mm vs. single vessel disease 5.93±1.97mm; pEAT thickness (r=0.617, pEAT) thickness as a predictor of angiographic CAD was 6.44mm with 45.31% sensitivity and 92.86% specificity [ROC area 0.756, pEAT) thickness was significantly correlated with the presence and severity of angiographically detected coronary artery disease (CAD).

  1. Novel Role of Endogenous Catalase in Macrophage Polarization in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye Seul; Uddin, Md Jamal; Piao, Lingjuan; Hwang, Inah; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ha, Hunjoo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are important components of adipose tissue inflammation, which results in metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. Notably, obesity induces a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages, and oxidative stress facilitates this switch. Thus, we examined the role of endogenous catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress, in the activity of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice. Catalase knockout (CKO) exacerbated insulin resistance, amplified oxidative stress, and accelerated macrophage infiltration into epididymal white adipose tissue in mice on normal or high-fat diet. Interestingly, catalase deficiency also enhanced classical macrophage activation (M1) and inflammation but suppressed alternative activation (M2) regardless of diet. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of catalase activity using 3-aminotriazole induced the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Finally, the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory responses were observed in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from CKO mice. Taken together, the data indicate that endogenous catalase regulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages and thereby inhibits inflammation and insulin resistance.

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  3. A role of low dose chemical mixtures in adipose tissue in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R; Park, Ho Yong; Carpenter, David O

    2017-11-01

    The Halifax project recently hypothesized a composite carcinogenic potential of the mixture of low dose chemicals which are commonly encountered environmentally, yet which are not classified as human carcinogens. A long neglected but important fact is that adipose tissue is an important exposure source for chemical mixtures. In fact, findings from human studies based on several persistent organic pollutants in general populations with only background exposure should be interpreted from the viewpoint of chemical mixtures because serum concentrations of these chemicals can be seen as surrogates for chemical mixtures in adipose tissue. Furthermore, in conditions such as obesity with dysfunctional adipocytes or weight loss in which lipolysis is increased, the amount of the chemical mixture released from adipose tissue to circulation is increased. Thus, both obesity and weight loss can enhance the chance of chemical mixtures reaching critical organs, however paradoxical this idea may be when fat mass is the only factor considered. The complicated, interrelated dynamics of adipocytes and chemical mixtures can explain puzzling findings related to body weight among cancer patients, including the obesity paradox. The contamination of fat in human diet with chemical mixtures, occurring for reasons similar to contamination of human adipose tissue, may be a missing factor which affects the association between dietary fat intake and cancer. The presence of chemical mixtures in adipose tissue should be considered in future cancer research, including clinical trials on weight management among cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perivascular adipose tissue alleviates inflammatory factors and stenosis in diabetic blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjia; Liu, Xinnong; Ni, Leng; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Wenda; Shi, Tao; Liu, Xiu; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Adipose tissue can modulate disease processes in a depot-specific manner. However, the functional properties of perivascular adipocytes, and their influence on the pathophysiology of blood vessel walls, remain to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether perivascular adipose tissue could have an ameliorative effect on blood vessels damaged in diabetes. Using in vitro coculture, and in vivo transplantation model simulating diabetic angioplasty-induced injury, we showed that perivascular adipose tissue has an important function in protecting blood vessels from high glucose impairment. Levels of inflammatory cytokines, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and osteopontin, were markedly reduced, whereas that of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was markedly elevated in vascular walls. These depot-specific differences in blood vessels exposed to high levels of glucose were demonstrable both in vivo, with transplanted adipose tissues, and in vitro, when vascular endothelial cells were cocultured with adipocytes. In addition, intimal hyperplasia was also decreased by transplanted perivascular adipose tissue after balloon injury combined with hyperglycemia. We conclude that perivascular adipocytes can reduce inflammation in blood vessels and promote the normal function of endothelium, which could afford a new therapeutic strategy in vascular walls damaged by diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Biology and function of adipose tissue macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stoyan; Merlin, Johanna; Lee, Man Kit Sam; Murphy, Andrew J; Guinamard, Rodolphe R

    2018-04-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity and its socio-economical impact is a global health issue due to its associated co-morbidities, namely diabetes and cardiovascular disease [1-5]. Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue, which promotes the recruitment of immune cells resulting in low-grade inflammation and dysfunctional metabolism. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the adipose tissue of mice and humans. The adipose tissue also contains other myeloid cells (dendritic cells (DC) and neutrophils) and to a lesser extent lymphocyte populations, including T cells, B cells, Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells. While the majority of studies have linked adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) to the development of low-grade inflammation and co-morbidities associated with obesity, emerging evidence suggests for a role of other immune cells within the adipose tissue that may act in part by supporting macrophage homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the functions ATMs, DCs and B cells possess during steady-state and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue mitochondria is functionally thermogenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Petrovic, Natasa; de Jong, Jasper M A; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2013-12-12

    The phenomenon of white fat "browning," in which certain white adipose tissue depots significantly increase gene expression for the uncoupling protein UCP1 and thus supposedly acquire thermogenic, fat-burning properties, has attracted considerable attention. Because the mRNA increases are from very low initial levels, the metabolic relevance of the change is unclear: is the UCP1 protein thermogenically competent in these brite/beige-fat mitochondria? We found that, in mitochondria isolated from the inguinal "white" adipose depot of cold-acclimated mice, UCP1 protein levels almost reached those in brown-fat mitochondria. The UCP1 was thermogenically functional, in that these mitochondria exhibited UCP1-dependent thermogenesis with lipid or carbohydrate substrates with canonical guanosine diphosphate (GDP) sensitivity and loss of thermogenesis in UCP1 knockout (KO) mice. Obesogenic mouse strains had a lower thermogenic potential than obesity-resistant strains. The thermogenic density (UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption per g tissue) of inguinal white adipose tissue was maximally one-fifth of interscapular brown adipose tissue, and the total quantitative contribution of all inguinal mitochondria was maximally one-third of all interscapular brown-fat mitochondria, indicating that the classical brown adipose tissue depots would still predominate in thermogenesis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adipose tissue and muscle attenuation as novel biomarkers predicting mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veld, Joyce; Vossen, Josephina A.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A.; De Amorim Bernstein, Karen; Halpern, Elkan F.

    2016-01-01

    To assess CT-attenuation of abdominal adipose tissue and psoas muscle as predictors of mortality in patients with sarcomas of the extremities. Our study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 135 patients with history of extremity sarcoma (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) who underwent whole body PET/CT. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and psoas muscle attenuation (HU) was assessed on non-contrast, attenuation-correction CT. Clinical information including survival, tumour stage, sarcoma type, therapy and pre-existing comorbidities were recorded. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine longitudinal associations between adipose tissue and muscle attenuation and mortality. There were 47 deaths over a mean follow-up period of 20 ± 17 months. Higher SAT and lower psoas attenuation were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively), which remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, tumor stage, therapy, and comorbidities (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). VAT attenuation was not associated with mortality. Attenuation of SAT and psoas muscle, assessed on non-contrast CT, are predictors of mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas, independent of other established prognostic factors, suggesting that adipose tissue and muscle attenuation could serve as novel biomarkers for mortality in patients with sarcomas. (orig.)

  8. Adipose tissue and muscle attenuation as novel biomarkers predicting mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veld, Joyce; Vossen, Josephina A.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkan F. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute of Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To assess CT-attenuation of abdominal adipose tissue and psoas muscle as predictors of mortality in patients with sarcomas of the extremities. Our study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 135 patients with history of extremity sarcoma (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) who underwent whole body PET/CT. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and psoas muscle attenuation (HU) was assessed on non-contrast, attenuation-correction CT. Clinical information including survival, tumour stage, sarcoma type, therapy and pre-existing comorbidities were recorded. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine longitudinal associations between adipose tissue and muscle attenuation and mortality. There were 47 deaths over a mean follow-up period of 20 ± 17 months. Higher SAT and lower psoas attenuation were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively), which remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, tumor stage, therapy, and comorbidities (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). VAT attenuation was not associated with mortality. Attenuation of SAT and psoas muscle, assessed on non-contrast CT, are predictors of mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas, independent of other established prognostic factors, suggesting that adipose tissue and muscle attenuation could serve as novel biomarkers for mortality in patients with sarcomas. (orig.)

  9. Mechanical Activation of Adipose Tissue and Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Stephana; Colli, Mattia; Vinci, Valeriano; Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Marco; Gorio, Alfredo

    2018-01-16

    The adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory proteins, such as TNF, IL-6, and CXCL8. Most of their production occurs in macrophages that act as scavengers of dying adipocytes. The application of an orbital mechanical force for 6-10 min at 97 g to the adipose tissue, lipoaspirated and treated according to Coleman procedures, abolishes the expression of TNF-α and stimulates the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). This protein had protective and anti-inflammatory effects when applied to animal models of rheumatic diseases. We examined biopsy, lipoaspirate, and mechanically activated fat and observed that in addition to the increased TSG-6, Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 were also strongly augmented by mechanical activation, suggesting an effect on stromal cell stemness. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs), produced from activated fat, grow and differentiate normally with proper cell surface markers and chromosomal integrity, but their anti-inflammatory action is far superior compared to those mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from lipoaspirate. The expression and release of inflammatory cytokines from THP-1 cells was totally abolished in mechanically activated adipose tissue-derived hADSCs. In conclusion, we report that the orbital shaking of adipose tissue enhances its anti-inflammatory properties, and derived MSCs maintain such enhanced activity.

  10. Involvement of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Immunological Modulation of Inflammatory Cascade in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Naruse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is characterized by abnormal placentation, an exaggerated inflammatory response, and generalized dysfunction of the maternal endothelium. We investigated the effects of preeclampsia serum on the expression of inflammation-related genes by adipose tissue. Materials and Methods. Visceral adipose tissue was obtained from the omentum of patients with early ovarian cancer without metastasis. Adipose tissue was incubated with sera obtained from either five women affected with severe preeclampsia or five women from control pregnant women at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for 24 hours. 370 genes in total mRNA were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR (Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity gene set. Results. Gene expression analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of 30 genes in adipose tissue treated with preeclampsia sera. Some genes are related to immune response, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis, which plays a central role in excessive systemic inflammatory response of preeclampsia. In contrast, other genes have shown beneficial effects in the regulation of Th2 predominance, antioxidative stress, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion. In conclusion, visceral adipose tissue offers protection against inflammation, oxidative insults, and other forms of cellular stress that are central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  11. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  13. Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. T...

  14. Adipose tissue tumours in Port Harcourt: (a ten year review) | Seleye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Adipose tissue tumours are some of the commonest soft tissue tumours in this environment. Though not given much attention in medical practice and in literature, they pose cosmetic problems. The location and size of the tumour determined the symptoms which range from dyspnea to a feeling of fullness and ...

  15. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an oral...

  16. Effects of male hypogonadism on regional adipose tissue fatty acid storage and lipogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Santosa

    Full Text Available Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1 underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2 consumed an experimental meal containing [(3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation; 3 received infusions of [U-(13C]palmitate and [1-(14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (FFA storage (adipose biopsies. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS, and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05. Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans.

  17. Assumed non-persistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artacho-Cordón, F; Arrebola, J P; Nielsen, O

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from......) were detected in >40% of adipose tissue samples. In general, levels were similar between adipose tissue and serum, while a correlation between adipose tissue and urine was only found for BP-3. In conclusion, adipose tissue samples in this study were found to contain environmental chemicals considered...... to be non-persistent, whose levels were weakly or not at all correlated with the urine burden. Therefore, adipose tissue may potentially provide additional information to that obtained from other biological matrices. Further investigations are warranted to explore whether adipose tissue might be a suitable...

  18. Banking of Adipose- and Cord Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Technical and Regulatory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David T

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are found in all multicellular organisms and are defined as cells that can differentiate into specialized mature cells as well as divide to produce more stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were among the first stem cell types to be utilized for regenerative medicine. Although initially isolated from bone marrow, based on ease and costs of procurement, MSC derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSC) and umbilical cord tissue (CT-MSC) are now preferred stem cell sources for these applications. Both adipose tissues and cord tissue present unique problems for biobanking however, in that these are whole tissues, not cellular suspensions. Although the tissues could be processed to facilitate the biobanking process, by doing so additional regulatory issues arise that must be addressed. This review will discuss the technical issues associated with biobanking of these tissues, as well as regulatory concerns when banking of utilizing MSC derived from these sources in the clinic.

  19. Metabolic characteristics and therapeutic potential of brown and ‘beige’ adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Olegovna Koksharova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Diabetes Federation, 10.9 million people have diabetes mellitus (DM in Russia; however, only up to 4 million are registered. In addition, 11.9 million people have impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose levels [1].One of the significant risk factors for type 2 DM (T2DM is obesity, which increases insulin resistance (IR. IR is the major pathogenetic link to T2DM.According to current concepts, there are three types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT and ‘beige’, of which the last two types have a thermogenic function. Some research results have revealed the main stages in the development of adipocytes; however, there is no general consensus regarding the development of ‘beige’ adipocytes. Furthermore, the biology of BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue is currently being intensively investigated, and some key transcription factors, signalling pathways and hormones that promote the development and activation of these tissues have been identified. The most discussed hormones are irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21, which have established positive effects on BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue with regard to carbohydrate, lipid and energy metabolism. The primary imaging techniques used to investigate BAT are PET-CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.With respect to the current obesity epidemic and associated diseases, including T2DM, there is a growing interest in investigating adipogenesis and the possibility of altering this process. BAT and ‘beige’ adipose tissue may be targets for developing drugs directed against obesity and T2DM.

  20. Gender and obesity specific MicroRNA expression in adipose tissue from lean and obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette Juul

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention...... and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially...... expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six mi...

  1. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from...... receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation...

  2. Maternal nutrition induces gene expression changes in fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Wang, Xin; Rosa, Guilherme Jm; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-11-28

    Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce significant changes in the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring. These changes could have important implications on food animal production especially if these perturbations impact muscle and adipose tissue development. Here, we evaluated the impact of different maternal isoenergetic diets, alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), and dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat), on the transcriptome of fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep. Prepartum diets were associated with notable gene expression changes in fetal tissues. In longissimus dorsi muscle, a total of 224 and 823 genes showed differential expression (FDR ≤0.05) in fetuses derived from DG vs. CN and HY vs. CN maternal diets, respectively. Several of these significant genes affected myogenesis and muscle differentiation. In subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, 745 and 208 genes were differentially expressed (FDR ≤0.05), respectively, between CN and DG diets. Many of these genes are involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipose tissue development. Pathway analysis revealed that several GO terms and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR ≤0.05) with differentially expressed genes associated with tissue and organ development, chromatin biology, and different metabolic processes. These findings provide evidence that maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter the programming of fetal muscle and fat tissues in sheep. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes, in terms of postnatal growth, body composition, and meat quality of the offspring, warrant future investigation.

  3. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.