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Sample records for adipose derived stem

  1. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  2. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648613; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  3. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Future Regenerative System Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of disease. Despite the advances, the availability of stem cells remaining a challenge for both scientist and clinicians in pursuing regenerative medicine. CONTENT: Subcutaneous human adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible cell source for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Routinely, the adipose issue is digested with collagenase or related lytic enzymes to release a heterogeneous population for stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells. The SVF cells can be used directly or can be cultured in plastic ware for selection and expansion of an adherent population known as adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs. Their potential in the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and other mesenchymal lineages, as well in their other clinically useful properties, includes stimulation of angiogenesis and suppression of inflammation. SUMMARY: Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cels suitable for the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. KEYWORDS: adipose tissue, adult stem cells, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells.

  4. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  5. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feisst, Vaughan; Meidinger, Sarah; Locke, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage...

  6. COMPARISON OF HUMAN ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS AND BONE MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS IN A MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  7. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  8. Nanomechanics of human adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show gene expression of chondrogenic markers after three-dimensional cultivation. However, hypertrophy and osteogenic transdifferentiation are still limiting clinical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of small...... stem cells by single-cell elasticity measurements using atomic force microscopy. Results were matched with single-cell size measurements (diameter and volume) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic and hypertrophic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type X) as well...... a significantly lower deformability than chondrocytes (Young's modulus: 294.4 vs. 225.1 Pa; ANOVA: pstem cell elasticity to chondrocyte values (221.7 Pa). All other chondrogenic differentiated ASCs presented intermediate elasticity (BMP-2 stimulation: 269.1 Pa...

  9. Hypoxia promotes adipose-derived stem cell proliferation via VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are a promising mesenchymal stem cell source with therapeutic applications. Recent studies have shown that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from the stromal vascular fraction obtained from adipose tissue in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured under two conditions: hypoxia (5% O2 and normal oxygen (21% O2. The effects of the oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were examined by cell cycle and doubling time. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by the ELISA assay. The role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. We found that the ADSC proliferation rate was significantly higher under hypoxia compared with normoxia. In hypoxia, ADSCs also triggered VEGF expression. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggest that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation in association with VEGF production. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(1.000: 476-482

  10. Epigenetic programming of adipose-derived stem cells in low birthweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Olsson, Anders H; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with dysfunctions of adipose tissue and metabolic disease in adult life. We hypothesised that altered epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could play a role in programming adipose tissue dysfunction...

  11. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660076,SRX660075 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX312175,SRX312171 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660092,SRX660091 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660092,SRX660091 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX312175,SRX312171 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660075,SRX660076 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX312175,SRX312171 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660092,SRX660091 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Input control Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660091,SRX660092 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660076,SRX660075 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX312175,SRX312171 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose-Derived... Mesenchymal Stem Cells SRX660076,SRX660075 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  11. Immunomagnetic Separation of Fat Depot-Specific Sca1high Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (Ascs)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard H.; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is an important method in the field of adipose tissue biology, adipogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In vivo, ECM-rich environment consisting of fibrillar collagens provides a structural support to adipose tissues during the progression and regression of obesity. Physiological ECM remodeling mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a major role in regulating adipose tissue size and function1, 2. The loss of physio...

  12. Adult Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Attachment to Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Heather L; Reichert, William M; Klitzman, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Attachment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) to biomaterials prior to implantation is a possible strategy for mediating inflammation and wound healing. In this study, the ASC percent coverage was measured on common medical grade biosensor materials subjected to different surface treatments. Cell coverage on silicone elastomer (poly dimethylsiloxane) was below 20% for all surface treatments. Polyimide (Kapton), polyurethane (Pellethane) and tissue culture polystyrene all exhibited >50% coverage for surfaces treated with fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin plus avidin/biotin (dual ligand), and oxygen plasma plus fibronectin treatments (Fn O2). The fibronectin treatment performed as well or better on polyimide, polyurethane, and tissue culture polystyrene compared to the dual ligand and fibronectin oxygen plasma treated surfaces. Cell detachment with increasing shear stresses was <25% for each attachment method on both polyimide and polyurethane. The effects of attachment methods on the basic cell functions of proliferation, metabolism, ATP concentration, and caspase-3 activity were analyzed yielding proliferation profiles that were very similar among all of the materials. No significant differences in metabolism, intracellular ATP, or intracellular caspase-3 activity were observed for any of the attachment methods on either polyimide or polyurethane. PMID:17074385

  13. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...77 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...71 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...79 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...71 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose-Derived...kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose-Derived_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells.bed ...

  3. Transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into keratinocyte-like cells: engineering a stratified epidermis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Nguyen, Khang T; Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok-Jong; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    ... of inducing permanent satisfying replacements. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have been shown to differentiate in-vitro into both mesenchymal lineages and non-mesenchymal lineages, confirming their transdifferentiation ability...

  4. Novel therapy for pancreatic fistula using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hirokazu; Kokuryo, Toshio; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Shibata, Rei; Gotoh, Momokazu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ito, Akira; Nagino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Given that no studies have reported the use of adipose-derived stem cell sheets for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas, it is unclear whether adipose-derived stem cell sheets are effective at preventing this complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapy for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose. The rat pancreatic duct (splenic duct) and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma were transected to induce a pancreatic fistula. Adipose-derived stem cell sheets with or without mannose treatment were attached to the pancreatic transection stump. Amylase and lipase levels were measured in both the ascites and serum. The expression of 40 cytokines in human adipose-derived stem cells with and without mannose treatment was investigated using a multiplex assay. The adipose-derived stem cell sheets remained at the initial attachment site at 48 hours after operation. Macroscopically, more severe degeneration and adhesion in the peritoneal cavity were observed in the untreated rats than in the rats treated with adipose-derived stem cell sheets. The levels of ascitic amylase in the untreated, adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-treated, and adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-with-mannose-treated rats were 10.7 ± 2.9 × 10 4 U/L, 2.6 ± 0.9 × 10 4 U/L, and 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10 4 U/L, respectively. The levels of ascitic lipase in the untreated, adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-treated and adipose-derived stem cell-sheet-with-mannose-treated rats were 9.5 ± 2.9 × 10 3 U/L, 4.0 ± 3.3 × 10 3 U/L, and 0.4 ± 0.2 × 10 3 U/L, respectively. Significant differences were found in both the ascitic and serum levels of amylase and lipase between the untreated rats and the rats treated with adipose-derived stem cell sheets with mannose (P derived stem cells treated with mannose than in human adipose-derived stem cells treated without mannose. Adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated

  5. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  6. Investigating the mincing method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from pregnant women fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Pao-Jen; Wu, Li-Wei; Chou, Pei-Wen; Sun, Li-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2017-12-12

    The success of stem cell application in regenerative medicine, usually require a stable source of stem or progenitor cells. Fat tissue represents a good source of stem cells because it is rich in stem cells and there are fewer ethical issues related to the use of such stem cells, unlike embryonic stem cells. Therefore, there has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, we aim to provide an easy processing method for isolating adult stem cells from human adipose tissue harvested from the subcutaneous fat of the abdominal wall during gynecologic surgery. We used a homogenizer to mince fat and compared the results with those obtained from the traditional cut method involving a sterile scalpel and forceps. Our results showed that our method provides another stable and quality source of stem cells that could be used in cases with a large quantity of fat. Furthermore, we found that pregnancy adipose-derived stem cells (P-ADSCs) could be maintained in vitro for extended periods with a stable population doubling and low senescence levels. P-ADSCs could also differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and insulin-producing cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, like human lipoaspirates, adipose tissues obtained from pregnant women contain multipotent cells with better proliferation and showed great promise for use in both stem cell banking studies as well as in stem cell therapy.

  7. Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Wound Healing: A Clinical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalp Uzun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review clinical studies on the use of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic wounds. A search on PubMed was performed on April 30th, 2014 to identify the relevant clinical studies. We reviewed 13 articles that reported the use adipose derived stem cells in the treatment of different types of wounds. Adipose derived stem cells have the potential to be used in the treatment of chronic wounds. However, standard methods for isolation, storage and application of these cells are needed. New materials to transfer these stem cells to injured tissues should be investigated. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 57-64

  8. The effect of medium selection on adipose-derived stem cell expansion and differentiation: implications for application in regenerative medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roxburgh, J; Metcalfe, A D; Martin, Y H

    2016-01-01

    The use of adipose-derived stem cells is wide-spread in both basic biology and regenerative medicine, due to the abundance of adipose tissue and the multipotent differentiation potential of the cells...

  9. Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Reparative Potential in Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badimon, Lina; Oñate, Blanca; Vilahur, Gemma

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue has long been considered an energy storage and endocrine organ; however, in recent decades, this tissue has also been considered an abundant source of mesenchymal cells. Adipose-derived stem cells are easily obtained, show a strong capacity for ex vivo expansion and differentiation to other cell types, release a large variety of angiogenic factors, and have immunomodulatory properties. Thus, adipose tissue is currently the focus of considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine. In the context of coronary heart disease, numerous experimental studies have supported the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells in the setting of myocardial infarction. These results have encouraged the clinical use of these stem cells, possibly prematurely. Indeed, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, alter and reduce the functionality of adipose-derived stem cells, putting in doubt the efficacy of their autologous implantation. In the present article, white adipose tissue is described, the stem cells found in this tissue are characterized, and the use of these cells is discussed according to the preclinical and clinical trials performed so far. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipose-derived stem cells - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This book is pleasing the reader already by the Authors’ preface. It is one in a million case to find a figure or a graph in the foreword presentation of a book. Here, Professors Gimble and Bunnell decided to give a warning to the reader about the increasing relevance that the topics covered by the book is playing in the life sciences researches: they simply decided to show the ISI Web of knowledge annual publications and citations for adipose stem cells. Clear enough, the statistics is impressive: few papers in 2000, nearly 600 in 2009 and 2010. The same pattern is present in the citations per year, quite a few in 2000 – 2001 and something like 12,000 in 2010 ! I think that these numbers justify the idea to have a volume devoted to cover all of the topics related to these intriguing stem cell type, likely originating from a perivascular histological niche within highly vascularized fat tissue. The book is divided in four parts.......

  11. Odontogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells for tooth regeneration: necessity, possibility, and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Ling; Lin, Yunfeng; Liu, Lei; Tang, Wei; Tian, Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Tooth regeneration using tissue engineering concepts is a promising biological approach to solving problems of tooth loss in elderly patients. The seeding cells, however, for tooth regeneration such as odontoblasts from dental germ, stem cells from dental pulp and deciduous teeth, and ectomesenchymal cells from the first branchial arch are difficult, even impossible to harvest in clinic. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have odontogenic capacity, but their differentiation abilities significantly decrease with the increasing age of the donors. Therefore, the cells mentioned above are not practical in the clinical application of tooth regeneration in the old. Adipose derived stem cells have many clinical advantages over bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and their differentiation potential can be maintained with aging. Here we propose the hypothesis that adipose derived stem cells could be induced into odontogenic lineage and might be used as suitable seeding cells for tooth regeneration to replace the lost tooth of elderly patients.

  12. Mechanical characterization of living and dead undifferentiated human adipose-derived stem cells by using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kexiang; Zhao, Feihu; Wang, Qingkang

    2013-12-01

    In this article, to map the mechanical properties of undifferentiated human adipose-derived stem cells, local mechanical characterization is carried out on the adipose-derived stem cells. In addition, to distinguish the living and dead human adipose-derived stem cells, mechanical characterization is also implemented on both living and dead adipose-derived stem cells. In this study, Young's modulus of the cell membrane is used for representing the mechanical properties of cells. To obtain Young's modulus of cell membrane, the force-spectroscopy mode of atomic force microscopy is employed to measure the atomic force microscopy tip indentation depth and force on the cells. Then, Young's modulus is obtained through fitting these experimental data to the Hertzian contact mechanics model. The global Young's moduli of living and dead undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells are about 1.27 and 18.61 kPa, respectively. This displays obvious gap of Young's modulus between the living and dead undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Finally, comparison of the local Young's modulus shows deviation of the local Young's modulus for either living or dead undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells, and the root-mean-square errors of the global Young's modulus of living and dead undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells are about 0.48 and 5.05 kPa, respectively.

  13. Immunomagnetic Separation of Fat Depot-specific Sca1high Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard H; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2016-08-11

    The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is an important method in the field of adipose tissue biology, adipogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In vivo, ECM-rich environment consisting of fibrillar collagens provides a structural support to adipose tissues during the progression and regression of obesity. Physiological ECM remodeling mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a major role in regulating adipose tissue size and function(1,2). The loss of physiological collagenolytic ECM remodeling may lead to excessive collagen accumulation (tissue fibrosis), macrophage infiltration, and ultimately, a loss of metabolic homeostasis including insulin resistance(3,4). When a phenotypic change of the adipose tissue is observed in gene-targeted mouse models, isolating primary ASCs from fat depots for in vitro studies is an effective approach to define the role of the specific gene in regulating the function of ASCs. In the following, we define an immunomagnetic separation of Sca1(high) ASCs.

  14. Comparison of Endothelial Differentiation Capacities of Human and Rat Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbay, Hakan; Devi, Kamaljit; Williams, Priscilla A; Dehghani, Tima; Silva, Eduardo A; Sahar, David E

    2016-12-01

    The authors compared the endothelial differentiation capacities of human and rat adipose-derived stem cells to determine whether human adipose-derived stem cells can be a source of endothelial cells clinically. Human and rat adipose-derived stem cells were harvested and characterized with flow cytometry and trilineage differentiation. Cells from passages III through V were fed with endothelial cell differentiation medium for up to 3 weeks. Cells were harvested after 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and endothelial differentiation was evaluated with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and angiogenic sprouting assays. Both human and rat adipose-derived stem cells were CD90, CD44, and CD31 before differentiation. The cells were successfully differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Expression of endothelial cell-specific genes peaked at the second week of differentiation in both human and rat cells. The fold changes in expression of CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, nitric oxide synthase, and von Willebrand factor genes at week 2 were 0.4 ± 0.1, 34.7 ± 0.3, 2.03 ± 0.25, and 12.5 ± 0.3 respectively, in human adipose-derived stem cells; and 1.5 ± 1.01, 21.6 ± 1.7, 17.9 ± 0.6, and 11.2 ± 1.3, respectively, in rat cells. The percentages of CD31 cells were 0.2, 0.64, and 1.6 in human cell populations and 0.5, 5.91, and 11.5 in rat cell populations at weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Rat adipose-derived stem cell-derived endothelial cells displayed enhanced sprouting capability compared with the human cells. Human adipose-derived stem cells responded less strongly to EGM-2MV endothelial differentiation medium than did the rat cells. Still, the human cells have the potential to become a clinical source of endothelial cells with modifications in the differentiation conditions.

  15. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Labeled with Plasmonic Gold Nanostars for Cellular Tracking and Photothermal Cancer Cell Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Ronnie L; Fales, Andrew M; Crawford, Bridget M; Wisdom, Amy J; Devi, Gayathri R; Brown, David A; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hollenbeck, Scott T

    2017-04-01

    Gold nanostars are unique nanoplatforms that can be imaged in real time and transform light energy into heat to ablate cells. Adipose-derived stem cells migrate toward tumor niches in response to chemokines. The ability of adipose-derived stem cells to migrate and integrate into tumors makes them ideal vehicles for the targeted delivery of cancer nanotherapeutics. To test the labeling efficiency of gold nanostars, undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells were incubated with gold nanostars and a commercially available nanoparticle (Qtracker), then imaged using two-photon photoluminescence microscopy. The effects of gold nanostars on cell phenotype, proliferation, and viability were assessed with flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolic assay, and trypan blue, respectively. Trilineage differentiation of gold nanostar-labeled adipose-derived stem cells was induced with the appropriate media. Photothermolysis was performed on adipose-derived stem cells cultured alone or in co-culture with SKBR3 cancer cells. Efficient uptake of gold nanostars occurred in adipose-derived stem cells, with persistence of the luminescent signal over 4 days. Labeling efficiency and signal quality were greater than with Qtracker. Gold nanostars did not affect cell phenotype, viability, or proliferation, and exhibited stronger luminescence than Qtracker throughout differentiation. Zones of complete ablation surrounding the gold nanostar-labeled adipose-derived stem cells were observed following photothermolysis in both monoculture and co-culture models. Gold nanostars effectively label adipose-derived stem cells without altering cell phenotype. Once labeled, photoactivation of gold nanostar-labeled adipose-derived stem cells ablates neighboring cancer cells, demonstrating the potential of adipose-derived stem cells as a vehicle for the delivery of site-specific cancer therapy.

  16. Antiinflammatory and chondroprotective effects of intraarticular injection of adipose-derived stem cells in experimental osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Huurne, M.; Schelbergen, R.F.P.; Blattes, R.; Blom, A.; de Munter, W.; Grevers, L.C.; Jeanson, J.; Noel, D.; Casteilla, L.; Jorgensen, C.; Berg, W.B. van den; van Lent, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In experimental collagenase-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the mouse, synovial lining macrophages are crucial in mediating joint destruction. It was recently shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) express immunosuppressive characteristics. This study was undertaken to explore the

  17. Chondrogenesis of adipose-derived adult stem cells in a poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Zwingmann, Jorn; Finkenzeller, Guenter

    2009-01-01

    Adult adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are considered to be an alternative cell source for cell-based cartilage repair because of their multiple differentiation potentials. This article addresses the chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs seeded into poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) scaffolds after...

  18. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David D; Kisiday, John D; Kawcak, Chris E; Werpy, Natasha M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intraarticular administered adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in the middle carpal joint of all horses, the contralateral joint being sham-operated. All horses received treatment on Day 14. Eight horses received placebo treatment and eight horses received adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in their osteoarthritis-affected joint. The final eight horses were treated the in osteoarthritis-affected joint with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Evaluations included clinical, radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross, histologic, histochemical, and biochemical evaluations. No adverse treatment-related events were observed. The model induced a significant change in all but two parameters, no significant treatment effects were demonstrated, with the exception of improvement in synovial fluid effusion PGE2 levels with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to placebo. A greater improvement was seen with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and placebo treatment. Overall, the findings of this study were not significant enough to recommend the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis represented in this model.

  19. Implant for autologous soft tissue reconstruction using an adipose-derived stem cell-colonized alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Tobias; Laemmle, Christine; Behr, Bjoern; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Jacobsen, Frank; Hoefer, Dirk; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells represent an interesting option for soft tissue replacement as they are easy to procure and can generate their own blood supply through the production of angiogenic factors. We seeded adipose-derived stem cells on a bioresorbable, biocompatible polymer alginate scaffold to generate autologous soft tissue constructs for repair. We built and optimized an alginate scaffold and tested its biocompatibility using the MTT assay and its hydration capacity. We then isolated, characterized, and differentiated murine, porcine, and human adipose-derived stem cells. We characterized their angiogenic potential in vitro by VEGF ELISA and HUVEC tube formation assay in traditional cell culture substrate and in the actual three-dimensional scaffold. We assessed the angiogenic potential of adipose-derived stem cell-colonized scaffolds in ovo by chorion allantois membrane angiogenesis assay. Adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into adipocytes within the alginate scaffolds and demonstrated angiogenic activity. VEGF secretion by adipose-derived stem cells decreased significantly over the 21-day course of adipocyte differentiation in traditional cell culture substrate, but not in scaffolds. Adipose-derived stem cells differentiated for 21 days in scaffolds led to the longest HUVEC tube formation. Scaffolds colonized with adipose-derived stem cells resulted in significantly improved vascularization in ovo. We demonstrate the feasibility of implant production based on adipose-derived stem cell-colonized alginate scaffolds. The implants demonstrate biocompatibility and promote angiogenesis in vitro and in ovo. Therefore, they provide a combination of essential properties for an implant intended for soft tissue replacement. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel: A Novel Adipose Tissue-Derived Injectable for Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, Ziqing; Liao, Yunjun; Zhang, Pan; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells and other stromal vascular fraction cells were used more often for stem cell therapy, even though limitations such as poor cell retention rate, complicated and expensive isolation processes, and the use of specific laboratory equipment need to be overcome. Here, the authors developed a novel but simple method for generating an injectable mixture of stromal vascular fraction cells and native adipose extracellular matrix. It is a purely mechanical process in which lipoaspirate is processed into an extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel. The standard processing procedure was established using quantized tests. The therapeutic potential of the product for wound healing was then tested. Extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel derived from lipoaspirate and processed using a standard Coleman technique, followed by 1 minute of mechanical processing by passage back and forth between two 10-ml syringes at a flow rate of 10 ml/second, showed the highest adipose-derived stem cell and endothelial cell density. The stromal vascular fraction cells within the product also showed potential for multipotent differentiation similar to that of normal fat samples. In addition, the product showed better therapeutic results than stromal vascular fraction cell suspension when used to treat a nude mouse model of wound healing. Extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel is an autologous injectable derived from native extracellular matrix and is a functional cellular component generated using a simple mechanical process. As such, it may offer a novel mode of tissue repair suitable for clinical application in stem cell therapies.

  1. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Cocultured with Chondrocytes Promote the Proliferation of Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage injury and defect caused by trauma and chronic osteoarthritis vascularity are very common, while the repair of injured cartilage remains a great challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Stem cell-based tissue engineering provides a promising treatment option for injured articular cartilage because of the cells potential for multiple differentiations. However, its application has been largely limited by stem cell type, number, source, proliferation, and differentiation. We hypothesized that (1 adipose-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells for articular cartilage repair because of their accessibility and abundance and (2 the microenvironment of articular cartilage could induce adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes. In order to test our hypotheses, we isolated stem cells from rabbit adipose tissues and cocultured these ADSCs with rabbit articular cartilage chondrocytes. We found that when ADSCs were cocultured with chondrocytes, the proliferation of articular cartilage chondrocytes was promoted, the apoptosis of chondrocytes was inhibited, and the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs was enhanced. The study on the mechanism of this coculture system indicated that the role of this coculture system is similar to the function of TGF-β1 in the promotion of chondrocytes.

  2. The 6-chromanol derivate SUL-109 enables prolonged hypothermic storage of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajmousa, Ghazaleh; Vogelaar, Pieter; Brouwer, Linda A.; Graaf, Adrianus Cornelis van der; Henning, Robert H.; Krenning, Guido

    Encouraging advances in cell therapy research with adipose derived stem cells (ASC) require an effective short-term preservation method that provides time for quality control and transport of cells from their manufacturing facility to their clinical destination. Hypothermic storage of cells in their

  3. Adipose stem cell-derived nanovesicles inhibit emphysema primarily via an FGF2-dependent pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sun; Kim, Ji-Young; Cho, RyeonJin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy using stem cells has produced therapeutic benefits in animal models of COPD. Secretory mediators are proposed as one mechanism for stem cell effects because very few stem cells engraft after injection into recipient animals. Recently, nanovesicles that overcome the disadvantages of natural exosomes have been generated artificially from cells. We generated artificial nanovesicles from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using sequential penetration through polycarbonate membranes. ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles displayed a 100 nm-sized spherical shape similar to ASC-derived natural exosomes and expressed both exosomal and stem cell markers. The proliferation rate of lung epithelial cells was increased in cells treated with ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles compared with cells treated with ASC-derived natural exosomes. The lower dose of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles had similar regenerative capacity compared with a higher dose of ASCs and ASC-derived natural exosomes. In addition, FGF2 levels in the lungs of mice treated with ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles were increased. The uptake of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles was inhibited by heparin, which is a competitive inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is associated with FGF2 signaling. Taken together, the data indicate that lower doses of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles may have beneficial effects similar to higher doses of ASCs or ASC-derived natural exosomes in an animal model with emphysema, suggesting that artificial nanovesicles may have economic advantages that warrant future clinical studies. PMID:28082743

  4. Adipose stem cell-derived nanovesicles inhibit emphysema primarily via an FGF2-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sun; Kim, Ji-Young; Cho, RyeonJin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2017-01-13

    Cell therapy using stem cells has produced therapeutic benefits in animal models of COPD. Secretory mediators are proposed as one mechanism for stem cell effects because very few stem cells engraft after injection into recipient animals. Recently, nanovesicles that overcome the disadvantages of natural exosomes have been generated artificially from cells. We generated artificial nanovesicles from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using sequential penetration through polycarbonate membranes. ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles displayed a 100 nm-sized spherical shape similar to ASC-derived natural exosomes and expressed both exosomal and stem cell markers. The proliferation rate of lung epithelial cells was increased in cells treated with ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles compared with cells treated with ASC-derived natural exosomes. The lower dose of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles had similar regenerative capacity compared with a higher dose of ASCs and ASC-derived natural exosomes. In addition, FGF2 levels in the lungs of mice treated with ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles were increased. The uptake of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles was inhibited by heparin, which is a competitive inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is associated with FGF2 signaling. Taken together, the data indicate that lower doses of ASC-derived artificial nanovesicles may have beneficial effects similar to higher doses of ASCs or ASC-derived natural exosomes in an animal model with emphysema, suggesting that artificial nanovesicles may have economic advantages that warrant future clinical studies.

  5. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  6. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells: Tissue Localization, Characterization, and Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Baer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue as a stem cell source is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources. It is easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (ASCs yields a high amount of stem cells, which is essential for stem-cell-based therapies and tissue engineering. Several studies have provided evidence that ASCs in situ reside in a perivascular niche, whereas the exact localization of ASCs in native adipose tissue is still under debate. ASCs are isolated by their capacity to adhere to plastic. Nevertheless, recent isolation and culture techniques lack standardization. Cultured cells are characterized by their expression of characteristic markers and their capacity to differentiate into cells from meso-, ecto-, and entodermal lineages. ASCs possess a high plasticity and differentiate into various cell types, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, hepatocytes, neural cells, and endothelial and epithelial cells. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that ASCs are a heterogeneous mixture of cells containing subpopulations of stem and more committed progenitor cells. This paper summarizes and discusses the current knowledge of the tissue localization of ASCs in situ, their characterization and heterogeneity in vitro, and the lack of standardization in isolation and culture methods.

  7. Adipose Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Viability and Differentiating Features for Orthopaedic Reparative Applications: Banking of Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Roato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of articular cartilage also due to reduced chondrogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from patients. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs (ATD-MSCs, representing an effective tool for reparative medicine, particularly for treatment of osteoarthritis, due to their chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capability. The treatment of symptomatic knee arthritis with ATD-MSCs proved effective with a single infusion, but multiple infusions could be also more efficacious. Here we studied some crucial aspects of adipose tissue banking procedures, evaluating ATD-MSCs viability, and differentiation capability after cryopreservation, to guarantee the quality of the tissue for multiple infusions. We reported that the presence of local anesthetic during lipoaspiration negatively affects cell viability of cryopreserved adipose tissue and cell growth of ATD-MSCs in culture. We observed that DMSO guarantees a faster growth of ATD-MSCs in culture than trehalose. At last, ATD-MSCs derived from fresh and cryopreserved samples at −80°C and −196°C showed viability and differentiation ability comparable to fresh samples. These data indicate that cryopreservation of adipose tissue at −80°C and −196°C is equivalent and preserves the content of ATD-MSCs in Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF, guaranteeing the differentiation ability of ATD-MSCs.

  8. Clinical Grade Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, our aim was to produce a generation of GMP-grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications. According to our results, we fulfill to establish consistent and also reproducible current good manufacturing practice (cGMP compliant adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from five female donors. The isolated cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and characterized by standard methods. Moreover, karyotyping was performed to evaluate chromosomal stability. Mean of donors’ age was 47.6 ± 8.29 year, mean of cell viability was 95.6 ± 1.51%, and cell count was between 9×106 and 14×106 per microliter with the mean of 12.2×106 ± 2863564.21 per microliter. The main aim of this project was demonstrating the feasibility of cGMP-compliant and clinical grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells preparation and banking for clinical cell transplantation trials.

  9. Adipose-derived stem-cell treatment of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Ramon; Bagno, Luiza de Lima E Silva; Ribeiro, Marcelo Baldanza; Robottom Ferreira, Anna Beatriz; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Kasai-Brunswick, Taís Hanae; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antônio Carlos; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; Saar Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2012-04-04

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adipose-derived stem cells could contribute to skeletal muscle-healing. Adipose-derived stem cells of male rats were cultured and injected into the soleus muscles of female rats. Two and four weeks after injections, muscles were tested for tetanic force (50 Hz). Histological analysis was performed to evaluate muscle collagen deposition and the number of centronucleated muscle fibers. In order to track donor cells, chimerism was detected with use of real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the male sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene. Two weeks after cell injection, tetanus strength and the number of centronucleated regenerating myofibers, as well as the number of centronucleated regenerating myofibers, were higher in the treated group than they were in the control group (mean and standard error of the mean, 79.2 ± 5.0% versus 58.3 ± 8.1%, respectively [p muscle repair and force at two weeks, but not four weeks, after injection, suggesting that adipose-derived stem-cell administration may accelerate muscle repair; however, the rapid disappearance of injected cells suggests a paracrine mechanism of action.

  10. Original Research: Adipose-derived stem cells from younger donors, but not aging donors, inspire the host self-healing capability through its secreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Qiao, Chenhui; Zhang, Weihua; Luo, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Donghai; Zang, Suhua; Zhang, Liang; Bai, Jingyun

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells demonstrate promising effects in promoting cutaneous wound healing, but the mechanisms are still not well defined and contradictory views are still debatable. In the present research, we established a mouse cutaneous wound model and investigated the effects of adipose-derived stem cells in wound healing. Adipocyte, adipose-derived stem cells, and epidermal keratinocyte stem cells were isolated from younger and aged donors according to the standard protocol. The conditioned medium either from adipose-derived stem cells or from adipocytes was used to treat epidermal keratinocyte cells. The results showed that adipocytes or adipose-derived stem cells isolated from younger donors demonstrated mild advantage over those cells isolated from aging donors. Adipose-derived stem cells showed stronger stimuli than adipocytes, and the adipose-derived stem cells or adipocytes from younger donors enabled to support higher growth rate of keratinocyte stem cells. The invasion of vasculature was observed at day 10 after posttransplantation in the mice bearing the keratinocyte stem cells or combination of keratinocyte stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells; however, simply inoculating keratinocyte stem cells from aging donors did not result in vasculature formation. Adipose-derived stem cells isolated from younger donors were able to inspire the host's self-healing capabilities, and age-associated factors should be taken into consideration when designing a feasible therapeutic treatment for skin regeneration. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a mesenchymal stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. Compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs, ASCs can be derived from more sources and are harvested more easily. Three-dimensional (3D tissue engineering scaffolds are better able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment, which benefits the localization, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. Therefore, tissue-engineered ASCs are recognized as an attractive substitute for tissue and organ transplantation. In this paper, we review the characteristics of ASCs, as well as the biomaterials and tissue engineering methods used to proliferate and differentiate ASCs in a 3D environment. Clinical applications of tissue-engineered ASCs are also discussed to reveal the potential and feasibility of using tissue-engineered ASCs in regenerative medicine.

  12. Potential of Adipose-derived stem cells in muscular regenerative therapies

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    Sonia eForcales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles resides in satellite cells, a self-renewing population of muscle cells. Several studies are investigating epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenic proliferation and differentiation to find new approaches that could boost regeneration of endogenous myogenic progenitor populations. In recent years, a lot of effort has been applied to purify, expand and manipulate adult stem cells from muscle tissue. However, this population of endogenous myogenic progenitors in adults is limited and their access is difficult and invasive. Therefore, other sources of stem cells with potential to regenerate muscles need to be examined. An excellent candidate could be a population of adult stromal cells within fat characterized by mesenchymal properties, which have been termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications. This review will discuss the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

  13. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation

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    Adila A Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction. RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction. CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adiposederived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  14. Tissue Source and Cell Expansion Condition Influence Phenotypic Changes of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Lauren H. Mangum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells derived from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of debrided burned skin represent an appealing source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs for regenerative medicine. Traditional tissue culture uses fetal bovine serum (FBS, which complicates utilization of ASCs in human medicine. Human platelet lysate (hPL is one potential xeno-free, alternative supplement for use in ASC culture. In this study, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in media supplemented with 10% FBS or 10% hPL was compared in human ASCs derived from abdominoplasty (HAP or from adipose associated with debrided burned skin (BH. Most (95–99% cells cultured in FBS were stained positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD142. FBS supplementation was associated with increased triglyceride content and expression of adipogenic genes. Culture in hPL significantly decreased surface staining of CD105 by 31% and 48% and CD142 by 27% and 35% in HAP and BH, respectively (p<0.05. Culture of BH-ASCs in hPL also increased expression of markers of osteogenesis and increased ALP activity. These data indicate that application of ASCs for wound healing may be influenced by ASC source as well as culture conditions used to expand them. As such, these factors must be taken into consideration before ASCs are used for regenerative purposes.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Modulation of T-Cell Regulation Correlates with Heme Oxgenase-1 Pathway Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yung-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wu, Yi-Chia; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lee, Su-Shin; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw; Wang, Ching-Jen; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2016-11-01

    The authors' previous proteome study revealed that haptoglobin was involved in adipose-derived stem cell modulation of allotransplant survival and T-cell regulation to induce immune tolerance. This study investigated whether adipose-derived stem cells could modulate T-cell regulation through haptoglobin and the downstream heme oxgenase-1 pathway in vitro. Splenocytes were isolated from Lewis rat spleens and then CD3 T cells were purified using anti-CD3 beads. Adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from Lewis rats and co-cultured with the T cells. After Transwell co-culture at different periods, the authors analyzed cell proliferation with a bromodeoxyuridine assay. Cell extractions and culture supernatants were collected for further analysis. Heme oxgenase-1 and related protein expression levels from the adipose-derived stem cells and T cells were detected using Western blotting. The related cytokine expression levels were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Flow cytometry was used to detect the regulatory T-cell proportion. The adipose-derived stem cells significantly suppressed T-cell proliferation. The regulatory T-cell percentages were significantly increased in the adipose-derived stem cells that were co-cultured with T cells compared with T cells alone without adipose-derived stem cell co-culture. Heme oxgenase-1 expression in concanavalin A-stimulated T cells that were co-cultured with adipose-derived stem cells revealed a significant increase compared with concanavalin A-stimulated T cells alone. Cytokine assays of the culture supernatants revealed that transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10 were significantly increased and interferon-γ was statistically decreased in the adipose-derived stem cell-co-cultured T-cell group compared with other groups; however, blockade with a heme oxgenase-1 inhibitor (zinc protoporphyrin IX) protected against these changes. Adipose-derived stem cells modulate T-cell proliferation and enhance

  16. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen

    2009-01-01

    adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta......In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent......-agonists and atrial natriuretic peptide, and release of adiponectin and leptin. Herein, we show that, upon chronic exposure to a specific PPARgamma but not to a PPARbeta/delta or a PPARalpha agonist, hMADS cell-derived white adipocytes are able to switch to a brown phenotype by expressing both uncoupling protein one...

  17. Adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into platelet-rich plasma improved bone regeneration and maturation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ariadne Cristiane Cabral; Caon, Thiago; Menin, Álvaro; Granato, Rodrigo; Boabaid, Fernanda; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Some cases of tooth loss related to dental trauma require bone-grafting procedures to improve the aesthetics before prosthetic rehabilitation or to enable the installation of dental implants. Bone regeneration is often a challenge and could be largely improved by mesenchymal stem cells therapy. However, the appropriate scaffold for these cells still a problem. This study evaluated the in vivo effect of human adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into autogenous platelet-rich plasma in bone regeneration and maturation. Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from lipoaspirate tissues and used at passage 4. Immunophenotyping and multilineage differentiation of cells were performed and mesenchymal stem cells characteristics confirmed. Bicortical bone defects (10 mm diameter) were created in the tibia of six beagle dogs to evaluate the effect of adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into platelet-rich plasma scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma alone, autogenous bone grafts, and clot. Samples were removed 6 weeks postsurgeries and analyzed by quantification of primary and secondary bone formation and granulation tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into platelet-rich plasma scaffolds promoted the highest bone formation (primary + secondary bone) (P platelet-rich plasma scaffolds promote more bone formation and maturation, and less granulation tissue in bone defects created in canine tibia. Therefore, platelet-rich plasma can be considered as a candidate scaffold for adipose-derived stem cells to promote bone regeneration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy.

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    Thomas A Mendel

    Full Text Available Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR, threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy.We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area. ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction. Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection.ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of retinal vasculopathy. The pericyte phenotype demonstrated

  19. Efficacy of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Neonatal Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Naser; Vousooghi, Nasim; Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Mousavi, Neda; Safakheil, Hosein; Jafari, Leila; Sarveazad, Arash; Yari, Abazar; Ramezani, Sara; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-05-01

    Kernicterus is a neurological syndrome associated with indirect bilirubin accumulation and damages to the basal ganglia, cerebellum and brain stem nuclei particularly the cochlear nucleus. To mimic haemolysis in a rat model such that it was similar to what is observed in a preterm human, we injected phenylhydrazine in 7-day-old rats to induce haemolysis and then infused sulfisoxazole into the same rats at day 9 to block bilirubin binding sites in the albumin. We have investigated the effectiveness of human adiposity-derived stem cells as a therapeutic paradigm for perinatal neuronal repair in a kernicterus animal model. The level of total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, brain bilirubin and brain iron was significantly increased in the modelling group. There was a significant decreased in all severity levels of the auditory brainstem response test in the two modelling group. Akinesia, bradykinesia and slip were significantly declined in the experience group. Apoptosis in basal ganglia and cerebellum were significantly decreased in the stem cell-treated group in comparison to the vehicle group. All severity levels of the auditory brainstem response tests were significantly decreased in 2-month-old rats. Transplantation results in the substantial alleviation of walking impairment, apoptosis and auditory dysfunction. This study provides important information for the development of therapeutic strategies using human adiposity-derived stem cells in prenatal brain damage to reduce potential sensori motor deficit.

  20. Adipose-derived stem cells on hyaluronic acid-derived scaffold: a new horizon in bioengineered cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espandar, Ladan; Bunnell, Bruce; Wang, Guo Yong; Gregory, Paula; McBride, Christine; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of human adipose-derived stem cells (h-ASCs) to survive and differentiate in corneal stroma. Our experiment consisted of 2 phases. First, we cultured h-ASCs in different types of hyaluronic acid (HA)-derived synthetic extracellular matrixes (sECMs) to determine the capability of proliferation and survival of the cells in hydrogels. Second, h-ASCs were grown in plastic flasks, labeled with an intracytoplasmic membrane fluorescent molecule, transferred onto different types of sECMs or the native HA product, and then inserted into the corneal stroma of the rabbits. After 10 weeks, we assessed the viability of the stem cells and the expression of cornea-specific proteins. The in vitro study showed that the HyStem-HP hydrogel had the highest yield of cells (1.1 × 10(6)/mL) compared with other types of HA-derived sECMs culture media, and the cells grown in the HyStem-HP hydrogel appeared more elongated and fibroblastlike. The in vivo study demonstrated that the labeled h-ASCs could be identified in the stroma with any type of sECM. The HA-derived sECMs, particularly the HyStem-HP hydrogel, showed better survival and cell morphologic features compared with pure HA. Immunostaining of keratocan, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and type I collagen revealed that the stem cells had expressed human cornea-specific proteins. Human adipose-derived stem cells can be successfully grown on HA-derived sECMs in vivo and can express human cornea-specific proteins. Human ASCs on an HA-derived scaffold may be used as a source of keratocytes to regenerate extracellular matrix-like material in situations where the cornea stroma has been compromised.

  1. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  2. Effects of GSK3 inhibitors on in vitro expansion and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraldi Pascal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Results Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. Conclusion These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.

  3. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration

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    Marcela Fernandes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs. To compare the effects of venous grafts containing BMSCs or ADSCs on sciatic nerve injury, in this study, rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (only sciatic nerve exposed, Matrigel (MG; sciatic nerve injury + intravenous transplantation of MG vehicle, ADSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing ADSCs, and BMSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing BMSCs groups. Sciatic functional index was calculated to evaluate the function of injured sciatic nerve. Morphologic characteristics of nerves distal to the lesion were observed by toluidine blue staining. Spinal motor neurons labeled with Fluoro-Gold were quantitatively assessed. Compared with sham-operated rats, sciatic functional index was lower, the density of small-diameter fibers was significantly increased, and the number of motor neurons significantly decreased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. Neither ADSCs nor BMSCs significantly improved the sciatic nerve function of rats with sciatic nerve injury, increased fiber density, fiber diameters, axonal diameters, myelin sheath thickness, and G ratios (axonal diameter/fiber diameter ratios in the sciatic nerve distal to the lesion site. There was no significant difference in the number of spinal motor neurons among ADSCs, BMSCs and MG groups. These results suggest that neither BMSCs nor ADSCs provide satisfactory results for peripheral nerve repair when using MG as the conductor for

  4. Adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium attenuates cisplatin-triggered apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Jen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsu, Han-Shui; Tsai, Chi-Han; Ma, Hsu

    2018-02-01

    Autologous fat grafting procedures have noted a markedly increased frequency, not only for cosmetic purposes, but also for deformities after head and neck cancer and breast cancer surgery. Carcinogenesis is always a major concern in cell therapy-related issues. However, there is no literature discussing this issue in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. To evaluate the interaction of tongue cancer cells and adipose-derived stem cells, we performed a series of in vitro experiments. Our results demonstrated that cisplatin significantly reduced the viabilities of SCC‑25 and CAL‑27 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but it had low cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant CAL‑27 (CAR) cells. There was no significant difference in terms of viability among the SCC‑25, CAL‑27, and CAR cells in the adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium and control groups. There was also no significant difference in terms of cell migration as determined by wound healing assay of SCC‑25, CAL‑27, and CAR cells between the adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium treatment and control treatment. Importantly, the adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium attenuated cisplatin-triggered cell death in the SCC‑25 and CAL‑27 cells. Moreover, adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium markedly inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death (sub‑G1 phase) in the CAL‑27 cells. Western blot analyses indicated that cisplatin-induced reductions in pro‑caspase‑3, pro‑caspase‑9, phospho-BAD, phospho-IGF-1R, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK in CAL‑27 cells were reversed by adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium supplement. Taken together, we provide evidence that adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium protects CAL‑27 cells from cisplatin-induced cell death, possibly through upregulation of the IGF-1R/AKT/ERK signaling pathway.

  5. Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Shu; Karperien, Marcel; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been discovered for more than a decade. Due to the large numbers of cells that can be harvested with relatively little donor morbidity, they are considered to be an attractive alternative to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, isolation and differentiation of ASCs draw great attention in the research of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Cartilage defects cause big therapeutic problems because of their low self-repair capacity. Application of ASCs in cartilage regeneration gives hope to treat cartilage defects with autologous stem cells. In recent years, a lot of studies have been performed to test the possibility of using ASCs to re-construct damaged cartilage tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the most up-to-date articles utilizing ASCs for cartilage regeneration in basic and translational research. Our topic covers differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, increased cartilage formation by co-culture of ASCs with chondrocytes and enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs by gene manipulation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Melatonin and Vitamin D Interfere with the Adipogenic Fate of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoli, Valentina; Santaniello, Sara; Cruciani, Sara; Ginesu, Giorgio Carlo; Cossu, Maria Laura; Delitala, Alessandro Palmerio; Serra, Pier Andrea; Ventura, Carlo; Maioli, Margherita

    2017-05-05

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent one of the cellular populations resident in adipose tissue. They can be recruited under certain stimuli and committed to become preadipocytes, and then mature adipocytes. Controlling stem cell differentiation towards the adipogenic phenotype could have a great impact on future drug development aimed at counteracting fat depots. Stem cell commitment can be influenced by different molecules, such as melatonin, which we have previously shown to be an osteogenic inducer. Here, we aimed at evaluating the effects elicited by melatonin, even in the presence of vitamin D, on ADSC adipogenesis assessed in a specific medium. The transcription of specific adipogenesis orchestrating genes, such as aP2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), and that of adipocyte-specific genes, including lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2 (ACOT2), was significantly inhibited in cells that had been treated in the presence of melatonin and vitamin D, alone or in combination. Protein content and lipid accumulation confirmed a reduction in adipogenesis in ADSCs that had been grown in adipogenic conditions, but in the presence of melatonin and/or vitamin D. Our findings indicate the role of melatonin and vitamin D in deciding stem cell fate, and disclose novel therapeutic approaches against fat depots.

  7. Isolation and expansion of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Trine; Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Lund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    For treatment of cardiac failure with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, several clinical trials are ongoing. However, more attention is gathering on the use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). This paper describes the optimization of isolation and propagation of ASCs...... for subsequent clinical use. In the isolation step, several enzymes were compared with respect to yield of nucleated cells and precursor cells. Our results showed, that the interdonor variablility was greater than differences between individual enzymes. For propagation of cells, different types of media, sera...... and serum replacers were evaluated regarding their ability to support cell growth and preserve differentiation potential. Most of serum replacers proved inferior to fetal calf serum. Among the media tested, modified Eagle's media alpha was superior in promoting cell growth while preserving the ability...

  8. Regenerative Repair of Damaged Meniscus with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

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    Jaewoo Pak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are defined as pluripotent cells found in numerous human tissues, including bone marrow and adipose tissue. Such MSCs, isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have been shown to differentiate into bone and cartilage, along with other types of tissues. Therefore, MSCs represent a promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. The initial treatment of meniscus tear of the knee is managed conservatively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. When such conservative treatment fails, an arthroscopic resection of the meniscus is necessary. However, the major drawback of the meniscectomy is an early onset of osteoarthritis. Therefore, an effective and noninvasive treatment for patients with continuous knee pain due to damaged meniscus has been sought. Here, we present a review, highlighting the possible regenerative mechanisms of damaged meniscus with MSCs (especially adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs, along with a case of successful repair of torn meniscus with significant reduction of knee pain by percutaneous injection of autologous ASCs into an adult human knee.

  9. Development and application of adipose-derived stem cells in ophthalmology

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    Jun Zou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells(ADSCsare multipotent population of cells with multipotential differentiation capability, which can differentiate into mesoderm including adipocyte osteoblasts and chondroblasts in specific conditions, even the endoderm cells like hepatocyte and and ectoderm cells like neurocyte. Besides, ADSC has many advantages like easy access and light damage to selected area, which enables it to become a hotspot in tissue repair area. This paper made a classified summary on the biological characteristics of corneal epithelium and its application in research to offer beneficial hints to the research of ADSC application in ophthalmology.

  10. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  11. Xeno-Free Extraction, Culture, and Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carlos Hugo; Chaparro, Orlando

    2016-03-01

    Molecules of animal or bacterial origin, which pose a risk for zoonoses or immune rejection, are commonly used for extraction, culture, and cryopreservation of mesenchymal stem cells. There is no sequential and orderly protocol for producing human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) under xeno-free conditions. After standardizing a human platelet lysate (hPL) production protocol, four human adipose tissue samples were processed through explants with fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented or hPL-supplemented media for extracting the adipose-derived stem cells. The cells were cultivated in cell culture medium + hPL (5%) or FBS (10%). The cellular replication rate, immunophenotype, and differentiation potential were evaluated at fourth passage. Cellular viability was evaluated before and after cryopreservation of the cells, with an hPL-based solution compared with an FBS-based solution. The explants cultured in hPL-supplemented media showed earlier and faster hASC proliferation than did those supplemented with FBS. Likewise, cells grown in hPL-supplemented media showed a greater proliferation rate, without losing the immunophenotype. Osteogenic differentiation of xeno-free hASC was higher than the hASC produced in standard conditions. However, adipogenic differentiation was reduced in xeno-free hASC. Finally, the cells cryopreserved in an hPL-based solution showed a higher cellular viability than the cells cryopreserved in an FBS-based. In conclusion, we have developed a complete xeno-free protocol for extracting, culturing, and cryopreserving hASCs that can be safely implemented in clinical studies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Role of adipose-derived stem cells in fat grafting and reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun S Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat grafting is commonly utilised to reconstruct soft tissue defects caused by ageing, trauma, chronic wounds and cancer resection. The benefits of fat grafting are minimal donor site morbidity and ease of availability through liposuction or lipectomy. Nonetheless, survival and longevity of fat grafts remain poor post-engraftment. Various methods to enhance fat graft survival are currently under investigation and its stem cell constituents are of particular interest. Cell-assisted lipotransfer refers to the addition of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC rich component of stromal vascular fraction to lipoaspirate, the results of which have proven promising. This article aims to review the role of ASCs in fat grafting and reconstructive surgery.

  13. In vitro osteoinductive effects of hydroxycholesterol on human adipose-derived stem cells are mediated through the hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalom, Anisa; Hokugo, Akishige; Sorice, Sarah; Li, Andrew; Segovia Aguilar, Luis A; Zuk, Patricia; Jarrahy, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells have been identified as a potential source of cells for use in bone tissue engineering because of their ready availability, ease of harvest, and susceptibility to osteogenic induction. The authors have previously demonstrated the ability of an osteogenic molecule called hydroxycholesterol, an oxidative derivative of cholesterol, to induce osteogenic differentiation in pluripotent murine and rabbit bone marrow stromal cells. In this study, the authors examine the ability of hydroxycholesterol to induce osteogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells. Human adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from raw human lipoaspirates through standard isolation and expansion of the stromal vascular fraction. Cells were plated onto tissue culture plates in control medium and harvested between passages 2 and 3, incubated with conventional osteogenic media, and treated with various concentrations (1, 5, and 10 μM) of the 20(S) analogue of hydroxycholesterol. Evaluation of cellular osteogenic activity was performed. The role of the hedgehog signaling pathway in hydroxycholesterol-mediated osteogenesis was evaluated by hedgehog inhibition assays. Alkaline phosphatase activity, bone-related gene expression, and mineralization were all significantly increased in cultures of human adipose-derived stem cells treated with 5 μM of 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol relative to controls. In addition, induction of hydroxycholesterol-mediated osteogenesis was mitigated by the addition of the hedgehog pathway inhibitor to cell cultures, implicating the hedgehog signaling pathway in the osteogenic mechanism on human adipose-derived stem cells by hydroxycholesterol. These in vitro studies demonstrate that hydroxycholesterol exerts an osteoinductive influence on human adipose-derived stem cells and that these effects are mediated at least in part through the hedgehog signaling pathway.

  14. Decellularized adipose tissue microcarriers as a dynamic culture platform for human adipose-derived stem/stromal cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Claire; Kornmuller, Anna; Brown, Cody; Hoare, Todd; Flynn, Lauren E

    2017-03-01

    With the goal of designing a clinically-relevant expansion strategy for human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), methods were developed to synthesize porous microcarriers derived purely from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). An electrospraying approach was applied to generate spherical DAT microcarriers with an average diameter of 428 ± 41 μm, which were soft, compliant, and stable in long-term culture without chemical crosslinking. Human ASCs demonstrated enhanced proliferation on the DAT microcarriers relative to commercially-sourced Cultispher-S microcarriers within a spinner culture system over 1 month. ASC immunophenotype was maintained post expansion, with a trend for reduced expression of the cell adhesion receptors CD73, CD105, and CD29 under dynamic conditions. Upregulation of the early lineage-specific genes PPARγ, LPL, and COMP was observed in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers, but the cells retained their multilineage differentiation capacity. Comparison of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in 2-D cultures prepared with ASCs pre-expanded on the DAT microcarriers or Cultispher-S microcarriers revealed similar adipogenic and enhanced osteogenic marker expression in the DAT microcarrier group, which had undergone a higher population fold change. Further, histological staining results suggested a more homogeneous differentiation response in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers as compared to either Cultispher-S microcarriers or tissue culture polystyrene. A pilot chondrogenesis study revealed higher levels of chondrogenic gene and protein expression in the ASCs expanded on the DAT microcarriers relative to all other groups, including the baseline controls. Overall, this study demonstrates the promise of applying dynamic culture with tissue-specific DAT microcarriers as a means of deriving regenerative cell populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Watercress-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds enhance proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashpour, Mehdi; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Effat; Jafar Maleki, Mohammad; Firouzi-Amandi, Akram; Nouri, Mohammad

    2017-07-11

    The present study describes the effects of Watercress extract (WE) based electrospun nanofibrous mats on the regulation of adhesion, proliferation, cytoprotection and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is one of the most important medicinal plant with a board spectrum of biological functions. For this purpose, WE-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR. Adhesion, proliferation and cytoprotection of ADSCs on the nanofibers was investigated using FE-SEM and MTT assays. Analysis of cell cycle was carried out by flow-cytometry. Finally, qPCR was applied to measure the expression levels of cell cycle-regulated genes and stemness markers of ADSCs grown on the nanofibers. In this study, we found that WE-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibers had great antioxidant potential and exhibited higher cytoprotection, better adhesion, and significantly increased proliferation of ADSCs. The greater proliferation and preserving stemness ability of ADSCs on WE based nanofibers was further confirmed by higher expression levels of cell cycle-regulated genes and stemness markers. These results demonstrate that WE-loaded PCL-PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats appear suitable to support ADSCs adhesion and proliferation while concurrently preserving the cell stemness, therefore representing a hopeful approach for applying in stem cell based regenerative medicine.

  16. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  17. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a therapeutic tool for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsu; Fujita, Daishi; Takahashi, Masao; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are adult stem cells that can be easily harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Many studies have demonstrated that ADSCs differentiate into vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. However, ADSCs may fuse with tissue-resident cells and obtain the corresponding characteristics of those cells. If fusion occurs, ADSCs may express markers of VECs, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes without direct differentiation into these cell types. ADSCs also produce a variety of paracrine factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 that have proangiogenic and/or antiapoptotic activities. Thus, ADSCs have the potential to regenerate the cardiovascular system via direct differentiation into VECs, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes, fusion with tissue-resident cells, and the production of paracrine factors. Numerous animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of ADSC implantation in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), dilated cardiomyopathy, hindlimb ischemia, and stroke. Clinical studies regarding the use of autologous ADSCs for treating patients with AMI and ICM have recently been initiated. ADSC implantation has been reported as safe and effective so far. Therefore, ADSCs appear to be useful for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the tumorigenic potential of ADSCs requires careful evaluation before their safe clinical application. PMID:26322185

  18. Cardiac Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Exhibit High Differentiation Potential to Cardiovascular Cells in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hiroki; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Asahi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs) have recently been shown to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells. However, little is known about the fat tissue origin-dependent differences in AdSC function and differentiation potential. AdSC-rich cells were isolated from subcutaneous, visceral, cardiac (CA), and subscapular adipose tissue from mice and their characteristics analyzed. After four different AdSC types were cultured with specific differentiation medium, immunocytochemical analysis was performed for the assessment of differentiation into cardiovascular cells. We then examined the in vitro differentiation capacity and therapeutic potential of AdSCs in ischemic myocardium using a mouse myocardial infarction model. The cell density and proliferation activity of CA-derived AdSCs were significantly increased compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Immunocytochemistry showed that CA-derived AdSCs had the highest appearance rates of markers for endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes among the AdSCs. Systemic transfusion of CA-derived AdSCs exhibited the highest cardiac functional recovery after myocardial infarction and the high frequency of the recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Moreover, long-term follow-up of the recruited CA-derived AdSCs frequently expressed cardiovascular cell markers compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Cardiac adipose tissue could be an ideal source for isolation of therapeutically effective AdSCs for cardiac regeneration in ischemic heart diseases. Significance The present study found that cardiac adipose-derived stem cells have a high potential to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells) compared with stem cells derived from other adipose tissue such as subcutaneous, visceral, and subscapular adipose tissue. Notably, only a small number of supracardiac adipose-derived stem cells that were

  19. Multipotency and cardiomyogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells from epicardium, pericardium, and omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrychowski, Wojciech; Patlolla, Bhagat; Zhuge, Yan; Neofytou, Evgenios; Robbins, Robert C; Beygui, Ramin E

    2016-06-13

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to an irreversible loss of proper cardiac function. Application of stem cell therapy is an attractive option for MI treatment. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as a rich source of stem cells (ADSCs). Taking into account the different morphogenesis, anatomy, and physiology of adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ADSCs from different adipose tissue depots may exert a diverse multipotency and cardiogenic potential. The omental, pericardial, and epicardial adipose tissue samples were obtained from organ donors and patients undergoing heart transplantation at our institution. Human foreskin fibroblasts were used as the control group. Isolated ADSCs were analyzed for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity and proliferation potential. The immunophenotype and constitutive gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GATA4, Nanog, and OCT4 were analyzed. DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine was exposed to the cells to stimulate the cardiogenesis. Finally, reprogramming towards cardiomyocytes was initiated with exogenous overexpression of seven transcription factors (ESRRG, GATA4, MEF2C, MESP1, MYOCD, TBX5, ZFPM2) previously applied successfully for fibroblast transdifferentiation toward cardiomyocytes. Expression of cardiac troponin T (cTNT) and alpha-actinin (Actn2) was analyzed 3 weeks after initiation of the cardiac differentiation. The multipotent properties of isolated plastic adherent cells were confirmed with expression of CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105, as well as successful differentiation toward adipocytes and osteocytes; with the highest osteogenic and adipogenic potential for the epicardial and omental ADSCs, respectively. Epicardial ADSCs demonstrated a lower doubling time as compared with the pericardium and omentum-derived cells. Furthermore, epicardial ADSCs revealed higher constitutive expression of ALP and GATA4. Increased Actn2 and cTNT expression was observed after the transduction of seven

  20. Recruitment of Intracavernously Injected Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to the Major Pelvic Ganglion Improves Erectile Function in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fandel; Albersen, Maarten; Lin, Guiting; Qiu, Xuefeng; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2011-01-01

    Intracavernous (IC) injection of stem cells has been shown to ameliorate cavernous-nerve (CN) injury-induced erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the mechanisms of action of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) remain unclear.

  1. Standardized Sophora pachycarpa Root Extract Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation in Adipose-derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Samaneh; Neshati, Vajiheh; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mojarrad, Majid; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-05-01

    Bone defect is an important topic in public health. Novel therapies are based on osteogenic induction by natural antiosteoporotic compounds including plant-derived estrogens. In the current study, the osteogenic potential of Sophora pachycarpa root extract (SPRE) was explored on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Herein, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinducted in the presence of increased concentrations of the extract for 21 days. Then, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and the differentiated cells were stained by Alizarin Red S for calcium deposition and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay for enzymatic activity. To assess the expression of bone-related genes, treated cells were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTT test demonstrated that SPRE had no toxic effects on the cell viability. Treating the cells with SPRE noticeably promoted ALP activity, mineralization, and mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Additionally, cells subjected to 0.1 μg/mL SPRE showed the highest osteogenic effects. According to high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of SPRE, the osteoprotective effects of SPRE is probably due to presence of phytochemicals with estrogen-like activity in the extract. Thus, SPRE might be a suitable therapeutic agent for bone defects therapy in the future research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Human omental-derived adipose stem cells increase ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Marini, Frank C; Solley, Travis N; Elizondo, Paula B; Zhang, Yan; Sharp, Hadley J; Broaddus, Russell; Kolonin, Mikhail; Mok, Samuel C; Thompson, Melissa S; Woodward, Wendy A; Lu, Karen; Salimian, Bahar; Nagrath, Deepak; Klopp, Ann H

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination. We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5) and without (O-ASC1) omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment. O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries. ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro.

  3. Human omental-derived adipose stem cells increase ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nowicka

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination.We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5 and without (O-ASC1 omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment.O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries.ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro.

  4. Leukocyte-Reduced Platelet-Rich Plasma Alters Protein Expression of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Markus; Lang, Siegmund; Hanke, Alexander; Herrmann, Marietta; Huber, Michaela; Brockhoff, Gero; Klein, Silvan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Prantl, Lukas; Gehmert, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    Application of platelet-rich plasma and stem cells has become important in regenerative medicine. Recent literature supports the use of platelet-rich plasma as a cell culture media supplement to stimulate proliferation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The underlying mechanism of proliferation stimulation by platelet-rich plasma has not been investigated so far. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in α-minimal essential medium supplemented with platelet-rich plasma or fetal calf serum. Cell proliferation was assessed with cell cycle kinetics using flow cytometric analyses after 48 hours. Differences in proteome expression of the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed using a reverse-phase protein array to quantify 214 proteins. Complementary Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis were performed using protein data, and confirmed by Western blot analysis. A higher percentage of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the S phase in the presence of platelet-rich plasma advocates the proliferation stimulation. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis confirm the involvement of the selected proteins in the process of cell growth and proliferation. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis revealed a participation in the top-ranked canonical pathways PI3K/AKT, PTEN, ILK, and IGF-1. Gene set enrichment analysis identified the authors' protein set as being part of significantly regulated protein sets with the focus on cell cycle, metabolism, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway. The present study provides evidence that platelet-rich plasma stimulates proliferation and induces a unique change in the proteomic profile of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The interpretation of altered expression of regulatory proteins represents a step forward toward achieving good manufacturing practice-compliant criteria

  5. Alginate-Encapsulation for the Improved Hypothermic Preservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swioklo, Stephen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Connon, Che J

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable progress within the cell therapy industry, unmet bioprocessing and logistical challenges associated with the storage and distribution of cells between sites of manufacture and the clinic exist. We examined whether hypothermic (4°C-23°C) preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells could be improved through their encapsulation in 1.2% calcium alginate. Alginate encapsulation improved the recovery of viable cells after 72 hours of storage. Viable cell recovery was highly temperature-dependent, with an optimum temperature of 15°C. At this temperature, alginate encapsulation preserved the ability for recovered cells to attach to tissue culture plastic on rewarming, further increasing its effect on total cell recovery. On attachment, the cells were phenotypically normal, displayed normal growth kinetics, and maintained their capacity for trilineage differentiation. The number of cells encapsulated (up to 2 × 10(6) cells per milliliter) did not affect viable cell recovery nor did storage of encapsulated cells in a xeno-free, serum-free,current Good Manufacturing Practice-grade medium. We present a simple, low-cost system capable of enhancing the preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells stored at hypothermic temperatures, while maintaining their normal function. The storage of cells in this manner has great potential for extending the time windows for quality assurance and efficacy testing, distribution between the sites of manufacture and the clinic, and reducing the wastage associated with the limited shelf life of cells stored in their liquid state. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. The Effect of Secretory Factors of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Wan Nam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM produced in a hypoxia condition of ADSC—in other words, Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE—has great merits for skin regeneration. In this study, human primary keratinocytes (HKs, which play fundamental roles in skin tissue, was used to examine how AAPE affects HK. HK proliferation was significantly higher in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL than in the control group. DNA gene chip demonstrated that AAPE in keratinocytes (p < 0.05 notably affected expression of 290 identified transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, cycle and migration. More keratinocyte wound healing and migration was shown in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL. AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation, which was linked to the RhoA-ROCK pathway. We identified 48 protein spots in 2-D gel analysis and selected proteins were divided into 64% collagen components and 30% non-collagen components as shown by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Antibody array results contained growth factor/cytokine such as HGF, FGF-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, VEGF, and TGF-β3 differing from that shown by 2-D analysis. Conclusion: AAPE activates HK proliferation and migration. These results highlight the potential of the topical application of AAPE in the treatment of skin regeneration.

  7. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah, E-mail: norizah@science.putra.edu.my [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Chemistry, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Feisst, Vaughan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Malmström, Jenny [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dunbar, P. Rod [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka, E-mail: j.travas-sejdic@auckland.ac.nz [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h{sub max} <75 nm) than in the inner fibre core (2–4 GPa, h{sub max} >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells.

  8. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.rabbani@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janmaleki, Mohsen [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  9. Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Combination with Trehalose and Reversible Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgan, Barbara; Barlič, Ariana; Knežević, Miomir; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2017-02-01

    New cryopreservation approaches for medically applicable cells are of great importance in clinical medicine. Current protocols employ the use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is toxic to cells and causes undesirable side effects in patients, such as cardiac arrhythmias, neurological events, and others. Trehalose, a nontoxic disaccharide, has been already studied as a cryoprotectant. However, an efficient approach for loading this impermeable sugar into mammalian cells is missing. In our study, we assessed the efficiency of combining reversible electroporation and trehalose for cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells. First, we determined reversible electroporation threshold by loading of propidium iodide into cells. The highest permeabilization while maintaining high cell viability was reached at 1.5 kV/cm, at 8 pulses, 100 µs, and 1 Hz. Second, cells were incubated in 250 or 400 mM trehalose and electroporated before cryopreservation. After thawing, 83.8 ± 1.8 % (mean ± SE) cell recovery was obtained at 250 mM trehalose. By using a standard freezing protocol (10 % DMSO in 90 % fetal bovine serum), cell survival after thawing was about 91.5 ± 1.6 %. We also evaluated possible effects of electroporation on cells' functionality before and after thawing. Successful cell growth and efficient adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation were achieved. In conclusion, electroporation seems to be an efficient method for loading nonpermeable trehalose into human adipose-derived stem cells, allowing long-term cryopreservation in DMSO-free and xeno-free conditions.

  10. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burgos-Silva

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation.

  11. Human adipose-derived stem cells: definition, isolation, tissue-engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, S; Bordeianu, I; Stăncioiu, A T; Antohi, N

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated that the most effective repair system of the body is represented by stem cells - unspecialized cells, capable of self-renewal through successive mitoses, which have also the ability to transform into different cell types through differentiation. The discovery of adult stem cells represented an important step in regenerative medicine because they no longer raises ethical or legal issues and are more accessible. Only in 2002, stem cells isolated from adipose tissue were described as multipotent stem cells. Adipose tissue stem cells benefits in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are numerous. Development of adipose tissue engineering techniques offers a great potential in surpassing the existing limits faced by the classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Adipose tissue engineering clinical applications are wide and varied, including reconstructive, corrective and cosmetic procedures. Nowadays, adipose tissue engineering is a fast developing field, both in terms of fundamental researches and medical applications, addressing issues related to current clinical pathology or trauma management of soft tissue injuries in different body locations.

  12. Isolation of adipose-derived stem cells by using a subfractionation culturing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, TacGhee; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Choi, Joon-Seok; Song, Seung Yong; Han, Juhee; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Won-Serk; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Yun Kyoung; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Song, Sun U; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2014-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue have been tested in clinical trials. However, ASCs isolated by enzyme digestion and centrifugation are heterogeneous and exhibit wide variation in regenerative potential and clinical outcomes. Therefore, we developed a new method for isolating clonal ASCs (cASCs) that does not use enzyme digestion or centrifugation steps. In addition to cell surface markers and differentiation potential, we compared the mitogenic, paracrine and hair growth-promoting effects of ASCs isolated by the gradient centrifugation method (GCM) or by the new subfractionation culturing method (SCM). We selected three cASCs isolated by SCM that showed high rates of proliferation. The cell surface markers expressed by ASCs isolated by GCM or SCM were very similar, and SCM-isolated ASCs could potentially differentiate into different cell lineages. However, cASC lines exhibited better mitogenic and paracrine effects than ASCs isolated by GCM. The expression of Diras3, Myb, Cdca7, Mki67, Rrm2, Cdk1 and Ccna2, which may play a key role in cASC proliferation, was upregulated in cASCs. In addition, cASCs exhibited enhanced hair growth-promoting effects in dermal papilla cells and animal experiments. SCM generates a highly homogeneous population of ASCs via a simple and effective procedure that can be used in therapeutic settings.

  13. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation.

  14. Functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the adipose tissue of a patient with achondroplasia.

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    Park, Jeong-Ran; Lee, Hanbyeol; Kim, Chung-Hyo; Hong, Seok-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Yang, Se-Ran

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, skin dermis, and umbilical Wharton's jelly as well as injured tissues. MSCs possess the capacity for self-renewal and the potential for differentiation into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. However, the characteristics of MSCs in injured tissues, such as achondroplasia (ACH), are not well known. In this study, we isolated MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose (ACH-SAMSCs) tissue and circumjacent human adipose tissue of the cartilage (ACH-CAMSCs) from a patient with ACH. We then analyzed the characterization of ACH-SAMSCs and ACH-CAMSCs, compared with normal human dermis-derived MSCs (hDMSCs). In flow cytometry analysis, the isolated ACH-MSCs expressed low levels of CD73, CD90, and CD105, compared with hDMSCs. Moreover, both ACH- SAMSCs and ACH-CAMSCs had constitutionally overactive fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and exhibited significantly reduced osteogenic differentiation, compared to enhanced adipogenic differentiation. The activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) was increased in ACH-MSCs. In addition, the efficacy of osteogenic differentiation was slightly restored in osteogenic differentiation medium with MAPKs inhibitors. These results suggest that they play essential roles in MSC differentiation toward adipogenesis in ACH pathology. In conclusion, the identification of the characteristics of ACH-MSCs and the favoring of adipogenic differentiation via the FGFR3/MAPK axis might help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms relevant to other skeletal diseases and could provide targets for therapeutic interventions.

  15. Induction of circadian gene expression in human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiying; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Kilroy, Gail; Goh, Brian C; Hernandez, Teri L; Eckel, Robert H; Mynatt, Randall L; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2007-11-01

    Genes encoding the circadian transcriptional apparatus exhibit robust oscillatory expression in murine adipose tissues. This study tests the hypothesis that human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) provide an in vitro model in which to monitor the activity of the core circadian transcriptional apparatus. Primary cultures of undifferentiated or adipocyte-differentiated ASCs were treated with dexamethasone, rosiglitazone, or 30% fetal bovine serum. The response of undifferentiated ASCs to dexamethasone was further evaluated in the presence of lithium chloride. Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3, a key component of the circadian apparatus. Total RNA was harvested at 4-hour intervals over 48 hours and examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Adipocyte-differentiated cells responded more rapidly to treatments than their donor-matched undifferentiated controls; however, the period of the circadian gene oscillation was longer in the adipocyte-differentiated cells. Dexamethasone generated circadian gene expression patterns with mean periods of 25.4 and 26.7 hours in undifferentiated and adipocyte-differentiated ASCs, respectively. Both rosiglitazone and serum shock generated a significantly longer period in adipocyte-differentiated ASCs relative to undifferentiated ASCs. The Bmal1 profile was phase-shifted by approximately 8 to 12 hours relative to Per1, Per3, and Cry2, consistent with their expression in vivo. Lithium chloride inhibited adipogenesis and significantly lengthened the period of Per3 and Rev-erbalpha gene expression profiles by >5 hours in dexamethasone-activated undifferentiated ASCs. These results support the initial hypothesis and validate ASCs as an in vitro model for the analysis of circadian biology in human adipose tissue.

  16. Establishment and molecular characterization of mesenchymal stem cell lines derived from human visceral & subcutaneous adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pd; Sutar, Jp

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively) samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD 13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  17. Establishment and Molecular Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines Derived From Human Visceral & Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

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    Jyoti Prakash Sutar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  18. Enhanced osteoblastogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells on spermine delivery via β-catenin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Serena; Facchini, Annalisa; Platano, Daniela; Olivotto, Eleonora; Minguzzi, Manuela; Trisolino, Giovanni; Filardo, Giuseppe; Cetrullo, Silvia; Tantini, Benedetta; Martucci, Ermanno; Facchini, Andrea; Flamigni, Flavio; Borzì, Rosa Maria

    2013-05-15

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spermine osteo-inductive activity on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) grown in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures were investigated. Spermine belongs to the polyamine family, naturally occurring, positively charged polycations that are able to control several cellular processes. Spermine was used at a concentration close to that found in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous blood product containing growth and differentiation factors, which has recently become popular in in vitro and in vivo bone healing and engineering. Adipose tissue was surgically obtained from the hypodermis of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. Patient age negatively affected both ASC yield and ASC ability to form 3D constructs. ASC 3D cultures were seeded in either non differentiating or chondrogenic conditions, with or without the addition of 5 μM spermine to evaluate its osteogenic potential across 1, 2, and 3 weeks of maturation. Osteogenic medium was used as a reference. The effects of the addition of spermine on molecular markers of osteogenesis, at both gene and protein level, and mineralization were evaluated. The effects of spermine were temporally defined and responsible for the progression from the early to the mature osteoblast differentiation phases. Spermine initially promoted gene and protein expression of Runx-2, an early marker of the osteoblast lineage; then, it increased β-catenin expression and activation, which led to the induction of Osterix gene expression, the mature osteoblast commitment factor. The finding that spermine induces ASC to differentiate toward mature osteoblasts supports the use of these easily accessible mesenchymal stem cells coupled with PRP for orthopedic applications.

  19. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

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    Feisst V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan Feisst,1 Sarah Meidinger,1 Michelle B Locke2 1Dunbar Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage. Standardization of nomenclature around the different cell types used is finally being adopted, which facilitates comparison of results between research groups. In vitro studies have assessed the ability of ASC to undergo mesenchymal differentiation as well as differentiation along alternate lineages (transdifferentiation. Recently, focus has shifted to the immune modulatory and paracrine effects of transplanted ASC, with growing interest in the ASC secretome as a source of clinical effect. Bedside use of ASC is advancing alongside basic research. An increasing number of safety-focused Phase I and Phase IIb trials have been published without identifying any significant risks or adverse events in the short term. Phase III trials to assess efficacy are currently underway. In many countries, regulatory frameworks are being developed to monitor their use and assure their safety. As many trials rely on ASC injected at a distant site from the area of clinical need, strategies to improve the homing and efficacy of transplanted cells are also being explored. This review highlights each of these aspects of the bench-to-bedside use of ASC and summarizes their clinical utility across a variety of medical specialties. Keywords: standardization, bystander effect, stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction

  20. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Melany; Bollag, Roni J.; Yu, Jack C.; Isales, Carlos M.; Eroglu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate), two polymers (PVA and ficoll), two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide), a disaccharide (trehalose), and a calcium chelator (EGTA) to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum) were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the plating

  1. Curcumin Affects Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging Through TERT Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Samaneh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-10-10

    Aging and losing cell survival is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Aging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, decrease in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Given that the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidants can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on proliferation, aging and TERT expression of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal rat adipose tissue and their viabilities were assessed by MTT after exposure to different concentrations of curcumin. Flow-cytometry was performed for investigating the cell surface markers. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation were carried out to evaluate the pluripotency of rADSCs. Telomerase expression and percentage of senescent cells were evaluated using real-time PCR and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, respectively. The results demonstrated significant proliferation of rADSCs after 48 h treatment with 1 and 5 µM curcumin. Additionally, these concentrations could significantly reduce the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs at different passages. The findings of SA-ß-gal staining showed that curcumin significantly decreased the number of senescent cells in the 5 and 7 cell passages. Moreover, expression levels of TERT increased in the presence of 1 and 5 µM curcumin than control group (Pexpression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Novel positively charged nanoparticle labeling for in vivo imaging of adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

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    Hiroshi Yukawa

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation has been expected to have various applications for regenerative medicine. However, in order to detect and trace the transplanted stem cells in the body, non-invasive and widely clinically available cell imaging technologies are required. In this paper, we focused on magnetic resonance (MR imaging technology, and investigated whether the trimethylamino dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle -03 (TMADM-03, which was newly developed by our group, could be used for labeling adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs as a contrast agent. No cytotoxicity was observed in ASCs transduced with less than 100 µg-Fe/mL of TMADM-03 after a one hour transduction time. The transduction efficiency of TMADM-03 into ASCs was about four-fold more efficient than that of the alkali-treated dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (ATDM, which is a major component of commercially available contrast agents such as ferucarbotran (Resovist, and the level of labeling was maintained for at least two weeks. In addition, the differentiation ability of ASCs labeled with TMADM-03 and their ability to produce cytokines such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, were confirmed to be maintained. The ASCs labeled with TMADM-03 were transplanted into the left kidney capsule of a mouse. The labeled ASCs could be imaged with good contrast using a 1T MR imaging system. These data suggest that TMADM-03 can therefore be utilized as a contrast agent for the MR imaging of stem cells.

  3. Multilineage co-culture of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimu; Waldman, Stephen D; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell interactions through paracrine cell signalling can regulate a range of cell responses, including metabolic activity, proliferation and differentiation. Moving towards the development of optimized tissue-engineering strategies with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), the focus of this study was on developing indirect co-culture models to study the effects of mature adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts on bovine ASC multilineage differentiation. For each lineage, ASC differentiation was characterized by histology, gene expression and protein expression, in the absence of key inductive differentiation factors for the ASCs. Co-culture with each of the mature cell populations was shown to successfully induce or enhance lineage-specific differentiation of the ASCs. In general, a more homogeneous but lower-level differentiation response was observed in co-culture as compared to stimulating the bovine ASCs with inductive differentiation media. To explore the role of the Wnt canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways within the model systems, the effects of the Wnt inhibitors WIF-1 and DKK-1 on multilineage differentiation in co-culture were assessed. The data indicated that Wnt signalling may play a role in mediating ASC differentiation in co-culture with the mature cell populations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Imaging Using Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received much attention for biomolecule and cell imaging applications because of their superior optical properties such as high quantum efficiency, size-tunable emission, and resistance to photobleaching process. However, QDs that are commercially available contain cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic element. Thus, the development of Cd-free and less toxic QDs is strongly desired. In this study, we developed Cd-free QDs (ZnS-coated ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles with a sulfo group: ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H) and investigated the ability of this material to label stem cells. ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be transduced into mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mASCs) using octaarginine peptides (R8), known as cell-penetrating peptides. The optimal ratio of ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H:R8 was found to be 1:100 for labeling mASCs. More than 80% of mASCs labeled with 500 nM ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H were found to be alive, and the proliferation rates of labeled mASCs were maintained at the same rate as that of nonlabeled mASCs. In addition, no abnormalities in the morphology of mASCs labeled with ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be observed. These data suggest that ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H may be effective for the labeling of mASCs. PMID:26858885

  5. Single-Cell Phosphospecific Flow Cytometric Analysis of Canine and Murine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate single-cell phosphospecific flow cytometric analysis of canine and murine adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs. ADSCs were obtained from clinically healthy laboratory beagles and C57BL/6 mice. Cell differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes was observed for the cultured canine ADSCs (cADSCs and murine ADSCs (mADSCs to determine their multipotency. We also performed single-cell phosphospecific flow cytometric analysis related to cell differentiation and stemness. Cultured cADSCs and mADSCs exhibited the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. In addition, single-cell phosphospecific flow cytometric analysis revealed similar β-catenin and Akt phosphorylation between mADSCs and cADSCs. On the other hand, it showed the phosphorylation of different Stat proteins. It was determined that cADSCs and mADSCs show the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Furthermore, a difference in protein phosphorylation between undifferentiated cADSCs and mADSCs was identified.

  6. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Imaging Using Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-12-30

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received much attention for biomolecule and cell imaging applications because of their superior optical properties such as high quantum efficiency, size-tunable emission, and resistance to photobleaching process. However, QDs that are commercially available contain cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic element. Thus, the development of Cd-free and less toxic QDs is strongly desired. In this study, we developed Cd-free QDs (ZnS-coated ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles with a sulfo group: ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H) and investigated the ability of this material to label stem cells. ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be transduced into mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mASCs) using octaarginine peptides (R8), known as cell-penetrating peptides. The optimal ratio of ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H:R8 was found to be 1:100 for labeling mASCs. More than 80% of mASCs labeled with 500 nM ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H were found to be alive, and the proliferation rates of labeled mASCs were maintained at the same rate as that of nonlabeled mASCs. In addition, no abnormalities in the morphology of mASCs labeled with ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be observed. These data suggest that ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H may be effective for the labeling of mASCs.

  7. Adipose tissue-derived stem cell response to the differently processed 316L stainless steel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Shahab; Zia, Sonia; Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2012-12-01

    Stainless steel (SS) is one of the most applicable materials in fabrication of cardiac implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of atomic structure of polycrystalline stainless steel on the response of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Samples are prepared from differently processed extruded rod and rolled sheet of 316L SS having different crystallographic structure. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated (200) and (111) orientations with distinct volume fractions in the specimens. Morphology and ADSCs behavior including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation are assessed. The expression of cardiac specific protein (cardiac troponin I) and genes of differentiating cardiomyocytes is analyzed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. The number of attached and grown cells on the rod sample is higher than the sheet sample also the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of ADSCs grown on the samples demonstrates higher cell density and spreading pattern on the surface of rod sample. In differentiated ADSCs on the rod sample the expression of all genes except ANF are detectable, while on the sheet sample only the MEF2C and β-MHC are expressed. This study shows that the cellular response is influenced by the crystal structure of the substrate therefore; the skill to alter the structure of substrate may lend itself to engineer a biomaterial which could be suitable for differentiation of stem cells into a definite lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

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    Riccardo Schweizer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional breast cancer extirpation involves resection of parts of or the whole gland, resulting in asymmetry and disfiguration. Given the unsatisfactory aesthetic outcomes, patients often desire postmastectomy reconstructive procedures. Autologous fat grafting has been proposed for reconstructive purposes for decades to restore form and anatomy after mastectomy. Fat has the inherent advantage of being autologous tissue and the most natural-appearing filler, but given its inconsistent engraftment and retention rates, it lacks reliability. Implementation of autologous fat grafts with cellular adjuncts, such as multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, has shown promising results. However, it is pertinent and critical to question whether these cells could promote any residual tumor cells to proliferate, differentiate, or metastasize or even induce de novo carcinogenesis. Thus far, preclinical and clinical study findings are discordant. A trend towards potential promotion of both breast cancer growth and invasion by ADSCs found in basic science studies was indeed not confirmed in clinical trials. Whether experimental findings eventually correlate with or will be predictive of clinical outcomes remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to concisely review current experimental findings on the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer, mainly focusing on ADSCs as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, and discuss the implications in clinical translation.

  9. Biochanin A Promotes Osteogenic but Inhibits Adipogenic Differentiation: Evidence with Primary Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Shu-Jem Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochanin A has promising effects on bone formation in vivo, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear yet. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether biochanin A regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation using primary adipose-derived stem cells. The effects of biochanin A (at a physiologically relevant concentration of 0.1–1 μM were assessed in vitro using various approaches, including Oil red O staining, Nile red staining, alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. The results showed that biochanin A significantly suppressed adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, along with the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and leptin and osteopontin (OPN mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, treatment of cells with 0.3 μM biochanin A increased the mineralization and ALP activity, and stimulated the expression of the osteogenic marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN. Furthermore, biochanin A induced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA proteins. These observations suggest that biochanin A prevents adipogenesis, enhances osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells, and has beneficial regulatory effects in bone formation.

  10. Surgical sutures filled with adipose-derived stem cells promote wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckhenrich, Ann Katharin; Kirsch, Bianca Manuela; Wahl, Elizabeth Ann; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Rezaeian, Farid; Harder, Yves; Foehr, Peter; Machens, Hans-Günther; Egaña, José Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Delayed wound healing and scar formation are among the most frequent complications after surgical interventions. Although biodegradable surgical sutures present an excellent drug delivery opportunity, their primary function is tissue fixation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) act as trophic mediators and are successful in activating biomaterials. Here biodegradable sutures were filled with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) to provide a pro-regenerative environment at the injured site. Results showed that after filling, ASCs attach to the suture material, distribute equally throughout the filaments, and remain viable in the suture. Among a broad panel of cytokines, cell-filled sutures constantly release vascular endothelial growth factor to supernatants. Such conditioned media was evaluated in an in vitro wound healing assay and showed a significant decrease in the open wound area compared to controls. After suturing in an ex vivo wound model, cells remained in the suture and maintained their metabolic activity. Furthermore, cell-filled sutures can be cryopreserved without losing their viability. This study presents an innovative approach to equip surgical sutures with pro-regenerative features and allows the treatment and fixation of wounds in one step, therefore representing a promising tool to promote wound healing after injury.

  11. Cartilage Regeneration in Human with Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Current Status in Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common debilitating disorders among the elderly population. At present, there is no definite cure for the underlying causes of OA. However, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs in the form of stromal vascular fraction (SVF may offer an alternative at this time. ADSCs are one type of mesenchymal stem cells that have been utilized and have demonstrated an ability to regenerate cartilage. ADSCs have been shown to regenerate cartilage in a variety of animal models also. Non-culture-expanded ADSCs, in the form of SVF along with platelet rich plasma (PRP, have recently been used in humans to treat OA and other cartilage abnormalities. These ADSCs have demonstrated effectiveness without any serious side effects. However, due to regulatory issues, only ADSCs in the form of SVF are currently allowed for clinical uses in humans. Culture-expanded ADSCs, although more convenient, require clinical trials for a regulatory approval prior to uses in clinical settings. Here we present a systematic review of currently available clinical studies involving ADSCs in the form of SVF and in the culture-expanded form, with or without PRP, highlighting the clinical effectiveness and safety in treating OA.

  12. Infrapatellar Fat Pad: An Alternative Source of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    P. Tangchitphisut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP represents an emerging alternative source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs. We compared the characteristics and differentiation capacity of ASCs isolated from IPFP and SC. Materials and Methods. ASCs were harvested from either IPFP or SC. IPFPs were collected from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA, whereas subcutaneous tissues were collected from patients undergoing lipoaspiration. Immunophenotypes of surface antigens were evaluated. Their ability to form colony-forming units (CFUs and their differentiation potential were determined. The ASCs karyotype was evaluated. Results. There was no difference in the number of CFUs and size of CFUs between IPFP and SC sources. ASCs isolated from both sources had a normal karyotype. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers on flow cytometry was equivalent. IPFP-ASCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of SOX-9 and RUNX-2 over ASCs isolated from SC (6.19 ± 5.56-, 0.47 ± 0.62-fold; p value = 0.047, and 17.33 ± 10.80-, 1.56 ± 1.31-fold; p value = 0.030, resp.. Discussion and Conclusion. CFU assay of IPFP-ASCs and SC-ASCs harvested by lipoaspiration technique was equivalent. The expression of key chondrogenic and osteogenic genes was increased in cells isolated from IPFP. IPFP should be considered a high quality alternative source of ASCs.

  13. Surgical sutures filled with adipose-derived stem cells promote wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Katharin Reckhenrich

    Full Text Available Delayed wound healing and scar formation are among the most frequent complications after surgical interventions. Although biodegradable surgical sutures present an excellent drug delivery opportunity, their primary function is tissue fixation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC act as trophic mediators and are successful in activating biomaterials. Here biodegradable sutures were filled with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC to provide a pro-regenerative environment at the injured site. Results showed that after filling, ASCs attach to the suture material, distribute equally throughout the filaments, and remain viable in the suture. Among a broad panel of cytokines, cell-filled sutures constantly release vascular endothelial growth factor to supernatants. Such conditioned media was evaluated in an in vitro wound healing assay and showed a significant decrease in the open wound area compared to controls. After suturing in an ex vivo wound model, cells remained in the suture and maintained their metabolic activity. Furthermore, cell-filled sutures can be cryopreserved without losing their viability. This study presents an innovative approach to equip surgical sutures with pro-regenerative features and allows the treatment and fixation of wounds in one step, therefore representing a promising tool to promote wound healing after injury.

  14. Hyaluronic acid effect on adipose-derived stem cells. Biological in vitro evaluation.

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    Moreno, A; Martínez, A; Olmedillas, S; Bello, S; de Miguel, F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in order to consider the possibility of their combined used in the treatment of knee arthrosis. The ASC cells were grown both in the presence and absence of AH, and several studies were carried out: proliferation (WST8) and cell viability studies (Alamar Blue® and Trypan Blue), possible chondrogenic differentiation (collagen type 2 expression) by RT-PCR, AH receptor expression (CD44) by flow cytometry and RT-QPCR, and expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-6, TGFß, IL-10) by RT-QPCR. The number of ASC significantly increased after 7 days with HA (158±39%, p <0.05). Additionally, the cell viability of the ASC treated with HA after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days was similar to that of the control cells, being considered non-toxic. There were no changes observed in the expression of CD44 and chondrogenic differentiation. TGFß expression was not modified after AH treatment, but there was a 4-fold decrease in IL-6 expression and IL-10 expression increased up to 2-fold compared to control cells. Hyaluronic acid favours ASC proliferation without causing cellular toxicity, and inducing an anti-inflammatory profile in these cells. Hyaluronic acid appears to be a suitable vehicle for the intra-articular administration of mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Adipose-derived stem cells express higher levels of type VII collagen under specific culture conditions.

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    Maeda, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Toshio; Wada, Akino; Fukai, Tatsuo; Iida, Hideo; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2017-12-01

    Type VII collagen (Col7) is a major component of the anchoring fibrils at the dermoepidermal junction. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a cell population highly useful in regenerative medicine because of their ease of isolation and their potential for multilineage differentiation. Based on the observations that K14 was expressed in undifferentiated ADSCs and the expression was downregulated after differentiation into adipocytes, we speculated that ADSCs are keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells. ADSCs were co-cultured with fibroblasts on type IV collagen in a medium containing all-trans retinoic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 4. At day 14 of culture in keratinocyte serum-free medium, the cells were harvested and subjected to immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and western blotting. Approximately, 45% of ADSCs were immunostained positively for anti-human cytokeratin 10, and approximately 80% were stained positively for Col7. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and western blotting also confirmed that differentiated ADSCs expressed higher levels of Col7. These findings support the therapeutic potential of ADSCs, not only for wound healing, but also for the correction of Col7 deficiencies.

  16. Tracking intracavernously injected adipose-derived stem cells to bone marrow.

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    Lin, G; Qiu, X; Fandel, T; Banie, L; Wang, G; Lue, T F; Lin, C-S

    2011-01-01

    The intracavernous (i.c.) injection of stem cells (SCs) has been shown to improve erectile function in various erectile dysfunction (ED) animal models. However, the tissue distribution of the injected cells remains unknown. In this study we tracked i.c.-injected adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in various tissues. Rat paratesticular fat was processed for ADSC isolation and culture. The animals were then subject to cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury or sham operation, followed by i.c. injection of 1 million autologous or allogeneic ADSCs that were labeled with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU). Another group of rats received i.c. injection of EdU-labeled allogeneic penile smooth muscle cells (PSMCs). At 2 and 7 days post injection, penises and femoral bone marrow were processed for histological analyses. Whole femoral bone marrows were also analyzed for EdU-positive cells by flow cytometry. The results show that ADSCs exited the penis within days of i.c. injection and migrated preferentially to bone marrow. Allogenicity did not affect the bone marrow appearance of ADSCs at either 2 or 7 days, whereas CN injury reduced the number of ADSCs in bone marrow significantly at 7 but not 2 days. The significance of these results in relation to SC therapy for ED is discussed.

  17. Tracking Intracavernously Injected Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Qiu, Xuefeng; Fandel, Thomas; Banie, Lia; Wang, Guifang; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2012-01-01

    Intracavernous (IC) injection of stem cells (SCs) has been shown to improve erectile function in various erectile dysfunction (ED) animal models. However, the tissue distribution of the injected cells remains unknown. In this study we tracked IC injected adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in various tissues. Rat paratesticular fat was processed for ADSC isolation and culture. The animals were then subject to cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury or sham operation, followed by IC injection of one million autologous or allogeneic ADSCs that were labeled with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU). Another group of rats received IC injection of EdU-labeled allogeneic penile smooth muscle cells (PSMCs). At 2 and 7 days post-injection, penises and femoral bone marrow were processed for histological analyses. Whole femoral bone marrows were also analyzed for EdU-positive cells by flow cytometry. The results show that ADSCs exited the penis within days of IC injection and migrated preferentially to bone marrow. Allogenicity did not affect ADSC's bone marrow appearance either at 2 or 7 days, while CN injury reduced the number of ADSCs in bone marrow significantly at 7 but not 2 days. The significance of these results in relation to SC therapy for ED is discussed. PMID:21796145

  18. Conditioned Media From Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reverse Insulin Resistance in Cellular Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Nitya; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2017-08-01

    The link between insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes has been recognized for a long time. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with basal hyperinsulinemia, reduced sensitivity to insulin, and disturbances in insulin release. There are evidences showing the reversal of IR by mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effect of conditioned media from adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs-CM) in reversal of IR has not been established. We established an insulin resistant model of 3T3L1 and C2C12 cells and treated with ADSCs-CM. 2-NBDG (2-[N-[7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl]Amino]-2-Deoxyglucose) uptake was performed to assess improvement in glucose uptake. Genes involved in glucose transport and in inflammation were also analysed. Western blot for glucose transporter-4 and Akt was performed to evaluate translocation of Glut4 and insulin signaling respectively. We found that the ADSCs-CM treated cells restored insulin, stimulated glucose uptake as compared to the untreated control indicating the insulin sensitizing effect of the CM. The treated cells also showed inhibition adipogenesis in 3T3L1 cells and significant reduction of intramuscular triglyceride accumulation in C2C12 cells. Gene expressions studies revealed the drastic upregulation of GLUT4 gene and significant reduction in IL6 and PAI1 gene in both 3T3L1 and C2C12 cells, indicating possible mechanism of glucose uptake with concomitant decrease in inflammation. Enhancement of GLUT4 and phospho Akt protein expression seems to be responsible for the increment in glucose uptake and enhanced insulin signaling, respectively. Our study revealed for the first time that ADSCs-CM acts as an alternative insulin sensitizer providing stem cell solution to IR. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2037-2043,2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

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    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  20. Mechanisms of Immune Suppression Utilized by Canine Adipose and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lyndah; Johnson, Valerie; Coy, Jonathan; Regan, Dan; Dow, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from rodents and humans have been shown to suppress T cells by distinct primary pathways, with nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathways dominating in rodents and indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO)-dependent pathways dominating in humans. However, the immune suppressive pathways utilized by canine MSC have not been thoroughly studied, nor have bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC) been directly compared for their immune modulatory potency or pathway utilization. Therefore, canine BM-MSC and Ad-MSC were generated in vitro and their potency in suppressing T cell proliferation and cytokine production was compared, and differential gene expression. Mechanisms of T cells suppression were also investigated for both MSC types. We found that BM-MSC and Ad-MSC were roughly equivalent in terms of their ability to suppress T cell activation. However, the two MSC types used both shared and distinct biochemical pathways to suppress T cell activation. Ad-MSC utilized TGF-β signaling pathways and adenosine signaling to suppress T cell activation, whereas BM-MSC used cyclooxygenase, TGF-β and adenosine signaling pathways to suppress T cell activation. These results indicate that canine MSC are distinct from human and rodent MSC terms of their immune suppressive pathways, relying primarily on cyclooxygenase and TGF-β pathways for T cell suppression, rather than on NO or IDO-mediated pathways.

  1. Overexpressed human heme Oxygenase-1 decreases adipogenesis in pigs and porcine adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-11-27

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, which means they are able to differentiate into several lineages in vivo and in vitro under proper conditions. This indicates it is possible to determine the direction of differentiation of ADSC by controlling the microenvironment. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a type of antioxidant enzyme, attenuates adipogenicity and obesity. We produced transgenic pigs overexpressing human HO-1 (hHO-1-Tg), and found that these animals have little fatty tissue when autopsied. To determine whether overexpressed human HO-1 suppresses adipogenesis in pigs, we analyzed body weight increases of hHO-1-Tg pigs and wild type (WT) pigs of the same strain, and induced adipogenic differentiation of ADSC derived from WT and hHO-1-Tg pigs. The hHO-1-Tg pigs had lower body weights than WT pigs from 16 weeks of age until they died. In addition, hHO-1-Tg ADSC showed reduced adipogenic differentiation and expression of adipogenic molecular markers such as PPARγ and C/EBPα compared to WT ADSC. These results suggest that HO-1 overexpression reduces adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, which could support identification of therapeutic targets of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellular and molecular stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangjin; Kim, Soo-Min; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2014-05-01

    Cultivation under hypoxia has beneficial effects on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Despite a history of extensive research on the responses of ASCs to hypoxia, investigations have focused on functional alterations of ASCs. Therefore, we provide novel insight in this review into the cellular and molecular changes that occur in ASCs under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increases the proliferation and migration of ASCs by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downstream phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta, ERK1/2, and Akt. Chronically, activation of these signaling pathways upregulates miR-210 via phosphorylation of NF-κB and Elk1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) is a direct miR-210 target, and downregulation of PTPN2 mediates the proliferation and migration of ASCs during hypoxia. In addition, the paracrine effect of ASCs is enhanced under hypoxic conditions, irrespective of whether ROS are generated. Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes hypoxia inducible factor-1α under hypoxic conditions and increases secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby improving the regenerative potential of ASCs. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular changes that occur during hypoxia is highly relevant for the development of novel ASC therapies. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengzhi; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ding, Wei; Zeng, Qinyu; Liu, Wenbing; Huang, Can; He, Shuhua; Wei, Anyang

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in alleviating erectile dysfunction (ED) of diabetic rats has been demonstrated mainly through a paracrine effect. However, exosomes (EXOs), which are important bioactive substance vectors secreted by ADSCs, have never been associated with ED. To investigate the effect of ADSC-derived EXOs on erectile function in a type 2 diabetic ED rat model. EXOs were isolated from the supernatants of cultured ADSCs by ultracentrifugation. We constructed a type 2 diabetic rat model using a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin administered by intraperitoneal injection. In total, 24 diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups and were treated with an intracavernous injection of ADSC-derived EXOs, ADSCs, or phosphate buffered saline. Another eight age-matched rats underwent sham operation and composed the normal control group. Intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure testing and histologic and western blot analyses were performed 4 weeks after the intracavernous injection. ADSC-derived EXOs and ADSCs administered by intracavernous injection led to an increase in the ratio of intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure compared with that for phosphate buffered saline treatment. Histologic and western blot analyses demonstrated an increased ratio of smooth muscle to collagen, increased expression of an endothelial marker (CD31), a smooth muscle marker (α-smooth muscle actin), and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of the apoptotic protein cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum tissue after EXO or ADSC injection compared with values for the phosphate buffered saline treatment. The present results are expected to provide a scientific foundation for clinical application in the near future. Although the results demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSC-derived EXOs could ameliorate ED of diabetic rats, the optimum dose

  4. [Transplantation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviated osteoarthritis induced with anterior cruciate ligament transection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Wang, Y; Cui, W; Xie, J W; Li, J P; Yang, J Y; Xu, H S; Liang, L Q; Yang, X Y; Lian, F

    2016-04-05

    To explore the therapeutic potential of transplantation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in rats osteoarthritis caused by anterior cruciate ligament transection. Rats peritoneal adipose tissues were used to extract ADMSCs.Cell morphological appearance was documented and flow cytometric cell cycle was used to identify ADMSCs. Anterior cruciate ligament transection was used to induce knee osteoarthritis in rats. ADMSCs were injected into the knee cavities. Knee joint pathology was performed to observe the treatment effects. QRT-PCR and Western blot were used to identify the targets of ADMSCs. ADMSCs were successfully extracted, separated, cultured and identified. Two and eight weeks after ADMSCs transplantation, pathology showed significantly attenuation of arthritis including osteophyte and synovitis, reflecting in significantly improvement of both osteophyte and synovitis grading compared to the controls. QRT-PCR and Western blot revealed that collagen Ⅱ expression was significantly up-regulated after ADMSCs transplantation compared to the controls.MMP-13, but not other MMP-1, MMP-3 or MMP-9 was reduced when ADMSCs were co-cultured with primary chondrocytes. DDR-2 expression in chondrocyte was heavily up-regulated when stimulated by TNF-α in vitro. However, ADMSCs could reverse the effect when co-cultured with chondrocyte, implying that ADMSCs may suppress the expression of DDR-2. IL-1β suppressed the cartilage differentiation of ADMSCs, and Actinomycin D (DDR-2 inhibitor) could reverse the effect. ADMSCs can attenuate osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in rats by suppressing the expression of MMP-13, and the upstream target spot may be DDR-2.

  5. The paracrine effect of adipose-derived stem cells inhibits osteoarthritis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazunari; Kabata, Tamon; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Maeda, Toru; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Iwai, Shintaro; Fujita, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-03

    This study aimed to determine whether intra-articularly injected adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) inhibited articular cartilage degeneration during osteoarthritis (OA) development in a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated using a co-culture system. ACLT was performed on both knee joints of 12 rabbits. ADSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue. ADSCs with hyaluronic acid were intra-articularly injected into the left knee, and hyaluronic acid was injected into the right knee. The knees were compared macroscopically, histologically, and immunohistochemically at 8 and 12 weeks. In addition, cell viability was determined using co-culture system of ADSCs and chondrocytes. Macroscopically, osteoarthritis progression was milder in the ADSC-treated knees than in the control knees 8 weeks after ACLT. Histologically, control knees showed obvious erosions in both the medial and lateral condyles at 8 weeks, while cartilage was predominantly retained in the ADSC-treated knees. At 12 weeks, the ADSC-treated knees showed a slight suppression of cartilage degeneration, unlike the control knees. Immunohistochemically, MMP-13 expression was less in the ADSC-treated cartilage than in the control knees. The cell viability of chondrocytes co-cultured with ADSCs was higher than that of chondrocytes cultured alone. TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic stimulation was similar between the two groups. Intra-articularly injected ADSCs inhibited cartilage degeneration progression by homing to the synovium and secreting a liquid factor having chondro-protective effects such as chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix protection.

  6. Growth Hormone Action Influences Adipogenesis of Mouse Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarescu, Nicoleta C; Berryman, Darlene E; Householder, Lara A; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Benencia, Fabian; Kopchick, John J; Bollerslev, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) influences adipocyte differentiation, but both stimulatory and inhibitory effects have been described. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSC) are multipotent, able to differentiate into adipocytes, among other cells. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation impairs adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of GH on AT-MSC adipogenesis using cells isolated from male GH receptor gene knockout (GHRKO), bovine GH transgenic (bGH) and wild-type littermate control (WT) mice. AT-MSC from subcutaneous (sc), epididiymal (epi), and mesenteric (mes) AT depots were identified and isolated by flow cytometry (PDGFRα+Sca-1+CD45−Ter119− cells). Their in vitro adipogenic differentiation capacity was determined by cell morphology and real-time RT-PCR. Using identical in vitro conditions, adipogenic differentiation of AT-MSC was only achieved in the sc depot, but not in epi and mes depots. Notably, we observed an increased differentiation in cells isolated from sc-GHRKO and an impaired differentiation of sc-bGH cells compared with sc-WT cells. Axin-2, a marker of Wnt/β-catenin activation, was increased in mature sc-bGH adipocytes suggesting that activation of this pathway may be responsible for the decreased adipogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that 1) adipose tissue in mice has a well-defined population of Sca-1+PDGFRα+ MSC cells; 2) the differentiation capacity of AT-MSC varies from depot to depot regardless of GH genotype; 3) the lack of GH action increases adipogenesis in sc depot; and 4) activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway might mediate the GH effect on AT-MSC. Taken together, our results suggest that GH diminishes fat mass, in part, by altering adipogenesis of MSC. PMID:25943560

  7. The inhibitory influence of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell environment and Wnt antagonism on breast tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visweswaran, Malini; Arfuso, Frank; Dilley, Rodney J; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun

    2018-02-01

    Tumours exhibit a heterogeneous mix of cell types that reciprocally regulate their growth in the tumour stroma, considerably affecting the progression of the disease. Both adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and Wnt signalling pathway are vital in driving breast tumour growth. Hence, we examined the effect of secreted factors released by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and further explored the anti-tumour property of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells. We observed that conditioned medium and extracellular matrix derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibited tumour viability. The inhibitory effect of the conditioned medium was retained within its low molecular weight and non-protein component. The conditioned medium also induced apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential in tumour cells, Furthermore, it downregulated the protein expression of active β-catenin and Cyclin D1, which are major target proteins of the Wnt signalling pathway, and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The combination of conditioned medium and sFRP4 further potentiated the effects, depending on the tumour cell line and experimental assay. We conclude that factors derived from conditioned medium of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and sFRP4 significantly decreased the tumour cell viability and migration rates (MCF-7), accompanied with an enhanced apoptotic activity through inhibition of canonical Wnt signalling. Besides giving an insight to possible paracrine interactions and influence of signalling pathways, reflective of a breast tumour microenvironment, this study emphasises the utilization of cell free-secreted factors and Wnt antagonists to improve conventional anti-cancer strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects.

  9. Adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells: effect of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Gen; Spagnoli, Anna; Torquati, Alfonso

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction is an important feature of obesity characterized by enlarged adipocytes and marked changes in secretion of cytokines. These changes result in insulin resistance, chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), eventually leading to type 2 diabetes, obesity-related hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several trials have shown that bariatric surgery significantly reduces these comorbidities. However, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery reduces the burden of CVD in obese individuals. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from adipose tissue collected from three groups: (1) nonobese control subjects, (2) obese subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBS), and (3) subjects 1 year or more after GBS. In the study, MSCs were induced to adipogenic differentiation, and RAS-related gene expressions were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs also was investigated. Angiotensinogen mRNA levels in MSCs and differentiated adipocytes were significantly higher in the obese group than in the nonobese control subjects. Renin mRNA levels were significantly higher in the obese group MSCs than in the nonobese and post-GBS groups. Angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA levels were significantly lower in the MSCs derived from the post-GBS group than in the obese and nonobese control subjects. Serum Ang II levels were significantly lower in the post-GBS group (52.1 ± 4.2 pg/ml) than in the nonobese (85.4 ± 12.4 pg/ml) and obese (84.7 ± 10.0 pg/ml) groups. Ang II treatment inhibited adipogenesis of MSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ang II was mainly abolished by PD123319, a receptor 2 blocker. The adipogenesis of MSCs is inhibited by Ang II treatment. Obese individuals are characterized by an upregulation of the RAS

  10. Repair of osteochondral defects in the minipig model by OPF hydrogel loaded with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Girolamo, Laura; Niada, Stefania; Arrigoni, Elena; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale; Taffetani, Matteo; Zerbi, Alberto; Sansone, Valerio; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Brini, Anna T

    2015-01-01

    Critical knee osteochondral defects in seven adult minipigs were treated with oligo(polyethylene glycol)fumarate (OPF) hydrogel combined with autologous or human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and evaluated after 6 months. Four defects were made on the peripheral part of right trochleas (n = 28), and treated with OPF scaffold alone or pre-seeded with ASCs. A better quality cartilage tissue characterized by improved biomechanical properties and higher collagen type II expression was observed in the defects treated by autologous or human ASC-loaded OPF; similarly this approach induced the regeneration of more mature bone with upregulation of collagen type I expression. This study provides the evidence that both porcine and human adipose-derived stem cells associated to OPF hydrogel allow improving osteochondral defect regeneration in a minipig model.

  11. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany López

    Full Text Available The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, two polymers (PVA and ficoll, two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide, a disaccharide (trehalose, and a calcium chelator (EGTA to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the

  12. Caffeine inhibits adipogenic differentiation of primary adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Hui; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yeh, Hua; Su, Shu-Jem

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine consumption has been related to loss of body weight and modulates lipid metabolism. However, impacts of caffeine on adipogenic differentiation have not been well determined yet. The present study evaluated the effects of caffeine on adipogenesis using primary rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a mouse bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in vitro. ADSCs and M2-10B4 were continuously exposed to caffeine (0.1-1mM) during adipogenic differentiation for 7 and 12 days, respectively. Oil red O and Nile red staining showed that caffeine reduced lipid droplet and adipocyte levels in both cell types. In addition, Nile red staining and FACScan flow cytometry showed that caffeine dose-dependently decreased adipocyte differentiation from 20% to 50% of the control ADSCs and M2-10B4 cells. Caffeine decreased the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and TNFα in a dose-dependent manner. Rather, low concentration of caffeine (0.1mM) significantly increased IL-6 expression, but unexpectedly inhibited that at a concentration more than 0.3mM. Taken together, caffeine was able to effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs and M2-10B4 cells partly through its inhibition of adipogenesis-related factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced cartilage formation via three-dimensional cell engineering of human adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Yoon, Hee Hun; Bhang, Suk Ho; Shin, Jung-Youn; Shin, Jaehoon; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2012-10-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation is an effective treatment for damaged articular cartilage. However, this method involves surgical procedures that may cause further cartilage degeneration, and in vitro expansion of chondrocytes can result in dedifferentiation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) may be an alternative autologous cell source for cartilage regeneration. In this study, we developed an effective method for large-scale in vitro chondrogenic differentiation, which is the procedure that would be required for clinical applications, and the subsequent in vivo cartilage formation of human ADSCs (hADSCs). The spheroid formation and chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs were induced on a large scale by culturing hADSCs in three-dimensional suspension bioreactors (spinner flasks). In vitro chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs was enhanced by a spheroid culture compared with a monolayer culture. The enhanced chondrogenesis was probably attributable to hypoxia-related cascades and enhanced cell-cell interactions in hADSC spheroids. On hADSCs loading in fibrin gel and transplantation into subcutaneous space of athymic mice for 4 weeks, the in vivo cartilage formation was enhanced by the transplantation of spheroid-cultured hADSCs compared with that of monolayer-cultured hADSCs. This study shows that the spheroid culture may be an effective method for large-scale in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs and subsequent in vivo cartilage formation.

  14. Alginate microencapsulation technology for the percutaneous delivery of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Hunter R; Kinney, Ramsey C; Singh, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph K; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2010-11-01

    Autologous fat is the ideal soft-tissue filler; however, its widespread application is limited because of variable clinical results and poor survival. Engineered fillers have the potential to maximize survival. Alginate is a hydrogel copolymer that can be engineered into spheres of cells from shearing forces. Alginate powder was dissolved in saline, and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were encapsulated (1 million cells/mL) in alginate using an electrostatic bead generator. To assess effects of injection on cell viability, microspheres containing ADSCs were separated into 2 groups: the control group was decanted into culture wells and the injection group was mixed with basal media and injected through a 21-gauge needle into culture wells. Microbeads were cultured for 3 weeks, and cell number and viability were measured weekly using electron and confocal microscopy. To assess effects of percutaneous injection in vivo, twenty-four male nude mice were randomly separated into 2 groups and injected with either empty microcapsules or ADSC-laden microcapsules. Mice were harvested at 1 and 3 months, and the implants were examined microscopically to assess bead and cell viability. A flow rate of 5 mL/h and an electrostatic potential of 7 kV produced viable ADSC-laden microbeads of cells suspended in alginate microspheres survive in vivo and are seen to replicate in vitro.

  15. Fluoxetine Decreases the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo Kyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2015-07-22

    Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Repair of critical size defects using bioactive glass seeded with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçak, Bülent; Certel, Furkan; Akdeniz, Zeynep D; Karademir, Betül; Ercan, Feriha; Özkan, Naziye; Akpinar, İhsan Nuri; Çelebiler, Özhan

    2017-07-01

    Bioactive glass has been demonstrated as a biocompatible bone substitute. However bone healing process can be prolonged due to late resorption of the material. Adipose derived stem cells (ASC) have osteogenic differentiation potential and hence can be a cell source for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to test whether combination of bioactive glass with ASCs would enhance bone regeneration. Following creation of critical sized defects on the calvaria of 32 Wistar rats, the animals were randomly divided into four groups: Group C (control): Defects were left untreated; Group G: Defects were covered with autologous bone graft; Group BG: Defects were filled with bioactive glass; Group BG/ASC: Defects were filled with bioactive glass seeded with ASCs. The defect size was significantly greater in Group C compared to all other groups. Bone density was significantly lower in Group C compared to Group G and Group BG/ASC. Bone regeneration score of Group C was significantly lower than other groups. Group BG/ASC demonstrated lamellar bone and havers canal formation. The results of this study demonstrated that bioactive glass implanted with ASC is a biocompatible construct stimulating radiologically and histologically evident bone regeneration similar to autologous bone grafting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1002-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Improvement of Anal Function by Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Fujita, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kinoe, Hiroko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Sakai, Yusuke; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    One of the most troublesome complications of anal preserving surgery is anal sphincter dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional recovery after implantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) sheets, novel biotechnology, for an anal sphincter resection animal model. Eighteen female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent removal of the nearest half of the internal and external anal sphincter muscle. Nine rats received transplantation with ADSC sheets to the resected area while the remaining rats received no transplantation. The rats were evaluated for the anal function by measuring their resting pressure before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. In addition, the rats were examined for the presence of smooth muscle and also to determine its origin. The improvement of the anal pressure was significantly greater in the ADSC sheet transplantation group compared with the control group. Histologically, at the vicinity of the remaining smooth muscle, reproduction of smooth muscle was detected. Using in fluorescence in situ hybridization, the cells were shown to be from the recipient. Regenerative therapy using ADSC sheet has the potential to recover anal sphincter dysfunction due to anorectal surgery. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fluoxetine Decreases the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.

  19. Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Downregulate Senescence Features in Osteoarthritic Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tofiño-Vian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA affects all articular tissues leading to pain and disability. The dysregulation of bone metabolism may contribute to the progression of this condition. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC are attractive candidates in the search of novel strategies for OA treatment and exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on cartilage. Chronic inflammation in OA is a relevant factor in the development of cellular senescence and joint degradation. In this study, we extend our previous observations of ASC paracrine effects to study the influence of conditioned medium and extracellular vesicles from ASC on senescence induced by inflammatory stress in OA osteoblasts. Our results in cells stimulated with interleukin- (IL- 1β indicate that conditioned medium, microvesicles, and exosomes from ASC downregulate senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the accumulation of γH2AX foci. In addition, they reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, with the highest effect on IL-6 and prostaglandin E2. The control of mitochondrial membrane alterations and oxidative stress may provide a mechanism for the protective effects of ASC in OA osteoblasts. We have also shown that microvesicles and exosomes mediate the paracrine effects of ASC. Our study suggests that correction of abnormal osteoblast metabolism by ASC products may contribute to their protective effects.

  20. In-vitro cell adhesion and proliferation of adipose derived stem cell on hydroxyapatite composite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulyala, Praneetha; Singh, Akshay; Dias-Netipanyj, Marcela Ferreira; Cogo, Sheron Compos; Santos, Luciane S; Soares, Paulo; Gopal, Vasanth; Suganthan, V; Manivasagam, Geetha; Popat, Ketul C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this work was to enhance the mechanical strength and fracture toughness of brittle hydroxyapatite (HAP) by reinforcing it with nanocomposites such as graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and Titania. The goal was also to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the cellular adhesion/proliferation of these composites. The composites were characterized for their crystallinity, functionality, morphology and mechanical properties. Altering the composition by adding 1wt% GO and CNT significantly altered the wettability, hardness and roughness. Further, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm the crystal structure, bulk chemical composition and surface elemental composition respectively of the composites. The bulk hardness of HAP with CNT was significantly higher than that of HAP. The wettability of HAP with GO was significantly lower than that of HAP with GO and Titania. Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) were used for this study to evaluate cytotoxicity and viability. HAP with CNT and HAP with CNT and Titania were found to be least cytotoxic compared to other composites as evaluated by Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and alamarBlue assay. ADSC adhesion and proliferation was investigated after 1, 4 and 7days of culture using fluorescence microscopy. All the composites nurtured ADSC adhesion and proliferation, however, distinct morphological changes were observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Overall, these composites have the potential to be used as bone graft substitutes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incipient establishment of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells bank

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    Xiao XU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the possibility of establishing the human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs bank as to provide an alternative source for the seed cells of tissue engineering. Methods The cell surface antigens of the purified, expanded hADSCs and the ones following cryopreservation were detected by flow cytometry, cultured in an induced culture medium to induce the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. The specific marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic special medium was also detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The phenotype and expansion possibility of hADSCs after cryopreservation were remained. It could expand for 10 generations. The doubling time was 48 hours. The 2nd, 6th and 10th generation of hADSCs kept stronger ability of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Conclusion The bank of hADSCs has been incipiently established and can provide eligible seed cells for tissue engineering. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.05

  2. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells alleviate radiation-induced xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIONG, XUEYAN; SHI, XIUJUAN; CHEN, FENGSHAN

    2014-01-01

    Hyposalivation is an intractable side-effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It is caused by the irreversible loss of acinar cells and decreased saliva secretion. However, this situation severely compromises the quality of life of affected patients. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this condition. In the present study, we developed a novel approach to regenerate the function of the irradiation-damaged salivary glands using human adipose tissue-derived stem cell (hADSC) intraglandular transplantation. ZsGreen-labeled hADSCs were adoptively transferred into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat submandibular glands immediately following exposure to 18 Gy irradiation. A higher salivary flow rate (SFR) was observed in the hADSC-treated group. Tissue improvement, including angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis and anti-fibrosis, was detected in the hADSC-treated glands as compared to the untreated glands. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed a significantly higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the hADSC-treated rats. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the hADSCs had differentiated into acinar and ductal cells in the rat submandibular glands. Thus, our results suggest that hADSCs are able to regenerate irradiation-damaged salivary glands through glandular transplantation. PMID:25017690

  3. The potentials of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in targeted therapy of experimental glioma

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    FAN Cun-gang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With current standard therapy which includes extensive microsurgical resection along with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is only 14.60 months nowadays. Recent studies demonstrated that human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs possessed the glioma-trophic migratory capacity. The engineered hAT-MSCs expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk, yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy:: UPRT, and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE could exert inhibitory effects on glioma when combined with prodrugs, such as ganciclovir (GCV, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and irinotecan (CPT-11, respectively. hAT-MSCs carrying the oncolytic virus or expressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL also could inhibit the growth of glioma. This paper summarizes the recent progress in this field to pave the way for hAT-MSCs based targeted therapy of glioma in future.

  4. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

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    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.dk

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  5. Characterization of electrospun nanocomposite scaffolds and biocompatibility with adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Seth D; Stevens, Derrick R; Roberts, Wesley A; Clarke, Laura I; Bernacki, Susan H; Gorga, Russell E; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2007-01-01

    Electrospun nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by encapsulating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) in poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the fabrication of nanofibers, and transmission electron microscopy identified the alignment and dispersion of MWNT along the axis of the fibers. Tensile testing showed an increase in the tensile modulus for a MWNT loading of 0.25 wt% compared with electrospun nanofibrous mats without MWNT reinforcement. Conductivity measurements indicated that the confined geometry of the fibrous system requires only minute doping to obtain significant enhancements at 0.32 wt%. Adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded on electrospun scaffolds containing 1 wt% MWNT and 0 wt% MWNT, to determine the efficacy of the scaffolds for cell growth, and the effect of MWNT on hMSC viability and proliferation over two weeks in culture. Staining for live and dead cells and DNA quantification indicated that the hMSCs were alive and proliferating through day 14. SEM images of hMSCs at 14 days showed morphological differences, with hMSCs on PLA well spread and hMSCs on PLA with 1% MWNT closely packed and longitudinally aligned.

  6. Adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve cryoinjury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Fang, F; Wang, J; Guo, H

    2015-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common complication following cryotherapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in improving erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) cryoinjury and the possible mechanisms. Male rats were intracavernous (IC) injected with EdU-labeled ADSC after bilateral CN cryoinjury. Penile tissues were harvested for histology and protein level detection at 1 and 4 weeks after ADSC administration. Erectile function was assessed prior to tissue harvest. We found that erectile function was significantly improved after ADSC treatment via promoting nNOS-positive nerve regeneration and cavernous tissue recovery. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 (an apoptotic marker) reduced after ADSC treatment. Although few EdU-labeled ADSCs were visualized within the penis 4 weeks after administration, plenty of EdU-labeled ADSCs were found around penile dorsal vessels and nerves 1 week after treatment. Furthermore, three neurotrophic factors (NGF, VEGF, and Neurturin) were significantly decreased in Cryo group, and were partially recovered 1 week after ADSC injection. These results suggested that IC injection of ADSC resulted in substantial recoveries of erectile function after CN cryoinjury. The effects may be achieved through the elevated level of neurotrophic factors in penile tissue and subsequent neuroregenerative effects. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. [Use of adipose-derived stem cells in an experimental rotator cuff fracture animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, R; Encinas, C; Valencia, M; Carrascal, M T; García-Arranz, M; Antuña, S

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repairs have shown a high level of re-ruptures. We hypothesized that the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) could improve the biomechanical and histological properties of the repair. Controlled experimental study conducted on 44 BDIX rats with section and repair of the supraspinatus tendon and randomization to one of three groups: group A, no intervention (control); group B, local applications of a fibrin sealant; and group C, application of the fibrin sealant with 2 x 10(6) ASC. At 4 and 8 weeks a biomechanical and histological analysis was performed. There were no differences in load-to-failure at 4 and 8 weeks between groups. The load-to-failure did increase between week 4 and week 8. Histologically the tendon-to bone union showed a disorganized fibrovascular tissue. Group C showed a different inflammatory pattern, with less presence of neutrophils and more presence of plasma cells. The use of ASC does not improve the biomechanical or histological properties of the repair site. More studies are needed to improve techniques that enhance the healing site of the repair. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular Behavior of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Wettable Gradient Polyethylene Surfaces

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    Hyun Hee Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate surface wettability and roughness of biomaterials is an important factor in cell attachment and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the correlation between surface wettability and roughness, and biological response in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs. We prepared wettable and rough gradient polyethylene (PE surfaces by increasing the power of a radio frequency corona discharge apparatus with knife-type electrodes over a moving sample bed. The PE changed gradually from hydrophobic and smooth surfaces to hydrophilic (water contact angle, 90° to ~50° and rough (80 to ~120 nm surfaces as the power increased. We found that hADSCs adhered better to highly hydrophilic and rough surfaces and showed broadly stretched morphology compared with that on hydrophobic and smooth surfaces. The proliferation of hADSCs on hydrophilic and rough surfaces was also higher than that on hydrophobic and smooth surfaces. Furthermore, integrin beta 1 gene expression, an indicator of attachment, and heat shock protein 70 gene expression were high on hydrophobic and smooth surfaces. These results indicate that the cellular behavior of hADSCs on gradient surface depends on surface properties, wettability and roughness.

  9. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

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    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  10. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  11. Assessment of tumourigenic potential in long-term cryopreserved human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kar Wey; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Choi, Jane Ru; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation represents an efficient way to preserve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at early culture/passage, and allows pooling of cells to achieve sufficient cells required for off-the-shelf use in clinical applications, e.g. cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. To fully apply cryopreserved hMSCs in a clinical setting, it is necessary to evaluate their biosafety, e.g. chromosomal abnormality and tumourigenic potential. To date, many studies have demonstrated that cryopreserved hMSCs display no chromosomal abnormalities. However, the tumourigenic potential of cryopreserved hMSCs has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, we cryopreserved human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) for 3 months, using a slow freezing method with various cryoprotective agents (CPAs), followed by assessment of the tumourigenic potential of the cryopreserved hASCs after thawing and subculture. We found that long-term cryopreserved hASCs maintained normal levels of the tumour suppressor markers p53, p21, p16 and pRb, hTERT, telomerase activity and telomere length. Further, we did not observe significant DNA damage or signs of p53 mutation in cryopreserved hASCs. Our findings suggest that long-term cryopreserved hASCs are at low risk of tumourigenesis. These findings aid in establishing the biosafety profile of cryopreserved hASCs, and thus establishing low hazardous risk perception with the use of long-term cryopreserved hASCs for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Expanded autologous adipose derived stem cell transplantation for type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Phuong Thi-Bich Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is the most common form of diabetes mellitus, accounting for 90% of diabetes mellitus in patients. At the present time, althoughT2D can be treated by various drugs and therapies using insulin replacement, reports have shown that complications including microvascular, macrovascular complications and therapy resistance can occur in patients on long term treatment. Stem cell therapy is regarded as a promising therapy for diabetes mellitus, including T2D. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effect of expanded autologous adipose derived stem cell (ADSC transplantation for T2D treatment; the pilot study included 3 patients who were followed for 3 months. Methods: The ADSCs were isolated from stromal vascular fractions, harvested from the belly of the patient,and expanded for 21 days per previously published studies. Before transplantation, ADSCs were evaluated for endotoxin, mycoplasma contamination, and karyotype.All patients were transfused with ADSCs at 1-2x106 cells/kg of body weight.Patients were evaluated for criteria related to transplantation safety and therapeutic effects; these included fever, blood glucose level before transplantation of ADSCs, and blood glucose level after transplantation (at 1, 2 and 3 months. Results: The results showed that all samples of ADSCs exhibited the MSC phenotype with stable karyotype (2n=46, there was no contamination of mycoplasma, and endotoxin levels were low (<0.25 EU/mL. No adverse effects were detected after 3 months of transplantation. Decreases of blood glucose levels were recorded in all patients. Conclusion: The findings from this initial study show that expanded autologous ADSCs may be a promising treatment for T2D.

  13. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Target Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ah; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kwon, Sung Eun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jung Won; Jin, Xiong; Lim, Ja Yun; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    In neuro-oncology, the biology of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been pursued in two ways: as tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and as a potential cell-based vehicle for gene therapy. NSCs as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess tumor tropism capacities. However, there is little data on the migratory capacity of MSCs toward brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). This study focuses on the ability of human adipose tissue derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs) to target BTICs and their crosstalk in the microenvironment. BTICs were isolated from three different types of brain tumors. The migration capacities of hAT-MSCs toward BTICs were examined using an in vitro migration assay and in vivo bioluminescence imaging analysis. To investigate the crosstalk between hAT-MSCs and BTICs, we analyzed the mRNA expression patterns of cyto-chemokine receptors by RT-qPCR and the protein level of their ligands in co-cultured medium. The candidate cyto-chemokine receptors were selectively inhibited using siRNAs. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that hAT-MSCs possess migratory abilities to target BTICs isolated from medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) and glioblastoma. Different types of cyto-chemokines are involved in the crosstalk between hAT-MSCs and BTICs (medulloblastoma and AT/RT: CXCR4/SDF-1, CCR5/RANTES, IL6R/IL-6 and IL8R/IL8; glioblastoma: CXCR4/SDF-1, IL6R/IL-6, IL8R/IL-8 and IGF1R/IGF-1). Our findings demonstrated the migratory ability of hAT-MSCs for BTICs, implying the potential use of MSCs as a delivery vehicle for gene therapy. This study also confirmed the expression of hAT-MSCs cytokine receptors and the BTIC ligands that play roles in their crosstalk.

  14. Xenotransplantation of human adipose-derived stem cells in zebrafish embryos.

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    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is a widely used animal model with well-characterized background in developmental biology. The fate of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs after their xenotransplantation into the developing embryos of zebrafish is unknown. Therefore, human ADSCs were firstly isolated, and then transduced with lentiviral vector system carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene, and followed by detection of their cell viability and the expression of cell surface antigens. These GFP-expressing human ADSCs were transplanted into the zebrafish embryos at 3.3-4.3 hour post-fertilization (hpf. Green fluorescent signal, the proliferation and differentiation of human ADSCs in recipient embryos were respectively examined using fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that human ADSCs did not change their cell viability and the expression levels of cell surface antigens after GFP transduction. Microscopic examination demonstrated that green fluorescent signals of GFP expressed in the transplanted cells were observed in the embryos and larva fish at post-transplantation. The positive staining of Ki-67 revealed the survival and proliferation of human ADSCs in fish larvae after transplantation. The expression of CD105 was observable in the xenotransplanted ADSCs, but CD31 expression was undetectable. Therefore, our results indicate that human ADSCs xenotransplanted in the zebrafish embryos not only can survive and proliferate at across-species circumstance, but also seem to maintain their undifferentiation status in a short term. This xenograft model of zebrafish embryos may provide a promising and useful technical platform for the investigation of biology and physiology of stem cells in vivo.

  15. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxi...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  16. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  17. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Tendon Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Kwon, Bomi; Lee, Kyoungbun; Son, Young Hoon; Chung, Sun G

    2017-05-01

    Although survival of transplanted stem cells in vivo and differentiation of stem cells into tenocytes in vitro have been reported, there have been no in vivo studies demonstrating that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could secrete their own proteins as differentiated tenogenic cells. Purpose/Hypothesis: Using a xenogeneic MSC transplantation model, we aimed to investigate whether MSCs could differentiate into the tenogenic lineage and secrete their own proteins. The hypothesis was that human MSCs would differentiate into the human tenogenic lineage and the cells would be able to secrete human-specific proteins in a rat tendon injury model. Controlled laboratory study. The Achilles tendons of 57 Sprague Dawley rats received full-thickness rectangular defects. After the modeling, the defective tendons were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) cell group, implantation with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) and fibrin glue (106 cells in 60 μL); (2) fibrin group, implantation with fibrin glue and same volume of cell media; and (3) sham group, identical surgical procedure without any treatment. Gross observation and biomechanical, histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analyses were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after modeling. hASCs implanted into the defective rat tendons were viable for 4 weeks as detected by immunofluorescence staining. Tendons treated with hASCs showed better gross morphological and biomechanical recovery than those in the fibrin and sham groups. Furthermore, the expression of both human-specific collagen type I and tenascin-C was significantly higher in the cell group than in the other 2 groups. Transplantation of hASCs enhanced rat tendon healing biomechanically. hASCs implanted into the rat tendon defect model survived for at least 4 weeks and secreted human-specific collagen type I and tenascin-C. These findings suggest that transplanted MSCs may be able to differentiate into the tenogenic lineage and contribute

  18. Nanomechanics of human adipose-derived stem cells: small GTPases impact chondrogenic differentiation.

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    Jungmann, Pia M; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen; Schillers, Hermann; Oberleithner, Hans; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2012-05-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show gene expression of chondrogenic markers after three-dimensional cultivation. However, hypertrophy and osteogenic transdifferentiation are still limiting clinical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of small GTPases (Rac1 and RhoA) on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs and compare it with BMP-2-induced hypertrophy, by assessing effects on intracellular and extracellular matrix. In a novel experimental approach we characterized differentiation of living stem cells by single-cell elasticity measurements using atomic force microscopy. Results were matched with single-cell size measurements (diameter and volume) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic and hypertrophic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type X) as well as chondrogenic (collagen type II) gene expression. Intracellular F-actin expression was visualized by phalloidin staining of alginate-embedded ASCs. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-sided t-test. Nontreated two-dimensional cultured ASCs (2D ASC) showed a significantly lower deformability than chondrocytes (Young's modulus: 294.4 vs. 225.1 Pa; ANOVA: p<0.001). Standard chondrogenic stimulation decreased stem cell elasticity to chondrocyte values (221.7 Pa). All other chondrogenic differentiated ASCs presented intermediate elasticity (BMP-2 stimulation: 269.1 Pa; Rac1 inhibition: 279.8 Pa; RhoA inhibtition: 257.8 Pa; p<0.05 compared to 2D ASC). F-actin fluorescence was visually decreased in Rac1-inhibited cells and increased in BMP-2-stimulated cells. Cell volume of 2D ASCs (6382.3 fL; p<0.001) was significantly higher than in all stimulated samples (BMP-2: 3076.7 fL; RhoA inhibition: 3126.0 fL). Volume of stem cells after standard chondrogenic stimulation (2590.0 fL) was not significantly different from chondrocyte volume (2244.9 fL). Rac1-Inhibitor reduced

  19. Adipogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Within Three-Dimensional Hollow Fiber-Based Bioreactors

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    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A.; Minteer, Danielle M.; Li, Han; Rubin, J. Peter

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro. PMID:21902468

  20. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

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    Wentao Sun

    Full Text Available Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  1. Observed changes in the morphology and phenotype of breast cancer cells in direct co-culture with adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbier, Joern W; Bucan, Vesna; Reimers, Kerstin; Strauss, Sarah; Lazaridis, Andrea; Jahn, Sabrina; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M

    2014-09-01

    Regarding aesthetics and long-term stability, cell-assisted lipotransfer is a promising method for breast reconstruction. Here, autologous fat grafts enriched with autologous adipose-derived stem cells are transferred. However, as adipose-derived stem cells secrete high amounts of growth factors, potential risks of tumor reactivation remain. In this study, influences of adipose-derived stem cells on inflammatory breast cancer cells were evaluated in a direct co-culture system. Human adipose-derived stem cells were isolated and cultivated either alone or in a direct co-culture with the inflammatory breast carcinoma cell line T47D. At different time points, cell morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy, cell membranes were stained by immunofluorescence, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In co-cultures, T47D breast carcinoma cells showed tumorsphere-typical growth surrounded by a monolayer of adipose-derived stem cells. Direct cell-to-cell contacts could be observed between the two different cell types. Immunofluorescence revealed vesicular exchange and fusion between carcinoma cells and adipose-derived stem cells. Expression levels of transcriptional genes for typical malignancy markers were substantially higher in co-cultures compared with single cultures. Direct intercellular contact between carcinoma cells and adipose-derived stem cells by means of exosomal vesicular exchange was revealed. Breast cancer cells displayed a change towards a more malignant phenotype associated with higher rates of metastasis and worsened prognosis. As cell-assisted lipotransfer is often performed after breast cancer surgery, transfer of adipose-derived stem cells might lead to deterioration of prognosis in case of recurrence as it has been described for inflammatory breast cancer.

  2. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Chen; Qiyun Yang; Tao Zheng; Jun Bian; Xiangzhou Sun; Yanan Shi; Xiaoyan Liang; Guoquan Gao; Guihua Liu; Chunhua Deng

    2015-01-01

    The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect’s mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU-) labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavern...

  3. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  4. Adipogenic differentiation of laser-printed 3D tissue grafts consisting of human adipose-derived stem cells

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    Gruene, M; Deiwick, A; Koch, L; Schlie, S; Unger, C; Chichkov, B N [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Pflaum, M; Wilhelmi, M; Haverich, A, E-mail: m.gruene@lzh.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) allows the realization of computer-generated 3D tissue grafts consisting of cells embedded in a hydrogel environment. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were printed in a free-scalable 3D grid pattern by means of LaBP. We demonstrate that neither the proliferation ability nor the differentiation behaviour of the stem cells was affected by the LaBP procedure. Furthermore, the 3D grafts were differentiated down the adipogenic lineage pathway for 10 days. We verify by quantitative assessments of adipogenic markers that the 3D grafts resemble cell lineages present in natural adipose tissue. Additionally, we provide the proof that even pre-differentiated hASCs could be utilized for the generation of 3D tissue grafts. These results indicate that the biofabrication of living grafts resembling their complex native origin is within reach.

  5. Isolation, characterization and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells: from small to large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Elena; Lopa, Silvia; de Girolamo, Laura; Stanco, Deborah; Brini, Anna T

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important issues in orthopaedic surgery is the loss of bone resulting from trauma, infections, tumours or congenital deficiency. In view of the hypothetical future application of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human adipose tissue in regenerative medicine, we have analysed and characterized adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from adipose tissue of rat, rabbit and pig. We have compared their in vitro osteogenic differentiation abilities for exploitation in the repair of critical osteochondral defects in autologous pre-clinical models. The number of pluripotent cells per millilitre of adipose tissue is variable and the yield of rabbit ASCs is lower than that in rat and pig. However, all ASCs populations show both a stable doubling time during culture and a marked clonogenic ability. After exposure to osteogenic stimuli, ASCs from rat, rabbit and pig exhibit a significant increase in the expression of osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase, extracellular calcium deposition, osteocalcin and osteonectin. However, differences have been observed depending on the animal species and/or differentiation period. Rabbit and porcine ASCs have been differentiated on granules of clinical grade hydroxyapatite (HA) towards osteoblast-like cells. These cells grow and adhere to the scaffold, with no inhibitory effect of HA during osteo-differentiation. Such in vitro studies are necessary in order to select suitable pre-clinical models to validate the use of autologous ASCs, alone or in association with proper biomaterials, for the repair of critical bone defects.

  6. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell administration does not improve corneal graft survival outcome.

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    Sherezade Fuentes-Julián

    Full Text Available The effect of local and systemic injections of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (AD-MSC into rabbit models of corneal allograft rejection with either normal-risk or high-risk vascularized corneal beds was investigated. The models we present in this study are more similar to human corneal transplants than previously reported murine models. Our aim was to prevent transplant rejection and increase the length of graft survival. In the normal-risk transplant model, in contrast to our expectations, the injection of AD-MSC into the graft junction during surgery resulted in the induction of increased signs of inflammation such as corneal edema with increased thickness, and a higher level of infiltration of leukocytes. This process led to a lower survival of the graft compared with the sham-treated corneal transplants. In the high-risk transplant model, in which immune ocular privilege was undermined by the induction of neovascularization prior to graft surgery, we found the use of systemic rabbit AD-MSCs prior to surgery, during surgery, and at various time points after surgery resulted in a shorter survival of the graft compared with the non-treated corneal grafts. Based on our results, local or systemic treatment with AD-MSCs to prevent corneal rejection in rabbit corneal models at normal or high risk of rejection does not increase survival but rather can increase inflammation and neovascularization and break the innate ocular immune privilege. This result can be partially explained by the immunomarkers, lack of immunosuppressive ability and immunophenotypical secretion molecules characterization of AD-MSC used in this study. Parameters including the risk of rejection, the inflammatory/vascularization environment, the cell source, the time of injection, the immunosuppression, the number of cells, and the mode of delivery must be established before translating the possible benefits of the use of MSCs in corneal transplants to clinical

  7. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells

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    Zaminy Arash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteogenesis driven by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs is regulated by physiological and pathological factors. Accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggests that melatonin may have an influence on bone formation. However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on osteogenesis, which thus remains to be elucidated. This study was performed to determine whether melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM could affect the in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat ADSCs. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were isolated from the fat of adult rats. After cell expansion in culture media and through three passages, osteogenesis was induced in a monolayer culture using osteogenic medium with or without melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM. After four weeks, the cultures were examined for mineralization by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining and for alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity using an ALP kit. Cell viability and apoptosis were also assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The results indicated that at physiological concentrations, melatonin suppressed proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs. These data indicate that ADSCs exposed to melatonin, had a lower ALP activity in contrast to the cells exposed to osteogenic medium alone. Similarly, mineral deposition (calcium level also decreased in the presence of melatonin. Flow cytometry confirmed that cell growth had decreased and that the numbers of apoptotic cells had increased. Conclusion: These results suggest that the physiological concentration of melatonin has a negative effect on ADSC osteogenesis.

  8. Effect of hypoxia on equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue

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    Ranera Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue (AT-MSCs are being applied to equine cell therapy. The physiological environment in which MSCs reside is hypoxic and does not resemble the oxygen level typically used in in vitro culture (20% O2. This work compares the growth kinetics, viability, cell cycle, phenotype and expression of pluripotency markers in both equine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs at 5% and 20% O2. Results At the conclusion of culture, fewer BM-MSCs were obtained in hypoxia than in normoxia as a result of significantly reduced cell division. Hypoxic AT-MSCs proliferated less than normoxic AT-MSCs because of a significantly higher presence of non-viable cells during culture. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the immunophenotype of both MSCs was maintained in both oxygen conditions. Gene expression analysis using RT-qPCR showed that statistically significant differences were only found for CD49d in BM-MSCs and CD44 in AT-MSCs. Similar gene expression patterns were observed at both 5% and 20% O2 for the remaining surface markers. Equine MSCs expressed the embryonic markers NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in both oxygen conditions. Additionally, hypoxic cells tended to display higher expression, which might indicate that hypoxia retains equine MSCs in an undifferentiated state. Conclusions Hypoxia attenuates the proliferative capacity of equine MSCs, but does not affect the phenotype and seems to keep them more undifferentiated than normoxic MSCs.

  9. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Gu, Yunpeng; Liu, Zhenjun; Qi, Yue; Ma, Gui E.; Kang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs. PMID:26106426

  10. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  11. Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan, Deepa; Lehman, Christine E; Mendez, Rolando E; Langford, Brian; Koors, Paul D; Dougherty, Michael I; Peirce, Shayn M; Gioeli, Daniel G; Jameson, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Objective Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have significant wound-healing difficulties. While adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) facilitate wound healing, ASCs may accelerate recurrence when applied to a cancer field. This study evaluates the impact of ASCs on HNSCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Study Design In vitro experiments using HNSCC cell lines and in vivo mouse experiments. Setting Basic science laboratory. Subjects and Methods Impact of ASCs on in vitro proliferation, survival, and migration was assessed using 8 HNSCC cell lines. One cell line was used in a mouse orthotopic xenograft model to evaluate in vivo tumor growth in the presence and absence of ASCs. Results Addition of ASCs did not increase the number of HNSCC cells. In clonogenic assays to assess cell survival, addition of ASCs increased colony formation only in SCC9 cells (maximal effect 2.3-fold, P < .02) but not in other HNSCC cell lines. In scratch assays to assess migration, fluorescently tagged ASCs did not migrate appreciably and did not increase the rate of wound closure in HNSCC cell lines. Addition of ASCs to HNSCC xenografts did not increase tumor growth. Conclusion Using multiple in vitro and in vivo approaches, ASCs did not significantly stimulate HNSCC cell proliferation or migration and increased survival in only a single cell line. These findings preliminarily suggest that the use of ASCs may be safe in the setting of HNSCC but that further investigation on the therapeutic use of ASCs in the setting of HNSCC is needed.

  12. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Manasa G; Kour, Supinder; Piprode, Vikrant; Mittal, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Rani, Lekha; Pote, Satish T; Mishra, Gyan C; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-1β. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts

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    Chae Min Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. Methods This study investigated composite graft survival after ADSC injection. Circular chondrocutaneous composite tissues, 2 cm in diameter, from 15 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Thirty ears were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the experimental groups (1 and 2, ADSCs were subcutaneously injected 7 days and immediately before the operation, respectively. Similarly, phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the control group just before surgery in the same manner as in group 2. In all groups, chondrocutaneous composite tissue was elevated, rotated 90 degrees, and repaired in its original position. Skin flow was assessed using laser Doppler 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after surgery. At 1 and 12 days after surgery, the viable area was assessed using digital photography; the rabbits were euthanized, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 was performed to assess neovascularization. Results The survival of composite grafts increased significantly with the injection of ADSCs (P<0.05. ADSC injection significantly improved neovascularization based on anti-CD31 immunohistochemical analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.05 in both group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in graft survival, anti-CD31 neovascularization, or microcirculation were found between groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Treatment with ADSCs improved the composite graft survival, as confirmed by the survival area and histological evaluation. The differences according to the injection timing were not significant.

  14. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, Olivia S. [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Fonseca, Vera C. [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Darling, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Darling@brown.edu [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth

  15. The antisenescence effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Karthyayani; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wen, Tung-Chou; Hsieh, Jeanne; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liu, Jen-Wei; Lin, Po-Cheng; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2015-01-01

    As assuring cell quality is an essential parameter for the success of stem cell therapy, the impact of various senescence-inducing stress signals, and strategies to circumvent them, has been an important area of focus in stem cell research. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the capacity of Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) in reversing stress-induced senescence and maintaining the quality of stem cells in a chemically (H2O2)-induced cell senescence model. Because of the availability and the promising application potential in regenerative medicine, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were chosen for the study. We found that H2O2 treatment resulted in the expression of senescence characteristics in the ADSCs, including decreased proliferation rate, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, decreased silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT1) expression, and decreased telomerase activity. However, TC treatment was sufficient to rescue or reduce the effects of H2O2 induction, ultimately leading to an increased proliferation rate, a decrease in the percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells, upregulation of SIRT1 expression, and increased telomerase activity of the senescent ADSCs at the cellular level. Moreover, a chemically induced liver fibrosis animal model was used to evaluate the functionality of these rescued cells in vivo. Liver dysfunction was established by injecting 200 mg/kg thioacetamide (TAA) intraperitoneally into Wistar rats every third day for 60 days. The experimental rats were separated into groups: normal group (rats without TAA induction), sham group (without ADSC transplantation), positive control group (transplanted with normal ADSCs), H2O2 group (transplanted with H2O2-induced senescent ADSCs), and H2O2 + TC group (transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with H2O2 and then further treated with TC). In the transplantation group, 1 × 10(6) human ADSCs were introduced into each rat via direct liver injection

  16. Primary cilia: the chemical antenna regulating human adipose-derived stem cell osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine C Bodle

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1, polycystin-2 (PC2 and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88, in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the cilium structure and phenotypic determination. Abrogation of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 effected changes in both hASC proliferation and differentiation activity, as measured through proliferative activity, expression of osteogenic gene markers, calcium accretion and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity. Results indicated that IFT88 may be an early mediator of the hASC differentiation process with its knockdown increasing hASC proliferation and decreasing Runx2, alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2 mRNA expression. PC1 and PC2 knockdown affected later osteogenic gene and end-product expression. PC1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression, diminished calcium accretion and reduced alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity. Taken together our results indicate that the structure of the primary cilium is intimately associated with the process of hASC osteogenic differentiation and that its associated proteins are critical

  17. Human and feline adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have comparable phenotype, immunomodulatory functions, and transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kaitlin C; Fierro, Fernando A; Ko, Emily Mills; Walker, Naomi J; Arzi, Boaz; Tepper, Clifford G; Dahlenburg, Heather; Cicchetto, Andrew; Kol, Amir; Marsh, Lyndsey; Murphy, William J; Fazel, Nasim; Borjesson, Dori L

    2017-03-20

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell therapy to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Development of appropriate pre-clinical animal models is critical to determine safety and attain early efficacy data for the most promising therapeutic candidates. Naturally occurring diseases in cats already serve as valuable models to inform human clinical trials in oncologic, cardiovascular, and genetic diseases. The objective of this study was to complete a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of human and feline ASCs, with an emphasis on their immunomodulatory capacity and transcriptome. Human and feline ASCs were evaluated for phenotype, immunomodulatory profile, and transcriptome. Additionally, transwells were used to determine the role of cell-cell contact in ASC-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in both humans and cats. Similar to human ASCs, feline ASCs were highly proliferative at low passages and fit the minimal criteria of multipotent stem cells including a compatible surface protein phenotype, osteogenic capacity, and normal karyotype. Like ASCs from all species, feline ASCs inhibited mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, with or without direct ASC-lymphocyte contact. Feline ASCs mimic human ASCs in their mediator secretion pattern, including prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, transforming growth factor beta, and interleukin-6, all augmented by interferon gamma secretion by lymphocytes. The transcriptome of three unactivated feline ASC lines were highly similar. Functional analysis of the most highly expressed genes highlighted processes including: 1) the regulation of apoptosis; 2) cell adhesion; 3) response to oxidative stress; and 4) regulation of cell differentiation. Finally, feline ASCs had a similar gene expression profile to noninduced human ASCs. Findings suggest that feline ASCs modulate lymphocyte proliferation using soluble mediators that mirror the human ASC secretion

  18. Clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings after treatment with adipose-derived stem cells for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yong-Gon; Choi, Yun-Jin; Kwon, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Sang; Yeo, Jee-Eun

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the clinical outcomes and second-look arthroscopic findings of intra-articular injection of stem cells with arthroscopic lavage for treatment of elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated. Stem cell injections combined with arthroscopic lavage were administered to 30 elderly patients (≥65 years) with knee OA. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested from both buttocks by liposuction. After stromal vascular fractions were isolated, a mean of 4.04 × 10(6) stem cells (9.7 % of 4.16 × 10(7) stromal vascular fraction cells) were prepared and injected in the selected knees of patients after arthroscopic lavage. Outcome measures included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores, visual analog scale, and Lysholm score at preoperative and 3-, 12-, and 2-year follow-up visits. Sixteen patients underwent second-look arthroscopy. Almost all patients showed significant improvement in all clinical outcomes at the final follow-up examination. All clinical results significantly improved at 2-year follow-up compared to 12-month follow-up (P 65 years, only five patients demonstrated worsening of Kellgren-Lawrence grade. On second-look arthroscopy, 87.5 % of elderly patients (14/16) improved or maintained cartilage status at least 2 years postoperatively. Moreover, none of the patients underwent total knee arthroplasty during this 2-year period. Adipose-derived stem cell therapy for elderly patients with knee OA was effective in cartilage healing, reducing pain, and improving function. Therefore, adipose-derived stem cell treatment appears to be a good option for OA treatment in elderly patients. Therapeutic case series study, Level IV.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue are not affected by renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E J; de Klein, Annelies; Douben, Hannie; Korevaar, Sander S; Mensah, Fane K F; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a potential therapeutic agent in renal disease and kidney transplantation. Autologous cell use in kidney transplantation is preferred to avoid anti-HLA reactivity; however, the influence of renal disease on mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. To investigate the feasibility of autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease, we isolated these cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy controls and patients with renal disease and compared them phenotypically and functionally. The mesenchymal stem cells from both groups showed similar morphology and differentiation capacity, and were both over 90% positive for CD73, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD31 and CD45. They demonstrated comparable population doubling times, rates of apoptosis, and were both capable of inhibiting allo-antigen- and anti-CD3/CD28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. In response to immune activation they both increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. These mesenchymal stem cells were genetically stable after extensive expansion and, importantly, were not affected by uremic serum. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells of patients with renal disease have similar characteristics and functionality as those from healthy controls. Hence, our results indicate the feasibility of their use in autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease.

  20. The role of fibrinolysis inhibition in engineered vascular networks derived from endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleder, Severin; Pill, Karoline; Schaupper, Mira; Labuda, Krystyna; Priglinger, Eleni; Hofbauer, Pablo; Charwat, Verena; Marx, Uwe; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2018-02-12

    Co-cultures of endothelial cells with mesenchymal stem cells currently represent one of the most promising approaches in providing oxygen and nutrient supply for microvascular tissue engineering. Still, to translate this model into clinics several in vitro parameters including growth medium and scaffold degradation need to be fine-tuned. We recently described the co-culture of adipose-derived stem cells with endothelial cells in fibrin, resulting in capillary formation in vitro as well as their perfusion in vivo. Here, we aimed to further characterise microvascular tube formation in fibrin by determining the role of scaffold degradation, thrombin concentration and culture conditions on vascularisation. We observed that inhibition of cell-mediated fibrin degradation by the commonly used inhibitor aprotinin resulted in impaired vascular network formation. Aprotinin had no effect on laminin and collagen type IV deposition or formation of tube-like structures in scaffold-free co-culture, indicating that poor vascularisation of fibrin clots is primarily caused by inhibition of plasminogen-driven fibrinolysis. Co-culture in plasminogen- and factor XIII-depleted fibrin did not result in different vascular network density compared to controls. Furthermore, we demonstrate that thrombin negatively affects vascular network density at high concentrations. However, only transient activation of incorporated endothelial cells by thrombin could be observed, thus excluding a long-term inflammatory response in tissue-engineered micro-capillaries. Finally, we show that vascularisation of fibrin scaffolds in basal medium is undermined because of increased fibrinolytic activity leading to scaffold destabilisation without aprotinin. Taken together, our data reveal a critical role of fibrinolysis inhibition in in vitro cell-mediated vascularisation of fibrin scaffolds.

  1. Enhanced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in an In Vitro Microenvironment: The Preparation of Adipose-Like Microtissues Using a Three-Dimensional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yagi, Tohru; Hayashi, Shuji

    2017-01-08

    The application of stem cells for cell therapy has been extensively studied in recent years. Among the various types of stem cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with relatively few passages, and they possess a stable quality. ASCs can differentiate into a number of cell types, such as adipose cells and ectodermal cells. We therefore focused on the in vitro microenvironment required for such differentiation and attempted to induce the differentiation of human stem cells into microtissues using a microelectromechanical system. We first evaluated the adipogenic differentiation of human ASC spheroids in a three-dimensional (3D) culture. We then created the in vitro microenvironment using a 3D combinatorial TASCL device and attempted to induce the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. The differentiation of human ASC spheroids cultured in maintenance medium and those cultured in adipocyte differentiation medium was evaluated via Oil red O staining using lipid droplets based on the quantity of accumulated triglycerides. The differentiation was confirmed in both media, but the human ASCs in the 3D cultures contained higher amounts of triglycerides than those in the 2D cultures. In the short culture period, greater adipogenic differentiation was observed in the 3D cultures than in the 2D cultures. The 3D culture using the TASCL device with adipogenic differentiation medium promoted greater differentiation of human ASCs into adipogenic lineages than either a 2D culture or a culture using a maintenance medium. In summary, the TASCL device created a hospitable in vitro microenvironment and may therefore be a useful tool for the induction of differentiation in 3D culture. The resultant human ASC spheroids were "adipose-like microtissues" that formed spherical aggregation perfectly and are expected to be applicable in regenerative medicine as well as cell transplantation.

  2. The potential of chondrogenic pre-differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regeneration in harsh nucleus pulposus microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingkai; Tao, Yiqing; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Li, Hao; Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Qi-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies indicated that cell-based therapy could be a promising approach to treat intervertebral disc degeneration. Though the harsh microenvironment in disc is still challenging to implanted cells, it could be overcome by pre-conditioning graft cells before transplantation, suggested by previous literatures. Therefore, we designed this study to identify the potential effect of chondrogenic pre-differentiation on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in intervertebral disc-like microenvironment, characterized by limited nutrition, acidic, and high osmosis in vitro. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells of rat were divided into five groups, embedded in type II collagen scaffold, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. Then, the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were implanted and cultured in intervertebral disc-like condition. The proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 test, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Analyzed by the first week in intervertebral disc-like condition, the results showed relatively greater proliferative capability and extracellular matrix synthesis ability of the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells pre-differentiated for 7 and 10 days than the control. We concluded that pre-differentiation of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in chondrogenic culture medium for 7 to 10 days could promote the regeneration effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in intervertebral disc-like condition, and the pre-differentiated cells could be a promising cell source for disc regeneration medicine.

  3. Cotransplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Insulin-Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cells: A Novel Therapy for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    A V Vanikar; Dave, S. D.; Thakkar, U. G.; H L Trivedi

    2010-01-01

    Aims. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with disturbed glucose/insulin metabolism, requiring life-long insulin replacement therapy (IRT), 30% of patients develop end-organ failure. We present our experience of cotransplantation of adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-AD-MSC) and cultured bone marrow (CBM) as IRT for these patients. Methods. This was a prospective open-labeled clinical trial to test efficacy and s...

  4. Impact of Tissue Harvesting Sites on the Cellular Behaviors of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Implication for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezai Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs over bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, such as being available as a medical waste and less discomfort during harvest, have made them a good alternative instead of BMSCs in tissue engineering. AdSCs from buccal fat pad (BFP, as an easily harvestable and accessible source, have gained interest to be used for bone regeneration in the maxillofacial region. Due to scarcity of data regarding comparative analysis of isolated AdSCs from different parts of the body, we aimed to quantitatively compare the proliferation and osteogenic capabilities of AdSCs from different harvesting sites. In this study, AdSCs were isolated from BFP (BFPdSCs, abdomen (abdomen-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AbdSCs, and hip (hip-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HdSCs from one individual and were compared for surface marker expression, morphology, growth rate, and osteogenic differentiation capability. Among them, BFPdSCs demonstrated the highest proliferation rate with the shortest doubling time and also expressed vascular endothelial markers including CD34 and CD146. Moreover, the expression of osteogenic markers were significantly higher in BFPdSCs. The results of this study suggested that BFPdSCs as an encouraging source of mesenchymal stem cells are to be used for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Primary cilia are sensors of electrical field stimulation to induce osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shaobo; Bodle, Josephine C; Mathieu, Pattie S; Amos, Alison; Hamouda, Mehdi; Bernacki, Susan; McCarty, Greg; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report for the first time that the primary cilium acts as a crucial sensor for electrical field stimulation (EFS)-enhanced osteogenic response in osteoprogenitor cells. In addition, primary cilia seem to functionally modulate effects of EFS-induced cellular calcium oscillations. Primary cilia are organelles that have recently been implicated to play a crucial sensor role for many mechanical and chemical stimuli on stem cells. Here, we investigate the role of primary cilia in EFS-enhanced osteogenic response of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) by knocking down 2 primary cilia structural proteins, polycystin-1 and intraflagellar protein-88. Our results indicate that structurally integrated primary cilia are required for detection of electrical field signals in hASCs. Furthermore, by measuring changes of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in hASCs during EFS, our findings also suggest that primary cilia may potentially function as a crucial calcium-signaling nexus in hASCs during EFS.-Cai, S., Bodle, J. C., Mathieu, P. S., Amos, A., Hamouda, M., Bernacki, S., McCarty, G., Loboa, E. G. Primary cilia are sensors of electrical field stimulation to induce osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells. © FASEB.

  6. Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead P Blaber

    Full Text Available Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles; and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo.

  7. Evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a cryoprotectant for adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Wu, Xiying; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Devireddy, Ram V

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) can be effectively cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen using a freezing medium containing a high-molecular-weight polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), as the cryoprotective agent (CPA) instead of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). To this end we investigated the postfreeze/thaw viability and apoptotic behavior of passage 1 ASCs cryopreserved in 15 different media: (i) the traditional media containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 80% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% DMSO; (ii) DMEM with 80% human serum (HS) and 10% DMSO; (iii) DMEM with various concentrations (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) of PVP as the sole CPA; (iv) DMEM with PVP (5%, 10%, and 20%) and HS (10%); (v) DMEM with PVP (5%, 10%, and 20%) and FCS (10%); and (vi) DMEM with PVP (10%) and FCS (40% and 80%). Approximately 1 mL (10(6) cells/mL) of passage 1 ASCs were frozen overnight in a -80 degrees C freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks before being rapidly thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath (1-2 min of agitation), resuspended in culture media, and seeded in separate wells of a six-well plate for a 24-h incubation period at 37 degrees C. After 24 h, the thawed samples were analyzed by bright-field microscopy and flow cytometry. The results suggest that the absence of DMSO significantly increases the fraction of apoptotic and/or necrotic ASCs. However, the percentage of viable cells obtained with 10% PVP and DMEM was comparable with that obtained in freezing media with DMSO and serum (HS or FCS), that is, approximately 70% + or - 8% and approximately 83% + or - 8%, respectively. Slightly enhanced cell viability was observed with the addition of serum (either HS or FCS) to the freezing media containing PVP as the CPA. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation behaviors of the frozen thawed cells were also assessed using histochemical staining and optical density

  8. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF, along with hyaluronic acid (HA and platelet-rich plasma (PRP activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM, and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees.

  9. Characterization of Sesquiterpene Dimers from Resina Commiphora That Promote Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Wang; Zhang, Ming-Yu; Yan, Yong-Ming; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Dong, Lu; Zhu, Yan-Xia; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2018-02-16

    The new sesquiterpene dimers commiphoroids A-D (1-4) were isolated from Resina Commiphora, and their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are stereoisomers of putative [2 + 4]-cycloaddition reactions, and 3 is a trinorsesquiterpene dimer containing a 6/6/5/6/6/6 hexacyclic framework, while 4 possesses a 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-ene skeletal core. Plausible biosynthetic pathways for 1-4 are proposed. Biochemical studies show that compound 1 promotes ca. 60% expression of keratinocyte-specific markers in adipose-derived stem cells at 10 μM.

  10. Adipogenic human adenovirus Ad-36 induces commitment, differentiation, and lipid accumulation in human adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Mashtalir, Nazar; McAllister, Emily J

    2008-01-01

    Human adenovirus Ad-36 is causatively and correlatively linked with animal and human obesity, respectively. Ad-36 enhances differentiation of rodent preadipocytes, but its effect on adipogenesis in humans is unknown. To indirectly assess the role of Ad-36-induced adipogenesis in human obesity......, the effect of the virus on commitment, differentiation, and lipid accumulation was investigated in vitro in primary human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (hASC). Ad-36 infected hASC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Even in the presence of osteogenic media, Ad-36-infected hASC showed significantly...

  11. Splenectomy enhances the therapeutic effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell infusion on cirrhosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Ping; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Piao, Jing-Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Murata, Masaharu; Kawano, Takahito; Hamano, Nobuhito; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies suggest that splenectomy improves liver function in cirrhotic patients, but the influence of splenectomy on stem cell transplantation is poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of splenectomy on stem cell infusion and elucidated its mechanism. Rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were infused into cirrhosis rats with or without splenectomy, followed by the assessment of the in vivo distribution of stem cells and pathological changes. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor expression were also investigated in splenectomized cirrhosis patients and rats. Splenectomy, prior to cell infusion, improved liver function and suppressed fibrosis progression more efficiently than cell infusion alone in the experimental cirrhosis model. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor levels after splenectomy were increased in patients and rats. These upregulated cytokines significantly facilitated stem cell motility, migration and proliferation in vitro. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 neutralization weakened the promotion of cell migration by these cytokines. The infused cells integrated into liver fibrosis septa and participated in regeneration more efficiently in splenectomized rats. Direct coculture with stem cells led to inhibition of hepatic stellate cell proliferation. In addition, hepatocyte growth factor induced hepatic stellate cell apoptosis via the c-jun N-terminal kinase-p53 pathway. Splenectomy prior to cell infusion enhanced the therapeutic effect of stem cells on cirrhosis, which involved upregulation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor after splenectomy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Vascularized Lymph Node Transfers Successfully Treat Mouse Hindlimb Secondary Lymphedema by Early Reconnection of the Lymphatic System and Lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Yoshida, Shuhei; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Masaki; Saijo, Hiroto; Migita, Kiyoshi; Kumaya, Misato; Akita, Sadanori

    2017-03-01

    Secondary lymphedema is often observed in postmalignancy treatment of the breast and the gynecologic organs, but effective therapies have not been established in chronic cases even with advanced physiologic operations. Currently, reconstructive surgery with novel approaches has been attempted. The hindlimbs of 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, after 30-Gy x-irradiation, surgical lymph node dissection, and 5-mm gap creation, were divided into four groups, with vascularized lymph node transfer abdominal flap and 1.0 × 10 adipose-derived stem cells. Lymphatic flow assessment, a water-displacement plethysmometer paw volumetry test, tissue quantification of lymphatic vessels, and functional analysis of lymphatic vessels and nodes were performed. Photodynamic Eye images, using indocyanine green fluorescence, demonstrated immediate staining in subiliac lymph nodes, and linear pattern imaging of the proximal region was observed with the combined treatment of adipose-derived stem cells and vascularized lymph node transfer. Both percentage improvement and percentage deterioration with the combined treatment of adipose-derived stem cells and vascularized lymph node transfer were significantly better than with other treatments (p lymphatic vessels with LYVE-1 immunoreactivity significantly increased in mice treated with adipose-derived stem cells (p lymphatic vessels and vascularized lymph node transfers induce the lymphatic flow drainage to the circulatory system. Combined adipose-derived stem cell and vascularized lymph node transfer treatment in secondary lymphedema may effectively decrease edema volume and restore lymphatic function by lymphangiogenesis and the lymphatic-to-venous circulation route.

  13. The Use Of Laser Irradiation To Stimulate Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation And Differentiation For Use In Autologous Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Heidi

    2009-09-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the qualities of self-renewal, long term viability, and the ability to differentiate into various cell types. Historically, stem cells have been isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and harvesting these cells resulted in the death of the embryo leading to religious, political and ethical issues. The identification and subsequent isolation of adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma have been welcomed as an alternate source for stem cells. The clinical use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) presented problems such as limited cell number, pain and morbidity upon isolation. Adipose tissue is derived from the mesenchyme, is easily isolated, a reliable source of stem cells and able to differentiate into different cell types including smooth muscle. Over the past few years, the identification and characterization of stem cells has led the potential use of these cells as a promising alternative to cell replacement therapy. Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal functioning of many different organs. Low intensity laser irradiation has been shown to increase viability, protein expression and migration of stem cells in vitro, and to stimulate proliferation of various types of stem cells. In addition, the use of laser irradiation to stimulate differentiation in the absence of growth factors has also been demonstrated in normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNPCs) in vitro where NHNPCs are not only capable of being sustained by light in the absence of growth factors, but that they are also able to differentiate normally as assessed by neurite formation. Our work has focused on the ability of laser irradiation to proliferate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), maintain ADSC character and increase the rate and maintenance of differentiation of ADSCs into smooth muscle and skin fibroblast cells. Current studies are also investigating the effect of different irradiation wavelengths and

  14. Delivery of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obese Mice Through Remodeling Macrophage Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianwen; Bai, Yang; Wang, Guannan; Song, Qiang; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Qun

    2015-09-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been used to control several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases due to immunosuppressive properties, but their role in obesity-associated inflammation remains unestablished. This study aims to evaluate the effects of ADSCs on obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and insulin resistance. We found that diet-induced obesity caused a remarkable reduction of ADSC fraction in mouse WAT. Delivery of lean mouse-derived ADSCs, which could successfully locate into WAT of obese mice, substantially improved insulin action and metabolic homeostasis of obese mice. ADSC treatment not only reduced adipocyte hypertrophy but also attenuated WAT inflammation by reducing crown-like structures of macrophages and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. Importantly, ADSC treatment remodeled the phenotypes of adipose-resident macrophages from proinflammatory M1 toward anti-inflammatory M2-like subtypes, as characterized by decreased MHC class II-expressing but increased interleukin (IL)-10-producing macrophages together with low expression of TNF-α and IL-12. Coculture of ADSCs through the transwell or conditional medium with induced M1 macrophages also reproduced the phenotypic switch toward M2-like macrophages, which was substantiated by elevated arginase 1, declined inducible nitric oxide synthase, inhibition of NF-κB activity, and activation of STAT3/STAT6. Taken together, our data support that ADSC supplement in obese mice could sustain IL-10-producing M2-like macrophages in WAT through paracrine action, thereby suggesting the crucial role of ADSCs in resolving WAT inflammation, maintaining adipose homeostasis, and proposing a potential ADSC-based approach for the treatment of obesity-related diseases.

  15. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis treatment using autologous adipose derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases, and it affects 12% of the population around the world. Although the disease is chronic, it significantly reduces the patient's quality of life. At present, stem cell therapy is considered to be an efficient approach for treating this condition. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show the most potential for stem cell therapy of osteoarthritis. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into certain mesodermal tissues such as cartilage and bone. Therefore, in the present study, we applied adipose tissue-derived MSCs to osteoarthritis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficiency of autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC transplantation in patients with confirmed osteoarthritis at grade II and III. Adipose tissue was isolated from the belly, and used for extraction of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF. The SVF was mixed with activated platelet- rich plasma before injection. The clinical efficiencies were evaluated by the pain score (VAS, Lysholm score, and MRI findings. We performed the procedure in 21 cases from 2012 to 2013. All 21 patients showed improved joint function after 8.5 months. The pain score decreased from 7.6+/-0.5 before injection to 3.5+/-0.7 at 3 months and 1.5+/-0.5 at 6 months after injection. The Lysholm score increased from 61+/-11 before injection to 82+/-8.1 after injection. Significant improvements were noted in MRI findings, with increased thickness of the cartilage layer. Moreover, there were no side-effects or complications related to microorganism infection, graft rejection, or tumorigenesis. These results provide a new opportunity for osteoarthritis treatment. Level of evidence: IV. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(1.000: 02-08

  16. The effects of spheroid formation of adipose-derived stem cells in a microgravity bioreactor on stemness properties and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichang; Liu, Ping; Chen, Li; Wang, Yingjie; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a valuable source of stem cells for regenerative medicine, but the loss of their stemness during in vitro expansion remains a major roadblock. We employed a microgravity bioreactor (MB) to develop a method for biomaterial-free-mediated spheroid formation to maintain the stemness properties of ADSCs. ADSCs spontaneously formed three-dimensional spheroids in the MB. Compared with monolayer culture, the expression levels of E-cadherin and pluripotent markers were significantly upregulated in ADSC spheroids. Spheroid-derived ADSCs exhibited increased proliferative ability and colony-forming efficiency. By culturing the spheroid-derived ADSCs in an appropriate induction medium, we found that the multipotency differentiation capacities of ADSCs were significantly improved by spheroid culture in the MB. Furthermore, when ADSCs were administered to mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure, spheroid-derived ADSCs showed more effective potentials to rescue liver failure than ADSCs derived from constant monolayer culture. Our results suggest that spheroid formation of ADSCs in an MB enhances their stemness properties and increases their therapeutic potential. Therefore, spheroid culture in an MB can be an efficient method to maintain stemness properties, without the involvement of any biomaterials for clinical applications of in vitro cultured ADSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in viability of rat adipose-derived stem cells isolated from abdominal/perinuclear adipose tissue stimulated with pulsed electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A; Skowron, B; Nowak, B; Ciesielczyk, K; Guzdek, P; Gil, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J

    2017-04-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) may activate cellular death pathways in proliferating cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that LF-EMF may also influence viability of highly proliferating undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Obesity is classified as a civilization disease; its etiopathogenesis is presumed to include both genetic predisposition and influence of modified environmental factors, such as unbalanced diet with excess calories and/or too low physical activity. Obesity may lead to a number of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases (associated with atherosclerosis) related to primary hypertension and ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and other complications. The aim of this study was to verify if LF-EMF alters viability parameters of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from rats, cultured in vitro and exposed to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF; 7 Hz, 30 mT). ADSCs were obtained from healthy rats and animals with experimentally-induced obesity, both males and females, pups and adults. The animals were fed with chow with either low (LF diet) or high fat content (HF diet) for 21 days. Then, ADSCs were isolated from extracted adipose tissue and used to establish cell cultures. ADSCs from the first passage were exposed to PEMF three times, 4 hours per exposure, at 24-h intervals (experimentally developed protocol of PEMF stimulation). 24 hours after the last exposure to PEMF, viability parameters of ADSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). The study demonstrated that LF diet exerted a protective effect on PEMF-exposed ADSCs, especially in the case of male and female pups. In turn, the proportion of early apoptotic cells in PEMF-treated ADSC cultures from adult female rats maintained on HF diet turned out to be significantly higher than in other experimental groups.

  18. Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ye

    Full Text Available Infrapatellar fat pad adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASCs have been shown to harbor chondrogenic potential. When combined with 3D polymeric structures, the stem cells provide a source of stem cells to engineer 3D tissues for cartilage repair. In this study, we have shown human IPFP-ASCs seeded onto 3D printed chitosan scaffolds can undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6. By week 4, a pearlescent, cartilage-like matrix had formed that penetrated the top layers of the chitosan scaffold forming a 'cap' on the scaffold. Chondrocytic morphology showed typical cells encased in extracellular matrix which stained positively with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for collagen type II and cartilage proteoglycans, as well as collagen type I. Real time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9 genes when IPFP-ASCs were stimulated by TGFβ3 and BMP6. Thus, IPFP-ASCs can successfully undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6 and the cartilage-like tissue that forms on the surface of 3D-printed chitosan scaffold may prove useful as an osteochondral graft.

  19. Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ken; Felimban, Raed; Traianedes, Kathy; Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G; Chung, Johnson; Quigley, Anita; Choong, Peter F M; Myers, Damian E

    2014-01-01

    Infrapatellar fat pad adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASCs) have been shown to harbor chondrogenic potential. When combined with 3D polymeric structures, the stem cells provide a source of stem cells to engineer 3D tissues for cartilage repair. In this study, we have shown human IPFP-ASCs seeded onto 3D printed chitosan scaffolds can undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6. By week 4, a pearlescent, cartilage-like matrix had formed that penetrated the top layers of the chitosan scaffold forming a 'cap' on the scaffold. Chondrocytic morphology showed typical cells encased in extracellular matrix which stained positively with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for collagen type II and cartilage proteoglycans, as well as collagen type I. Real time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9 genes when IPFP-ASCs were stimulated by TGFβ3 and BMP6. Thus, IPFP-ASCs can successfully undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6 and the cartilage-like tissue that forms on the surface of 3D-printed chitosan scaffold may prove useful as an osteochondral graft.

  20. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hepatic differentiation: old concepts and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, M A; Saulnier, N; Piscaglia, A C; Tondi, P; Agnes, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, able to differentiate into elements of the mesodermal lineage. Bone marrow and adipose tissue represent the main sources for MSC isolation. In the last decade, several studies have reported the plasticity of MSCs toward a hepatocyte-like phenotype. The use of MSCs to generate hepatocyte-like cells holds great promises to overcome the scarcity of available organs for transplantation. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in lineage cross-differentiation and several issues remain to be answered before MSC application in clinical settings. Aim of this review is to critically analyze the possible sources of MSCs suitable for liver repopulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC hepatic differentiation.

  1. Alterations in the Secretome of Clinically Relevant Preparations of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cocultured with Hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Succar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA can be a debilitating degenerative disease and is the most common form of arthritic disease. There is a general consensus that current nonsurgical therapies are insufficient for younger OA sufferers who are not candidates for knee arthroplasties. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs therapy for the treatment of OA can slow disease progression and lead to neocartilage formation. The mechanism of action is secretion driven. Current clinical preparations from adipose tissue for the treatment of OA include autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, SVF plus mature adipocytes, and culture-purified MSCs. Herein we have combined these human adipose-derived preparations with Hyaluronan (Hylan G-F 20: Synvisc in vitro and measured alterations in cytokine profile. SVF plus mature adipocytes showed the greatest decreased in the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ, and VEGF. MCP-1 and MIP-1α decreased substantially in the SVF preparations but not the purified MSCs. The purified MSC preparation was the only one to show increase in MIF. Overall the SVF plus mature adipocytes preparation may be most suited of all the preparations for combination with HA for the treatment of OA, based on the alterations of heavily implicated cytokines in OA disease progression. This will require further validation using in vivo models.

  2. Upregulation of Pluripotency Markers in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by miR-302 and Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

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    Masoumeh Fakhr Taha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression pattern of pluripotency markers in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs is a subject of controversy. Moreover, there is no data about the signaling molecules that regulate these markers in ADSCs. In the present study, we studied the roles of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and miR-302 in this regard. Freshly isolated mouse ADSCs expressed hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and pluripotency markers. One day after plating, ADSCs expressed OCT4 and Sox2 proteins. After three passages, the expression of hematopoietic and pluripotency markers decreased, while the expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers exhibited a striking rise. Both supplementation of culture media with LIF and transfection of the ADSCs with miR-302 family upregulated the expression levels of OCT4, Nanog, and Sox2 mRNAs. These findings showed that mouse adipose tissue contains a population of cells with molecular resemblance to embryonic stem cells, and LIF and miR-302 family positively affect the expression of pluripotency markers.

  3. Comparing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor secretion of induced neurotrophic factor secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2013-08-01

    Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) may be equally beneficial in treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, ADSCs have practical advantages. In this study, we aimed to induce neurotrophic factors secreting cells in human ADSCs. Then, we compared the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) secretion in neurotrophic factors secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Isolated human ADSCs and BMSCs were induced to neurotrophic factor (NTF)-secreting cells. The levels of expression and secretion of BDNF and CTNF of induced cells were assessed using immunocytochemical, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of BDNF significantly increased in both the induced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) relative to ADSCs and the BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, ELISA analysis showed that the release of BDNF in the induced BMSCs was almost twofold more than the induced ADSCs. Overall, NTF-secreting factor cells derived BMSCs and ADSCs could secret a range of different growth factors. Therefore, the variation in neurotrophic factors of different induced MSC populations suggest the possible beneficial effect of each specific kind of neurotrophic factor secreting cells for the treatment of a particular neurodegenerative disease. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Neurogenic differentiation from adipose-derived stem cells and application for autologous transplantation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Jian-Ting; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Zhou, Da-Peng

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue have the capacity to differentiate into endodermal, mesoderm and ectodermal cell lineages in vitro, which are an ideal engraft in tissue-engineered repair. In this study, mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated from subcutaneous fat. The markers of ADSCs, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were detected by immunofluorescence assays. The ADSCs were cultured in cocktail factors (including ATRA, GGF-2, bFGF, PDGF and forskolin) for neurogenic differentiation. The neurogenic cells markers, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were analyzed using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR after dramatic changes in morphology. Neurogenic cells from ADSCs were autologous transplanted into the mouse of spinal cord injury for observation neurogenic cells colonization in spinal cord. The result demonstrated that the mouse ADSCs were positive for the CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166 but negative for neurogenic cell markers, MAP-2, GFAP and Nestin. After neurogenic differentiation, the neurogenic cells were positive for neurogenic cell special markers, gene expression level showed a time-lapse increase, and the cells were successful colonized into spinal cord. In conclusion, our research shows that a population of neuronal cells can be specifically generated from ADSCs and that induced cells may allow for participation in tissue-repair.

  6. Overcoming the bottleneck of platelet lysate supply in large-scale clinical expansion of adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet lysates (PL) represent a promising replacement for xenogenic growth supplement for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expansions. However, fresh platelets from human blood donors are not clinically feasible for large-scale cell expansion based on their limited supply. Therefore......, we tested PLs prepared via three methods from outdated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) to establish an efficient and feasible expansion of ASCs for clinical use. METHODS: PLs were prepared by the freeze-thaw method from freshly drawn platelets or from outdated buffy coat-derived PCs...... stored in the platelet additive solution, InterSol. Three types of PLs were prepared from outdated PCs with platelets suspended in either (1) InterSol (not manipulated), (2) InterSol + supplemented with plasma or (3) plasma alone (InterSol removed). Using these PLs, we compared ASC population doubling...

  7. The effect of human platelet-rich plasma on adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolinejad, Sima; Khosravi, Mohsen; Mashkani, Baratali; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Sanjar Mossavi, Nasser; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza Seyyed; Hamidi Alamdari, Daryoush

    2014-07-01

    The cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in many clinical trials; however, there are still some concerns about the cultural conditions. One concern is related to the use of FBS as a widely used xenogeneic supplement in the culture system. Human platelet-rich plasma (hPRP) is a candidate replacement for FBS. In this study, the effect of hPRP on MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation has been evaluated. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) were expanded. Cells from the third passage were characterized by flow cytometric analysis and used for in vitro experiments. Resazurin and alizarin red stains were used for cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation assays, respectively. Treatment with hPRP resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation compare to the negative control group (Pinvestigation.

  8. [Advances in the research of basic study and clinical application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S J; Wang, L F; Ba, T; Rong, Z D; Hu, G L; Zhou, B; Li, Q

    2017-03-20

    Since the discovery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) in more than ten years, a great progress has been made from its basic research to clinical application. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs are more abundant in reserve, easier to obtain with fewer injuries and less complications. These cells have multiple differentiation potential and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts with the influence of different inducing factors. Early studies of ADSCs mainly focused on the ability of multi-directional differentiation, espe-cially on the regeneration of bone defects and cartilage tissue. At present, the researches mainly focus on immunoregulation and paracrine function of ADSCs. Although ADSCs have made a great progress in clinical application, the cell preparation, use pattern, and mechanisms in clinical treatment are not clear. This paper elaborates on these issues.

  9. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Esophagus Tissues Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fang

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are increasingly being used for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can be differentiated from ASCs. Oxygen is a key factor influencing the stem cell differentiation. Tissue engineered esophagus has been a preferred solution......) and biochemical factor stimulation on SMCs differentiation were studied. The results showed that combined treatments promoted the late SMC-specific marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression. In the third part, the potential for using ASCs to replace SMCs to regenerate the smooth muscle layer...... of esophagus was studied. Our results showed that both SMCs and ASCs could attach on the porcine esophageal acellular matrix (EAM) scaffold in vitro after 24 hours and survive until 7 days. Thus ASCs might be a substitute for SMCs in the construction of tissue engineered esophageal muscle layer....

  10. Osteogenic Capacity of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells is Preserved Following Triggering of Shape Memory Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ling-Fang; Wang, Jing; Baker, Richard M; Wang, Guirong; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymers have enabled the study of programmable, shape-changing, cytocompatible tissue engineering scaffolds. For treatment of bone defects, scaffolds with shape memory functionality have been studied for their potential for minimally invasive delivery, conformal fitting to defect margins, and defect stabilization. However, the extent to which the osteogenic differentiation capacity of stem cells resident in shape memory scaffolds is preserved following programmed shape change has not yet been determined. As a result, the feasibility of shape memory polymer scaffolds being employed in stem cell-based treatment strategies remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that stem cell osteogenic differentiation can be preserved during and following triggering of programmed architectural changes in shape memory polymer scaffolds, human adipose-derived stem cells were seeded in shape memory polymer foam scaffolds or in shape memory polymer fibrous scaffolds programmed to expand or contract, respectively, when warmed to body temperature. Osteogenic differentiation in shape-changing and control scaffolds was compared using mineral deposition, protein production, and gene expression assays. For both shape-changing and control scaffolds, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable amounts of mineral deposition were observed; comparable levels of alkaline phosphatase activity were measured; and no significant differences in the expression of genetic markers of osteogenesis were detected. These findings support the feasibility of employing shape memory in scaffolds for stem cell-based therapies for bone repair.

  11. Region-specific effects of oestradiol on adipose-derived stem cell differentiation in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Pereira, Rocio I; Bessesen, Daniel H; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of acute transdermal 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) on the adipogenic potential of subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women (n = 11; mean age 57 ± 4.5 years) were treated for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over design, with transdermal E2 (0.15 mg) or placebo patches. Biopsies of abdominal (AB) and femoral (FEM) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained after each treatment and mature adipocytes were analysed for cell size and ASC for their capacity for proliferation (growth rate), differentiation (triglyceride accumulation) and susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. Gene expression of oestrogen receptors α and β (ESR1 and ESR2), perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), was also assessed. In FEM SAT, but not AB SAT, 2 weeks of E2 significantly (P = 0.03) increased ASC differentiation and whole SAT HSL mRNA expression (P = 0.03) compared to placebo. These changes were not associated with mRNA expression of oestrogen receptors α and β, but HSL expression was significantly increased in FEM SAT with transdermal E2 treatment. Adipose-derived stem cells proliferation and apoptosis did not change in either SAT depot after E2 compared with placebo. Short-term E2 appeared to increase the adipogenic potential of FEM, but not AB, SAT in post-menopausal women with possible implications for metabolic disease. Future studies are needed to determine longer term impact of E2 on regional SAT accumulation in the context of positive energy imbalance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. In vivo cartilage formation using chondrogenic-differentiated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells mixed with fibrin glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-No; Rhie, Jong Won; Kwon, Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Seo, Je-Won; Yoo, Gyeol; Oh, Deuk Young; Ahn, Sang Tae; Woo, Jihyoun; Oh, Jieun

    2010-03-01

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into chondrogenic MSCs, and fibrin glue was used together to explore the feasibility of whether cartilages can be generated in vivo by injecting the differentiated cells. Mesenchymal stem cells extracted from human adipose were differentiated into chondrogenic MSCs, and such differentiated cells mixed with fibrin glue were injected subcutaneously into the back of the nude mouse. In addition to visual evaluation of the tissues formed after 4, 8, and 12 weeks, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson trichrome staining, measurement of glycosaminoglycan concentration using dimethylmethylene blue, agreecan through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, type II collagen, and expression of SOX-9 were verified. Moreover, the results were compared with 2 groups of controls: 1 control group that received only injection of chondrogenic-differentiated MSC and the supporting control group that received only fibrin glue injection. For the experimental group, cartilage-like tissues were formed after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Formation of cartilage tissues was not observed in any of 4, 8, and 12 weeks of the control group. The supporting control group had only a small structure formation after 4 weeks, but the formed structure was completely decomposed by the 8th and 12th weeks. The range of staining dramatically increased with time at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in Masson trichrome staining. The concentration of glycosaminoglycan also increased with time. The increased level was statistically significant with more than 3 times more after 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks and more than 2 times more after 12 weeks compared with 8 weeks. Also, in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, all results expressed a cartilage-specific gene called aggrecan, type II collagen, and SOX-9. The study verified that the chondrogenic-differentiated MSCs derived from human adipose tissues with fibrin glue can

  13. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells exhibit proliferation potential and spontaneous rhythmic contraction after fusion with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzele, Roxana; Alt, Christopher; Bai, Xiaowen; Yan, Yasheng; Zhang, Zhi; Pan, Zhizhong; Coleman, Michael; Vykoukal, Jody; Song, Yao-Hua; Alt, Eckhard

    2011-01-01

    Various types of stem cells have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiac function. It is still debated whether fusion of injected stem cells with local resident cardiomyocytes is one of the mechanisms. To better understand the role of fusion in stem cell-based myocardial regeneration, the present study was designed to investigate the fate of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) fused with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in vitro. hASCs labeled with the green fluorescent probe Vybrant DiO were cocultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes labeled with the red fluorescent probe Vybrant DiI and then treated with fusion-inducing hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). Cells that incorporated both red and green fluorescent signals were considered to be hASCs that had fused with rat cardiomyocytes. Fusion efficiency was 19.86 ± 4.84% at 5 d after treatment with HVJ. Most fused cells displayed cardiomyocyte-like morphology and exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contraction. Both immunofluorescence staining and lentiviral vector labeling showed that fused cells contained separate rat cardiomyocyte and hASC nuclei. Immunofluorescence staining assays demonstrated that human nuclei in fused cells still expressed the proliferation marker Ki67. In addition, hASCs fused with rat cardiomyocytes were positive for troponin I. Whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis demonstrated action potentials in beating fused cells. RT-PCR analysis using rat- or human-specific myosin heavy chain primers revealed that the myosin heavy-chain expression in fused cells was derived from rat cardiomyocytes. Real-time PCR identified expression of human troponin T in fused cells and the presence of rat cardiomyocytes induced a cardiomyogenic protein expression of troponin T in human ASCs. This study illustrates that hASCs exhibit both stem cell (proliferation) and cardiomyocyte properties (action potential and spontaneous rhythmic beating) after fusion with rat cardiomyocytes, supporting the theory

  14. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marx

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n=4 or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n=5 injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases.

  15. Acupoint injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction and allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells to treat hip dysplasia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases.

  16. Localization of human adipose-derived stem cells and their effect in repair of diabetic foot ulcers in rats

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    Rongfeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU is an intractable diabetic complication. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM frequently present with infected DFUs. In this study, a wound healing model on diabetic rat foot was established to mimic the pathophysiology of clinical patients who suffer from DFUs. Our study aimed to explore the localization of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs and the role of these cells in the repair of foot ulcerated tissue in diabetic rats, and thus to estimate the possibilities of adipose-derived stem cells for diabetic wound therapy. Method Sprague–Dawley rats were used to establish diabetic models by streptozotocin injection. A full-thickness foot dorsal skin wound was created by a 5 mm skin biopsy punch and a Westcott scissor. These rats were randomly divided into two groups: the hADSC-treated group and the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control group. The hADSC or PBS treatment was delivered through the left femoral vein of rats. We evaluated the localization of hADSCs with fluorescence immunohistochemistry and the ulcer area and ulcerative histology were detected dynamically. Result The hADSCs had a positive effect on the full-thickness foot dorsal skin wound in diabetic rats with a significantly reduced ulcer area at day 15. More granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, and higher levels of growth factors expression were also detected in wound beds. Conclusions Our data suggest that hADSC transplantation has the potential to promote foot wound healing in diabetic rats, and transplantation of exogenous stem cells may be suitable for clinical application in the treatment of DFU.

  17. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

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    Marta Dossena

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease is an X-linked CAG/polyglutamine expansion motoneuron disease, in which an elongated polyglutamine tract (polyQ in the N-terminal androgen receptor (ARpolyQ confers toxicity to this protein. Typical markers of SBMA disease are ARpolyQ intranuclear inclusions. These are generated after the ARpolyQ binds to its endogenous ligands, which promotes AR release from chaperones, activation and nuclear translocation, but also cell toxicity. The SBMA mouse models developed so far, and used in preclinical studies, all contain an expanded CAG repeat significantly longer than that of SBMA patients. Here, we propose the use of SBMA patients adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as a new human in vitro model to study ARpolyQ toxicity. These cells have the advantage to express only ARpolyQ, and not the wild type AR allele. Therefore, we isolated and characterized adipose-derived MSCs from three SBMA patients (ADSC from Kennedy's patients, ADSCK and three control volunteers (ADSCs. We found that both ADSCs and ADSCKs express mesenchymal antigens, even if only ADSCs can differentiate into the three typical cell lineages (adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes, whereas ADSCKs, from SBMA patients, showed a lower growth potential and differentiated only into adipocyte. Moreover, analysing AR expression on our mesenchymal cultures we found lower levels in all ADSCKs than ADSCs, possibly related to negative pressures exerted by toxic ARpolyQ in ADSCKs. In addition, with proteasome inhibition the ARpolyQ levels increased specifically in ADSCKs, inducing the formation of HSP70 and ubiquitin positive nuclear ARpolyQ inclusions. Considering all of this evidence, SBMA patients adipose-derived MSCs cultures should be considered an innovative in vitro human model to understand the molecular mechanisms of ARpolyQ toxicity and to test novel therapeutic approaches in SBMA.

  18. Comparative effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue

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    Li ZANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Methods  Thirty type 2 diabetic rat models were established by an eight weeks high-fat diet (HFD with a low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25mg/kg, and randomly assigned into three groups (10 each: diabetes group (T2DM, bone marrow MSCs transplantation group (BMSC and adipose tissue MSCs transplantation group (ADSC. Ten normal rats were set as control. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow or inguinal adipose tissue of normal rats. One week after STZ injection, 3×10 6 MSCs suspended in 1ml PBS were infused into rats via tail vein. The blood glucose was measured every day after MSCs transplantation, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT were performed the 7th day after transplantation to evaluate the effects of MSCs on diabetic rats. Pancreatic tissues were collected for insulin/glucagon immunofluorescence staining. Results  After MSCs transplantation, the blood glucose decreased gradually and continuously in type 2 diabetic rats, with glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity improved greatly. The improved insulin sensitivity was further confirmed by a decreased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index and increased pancreas islet β-cells (P<0.05. However, no significant differences were observed between BMSC and ADSC group. Conclusion  Both BMSC and ADSC have the same effect on type 2 diabetic rats, so the ADSC will be the ideal stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.03

  19. Bioactive effects of graphene oxide cell culture substratum on structure and function of human adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Kim, Jangho; Choi, Kyoung Soon; Kim, Yeonju; Lim, Ki-Tack; Seonwoo, Hoon; Park, Yensil; Kim, Deok-Ho; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Cho, Chong-Su; Kim, Soo Young; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Nanoscale topography of artificial substrates can greatly influence the fate of stem cells including adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus the design and manipulation of nanoscale stem cell culture platforms or scaffolds are of great importance as a strategy in stem cell and tissue engineering applications. In this report, we propose that a graphene oxide (GO) film is an efficient platform for modulating structure and function of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Using a self-assembly method, we successfully coated GO on glass for fabricating GO films. The hASCs grown on the GO films showed increased adhesion, indicated by a large number of focal adhesions, and higher correlation between the orientations of actin filaments and vinculin bands compared to hASCs grown on the glass (uncoated GO substrate). It was also found that the GO films showed the stronger affinity for hASCs than the glass. In addition, the GO film proved to be a suitable environment for the time-dependent viability of hASCs. The enhanced differentiation of hASCs included osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and epithelial genesis, while chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs was decreased, compared to tissue culture polystyrene as a control substrate. The data obtained here collectively demonstrates that the GO film is an efficient substratum for the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of hASCs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  20. Experimental study on repairing skin defect by tissue-engineered skin substitute compositely constructed by adipose-derived stem cells and fibrin gel.

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    Zeng, R-X; He, J-Y; Zhang, Y-L; Liu, X-X; Zhang, Y; Tang, Q

    2017-07-01

    To study the application value of artificial skin substitute compositely constructed by adipose-derived stem cells and fibrin gel in skin defect. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were obtained from healthy pure green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and were proved to have multiple differentiation potentials. They compositely constructed artificial skin substitute in vitro with fibrin gel. 24 SD rats of either gender, with the gestational age of 3-5 weeks, were divided into four groups in the experiment, namely model group (autologous skin flap transplantation), adipose-derived stem cell transplantation group, fibrin gel transplantation group and compound transplantation group, 6 rats for each group. At the skin blood flow (measured by applying laser Doppler rheometer) and survival rate of the flap on 7d and 21d respectively, the materials were transplanted at back skin injury (1 cm×1 cm) to prepare tissue slice for routine HE staining. The conditions of wound healing were observed, and the angiogenesis of flap neovascularization was detected by the immunofluorescent assay. The skin blood flow, the survival rate of flap and density of neovascularization 7d and 21d after transplantation were significantly higher than those of stem cell group, followed by the model group, with the lowest ones in the fibrin gel group. The differences had statistical significance (psubstitute compositely constructed by adipose-derived stem cells and fibrin gel could significantly shorten healing time and improve the survival rate of the flap in skin defect, with better application value.

  1. Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Induce Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro.

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    Giovanna Calabrese

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play a crucial role in regulating normal skeletal homeostasis and, in case of injury, in bone healing and reestablishment of skeletal integrity. Recent scientific literature is focused on the development of bone regeneration models where MSCs are combined with biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds able to direct MSC osteogenesis. In this work the osteogenic potential of human MSCs isolated from adipose tissue (hADSCs has been evaluated in vitro in combination with collagen/Mg doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Results demonstrate the high osteogenic potential of hADSCs when cultured in specific differentiation induction medium, as revealed by the Alizarin Red S staining and gene expression profile analysis. In combination with collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold, hADSCs differentiate into mature osteoblasts even in the absence of specific inducing factors; nevertheless, the supplement of the factors markedly accelerates the osteogenic process, as confirmed by the expression of specific markers of pre-osteoblast and mature osteoblast stages, such as osterix, osteopontin (also known as bone sialoprotein I, osteocalcin and specific markers of extracellular matrix maturation and mineralization stages, such as ALPL and osteonectin. Hence, the present work demonstrates that the scaffold per se is able to induce hADSCs differentiation, while the addition of osteo-inductive factors produces a significant acceleration of the osteogenic process. This observation makes the use of our model potentially interesting in the field of regenerative medicine for the treatment of bone defects.

  2. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

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    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  3. Adipose, Bone Marrow and Synovial Joint-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair

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    Christopher Fellows

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current cell-based repair strategies have proven unsuccessful for treating cartilage defects and osteoarthritic lesions, consequently advances in innovative therapeutics are required and mesenchymal stem cell-based (MSC therapies are an expanding area of investigation. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and exerting paracrine effects. Due to their easy isolation, expansion and low immunogenicity, MSCs are an attractive option for regenerative medicine for joint repair. Recent studies have identified several MSC tissue reservoirs including in adipose tissue, bone marrow, cartilage, periosteum and muscle. MSCs isolated from these discrete tissue niches exhibit distinct biological activities, and have enhanced regenerative potentials for different tissue types. Each MSC type has advantages and disadvantages for cartilage repair and their use in a clinical setting is a balance between expediency and effectiveness. In this review we explore the challenges associated with cartilage repair and regeneration using MSC-based cell therapies and provide an overview of phenotype, biological activities and functional properties for each MSC population. This paper also specifically explores the therapeutic potential of each type of MSC, particularly focusing on which cells are capable of producing stratified hyaline-like articular cartilage regeneration. Finally we highlight areas for future investigation. Given that patients present with a variety of problems it is unlikely that cartilage regeneration will be a simple ‘one size fits all’, but more likely an array of solutions that need to applied systematically to achieve regeneration of a biomechanically competent repair tissue.

  4. Obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Tang, Hui; Chanana, Pritha; Lerman, Amir; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-12-15

    Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a viable option for treatment of several diseases. MSCs efficacy depends on adequate function of their mitochondria, which might be impaired in a noxious milieu. We hypothesized that obesity compromises MSCs mitochondrial structure and function, possibly via micro-RNA (miRNA)-based mechanisms. MSCs were collected from swine abdominal adipose tissue after 16 weeks of Lean or Obese diet (n = 7 each). Mitochondrial structure was assessed by electron microscopy and function by membrane potential and cytochrome-c oxidase (COX)-IV activity. Oxidative stress was assessed by Mito-SOX and dihydroethidium staining. Next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to identify miRNAs expression in MSCs, and predicted mitochondrial target genes were then identified (MitoCarta). Compared to Lean-MSCs, mitochondria from Obese-MSCs were smaller and showed cristae remodeling and loss. Mitochondrial membrane potential and COX-IV activity decreased in Obese-MSCs, associated with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. RNA-seq generated reads for 413 miRNAs, of which 5 miRNAs were upregulated in Obese-MSCs (fold change >2, p stress. Importantly, these alterations may limit the therapeutic use of autologous MSCs in subjects with obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant effects of chrysin-loaded electrospun nanofibrous mats on proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Deldar, Yaghoub; Zarghami, Faraz; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Dadashpour, Mehdi; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-12-01

    An ideal biomaterial in regenerative medicine should be able to regulate the stem cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency. Chrysin (Chr) is a naturally occurring flavone with a wide spectrum of biological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study describes the influence of Chr-loaded nanofibrous mats on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). For this purpose, Chr-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone)/poly (ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) nanofibrous mats were produced via electrospinning process and the successful fabrication of these bioactive mats was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. ADSCs were seeded on the nanofibers and their morphology, viability, and stemness expression were analyzed using FE-SEM, MTT, and qPCR assays after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results display that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly increased viability on the Chr-loaded PCL/PEG nanofibrous mats in relative to the PCL/PEG nanofibers and tissue culture polystyrene. The greater viability of ADSCs on Chr based nanofibers was further confirmed by higher expression levels of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog, Oct-4, and Rex-1. These findings demonstrate that Chr-loaded PCL/PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats can be applied to improve cell adhesion and proliferation while concurrently preserving the stemness of ADSCs, thus representing a hopeful potential for application in stem cell therapy strategies.

  6. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Resistant to HBV Infection during Differentiation into Hepatocytes in Vitro

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    Ying Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic methods for chronic hepatitis B are limited. The shortage of organ donors and hepatitis B virus (HBV reinfection obstruct the clinical application of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In the present study, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs were isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients and characterized for morphology, growth potency, surface phenotype and the differentiation potential. The results showed that both MSCs had adipogenic, osteogenic and neuron differentiation potential, and nearly all MSCs expressed CD105, CD44 and CD29. Compared with AD-MSCs, BM-MSCs of chronic hepatitis B patients proliferated defectively. In addition, the ability of AD-MSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte was evaluated and the susceptibility to HBV infection were assessed. AD-MSCs could differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. These cells express the hepatic-specific markers and have glycogen production and albumin secretion function. AD-MSCs and hepatic differentiation AD-MSCs were not susceptible to infection by HBV in vitro. Compared with BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs may be alternative stem cells for chronic hepatitis B patients.

  7. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Enhances Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived But Not Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells.

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    Hung, Ben P; Hutton, Daphne L; Kozielski, Kristen L; Bishop, Corey J; Naved, Bilal; Green, Jordan J; Caplan, Arnold I; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2015-09-01

    Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds great promise for regenerating critically sized bone defects. While the bone marrow-derived MSC is the most widely studied stromal/stem cell type for this application, its rarity within bone marrow and painful isolation procedure have motivated investigation of alternative cell sources. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are more abundant and more easily procured; furthermore, they also possess robust osteogenic potency. While these two cell types are widely considered very similar, there is a growing appreciation of possible innate differences in their biology and response to growth factors. In particular, reports indicate that their osteogenic response to platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is markedly different: MSCs responded negatively or not at all to PDGF-BB while ASCs exhibited enhanced mineralization in response to physiological concentrations of PDGF-BB. In this study, we directly tested whether a fundamental difference existed between the osteogenic responses of MSCs and ASCs to PDGF-BB. MSCs and ASCs cultured under identical osteogenic conditions responded disparately to 20 ng/ml of PDGF-BB: MSCs exhibited no difference in mineralization while ASCs produced more calcium per cell. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDGFRβ within ASCs abolished their ability to respond to PDGF-BB. Gene expression was also different; MSCs generally downregulated and ASCs generally upregulated osteogenic genes in response to PDGF-BB. ASCs transduced to produce PDGF-BB resulted in more regenerated bone within a critically sized murine calvarial defect compared to control ASCs, indicating PDGF-BB used specifically in conjunction with ASCs might enhance tissue engineering approaches for bone regeneration. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Min Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ji-Young [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Doo-Byoung, E-mail: dboh@kribb.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  9. Effect of hypothyroidism in the thyroidectomized rats on immunophenotypic characteristics and differentiation capacity of adipose tissue derived stem cells.

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    Simsek, T; Duruksu, G; Okçu, A; Aksoy, A; Erman, G; Utkan, Z; Cantürk, Z; Karaöz, E

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones influence multiple physiological functions, like growth, differentiation, protein synthesis and metabolic rate. The hypothyroid state is a complex hormonal dysfunction rather than a single hormonal defect. The relation between hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy and stem cells is not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of thyroidectomy on the proliferation, telomerase enzyme activities, immunophenotypic properties and differentiation potentials of adipose tissue-derived (AT-) stem cells (SCs). AT-SCs after 60 and 120 days of thyroidectomized (Tx) rats were compared to normal rats by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analyses, and their telomerase activities were estimated. The telomerase activity was found to be positive for AT-SCs of Tx rats of both 60 and 120 days used in this study, but a decrease was noticed in the cells with the long-term exposure to hypothyroidism. This might indicate the decrease in the regenerative ability of the AT-SCs after 120 days of Tx compared to cells after 60 days of Tx. Both cell lines were induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic cell lineages, but osteogenic marker expression was not detected in the undifferentiated AT-SCs of the Tx rats. Osteogenic differentiation was also failed in stem cells derived from Tx rats, shown by Alizarin red S staining and alkaline phosphates enzyme assays. These results suggest that hypothyroidism affected SCs, altered stem cell characteristics, like telomerase activity and loss of in vitro bone formation, but not adipogenic or neurogenic differentiation ability. Hypothyroidism after Tx affects the osteogenic differentiation capacity of stem cells, which might be one of the factors of bone loss due to postnatal hypothyroidism.

  10. Biodistribution and Efficacy of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Intranodal Administration in Experimental Colitis

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    Mercedes Lopez-Santalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have a large potential in cell therapy for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, thanks to their immunomodulatory properties. The encouraging results in animal models have initiated the translation of MSC therapy to clinical trials. In cell therapy protocols with MSCs, administered intravenously, several studies have shown that a small proportion of infused MSCs can traffic to the draining lymph nodes (LNs. This is accompanied with an increase of different types of regulatory immune cells in the LNs, suggesting the importance of migration of MSCs to the LNs in order to contribute to immunomodulatory response. Intranodal (IN, also referred as intralymphatic, injection of cells, like dendritic cells, is being proposed in the clinic for the treatment of cancer and allergy, showing that this route of administration is clinically safe and efficient. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the biodistribution and the efficacy of Luciferase+ adipose-derived MSCs (Luci-eASCs, infused through the inguinal LNs (iLNs, in normal mice and in inflamed mice with colitis. Most of the Luci-eASCs remain in the iLNs and in the adipose tissue surrounding the inguinal LNs. A small proportion of Luci-eASCs can migrate to other locations within the lymphatic system and to other tissues and organs, having a preferential migration toward the intestine in colitic mice. Our results show that the infused Luci-eASCs protected 58% of the mice against induced colitis. Importantly, a correlation between the response to eASC treatment and a higher accumulation of eASCs in popliteal, parathymic, parathyroid, and mesenteric LNs were found. Altogether, these results suggest that IN administration of eASCs is feasible and may represent an effective strategy for cell therapy protocols with human adipose-derived MSCs in the clinic for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders.

  11. Early combined treatment with sildenafil and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells preserves heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy

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    Fu Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether early combined autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC and sildenafil therapy offers an additive benefit in preserving heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods Adult Lewis rats (n = 8 per group were divided into group 1 (normal control, group 2 (saline-treated DCM rats, group 3 [2.0 × 106 ADMSC implanted into left ventricular (LV myocardium of DCM rats], group 4 (DCM rats with sildenafil 30 mg/kg/day, orally, and group 5 (DCM rats with combined ADMSC-sildenafil. Treatment was started 1 week after DCM induction and the rats were sacrificed on day 90. Results The results showed that mitochondrial protein expressions of connexin43 and cytochrome-C were lowest in group 2, and lower in groups 3 and 4 than in group 5 (p Conclusion Early combined ADMSC/sildenafil is superior to either treatment alone in preserving LV function.

  12. Differential effects of BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaschte, K

    2007-01-01

    transcriptional regulation of Dlx-5, Msx-2 and Runx-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Encapsulated ASC were cultured for 14 days in medium containing TGF-beta1 and/or BMP-2. mRNA expression of the extracellular matrix molecules col2a1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, col10a1, alkaline phosphatase (AP...... and an additive effect on col2a1 mRNA expression. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans was enhanced by combined growth factor treatment. Addition of TGF-beta1 inhibited BMP-2 induced AP expression and activity and both proteins promoted chondrogenic maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of BMP-2-induced osteogenic......OBJECTIVES: This article addresses the interaction of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) during osteo-chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASC). TGF-beta1 was expected to modulate the BMP-2-induced effects through...

  13. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Protects Kidneys against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction

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    Chua Sarah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species are important mediators exerting toxic effects on various organs during ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. We hypothesized that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs protect the kidney against oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli in rat during renal IR injury. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 24 were equally randomized into group 1 (sham control, group 2 (IR plus culture medium only, and group 3 (IR plus immediate intra-renal administration of 1.0 × 106 autologous ADMSCs, followed by intravenous ADMSCs at 6 h and 24 h after IR. The duration of ischemia was 1 h, followed by 72 hours of reperfusion before the animals were sacrificed. Results Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and the degree of histological abnormalities were markedly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (all p Conclusion ADMSC therapy minimized kidney damage after IR injury through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  14. Human adipose stem cell and ASC-derived cardiac progenitor cellular therapy improves outcomes in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Philip MC; Lye, Kevin D; Mathews, Juanita; Owens, Jesse B; Chow, Alice Y; Wong, Livingston; Moisyadi, Stefan; Allsopp, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Philip MC Davy,1 Kevin D Lye,2,3 Juanita Mathews,1 Jesse B Owens,1 Alice Y Chow,1 Livingston Wong,2 Stefan Moisyadi,1 Richard C Allsopp1 1Institute for Biogenesis Research, 2John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 3Tissue Genesis, Inc., Honolulu, HI, USA Background: Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as wel...

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Enhance Axonal Regeneration through Cross-Facial Nerve Grafting in a Rat Model of Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Hüseyin; Uysal, Çağri A; Gönen, Zeynep B; Aydin, Leyla; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Ilhan, Şebnem; Yazici, Ayşe C

    2016-08-01

    Cross-face nerve grafting combined with functional muscle transplantation has become the standard in reconstructing an emotionally controlled smile in complete irreversible facial palsy. However, the efficacy of this procedure depends on the ability of regenerating axons to breach two nerve coaptations and reinnervate endplates in denervated muscle. The current study tested the hypothesis that adipose-derived stem cells would enhance axonal regeneration through a cross-facial nerve graft and thereby enhance recovery of the facial nerve function. Twelve rats underwent transection of the right facial nerve, and cross-facial nerve grafting using the sciatic nerve as an interpositional graft, with coaptations to the ipsilateral and contralateral buccal branches, was carried out. Rats were divided equally into two groups: a grafted but nontreated control group and a grafted and adipose-derived stem cell-treated group. Three months after surgery, biometric and electrophysiologic assessments of vibrissae movements were performed. Histologically, the spectra of fiber density, myelin sheath thickness, fiber diameter, and g ratio of the nerve were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the evaluation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junctions. The data from the biometric and electrophysiologic analysis of vibrissae movements, immunohistochemical analysis, and histologic assessment of the nerve showed that adipose-derived stem cells significantly enhanced axonal regeneration through the graft. These observations suggest that adipose-derived stem cells could be a clinically translatable route toward new methods to enhance recovery after cross-facial nerve grafting.

  16. Treatment efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells in experimental osteoarthritis is driven by high synovial activation and reflected by S100A8/A9 serum levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelbergen, R.F.P.; Dalen, S. van; Huurne, M. Ter; Roth, J.; Vogl, T.; Noel, D.; Jorgensen, C.; Berg, W.B. van den; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Blom, A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Synovitis is evident in a substantial subpopulation of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and is associated with development of pathophysiology. Recently we have shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) inhibit joint destruction in collagenase-induced experimental OA (CIOA). In the

  17. The combined application of human adipose derived stem cells and Chondroitinase ABC in treatment of a spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveazad, Arash; Babahajian, Asrin; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Behnam, Babak; Yari, Abazar; Akbari, Abolfazl; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Janzadeh, Atousa; Amini, Naser; Agah, Shahram; Fallah, Ali; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-02-01

    Although stem cell therapy has become a major focus as a new option for management of spinal cord injury (SCI), its effectiveness should be promoted. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administrating human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in a rat model of spinal cord injury. hADSCs derived from superficial layer of abdominal adipose tissue were used to treat a contusion-induced SCI. Animals were randomly allocated to five equal groups including sham (only laminectomy), SCI (SCI+vehicle injection), hADSCs (1×10⁶ hADSCs/10μl intra-spinal injection), ChABC (10μl of 100U/ml ChABC intra-spinal injection injection), and hADSCs+ChABC. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan tests were used to evaluate locomotor function. 8weeks after treatment, cavity size, myelination, cell differentiation (neuron and astrocyte), and chondroitin sulfate amount were analyzed. hADSC transplanted animals, ChABC injected animals (PSpinal cords in the combined and single therapy groups had cavities filled with myelinated areas and less chondroitin sulfate content in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). hADSCs expressed GFAP, B III tubulin and Map2. Combination therapy with ChABC and hADSCs exhibits more significant functional recovery than single therapy using either. This result may be applicable in selection of the best therapeutic strategy for SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone tissue engineering by using a combination of polymer/Bioglass composites with human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Ji, Kun; Kirkham, Jennifer; Yan, Yu; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kellett, Margaret; Jin, Yan; Yang, Xuebin B

    2014-04-01

    Translational research in bone tissue engineering is essential for "bench to bedside" patient benefit. However, the ideal combination of stem cells and biomaterial scaffolds for bone repair/regeneration is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the osteogenic capacity of a combination of poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) porous foams containing 5 wt% and 40 wt% of Bioglass particles with human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Live/dead fluorescent markers, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that PDLLA/Bioglass porous scaffolds supported ADSC attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation, as confirmed by enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Higher Bioglass content of the PDLLA foams increased ALP activity compared with the PDLLA only group. Extracellular matrix deposition after 8 weeks in the in vitro cultures was evident by Alcian blue/Sirius red staining. In vivo bone formation was assessed by using scaffold/ADSC constructs in diffusion chambers transplanted intraperitoneally into nude mice and recovered after 8 weeks. Histological and immunohistochemical assays indicated significant new bone formation in the 40 wt% and 5 wt% Bioglass constructs compared with the PDLLA only group. Thus, the combination of a well-developed biodegradable bioactive porous PDLLA/Bioglass composite scaffold with a high-potential stem cell source (human ADSCs) could be a promising approach for bone regeneration in a clinical setting.

  19. In Vivo Tracking of Murine Adipose Tissue-Derived Multipotent Adult Stem Cells and Ex Vivo Cross-Validation

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    Chiara Garrovo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by the ability to renew themselves and to differentiate into specialized cell types, while stem cell therapy is believed to treat a number of different human diseases through either cell regeneration or paracrine effects. Herein, an in vivo and ex vivo near infrared time domain (NIR TD optical imaging study was undertaken to evaluate the migratory ability of murine adipose tissue-derived multipotent adult stem cells [mAT-MASC] after intramuscular injection in mice. In vivo NIR TD optical imaging data analysis showed a migration of DiD-labelled mAT-MASC in the leg opposite the injection site, which was confirmed by a fibered confocal microendoscopy system. Ex vivo NIR TD optical imaging results showed a systemic distribution of labelled cells. Considering a potential microenvironmental contamination, a cross-validation study by multimodality approaches was followed: mAT-MASC were isolated from male mice expressing constitutively eGFP, which was detectable using techniques of immunofluorescence and qPCR. Y-chromosome positive cells, injected into wild-type female recipients, were detected by FISH. Cross-validation confirmed the data obtained by in vivo/ex vivo TD optical imaging analysis. In summary, our data demonstrates the usefulness of NIR TD optical imaging in tracking delivered cells, giving insights into the migratory properties of the injected cells.

  20. A Comparative Study of Non-Viral Gene Delivery Techniques to Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell

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    Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul Halim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs hold tremendous potential for therapeutic use in stem cell-based gene therapy. Ex vivo genetic modification of MSCs with beneficial genes of interest is a prerequisite for successful use of stem cell-based therapeutic applications. However, genetic manipulation of MSCs is challenging because they are resistant to commonly used methods to introduce exogenous DNA or RNA. Herein we compared the effectiveness of several techniques (classic calcium phosphate precipitation, cationic polymer, and standard electroporation with that of microporation technology to introduce the plasmid encoding for angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT-1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP into human adipose-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs. The microporation technique had a higher transfection efficiency, with up to 50% of the viable hAD-MSCs being transfected, compared to the other transfection techniques, for which less than 1% of cells were positive for eGFP expression following transfection. The capability of cells to proliferate and differentiate into three major lineages (chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteocytes was found to be independent of the technique used for transfection. These results show that the microporation technique is superior to the others in terms of its ability to transfect hAD-MSCs without affecting their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Therefore, this study provides a foundation for the selection of techniques when using ex vivo gene manipulation for cell-based gene therapy with MSCs as the vehicle for gene delivery.

  1. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Jaewoo; Chang, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have great potential as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of ADSCs, showing their capabilities to differentiate into tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the safety of autologous ADSC injections into human joints is only beginning to be understood and the data are lacking. Methods Between 2009 and 2010, 91 p...

  2. Polydopamine-assisted osteoinductive peptide immobilization of polymer scaffolds for enhanced bone regeneration by human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Yang, Kisuk; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2013-09-09

    Immobilization of osteoinductive molecules, including growth factors or peptides, on polymer scaffolds is critical for improving stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. Such molecules provide osteogenesis-stimulating signals for stem cells. Typical methods used for polymeric scaffold modification (e.g., chemical conjugation or physical adsorption), however, have limitations (e.g., multistep, complicated procedures, material denaturation, batch-to-batch inconsistency, and inadequate conjugation) that diminish the overall efficiency of the process. Therefore, in this study, we report a biologically inspired strategy to prepare functional polymer scaffolds that efficiently regulate the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Polymerization of dopamine (DA), a repeated motif observed in mussel adhesive protein, under alkaline pH conditions, allows for coating of a polydopamine (pDA) layer onto polymer scaffolds. Our study demonstrates that predeposition of a pDA layer facilitates highly efficient, simple immobilization of peptides derived from osteogenic growth factor (bone morphogenetic protein-2; BMP-2) on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds via catechol chemistry. The BMP-2 peptide-immobilized PLGA scaffolds greatly enhanced in vitro osteogenic differentiation and calcium mineralization of hADSCs using either osteogenic medium or nonosteogenic medium. Furthermore, transplantation of hADSCs using pDA-BMP-2-PLGA scaffolds significantly promoted in vivo bone formation in critical-sized calvarial bone defects. Therefore, pDA-mediated catechol functionalization would be a simple and effective method for developing tissue engineering scaffolds exhibiting enhanced osteoinductivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that pDA-mediated surface modification of polymer scaffolds potentiates the regenerative capacity of human stem cells for healing tissue defect in vivo.

  3. Sericin Enhances the Bioperformance of Collagen-Based Matrices Preseeded with Human-Adipose Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs

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    Marieta Costache

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical strategies for adipose tissue engineering (ATE, including autologous fat implants or the use of synthetic surrogates, not only are failing in the long term, but also can’t face the latest requirements regarding the aesthetic restoration of the resulted imperfections. In this context, modern strategies in current ATE applications are based on the implantation of 3D cell-scaffold bioconstructs, designed for prospective achievement of in situ functional de novo tissue. Thus, in this paper, we reported for the first time the evaluation of a spongious 60% collagen and 40% sericin scaffold preseeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs in terms of biocompatibility and adipogenic potential in vitro. We showed that the addition of the sticky protein sericin in the composition of a classical collagen sponge enhanced the adhesion and also the proliferation rate of the seeded cells, thus improving the biocompatibility of the novel scaffold. In addition, sericin stimulated PPARγ2 overexpression, triggering a subsequent upregulated expression profile of FAS, aP2 and perilipin adipogenic markers. These features, together with the already known sericin stimulatory potential on cellular collagen production, promote collagen-sericin biomatrix as a good candidate for soft tissue reconstruction and wound healing applications.

  4. Safety of Allogeneic Canine Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Intraspinal Transplantation in Dogs with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

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    Cláudia Cardoso Maciel Escalhão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a pilot clinical study primarily designed to assess the feasibility and safety of X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal injection of allogeneic canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Six dogs with chronic paraplegia (≥six months were intraparenchymally injected with allogeneic cells in the site of lesion. Cells were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of a healthy dog, cultured to passage 3, labeled with 99mTechnetium, and transplanted into the lesion by percutaneous X-ray-guided injection. Digital X-ray efficiently guided cell injection as 99mTechnetium-labeled cells remained in the injection site for at least 24 hours after transplantation. No adverse effects or complications (infection, neuropathic pain, or worsening of neurological function were observed during the 16-week follow-up period after transplantation. Three animals improved locomotion as assessed by the Olby scale. One animal walked without support, but no changes in deep pain perception were observed. We conclude that X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal transplantation of allogeneic cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury is feasible and safe. The efficacy of the treatment will be assessed in a new study involving a larger number of animals.

  5. Comparison between Chondrogenic Markers of Differentiated Chondrocytes from Adipose Derived Stem Cells and Articular Chondrocytes In Vitro

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    Mohmmad Mardani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged population in the world. Cartilage tissue engineering (TE has been presented as an effort to introduce the best combination of cells, biomaterial scaffolds and stimulating growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue similar to the natural articular cartilage. In this study, the chondrogenic potential of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs was compared with natural articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate scaffold.   Materials and Methods: Human ADSCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue and human articular chondrocytes from non-weight bearing areas of knee joints. Cells were seeded in 1.5% alginate and cultured in chondrogenic media for three weeks with and without TGFβ3. The genes expression of types II and X collagens was assessed by Real Time PCR and the amount of aggrecan (AGC and type I collagen measured by ELISA and the content of glycosaminoglycan evaluated by GAG assay. Results: Our findings showed that type II collagen, GAG and AGC were expressed, in differentiated ADSCs. Meanwhile, they produced a lesser amount of types II and X collagens but more AGC, GAG and type I collagen in comparison with natural chondrocytes (NCs. Conclusion: Further attempt should be carried out to optimize achieving type II collagen in DCs, as much as, natural articular chondrocytes and decline of the production of type I collagen in order to provide efficient hyaline cartilage after chondrogenic induction, prior to the usage of harvested tissues in clinical trials.

  6. Activated platelet-rich plasma improves adipose-derived stem cell transplantation efficiency in injured articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. Methods ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. Results PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. Conclusion Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage. PMID:23915433

  7. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Induces Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Cell Survival of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Maravillas Mellado-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a promising therapeutic alternative for tissue repair in various clinical applications. However, restrictive cell survival, differential tissue integration, and undirected cell differentiation after transplantation in a hostile microenvironment are complications that require refinement. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF from platelet-rich plasma favors human and canine ASC survival, proliferation, and delaying human ASC senescence and autophagocytosis in comparison with serum-containing cultures. In addition, canine and human-derived ASCs efficiently differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes in the presence of PRGF. PRGF treatment induces phosphorylation of AKT preventing ASC death induced by lethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, AKT inhibition abolished the PRGF apoptosis prevention in ASC exposed to 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide. Here, we show that canine ASCs respond to PRGF stimulus similarly to the human cells regarding cell survival and differentiation postulating the use of dogs as a suitable translational model. Overall, PRGF would be employed as a serum substitute for mesenchymal stem cell amplification to improve cell differentiation and as a preconditioning agent to prevent oxidative cell death.

  8. Long-Duration Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture Promotes Angiogenic Activities of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant therapeutic promise for various regenerative therapies. However, MSC-based therapy for injury exhibits low efficacy due to the pathological environment in target tissues and the differences between in vitro and in vivo conditions. To address this issue, we developed adipose-derived MSC spheroids as a novel delivery method to preserve the stem cell microenvironment. MSC spheroids were generated by suspension culture for 3 days, and their sizes increased in a time-dependent manner. After re-attachment of MSC spheroids to the plastic dish, their adhesion capacity and morphology were not altered. MSC spheroids showed enhanced production of hypoxia-induced angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell derived factor (SDF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, spheroid culture promoted the preservation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as laminin and fibronectin, in a culture time- and spheroid size-dependent manner. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a cell survival signal, was significantly higher and the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and cleaved caspase-3, was markedly lower in the spheroids than in MSCs in monolayers. In the murine hindlimb ischemia model, transplanted MSC spheroids showed better proliferation than MSCs in monolayer. These findings suggest that MSC spheroids promote MSC bioactivities via secretion of angiogenic cytokines, preservation of ECM components, and regulation of apoptotic signals. Therefore, MSC spheroid-based cell therapy may serve as a simple and effective strategy for regenerative medicine.

  9. Involvement of PI3K and MMP1 in PDGF-induced Migration of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoonhwa; Lee, Minji; Jeong, Hyeju; Kim, Haekwon

    2017-06-01

    Human adult stem cells have widely been examined for their clinical application including their wound healing effect in vivo . To function as therapeutic cells, however, cells must represent the ability of directed migration in response to signals. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced migration of the human abdominal adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in vitro . A general matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor or a MMP2 inhibitor significantly inhibited the PDGF-induced migration. PDGF treatment exhibited greater mRNA level and denser protein level of MMP1. The conditioned medium of PDGF-treated cells showed a caseinolytic activity of MMP1. Transfection of cells with siRNA against MMP1 significantly inhibited MMP1 expression, its caseinolytic activity, and cell migration following PDGF treatment. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor reduced the migration by about 50% without affecting ERK and MLC proteins. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor mostly abolished the migration and MLC proteins. The results suggest that PDGF might signal hADSCs through PI3K, and MMP1 activity could play an important role in this PDGF-induced migration in vitro .

  10. Effect of substrate stiffness on the functions of rat bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Huang, Yan; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Feng; Fan, Yubo

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative medicine treatments that combine the use of cells and materials may open new options for tissue/organ repair and regeneration. The microenvironment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) strictly regulates their self-renewal and functions. In this study, when rat bone marrow derived MSCs (rBMSCs) and rat adipose tissue derived MSCs (rAMSCs) in passages 2-4 were cultured on different substrates, they presented the cellular functions to be dependent of substrate stiffness. The cells attached better on the softer substrate than on the stiffer one. The substrate stiffness had no significant influence on the proliferation of those cells. However, the substrate stiffness significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the two kinds of stem cells. Furthermore, rBMSCs cultured on the same stiffness expressed more osteoblast-related markers than rAMSCs. In addition, combined biomaterials and biochemical reagents treatment yielded a stronger effect on osteogenic differentiation of MSCs than either treatment alone. These results have significant implications for further extending our capabilities in engineering functional tissue substitutes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Jong; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P.; Mustoe, Thomas A.; Galiano, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

  12. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells

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    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs, for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs, was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  13. Short-term spheroid formation enhances the regenerative capacity of adipose-derived stem cells by promoting stemness, angiogenesis, and chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Chen, Szu-Yu; Li, Jia-Rong; Young, Tai-Horng

    2013-08-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent an important source of mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application. During in vitro culture, ASCs quickly lose the expression of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and self-renewal (Sox-2, Oct-4, and Nanog) and CXCR4, the key receptor responsible for stem cell homing. To enhance their therapeutic potential despite in vitro passages, we examined whether ASCs exhibit superior regenerative capacity by expanding them in monolayers following short-term spheroid formation. Spheroid-derived ASCs retained the expression pattern of cell surface markers and adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation capabilities of ASCs constantly cultured in monolayers. However, spheroid-derived ASCs exhibited higher expansion efficiency with less senescence. Moreover, spheroid-derived ASCs expressed significantly higher levels of pluripotency markers, CXCR4, and angiogenic growth factors. Enhanced in vitro migration, associated with the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-13), was also observed in spheroid-derived ASCs. The enhanced migration and MMP expression could be inhibited by a CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist, AMD3100. Using a murine model with healing-impaired cutaneous wounds, we observed faster healing and enhanced angiogenesis in the wounds treated with spheroid-derived ASCs. Significantly more cellular engraftment of spheroid-derived ASCs in the cutaneous wound tissue was also noted, with evidence of ASC differentiation toward endothelial and epidermal lineages. These findings suggest that short-term spheroid formation of ASCs before monolayer culture enhances their properties of stemness, angiogenesis, and chemotaxis and thereby increases their regenerative potential for therapeutic use.

  14. High Osteogenic Potential of Adipose- and Muscle-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal-Ossification Model Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizhe; Kumagai, Gentaro; Wada, Kanichiro; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Asari, Toru; Oishi, Kazuki; Fujita, Taku; Mizukami, Hiroki; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Basic experiments in a mouse model of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Objective. To assess the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from muscle and adipose tissue in Tiptoe-walking (ttw) mice, in which cervical OPLL compresses the spinal cord and causes motor and sensory dysfunction. Summary of Background Data. In humans, MSCs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical OPLL. Cervical OPLL in ttw mice causes chronic compression of the spinal cord. Few studies have compared the MSC osteogenic potential with behavioral changes in an OPLL animal model. Methods. We compared the osteogenic potential and behavioral characteristics of MSCs from ttw mice (4 to 20 weeks old) with those from control wild-type mice (without hyperostosis). Ligament ossification was monitored by micro-computed tomography and pathology; tissues were double stained with fluorescent antibodies against markers for MSCs (CD45 and CD105), at 8 weeks. The Basso Mouse Scale was used to assess motor function, and heat and mechanical tests to assess sensory function. The osteogenic potential of adipose and muscle MSCs was assessed by Alizarin Red S absorbance, staining for osteogenic mineralization, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for osteogenesis-related genes. Results. Spinal-ligament ossification began in ttw mice at 8 weeks of age, and the ossified area increased with age. Immunofluorescence staining identified MSCs in the ossification area. The ttw mice became hyposensitive at 8 weeks of age, and Basso Mouse Scale scores showed motor-function deficits starting at 12 weeks of age. Alizarin Red S staining for mineralization showed a higher osteogenic potential in the adipose- and muscle-derived MSCs from ttw mice than from wild-type mice at 4, 8, and 20 weeks of age. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that ttw MSCs strongly expressed osteogenesis-related genes. Conclusion. MSCs

  15. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Fiedler, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.fiedler@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Taubenheim, Jan [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  16. Sox-9 facilitates differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells into a chondrocyte-like phenotype in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Candiotti, Keith A; Zeng, Xiaoling; Yuan, Taiyi; Li, Jinliang; Yu, Hong; Abdi, Salahadin

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether ectopic expression of Sox-9 can induce adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to function as real nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro. Adenoviral vectors expressing Sox-9 were reported to infect the chondroblastic and human disc cells, which resulted in increased Sox-9 and type II collagen production. ASCs were isolated from rat inguinal adipose pad, characterized, and transduced in vitro with a retroviral vector encoding the Sox-9 gene. Sox-9-engineered ASCs (ASCs/Sox-9) were induced for the chondrocyte-like cell differentiation by 3D cultured in alginate beads and TGF-β3 for 2 weeks. Expression of exogenous Sox-9 protein was detected. Type II collagen and Aggrecan gene expressions of induced ASCs/Sox-9 were measured using real-time PCR; proteoglycans expressions were measured by checking the glycosaminoglycan content and type II collagen production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Isolated ASCs were CD 29(+) /CD44(+) /C-Kit(-) /Lin(-) /CD34(-) /CD45(-) . ASCs/Sox-9 expressed marked increase in exogenous Sox-9 protein. After induction, type II collagen gene expression was sevenfold higher in mRNA levels, with an approximately twofold increase in protein levels of ASCs/Sox-9 compared to ASCs. Type II collagen and proteoglycan productions were significantly increased in the ASCs/Sox-9 compared to the ASCs. In addition, co-culture of induced ASCs/Sox-9 with matured NP cells resulted in enhanced increase in proteoglycan and type II collagen production. Constitutive retroviral expression of Sox-9 could efficiently induce ASCs differentiation into chondrocyte-like cells. This novel approach may provide a practicable system for a simple and rapid differentiation of ASCs into chondrocyte-like cells which may be potentially used as a stem cell-based therapeutic tool for the treatment of degenerative disc diseases. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Development of Emu oil-loaded PCL/collagen bioactive nanofibers for proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells: possible application in regenerative medicine.

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    Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Alizadeh, Effat; Ebrahimi-Kalan, Abbas; Mortazavi, Yousef; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-12-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidate in stem cell therapies, and maintaining their stemness potential is vital to achieve effective treatment. Natural-based scaffolds have been recently attracted increasing attention in nanomedicine and drug delivery. In the present study, a polymeric nanofibrous scaffold was developed based on the polycaprolactone/Collagen (PCL/Coll) containing Emu oil as a bioactive material to induce the proliferation of ASCs, while simultaneously preserving the stemness property of those cells. Fabrication of the electrospun Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll nanofibers was confirmed by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and tensile test. ASCs were seeded on two types of nanofibers (PCL/Coll and Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll) and their proliferation, cell cycle progression, and stemness gene expressions were evaluated using MTT, propidium iodide staining, and qPCR during 14 days, respectively. The results indicated that ASCs displayed improved adhesion capacity with the higher rates of bioactivity and proliferation on the Emu oil-loaded nanofibers than the other groups. The proliferation capacity of ASCs on Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll nanofibers was further confirmed by the cell cycle progression analysis. It was also found that Emu oil-loaded nanofibers significantly up-regulated the expression of stemness markers including sox-2, nanog, oct4, klf4, and c-Myc. The results demonstrated that the nanofibers containing Emu oil can reinforce the cell adhesion and enhance ASCs proliferation while preserving their stemness; therefore, using scaffolds containing natural products may have a great potential to enhance the in vitro expansion capacity of ASCs in the field of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  18. Therapeutic Effect of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Corneal Failure Due to Limbal Stem Cell Niche Damage.

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    Galindo, Sara; Herreras, José M; López-Paniagua, Marina; Rey, Esther; de la Mata, Ana; Plata-Cordero, María; Calonge, Margarita; Nieto-Miguel, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Limbal stem cells are responsible for the continuous renewal of the corneal epithelium. The destruction or dysfunction of these stem cells or their niche induces limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leading to visual loss, chronic pain, and inflammation of the ocular surface. To restore the ocular surface in cases of bilateral LSCD, an extraocular source of stem cells is needed to avoid dependence on allogeneic limbal stem cells that are difficult to obtain, isolate, and culture. The aim of this work was to test the tolerance and the efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) to regenerate the ocular surface in two experimental models of LSCD that closely resemble different severity grades of the human pathology. hAT-MSCs transplanted to the ocular surface of the partial and total LSCD models developed in rabbits were well tolerated, migrated to inflamed tissues, reduced inflammation, and restrained the evolution of corneal neovascularization and corneal opacity. The expression profile of the corneal epithelial cell markers CK3 and E-cadherin, and the limbal epithelial cell markers CK15 and p63 was lost in the LSCD models, but was partially recovered after hAT-MSC transplantation. For the first time, we demonstrated that hAT-MSCs improve corneal and limbal epithelial phenotypes in animal LSCD models. These results support the potential use of hAT-MSCs as a novel treatment of ocular surface failure due to LSCD. hAT-MSCs represent an available, non-immunogenic source of stem cells that may provide therapeutic benefits in addition to reduce health care expenses. Stem Cells 2017;35:2160-2174. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Porcine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Stem Cell Characteristics and Cell Activities While Enhancing the Expression of Liver-Specific Genes after Acute Liver Failure.

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    Hu, Chenxia; Zhou, Ning; Li, Jianzhou; Shi, Ding; Cao, Hongcui; Li, Jun; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-05

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a kind of complicated syndrome. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) can serve as a useful cell resource for autotransplantation due to their abundance and micro-invasive accessability. However, it is unknown how ALF will influence the characteristics of ADMSCs and whether ADMSCs from patients suffering from end-stage liver diseases are potential candidates for autotransplantation. This study was designed to compare various properties of ALF-derived ADMSCs with normal ADMSCs in pig models, with regard to their cellular morphology, cell proliferative ability, cell apoptosis, expression of surface antigens, mitochondrial and lysosomal activities, multilineage potency, and expression of liver-specific genes. Our results showed that ALF does not influence the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs. Intriguingly, the expression levels of several liver-specific genes in ALF-derived ADMSCs are higher than in normal ADMSCs. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs were not altered by ALF and these cells can serve as a new source for regenerative medicine.

  20. Porcine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Stem Cell Characteristics and Cell Activities While Enhancing the Expression of Liver-Specific Genes after Acute Liver Failure

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    Chenxia Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF is a kind of complicated syndrome. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs can serve as a useful cell resource for autotransplantation due to their abundance and micro-invasive accessability. However, it is unknown how ALF will influence the characteristics of ADMSCs and whether ADMSCs from patients suffering from end-stage liver diseases are potential candidates for autotransplantation. This study was designed to compare various properties of ALF-derived ADMSCs with normal ADMSCs in pig models, with regard to their cellular morphology, cell proliferative ability, cell apoptosis, expression of surface antigens, mitochondrial and lysosomal activities, multilineage potency, and expression of liver-specific genes. Our results showed that ALF does not influence the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs. Intriguingly, the expression levels of several liver-specific genes in ALF-derived ADMSCs are higher than in normal ADMSCs. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the stem cell characteristics and cell activities of ADMSCs were not altered by ALF and these cells can serve as a new source for regenerative medicine.

  1. Centrifugal gravity-induced BMP4 induces chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells via SOX9 upregulation.

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    Jang, Yeonsue; Jung, Hyerin; Nam, Yoojun; Rim, Yeri Alice; Kim, Juryun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2016-12-08

    Cartilage does not have the capability to regenerate itself. Therefore, stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for impaired cartilage. For stem cell transplantation, in vitro enrichment is required; however, stem cells not only become senescent but also lose their differentiation potency during this process. In addition, cytokines are normally used for chondrogenic differentiation induction of stem cells, which is highly expensive and needs an additional step to culture. In this study, we introduced a novel method to induce chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are more readily available than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells(bMSCs), using centrifugal gravity (CG). ASCs were stimulated by loading different degrees of CG (0, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, and 3600 g) to induce chondrogenic differentiation. The expression of chondrogenic differentiation-related genes was examined by RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analyses. The chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs stimulated with CG was evaluated by comparing the expression of positive markers [aggrecan (ACAN) and collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1)] and negative markers (COL1 and COL10) with that in ASCs stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 using micromass culture, immunofluorescence, and staining (Alcian Blue and Safranin O). Expression of SOX9 and SOX5 was upregulated by CG (2400 g for 30 min). Increased expression of ACAN and COL2A1 (positive markers) was detected in monolayer-cultured ASCs after CG stimulation, whereas that of COL10 (a negative marker) was not. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, an upstream stimulator of SOX9, was upregulated by CG, which was inhibited by Dorsomorphin (an inhibitor of BMP4). Increased expression of proteoglycan, a major component of cartilage, was confirmed in the micromass culture of ASCs stimulated with CG by Alcian Blue and Safranin O staining. Chondrogenic differentiation of

  2. Effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cell therapy after myocardial infarction: impact of the route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Montserrat; Solanes, Núria; Farré, Jordi; Roura, Santiago; Roqué, Mercè; Berruezo, Antonio; Bellera, Neus; Novensà, Laura; Tamborero, David; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Huzman, M A Angeles; Batlle, Montserrat; Hoefsloot, Margo; Sitges, Marta; Ramírez, José; Dantas, Ana Paula; Merino, Anna; Sanz, Ginés; Brugada, Josep; Bayés-Genís, Antoni; Heras, Magda

    2010-04-01

    Cell-based therapies offer a promising approach to reducing the short-term mortality rate associated with heart failure after a myocardial infarction. The aim of the study was to analyze histological and functional effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) after myocardial infarction and compare 2 types of administration pathways. ADSCs from 28 pigs were labeled by transfection. Animals that survived myocardial infarction (n = 19) received: intracoronary culture media (n = 4); intracoronary ADSCs (n = 5); transendocardial culture media (n = 4); or transendocardial ADSCs (n = 6). At 3 weeks' follow-up, intracoronary and transendocardial administration of ADSCs resulted in similar rates of engrafted cells (0.85 [0.19-1.97] versus 2 [1-2] labeled cells/cm(2), respectively; P = NS) and some of those cells expressed smooth muscle cell markers. The intracoronary administration of ADSCs was more effective in increasing the number of small vessels than transendocardial administration (223 +/- 40 versus 168 +/- 35 vessels/mm(2); P < .05). Ejection fraction was not modified by stem cell therapy. This is the first study to compare intracoronary and transendocardial administration of autologous ADSCs in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Both pathways of ADSCs delivery are feasible, producing a similar number of engrafted and differentiated cells, although intracoronary administration was more effective in increasing neovascularization. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoprotection, proliferation and epidermal differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on emu oil based electrospun nanofibrous mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Nouri, Mohammad; Martino, Mikaël M; Fattahi, Amir; Alizadeh, Effat; Darabi, Masoud; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-08-15

    Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds containing natural substances with wound healing properties such as Emu oil (EO) may have a great potential for increasing the efficiency of stem cell-based skin bioengineering. For this purpose, EO blended PCL/PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats were successfully fabricated and characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR and Universal Testing Machine. The efficiency of the scaffolds in supporting the adherence, cytoprotection, proliferation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to keratinocyte was evaluated. GC/MS and HPLC were used to determine the composition of pure EO, which revealed to be mainly fatty acids and carotenoids. FE-SEM and cell proliferation assays showed that adhesion and proliferation of ADSCs on EO-PCL/PEG nanofibers was significantly higher than on PCL/PEG nanofibers. Additionally, EO-PCL/PEG nanofibers with free radical scavenging properties conferred a cytoprotective effect against cell-damaging free radicals, while the ability to support cell adhesion and growth was maintained or even improved. Immunostaining of ADSCs on EO-PCL/PEG nanofibers confirmed the change in morphology of ADSCs from spindle to polygonal shape suggesting their differentiation toward an epidermal linage. Moreover, the expression levels of the keratin 10, filaggrin, and involucrin that are involved in epidermal differentiation were upregulated in a stage-specific manner. This preliminary study shows that EO-PCL/PEG nanofibers could be a good candidate for the fabrication of wound dressings and skin bioengineered substitutes with ADSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac regeneration by pharmacologically active microcarriers releasing growth factors and/or transporting adipose-derived stem cells

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    Monia Savi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that cardiac regeneration through local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, activation of resident cardiac stem cells via growth factors (GFs [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1:GFs] or both, are improved by pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs interacting with cells/molecules conveyed on their surface. Rats with one-month old myocardial infarction were treated with ASCs, ASCs+PAMs, GF-releasing PAMs, ASCs+GF-releasing PAMs or vehicle. Two weeks later, hemodynamic function and inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs were assessed. Eventually, the hearts were subjected to anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses. A significant ASCs engraftment and the largest improvement in cardiac mechanics occurred in ASC+GF-releasing PAM rats which by contrast were more vulnerable to VAs. Thus, PAMs may improve cell/GF-based cardiac regeneration although caution should be paid on the electrophysiological impact of their physical interaction with the myocardium.

  5. Transcriptional signature of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) preconditioned for chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions

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    Pilgaard, L.; Lund, P.; Duroux, M. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Lockstone, H.; Taylor, J. [Bioinformatics and Statistical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Emmersen, J.; Fink, T. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Ragoussis, J. [Genomics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Zachar, V., E-mail: vlaz@hst.aau.dk [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor involved in the control of stem cells. To obtain a better insight into the phenotypical changes brought about by hypoxic preconditioning prior to chondrogenic differentiation; we have investigated growth, colony-forming and chondrogenic capacity, and global transcriptional responses of six adipose tissue-derived stem cell lines expanded at oxygen concentrations ranging from ambient to 1%. The assessment of cell proliferation and colony-forming potential revealed that the hypoxic conditions corresponding to 1% oxygen played a major role. The chondrogenic inducibility, examined by high-density pellet model, however, did not improve on hypoxic preconditioning. While the microarray analysis revealed a distinctive inter-donor variability, the exposure to 1% hypoxia superseded the biological variability and produced a specific expression profile with 2581 significantly regulated genes and substantial functional enrichment in the pathways of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, exposure to 1% oxygen resulted in upregulation of factors related to angiogenesis and cell growth. In particular, leptin (LEP), the key regulator of body weight and food intake was found to be highly upregulated. In conclusion, the results of this investigation demonstrate the significance of donor demographics and the importance of further studies into the use of regulated oxygen tension as a tool for preparation of ASCs in order to exploit their full potential.

  6. Labeling Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hoechst 33342: Usability and Effects on Differentiation Potential and DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schendzielorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have been extensively studied in the field of stem cell research and possess numerous clinical applications. Cell labeling is an essential component of various experimental protocols and Hoechst 33342 (H33342 represents a cost-effective and easy methodology for live staining. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the labeling of rat ASCs with two different concentrations of H33342 (0.5 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL, with particular regard to usability, interference with cell properties, and potential DNA damage. Hoechst 33342 used at a low concentration of 0.5 μg/mL did not significantly affect cell proliferation, viability, or differentiation potential of the ASCs, nor did it cause any significant DNA damage as measured by the olive tail moment. High concentrations of 5 μg/mL H33342, however, impaired the proliferation and viability of the ASCs, and considerable DNA damage was observed. Undesirable colabeling of unlabeled cocultivated cells was seen in particular with higher concentrations of H33342, independent of varying washing procedures. Hence, H33342 labeling with lower concentrations represents a usable method, which does not affect the tested cell properties. However, the colabeling of adjacent cells is a drawback of the technique.

  7. Constitution of fibrin-based niche for in vitro differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Jayakumar, K; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2014-12-01

    Epithelialization of chronic cutaneous wound is troublesome and may require use of skin/cell substitutes. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have immense potential as autologous cell source for treating wounds; they can cross the germ layer boundary of differentiation and regenerate skin. When multipotent adult stem cells are considered for skin regeneration, lineage committed keratinocytes may be beneficial to prevent undesirable post-transplantation outcome. This study hypothesized that ADMSCs may be directed to epidermal lineage in vitro on a specifically designed biomimetic and biodegradable niche. Cells were seeded on the test niche constituted with fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, laminin V, platelet growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in the presence of cell-specific differentiation medium (DM). The ADMSCs grown on bare tissue culture polystyrene surface in DM is designated DM-control and those grown in basal medium (BM) is the BM-control. Lineage commitment was monitored with keratinocyte-specific markers such as cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 19, and integrin α6 at the transcriptional/translational level. The in vitro designed biomimetic fibrin composite matrix may have potential application as cell transplantation vehicle.

  8. Compatibility of Porous Chitosan Scaffold with the Attachment and Proliferation of human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathysankar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have potential applications in the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs. The use of various scaffold materials as an excellent template for mimicking the extracellular matrix to induce the attachment and proliferation of different cell types has always been of interest in the field of tissue engineering because ideal biomaterials are in great demand. Chitosan, a marine polysaccharide, have wide clinical applications and it acts as a promising scaffold for cell migration and proliferation. ASCs, with their multi-differentiation potential, and chitosan, with its great biocompatibility with ASCs, were investigated in the present study. ASCs were isolated and were characterized by two different methods: immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105, CD73 and CD29. The ASCs were then induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. These ASCs were incorporated into a porous chitosan scaffold (PCS, and their structural morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The proliferation rate of the ASCs on the PCS was assessed using a PrestoBlue viability assay. The results indicated that the PCS provides an excellent template for the adhesion and proliferation of ASCs. Thus, this study revealed that PCS is a promising biomaterial for inducing the proliferation of ASCs, which could lead to successful tissue reconstruction in the field of tissue engineering.

  9. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-enriched fat grafting: experiments using White rabbits and an automated cell processing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The grafting of fat mixed with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is being increasingly applied to compensate for the disadvantages of previous fat grafting methods. Devices that automatically isolate fat stem cells also have recently been developed. ASCs were isolated from the inguinal region of White rabbits using Icellator®, and the number of cells and their viability were measured. The cell count per fat graft (mL) was adjusted to the following concentrations and subcutaneously transplanted into the back: Control group, Fat + PBS; Fat + ASCs (×0.5) group, 1.6 × 105 cells/mL; and Fat + ASCs (×1) group, 3.2 × 105 cells/mL. Grafted fat weight was measured after 8 weeks, and histological, immunohistological, and specifically stained sections were prepared. Fat absorption was reduced in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups. The number of blood vessels was higher in Fat + ASCs (×1) than in the control group, and blood vessel areas were higher in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups than in the control group. The usefulness of the automated cell processing apparatus, Icellator®, was confirmed, and the results obtained suggest that grafted ASCs promote the vascularization and engraftment of fat grafts.

  10. Effect of Wnt Signaling on the Differentiation of Islet β-Cells from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Hefei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling is critical for pancreatic development and islet function; however, its precise effects on the development and function of the β-cells remain controversial. Here we examined mRNA and protein expression of components of the Wnt signaling throughout the differentiation of islet β-cells from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs. After induction, ADSCs expressed markers of β-cells, including the insulin, PDX1, and glucagon genes, and the PDX1, CK19, nestin, insulin, and C-peptide proteins, indicating their successful differentiation. Compared with pancreatic adult stem cells (PASCs, the quantities of insulin, GLUT2, and Irs2 mRNA decreased, whereas Gcg, Gck, and Irs1 mRNA increased. Over time, during differentiation, insulin mRNA and protein expression increased, Gcg and Gck mRNA expression increased, Irs1 mRNA expression decreased and then increased, and Irs2 mRNA increased and then decreased (all P0.05. Our results indicate that the Wnt signaling is activated during ADSC differentiation into islet β-cells, but there was no obvious enrichment of nonphosphorylated β-catenin protein.

  11. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Secreted IGF-1 Protects Myoblasts from the Negative Effect of Myostatin

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    Sebastian Gehmert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, a TGF-β family member, is associated with inhibition of muscle growth and differentiation and might interact with the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Since IGF-1 is secreted at a bioactive level by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs, these cells (ASCs provide a therapeutic option for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. But the protective effect of stem cell secreted IGF-1 on myoblast under high level of myostatin remains unclear. In the present study murine myoblasts were exposed to myostatin under presence of ASCs conditioned medium and investigated for proliferation and apoptosis. The protective effect of IGF-1 was further examined by using IGF-1 neutralizing and receptor antibodies as well as gene silencing RNAi technology. MyoD expression was detected to identify impact of IGF-1 on myoblasts differentiation when exposed to myostatin. IGF-1 was accountable for 43.6% of the antiapoptotic impact and 48.8% for the proliferative effect of ASCs conditioned medium. Furthermore, IGF-1 restored mRNA and protein MyoD expression of myoblasts under risk. Beside fusion and transdifferentiation the beneficial effect of ASCs is mediated by paracrine secreted cytokines, particularly IGF-1. The present study underlines the potential of ASCs as a therapeutic option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other dystrophic muscle diseases.

  12. RSPO3-LGR4 Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation Of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Via ERK/FGF Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yunsong; Lv, Longwei; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-02-21

    The four R-spondins (RSPOs) and their three related receptors, LGR4, 5 and 6, have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival. However, the exact roles of the RSPO-LGR system in osteogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that RSPO3-shRNA increased the osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) significantly. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RSPO3 is a negative regulator of ERK/FGF signalling. We confirmed that inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway blocked osteogenic differentiation in hASCs, and the increased osteogenic capacity observed after RSPO3 knockdown in hASCs was reversed by inhibition of ERK signalling. Further, silencing of LGR4 inhibited the activity of ERK signalling and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Most importantly, we found that loss of LGR4 abrogated RSPO3-regulated osteogenesis and RSPO3-induced ERK1/2 signalling inhibition. Collectively, our data show that ERK signalling works downstream of LGR4 and RSPO3 regulates osteoblastic differentiation of hASCs possibly via the LGR4-ERK signalling.

  13. Proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue on polyurethanes with tunable biodegradability

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    Iaci M. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PUs have been considered good candidates to be used in biomedical temporary devices that require mechanical properties comparable to soft tissues. However, toxicity of some PUs is still a concern, since these polyurethanes can contain potential toxic components and residual organic solvents derived from their synthesis. In this work, in vitro tests to measure viability and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs in contact with PUs with tunable biodegradability were performed by employing MTT, alkaline phosphatase and collagen secretion assays. PUs were produced in an aqueous environment by employing isophorone diisocyanate/hydrazine (hard segment and poly(caprolactone diol/2,2-bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid (soft segment as the main reagents. Three series of PUs having different soft segment contents were synthesized. These PUs had their chemical structure, morphology and hydrolytic degradation investigated. The rate of hydrolysis of the obtained PUs was tailored by modifying the soft segment content of the polymers. In vitro results showed that PUs can provide a satisfactory environment for the adhesion and proliferation of hMSCs.

  14. Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice.

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    Vikash Chandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs. Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17 and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3-4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach. CONCLUSIONS: h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  15. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

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    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Behaviour of adipose-derived canine mesenchymal stem cells after superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles labelling for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecka, Malgorzata Anna; Arnhold, Stefan; Schmidt, Martin; Reich, Christine; Kramer, Martin; Failing, Klaus; von Pückler, Kerstin

    2017-02-24

    Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to provide beneficial effects in the treatment of neurological and orthopaedic disorders in dogs. The exact mechanism of action is poorly understood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the opportunity to observe MSCs after clinical administration. To visualise MSCs with the help of MRI, labelling with an MRI contrast agent is necessary. However, it must be clarified whether there is any negative influence on cell function and viability after labelling prior to clinical administration. For the purpose of the study, seven samples with canine adipose-derived stem cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO: 319.2 μg/mL Fe) for 24 h. The internalisation of the iron particles occurred via endocytosis. SPIO particles were localized as free clusters in the cytoplasm or within lysosomes depending on the time of investigation. The efficiency of the labelling was investigated using Prussian blue staining and MACS assay. After 3 weeks the percentage of SPIO labelled canine stem cells decreased. Phalloidin staining showed no negative effect on the cytoskeleton. Labelled cells underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Chondrogenic differentiation occurred to a lesser extent compared with a control sample. MTT-Test and wound healing assay showed no influence of labelling on the proliferation. The duration of SPIO labelling was assessed using a 1 Tesla clinical MRI scanner and T2 weighted turbo spin echo and T2 weighted gradient echo MRI sequences 1, 2 and 3 weeks after labelling. The hypointensity caused by SPIO lasted for 3 weeks in both sequences. An Endorem labelling concentration of 319.2 μg/mL Fe (448 μg/mL SPIO) had no adverse effects on the viability of canine ASCs. Therefore, this contrast agent could be used as a model for iron oxide labelling agents. However, the tracking ability in vivo has to be evaluated in further studies.

  17. Correlation between ECM guidance and actin polymerization on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

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    Keller, Vivian; Deiwick, Andrea [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Department of Nanotechnology, Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Pflaum, Michael [Leibniz Research Laboratories for Biotechnology and Artificial Organs (LEBAO), Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Department of Nanotechnology, Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University of Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30617 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell shape, and stem cell guidance can shed light in understanding and mimicking the functionality of stem cell niches for various applications. This interplay on osteogenic guidance of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was focus of this study. Proliferation and osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were slightly increased by the ECM components laminin (LA), collagen I (COL), and fibronectin (FIB); with control medium no differentiation occurred. ECM guided differentiation was rather dependent on osterix than on Runx2 pathway. FIB significantly enhanced cell elongation even in presence of actin polymerization blockers cytochalasin D (CytoD) and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which generally caused more rounded cells. Except for the COL surface, both inhibitors increased the extent of osterix, while the Runx2 pathway was more sensitive to the culture condition. Both inhibitors did not affect hASC proliferation. CytoD enabled osteogenic differentiation independently from the ECM, while it was rather blocked via Y-27632 treatment; on FIB the general highest extent of differentiation occurred. Taken together, the ECM effect on hASCs occurs indirectly and selectively via a dominant role of FIB: it sustains osteogenic differentiation in case of a tension-dependent control of actin polymerization. - Highlights: • Interplay of ECM and cell shape guides osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. • ECM components only present a promotive but not stimulative effect. • No direct correlation between ECM-enhanced cell elongation and differentiation. • Suppression of differentiation depends on a specific actin polymerization blocking. • Fibronectin sustains cell elongation and differentiation in case of blocking actin.

  18. In vivo human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell tracking after intra-articular delivery in a rat osteoarthritis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs have shown efficacy in treating osteoarthritis (OA both preclinically and clinically via intra-articular (IA injection. However, understanding the mode of action of the cell therapy has been limited by cell tracking capability and correlation between the pharmacokinetics of the injected cells and the intended pharmacodynamics effect. This study aims to explore methodology and to understand in vivo biodistribution of clinical-grade haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye and injected into an immunocompetent OA rat model. Methods haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye were investigated for their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Labeled cells were used to establish detection threshold of a noninvasive biofluorescent imaging system before the cells (2.5 × 106 were injected into a conventional rat OA model induced by medial meniscectomy for 8 weeks. We attempted to reveal the existence of labeled cells in vivo by imaging and a molecular biomarker approach, and to correlate with the in vivo efficacy and physical presence over a follow-up period up to 10 weeks. Results In vitro proliferation and differentiation of haMSCs were not affected by the labeling of DiD dye. Detection thresholds of the labeled cells in vitro and in vivo were determined to be 104 and 105 cells, respectively. When 2.5 × 106 haMSCs were injected into the joints of a rat OA model, fluorescent signals (or >105 cells lasted for about 10 weeks in the surgical knee joint at the same time as efficacy was observed. Signals in nonsurgical rats only lasted for 4 weeks. The human MSCs were shown to engraft to the rat joint tissues and were proliferative. Human FOXP2 gene was only detected in the knee joint tissue, suggesting limited biodistribution locally to the joints. Conclusions The current study represents the first attempt to correlate cell therapy efficacy on OA with the physical presence

  19. In vivo human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell tracking after intra-articular delivery in a rat osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Luo, Xuan; Lv, Xiaoteng; Liu, Victor; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Xue; Cao, Wei; Wang, Richard; Wang, Wen

    2016-11-10

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs) have shown efficacy in treating osteoarthritis (OA) both preclinically and clinically via intra-articular (IA) injection. However, understanding the mode of action of the cell therapy has been limited by cell tracking capability and correlation between the pharmacokinetics of the injected cells and the intended pharmacodynamics effect. This study aims to explore methodology and to understand in vivo biodistribution of clinical-grade haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye and injected into an immunocompetent OA rat model. haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye were investigated for their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Labeled cells were used to establish detection threshold of a noninvasive biofluorescent imaging system before the cells (2.5 × 10 6 ) were injected into a conventional rat OA model induced by medial meniscectomy for 8 weeks. We attempted to reveal the existence of labeled cells in vivo by imaging and a molecular biomarker approach, and to correlate with the in vivo efficacy and physical presence over a follow-up period up to 10 weeks. In vitro proliferation and differentiation of haMSCs were not affected by the labeling of DiD dye. Detection thresholds of the labeled cells in vitro and in vivo were determined to be 10 4 and 10 5 cells, respectively. When 2.5 × 10 6 haMSCs were injected into the joints of a rat OA model, fluorescent signals (or >10 5 cells) lasted for about 10 weeks in the surgical knee joint at the same time as efficacy was observed. Signals in nonsurgical rats only lasted for 4 weeks. The human MSCs were shown to engraft to the rat joint tissues and were proliferative. Human FOXP2 gene was only detected in the knee joint tissue, suggesting limited biodistribution locally to the joints. The current study represents the first attempt to correlate cell therapy efficacy on OA with the physical presence of the injected haMSCs in the OA model, and demonstrates

  20. Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells by activating the APPL1-AMPK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tong; Wu, Yu-wei; Lu, Hui; Guo, Yuan [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Tang, Zhi-hui, E-mail: tang_zhihui@live.cn [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of hASC fate, little is known about how hASC differentiation is regulated by the autocrine loop. The most abundant adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, adiponectin (APN) plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests a positive association between APN and bone formation yet little is known regarding the direct effects of APN on hASC osteogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the varied osteogenic effects and regulatory mechanisms of APN in the osteogenic commitment of hASCs. We found that APN enhanced the expression of osteoblast-related genes in hASCs, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2, also known as CBFa1), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was further confirmed by the higher expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased formation of mineralization nodules, along with the absence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Importantly, APN at 1 μg/ml was the optimal concentration, resulting in maximum deposition of calcium nodules, and was significant superior to bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mechanistically, we found for the first time that APN increased nuclear translocation of the leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with APPL1 siRNA. Our results indicate that APN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by activating APPL1-AMPK signaling, suggesting that manipulation of APN is a novel therapeutic target for controlling hASC fate. - Highlights: • Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells. • The knock-down of APPL1 block the enhancement of

  1. Sustained release of adipose-derived stem cells by thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Lin, Wei-Jhih; Ling, Thai-Yen; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-03-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete several angiogenic growth factors and can be applied to treat ischemic tissue. However, transplantation of dissociated ASCs has frequently resulted in rapid cell death. Therefore, we aimed to develop a thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel that is capable of ASC sustained release for therapeutic angiogenesis. By blending gelatin in the chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel, we significantly enhanced the viability of the encapsulated ASCs. During in vitro culturing, the gradual degradation of gelatin led to sustained release of ASCs from the chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. In vitro wound healing assays revealed significantly faster cell migration by co-culturing fibroblasts with ASCs encapsulated in chitosan/gelatin hydrogel compared to pure chitosan hydrogels. Additionally, significantly higher concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor were found in the supernatant of ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogels. Co-culturing SVEC4-10 endothelial cells with ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogels resulted in significantly more tube-like structures, indicating the hydrogel's potential in promoting angiogenesis. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and mice wound healing model showed significantly higher capillary density after applying ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. Relative to ASC alone or ASC-encapsulated chitosan hydrogel, more ASCs were also found in the wound tissue on post-wounding day 5 after applying ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. Therefore, chitosan/gelatin thermosensitive hydrogels not only maintain ASC survival, they also enable sustained release of ASCs for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, thereby exhibiting great clinical potential in treating ischemic diseases. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) exhibit great potential to treat ischemic diseases. However, poor delivery methods lead to low cellular survival or dispersal of cells from target sites. In this study, we

  2. Comparison of proliferative and immunomodulatory potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from young and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Lara B; Webb, Tracy L; Webb, Polly; Coy, Jonathan W; Dow, Steve W; Quimby, Jessica M

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) generated from young vs geriatric cats to proliferate in culture, suppress lymphocyte proliferation and undergo senescence. Methods Adipose tissues from five young (10 years) cats were harvested and cryopreserved for subsequent aMSC isolation and culture. aMSC proliferation in culture was compared via determination of time until passage two and by 3-(4,5-demethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The immunomodulatory capacity of aMSCs was assessed using lymphocyte proliferation assays, and senescence was evaluated using senescence-associated B-galactosidase (SABG) expression. All assays were performed on aMSCs between passage two and passage three. Results aMSCs from geriatric cats took significantly longer ( P = 0.008) to reach passage two (median 11 days, range 9-22 days) compared with aMSCs from young healthy cats (median 7 days, range 6-8 days). No significant difference was detected between young and geriatric cats in terms of their ability to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SABG expression was not significantly different between young and geriatric aMSCs. Conclusions and relevance Compared with young feline aMSCs, geriatric aMSCs are significantly impaired in their ability to rapidly proliferate to passage two following initial culture, presenting a concern for autologous therapy. Nonetheless, once the cells are expanded, young and geriatric cat aMSCs appear to be equivalent in terms of their ability to functionally suppress T-cell activation and proliferation.

  3. Supplementation freeze-thawed media with selenium protect adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from freeze-thawed induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadbeygi, Arash; Naji, Tahere; Pirnia, Afshin; Gholami, Mohammadreza

    2016-10-01

    Successful freezed-thaw of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) could be a major step in regenerative medicine as well as in the cloning of animal breeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selenium on the optimizing of freezed-thaw media in the ADMSCs. ADMSCs were extracted from NMRI mice and purified with positive selection Monoclonal CD105 Antibody (PE) and negative selection Monoclonal CD31 and CD45 Antibody using MACS method as well as differentiation to adipose and bone tissue. ADMSCs were divided into four groups. ADMSCs were freezed-thaw under standard condition with or without the addition of 5 ng/ml selenium to both the cryopreservation and thawing solutions. Frozen cells were thawed after four months and viability and cytotoxicity of the cells were analyzed by the Trypan blue test and MTT assay respectively. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and the expression of apoptotic genes (P53, Fas, Bax, Caspase3, and Bcl2) was examined using Real time-PCR Rotor gene 2009. This study compares slow and rapid methods of cryopreservation. After thawing, viability of the cells treated with selenium was higher than the control group in rapid and slow cryopreserved ADMSCs. Also, the percentage of living cells in the slow cooling method was considerably more than with the rapid cooling method. After analysis of the results using Real time-PCR, the Bcl2 gene was shown to be expressed in both the rapid and slow cooling methods. In the rapid cooling group in addition to the BCL-2 gene, p53 was also expressed. It appears that selenium prevented the apoptotic genes from expression due to its anti-apoptotic effects. The slow cooling method is better and more optimized for ADMSCs protecting them from oxidative damage to a greater extent compared to the rapid cooling method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the obese type 2 diabetic ZDF rat with adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Fandel, Thomas M; Lin, Guiting; Shindel, Alan W; Banie, Lia; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F

    2010-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major complication of type 2 diabetes, and many diabetic men with ED are refractory to common ED therapies. To determine whether autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) injected into the penis of impotent type 2 diabetic rats improve erectile function. Blood glucose levels, intracavernous pressure (ICP) increase upon cavernous nerve (CN) electrostimulation, and immunohistochemistry. Twenty-two male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used. At 22 weeks of age, all the animals underwent unilateral CN electrostimulation and ICP measurement to confirm impotence. Paragonadal adipose tissue was harvested to procure ADSCs. The impotent animals were randomized to ADSC treatment and sham control groups. At 23 weeks of age, the treatment group animals underwent a penile injection of 1 million ADSCs; the control group animals received vehicle only. Erectile function studies were repeated at 26 weeks of age, followed by tissue harvest. The rats developed diabetes within the first 10 weeks of age. At 22 weeks of age, 20 out of the 22 rats presented with ED. The post-treatment ICP increase during CN stimulation and ICP increase/mean arterial pressure were significantly higher in the treatment group compared with controls. Three weeks after injection into the corpus cavernosum, only a small number of BrdU-labeled ADSCs was detectable within corporal tissue of the treatment group. There was a significant increase in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the penile dorsal nerve and in the number of endothelial cells in the corpora cavernosa of the rats in the treatment group. Autologous ADSCs injected into the penis were effective to improve erectile function and to alter the microarchitecture of the corpus cavernosum. Since the number of ADSCs retained in the corpus cavernosum is very small, we postulate that their paracrine function, not trans-differentiation to smooth muscle or endothelial cells, is responsible for the improvement

  5. Effective gene delivery into adipose-derived stem cells: transfection of cells in suspension with the use of a nuclear localization signal peptide-conjugated polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eulsoon; Cho, Hong-Baek; Takimoto, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells have the ability to turn into several clinically important cell types. However, it is difficult to transfect these cells with the use of conventional cationic lipid-based reagents. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is considered to be an inexpensive and effective tool for delivery of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. We used a linear PEI conjugated with the nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide of Simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen (PEI-NLS) for transfection of plasmid DNA into adipose-derived cells. We also tested if transfection of cells in suspension might improve the degree and duration of exogenous gene expression. Transfection of cells in suspension with the use of a PEI conjugated with an NLS peptide resulted in high levels of reporter gene expression for an extended period of time in clonal 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and native human adipose-derived stem cells. The reporter gene expression increased for 3 days after the addition of the PEI-NLS peptide-DNA mixture in cell suspension and remained significant for at least 7 days. Cell density did not influence the level of reporter gene expression. Thus, the suspension method with the use of an NLS peptide-conjugated PEI leads to a robust and sustained expression of exogenous genes in adipose-derived cells. The devised transfection method may be useful for reprogramming of adipose-derived stem cells and cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human adipose stem cell and ASC-derived cardiac progenitor cellular therapy improves outcomes in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Philip MC; Lye, Kevin D; Mathews, Juanita; Owens, Jesse B; Chow, Alice Y; Wong, Livingston; Moisyadi, Stefan; Allsopp, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well as induced cardiac-like progenitors (iCPs) derived from ASCs for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Methods and results Human bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, ASCs, and iCPs generated from ASCs using three defined cardiac lineage transcription factors were assessed in an immune-compromised mouse myocardial infarction model. Analysis of iCP prior to transplant confirmed changes in gene and protein expression consistent with a cardiac phenotype. Endpoint analysis was performed 1 month posttransplant. Significantly increased endpoint fractional shortening, as well as reduction in the infarct area at risk, was observed in recipients of iCPs as compared to the other recipient cohorts. Both recipients of iCPs and ASCs presented higher myocardial capillary densities than either recipients of BM-derived stem cells or the control cohort. Furthermore, mice receiving iCPs had a significantly higher cardiac retention of transplanted cells than all other groups. Conclusion Overall, iCPs generated from ASCs outperform BM-derived stem cells and ASCs in facilitating recovery from induced myocardial infarction in mice. PMID:26604802

  7. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medialization thyroplasty or injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis cannot restore mobility of the vocal fold. Recent studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is effective in the repair of nerve injuries. This study investigated whether adipose-derived stem cell transplantation could repair recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Rat models of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were established by crushing with micro forceps. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs; 8 × 105 or differentiated Schwann-like adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dADSCs; 8 × 105 or extracellular matrix were injected at the site of injury. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-surgery, a higher density of myelinated nerve fiber, thicker myelin sheath, improved vocal fold movement, better recovery of nerve conduction capacity and reduced thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy were found in ADSCs and dADSCs groups compared with the extracellular matrix group. The effects were more pronounced in the ADSCs group than in the dADSCs group. These experimental results indicated that ADSCs transplantation could be an early interventional strategy to promote regeneration after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

  8. Heparin-hyaluronic acid hydrogel in support of cellular activities of 3D encapsulated adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Kihak; Kim, Eunsol; Tae, Giyoong

    2017-02-01

    We have developed stem cell-responsive, heparin-hyaluronic acid (Hep-HA) hydrogel, crosslinked by thiolated heparin (Hep-SH) and methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA-MA) via visible light mediated, thiol-ene reaction. Physical properties of the hydrogel (gelation time, storage modulus, and swelling ratio) were tunable by adjusting light intensity, initiator/polymer concentration, and precursor pH. Culture of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) using this hydrogel was characterized and compared with the control hydrogels including Hep-PEG hydrogel, PEG-HA hydrogel. Sufficient initial adhesion and continuous proliferation of ADSCs in 2D were observed on both heparin-containing hydrogels (Hep-HA and Hep-PEG hydrogel) in contrast to no adhesion of ADSCs on PEG-HA hydrogel. On the other hand, in the case of 3D culture of encapsulated ADSCs, efficient cellular activities such as spreading, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of ADSCs were only observed in soft Hep-HA hydrogel compared to Hep-PEG or PEG-HA hydrogel with the similar modulus. The upregulated expressions of hyaluronidases in ADSCs encapsulated in Hep-HA hydrogel compared to the control hydrogels and effective degradation of the hydrogel by hyaluronidase imply that the degradation of hydrogel was necessary for 3D cellular activities. Thus, Hep-HA hydrogel, where heparin acts as a binding domain for ADSCs and HA acts as a degradation site by cell secreted enzymes, was efficient for 3D culture of human ADSCs without any additional modification using biological/chemical molecules. Stem cell-responsive hydrogel composed of heparin and hyaluronic acid was prepared by visible light-mediated thiol-ene reaction. Without additional modification using functional peptides for cell adhesion and matrix degradation, ADSCs encapsulated in this hydrogel showed efficient cellular activities such as spreading, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of ADSCs whereas control hydrogels missing

  9. SDF-1 improves wound healing ability of glucocorticoid-treated adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toshiki; Khanh, Vuong Cat; Sato, Kazutoshi; Takeuchi, Kosuke; Carolina, Erica; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Sugaya, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Mishima, Hajime; Ohneda, Osamu

    2017-11-18

    Glucocorticoids cause the delayed wound healing by suppressing inflammation that is required for wound healing process. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) play an important role for wound healing by their cytokine productions including stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1). However, it has not been clear how glucocorticoids affect the wound healing ability of AT-MSCs. In this study, we found that glucocorticoid downregulated SDF-1 expression in AT-MSCs. In addition, glucocorticoid-treated AT-MSCs induced less migration of inflammatory cells and impaired wound healing capacity compared with glucocorticoid-untreated AT-MSCs. Of note, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis-related gene expression was downregulated by glucocorticoid and PGE2 treatment rescued not only SDF-1 expression in the presence of glucocorticoid but also their wound healing capacity in vivo. Furthermore, we found SDF-1-overexpressed AT-MSCs restored wound healing capacity even after treatment of glucocorticoid. Consistent with the results obtained from glucocorticoid-treated AT-MSCs, we found that AT-MSCs isolated from steroidal osteonecrosis donors (sAT-MSCs) who received chronic glucocorticoid therapy showed less SDF-1 expression and impaired wound healing capacity compared with traumatic osteonecrosis donor-derived AT-MSCs (nAT-MSCs). Moreover, the SDF-1 level was also reduced in plasma derived from steroidal osteonecrosis donors compared with traumatic osteonecrosis donors. These results provide the evidence that concomitant application of AT-MSCs with glucocorticoid shows impaired biological modulatory effects that induce impaired wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoxia precondition promotes adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells based repair of diabetic erectile dysfunction via augmenting angiogenesis and neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiYou Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine whether hypoxia preconditioning could improve therapeutic effects of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs for diabetes induced erectile dysfunction (DED. AMSCs were pretreated with normoxia (20% O2, N-AMSCs or sub-lethal hypoxia (1% O2, H-AMSCs. The hypoxia exposure up-regulated the expression of several angiogenesis and neuroprotection related cytokines in AMSCs, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptor FIK-1, angiotensin (Ang-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4. DED rats were induced via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and were randomly divided into three groups-Saline group: intracavernous injection with phosphate buffer saline; N-AMSCs group: N-AMSCs injection; H-AMSCs group: H-AMSCs injection. Ten rats without any treatment were used as normal control. Four weeks after injection, the mean arterial pressure (MAP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP were measured. The contents of endothelial, smooth muscle, dorsal nerve in cavernoursal tissue were assessed. Compared with N-AMSCs and saline, intracavernosum injection of H-AMSCs significantly raised ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0.05. Immunofluorescent staining analysis demonstrated that improved erectile function by MSCs was significantly associated with increased expression of endothelial markers (CD31 and vWF (p<0.01 and smooth muscle markers (α-SMA (p<0.01. Meanwhile, the expression of nNOS was also significantly higher in rats receiving H-AMSCs injection than those receiving N-AMSCs or saline injection. The results suggested that hypoxic preconditioning of MSCs was an effective approach to enhance their therapeutic effect for DED, which may be due to their augmented angiogenesis and neuroprotection.

  11. Human adipose stem cell and ASC-derived cardiac progenitor cellular therapy improves outcomes in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy PMC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Philip MC Davy,1 Kevin D Lye,2,3 Juanita Mathews,1 Jesse B Owens,1 Alice Y Chow,1 Livingston Wong,2 Stefan Moisyadi,1 Richard C Allsopp1 1Institute for Biogenesis Research, 2John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 3Tissue Genesis, Inc., Honolulu, HI, USA Background: Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs as well as induced cardiac-like progenitors (iCPs derived from ASCs for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Methods and results: Human bone marrow (BM-derived stem cells, ASCs, and iCPs generated from ASCs using three defined cardiac lineage transcription factors were assessed in an immune-compromised mouse myocardial infarction model. Analysis of iCP prior to transplant confirmed changes in gene and protein expression consistent with a cardiac phenotype. Endpoint analysis was performed 1 month posttransplant. Significantly increased endpoint fractional shortening, as well as reduction in the infarct area at risk, was observed in recipients of iCPs as compared to the other recipient cohorts. Both recipients of iCPs and ASCs presented higher myocardial capillary densities than either recipients of BM-derived stem cells or the control cohort. Furthermore, mice receiving iCPs had a significantly higher cardiac retention of transplanted cells than all other groups. Conclusion: Overall, iCPs generated from ASCs outperform BM-derived stem cells and ASCs in facilitating recovery from induced myocardial infarction in mice. Keywords: adipose stem cells, myocardial infarction, cellular reprogramming, cellular therapy, piggyBac, induced cardiac-like progenitors

  12. Adipose-derived stem cells inhibit the contractile myofibroblast in Dupuytren's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoekx, J.S.; Mudera, V.; Walbeehm, E.T.; Hovius, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an attempt to provide minimally invasive treatment for Dupuytren's disease, percutaneous disruption of the affected tissue followed by lipografting is being tested. Contractile myofibroblasts drive this fibroproliferative disorder, whereas stem cells have recently been implicated in

  13. Proliferation of Keratinocytes Induced by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on a Chitosan Scaffold and Its Role in Wound Healing, a Review

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    Sankaralakshmi Gomathysankar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.

  14. Promotion Effects of miR-375 on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Si Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA plays an important role in bone tissue engineering; however, its role and function in osteogenic differentiation warrant further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-375 was upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs. Overexpression of miR-375 significantly enhanced hASCs osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown of miR-375 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed DEPTOR as a target of miR-375 in hASCs. Knockdown of DEPTOR accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by inhibiting AKT signaling, which mimics miR-375 overexpression. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-375 regulated osteogenesis by targeting YAP1, and that YAP1 reversely bound to miR-375 promoter to inhibit miR-375 expression. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-375 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the YAP1/DEPTOR/AKT regulatory network, indicating that miR-375-targeted therapy might be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration.

  15. Caffeine regulates osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary adipose-derived stem cells and a bone marrow stromal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Jem; Chang, Kee-Lung; Su, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine consumption reportedly influences bone mineral density and body weight. However, the effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial, and whether the dosage of caffeine influences osteogenic differentiation is yet to be clarified. In the present study, we cultured primary adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in osteogenic differentiation media containing varying concentrations of caffeine. Caffeine had biphasic effects: 0.1 mM caffeine significantly enhanced mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Consistent with these observations, a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mM upregulated the osteogenic differentiation marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), and elevated osteoprotegerin (OPG), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) levels. However, a concentration of caffeine greater than 0.3 mM suppressed the differentiation of both the cell types. These findings indicate that caffeine has a beneficial effect on ADSCs and bone marrow stromal cells, enhancing differentiation to osteoblasts; this effect, which is mediated via RUNX2 activation at low doses is significantly suppressed at high doses.

  16. Efficient transduction of equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gayle F; Hilbert, Bryan; Trope, Gareth; Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2014-12-01

    Equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EADMSC) provide a unique cell-based approach for treatment of a variety of equine musculoskeletal injuries, via regeneration of diseased or damaged tissue, or the secretion of immunomodulatory molecules. These capabilities can be further enhanced by genetic modification using lentiviral vectors, which provide a safe and efficient method of gene delivery. We investigated the suitability of lentiviral vector technology for gene delivery into EADMSC, using GFP expressing lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the G glycoprotein from the vesicular stomatitis virus (V-GFP) or, for the first time, the baculovirus gp64 envelope protein (G-GFP). In this study, we produced similarly high titre V-GFP and G-GFP lentiviral vectors. Flow cytometric analysis showed efficient transduction using V-GFP; however G-GFP exhibited a poor ability to transduce EADMSC. Transduction resulted in sustained GFP expression over four passages, with minimal effects on cell viability and doubling time, and an unaltered chondrogenic differentiation potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo construction of tissue-engineered cartilage using adipose-derived stem cells and bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongjun; Lu, Shibi; Peng, Jiang; Yang, Qiang; Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Li; Huang, Jingxiang; Sui, Xiang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Aiyuan; Xu, Wenjing; Guo, Quanyi; Song, Qing

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in vivo and in vitro by dynamically culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with an articular cartilage acellular matrix in a bioreactor and subsequently implanting the cartilage in nude mice. ADSCs were proliferated, combined with three dimensional scaffolds (cell density: 5 × 10(7)/mL) and subsequently placed in a bioreactor and culture plate for 3 weeks. In the in vivo study, complexes cultured for 1 week under dynamic or static states were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice and collected after 3 weeks. Indicators such as gross morphology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were examined. In the in vitro study, histological observation showed that most scaffolds in the dynamic group were absorbed, and cell proliferation and matrix secretion were significant. Positive staining of safranin-O and alcian blue II collagen stain in the dynamic group was significantly stronger than that in the static culture group. In the in vivo study, cartilage-like tissues formed in the specimens of the two groups. Histological examination showed that cell distribution in the dynamic group was relatively more uniform than in the static group, and matrix secretion was relatively stronger. Bioreactor culturing can promote ADSC proliferation and cartilage differentiation and is thus a suitable method for constructing tissue-engineered cartilage in vivo.

  18. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells by microstructured nitinol actuator-mediated mechanical stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Strauß

    Full Text Available The development of large tissue engineered bone remains a challenge in vitro, therefore the use of hybrid-implants might offer a bridge between tissue engineering and dense metal or ceramic implants. Especially the combination of the pseudoelastic implant material Nitinol (NiTi with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs opens new opportunities, as ASCs are able to differentiate osteogenically and therefore enhance osseointegration of implants. Due to limited knowledge about the effects of NiTi-structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM on ASCs the study started with an evaluation of cytocompatibility followed by the investigation of the use of SLM-generated 3-dimensional NiTi-structures preseeded with ASCs as osteoimplant model. In this study we could demonstrate for the first time that osteogenic differentiation of ASCs can be induced by implant-mediated mechanical stimulation without support of osteogenic cell culture media. By use of an innovative implant design and synthesis via SLM-technique we achieved high rates of vital cells, proper osteogenic differentiation and mechanically loadable NiTi-scaffolds could be achieved.

  19. In vitro endothelialization of cobalt chromium alloys with micro/nanostructures using adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhilong; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2013-04-01

    In this study, integrin expression, proliferation, and endothelial differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on pristine cobalt chrome (CoCr) surface, microstructured and nanostructured CoCr surfaces (obtained after treatment with piranha solution) were investigated. The results showed that proliferation of ADSCs on the substrates treated with piranha solution is not significantly different from that on the pristine substrates. However, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed significantly enhanced up-regulation of CD31, vWF and eNOS from gene level by ADSCs on the nanostructured substrates but not on the microstructured substrates. The adsorption of vitronectin from the culture medium on the nanostructured substrates was higher than on the pristine and microstructured substrates. We speculate that this results in increased integrin αvβ3 expression in the ADSCs, which may contribute partially to the enhanced endothelial differentiation of ADSCs on the nanostructured substrates. This study shows that ADSCs can be used to endothelialize stents in vitro and the endothelial differentiation of ADSC is enhanced on the nanostructured surfaces.

  20. Transplantation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Rescues Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L; Kong, X; Liu, G; Li, C; Chen, H; Hong, Z; Liu, J; Xia, J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation in acute liver failure caused by thioacetamide in mice as well as its underlying mechanism by comparing transplantation routes. ADMSCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice and analyzed regarding their surface markers and differentiation potential. Acute liver failure models were established by infusion of thioacetamide, and then we injected EGFP-ADMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline solution by intrasplenic or intravenous route. The restoration of biologic functions of the livers receiving transplantation was assessed by means of a variety of approaches, such as survival rates, live function parameters, histology, localization of EGFP-ADMSCs, and immunofluorescence analysis. ADMSCs were positive for CD90 and CD44 and negative for CD34 and had adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. And they prevented the release of liver injury biomarkers. Transplantation via tail vein provided a significant survival benefit, but no significant differences were observed in the intrasplenic pathway and between the 2 pathways in our animal experiments. Furthermore, the transplanted cells were well integrated into injured livers and produced albumin and cytokeratin-8. Direct transplantation of ADMSCs is an effective treatment for acute liver failure rather than intrasplenic transplantation. The transplanted ADMSCs exhibit the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in the injured livers. Thus, ADCMSCs would be a potential option for treatment of acute liver failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alleviate Radiation-Induced Muscular Fibrosis by Suppressing the Expression of TGF-β1

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    Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplantation on irradiation-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis. Sixty-four rabbits were randomly divided into ASCs group and PBS group followed by irradiation at unilateral hip with a single dose of 80 Gy. Nonirradiated side with normal skeletal muscle served as normal control. Skeletal muscle tissues were collected from eight rabbits in each group at 1 w, 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Migration of ASCs was observed in the peripheral tissues along the needle passage in the injured muscle. The proportion of the area of collagen fibers to the total area in sections of ASCs group was lower than those of PBS groups at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Significant decrease was noted in the integrated optimal density of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the ASCs group compared with those of PBS group at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Moreover, the expression of TGF-β1 was lower in the ASCs group compared to those of the PBS group at each time point determined by Western blot analysis. ASCs transplantation could alleviate irradiation fibrosis by suppressing the level of TGF-β1 in the irradiated skeletal muscle.

  2. Direct Conversion of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Induced Neuronal Cells Is Enhanced in Three-Dimensional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gayle F; Hilbert, Bryan J; Trope, Gareth D; Kalle, Wouter H J; Strappe, Padraig M

    2015-12-01

    The ability to culture neurons from horses may allow further investigation into equine neurological disorders. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of induced neuronal cells from equine adipose-derived stem cells (EADSCs) using a combination of lentiviral vector expression of the neuronal transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, Myt1l (BAM) and NeuroD1 and a defined chemical induction medium, with βIII-tubulin-positive induced neuronal cells displaying a distinct neuronal morphology of rounded and compact cell bodies, extensive neurite outgrowth, and branching of processes. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of dimensionality on neuronal transdifferentiation, comparing conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture against three-dimensional (3D) culture on a porous polystyrene scaffold. Neuronal transdifferentiation was enhanced in 3D culture, with evenly distributed cells located on the surface and throughout the scaffold. Transdifferentiation efficiency was increased in 3D culture, with an increase in mean percent conversion of more than 100% compared to 2D culture. Additionally, induced neuronal cells were shown to transit through a Nestin-positive precursor state, with MAP2 and Synapsin 2 expression significantly increased in 3D culture. These findings will help to increase our understanding of equine neuropathogenesis, with prospective roles in disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular replacement for treatment of equine neurological disorders.

  3. Runx2-Modified Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promote Tendon Graft Integration in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Fu, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Shao, Zhenxing; Dai, Linghui; Pi, Yanbin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiying; Duan, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-08

    Runx2 is a powerful osteo-inductive factor and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent. However, it is unknown whether Runx2-overexpressing ADSCs (Runx2-ADSCs) could promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We evaluated the effect of Runx2-ADSCs on ACL reconstruction in vitro and in vivo. mRNA expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen I (COLI) increased over time in Runx2-ADSCs. Runx2 overexpression inhibited LPL and PPARγ mRNA expressions. Runx2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity markedly. In nude mice injected with Runx2-ADSCs, promoted bone formation was detected by X-rays 8 weeks after injection. The healing of tendon-to-bone in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction treated with Runx2-ADSCs, fibrin glue only and an RNAi targeting Runx2, was evaluated with CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis and biomechanical methods. CT showed a greater degree of new bone formation around the bone tunnel in the group treated with Runx2-ADSCs compared with the fibrin glue group and RNAi Runx2 group. Histology showed that treatment with Runx2-ADSCs led to a rapid and significant increase at the tendon-to-bone compared with the control groups. Biomechanical tests demonstrated higher tendon pullout strength in the Runx2-ADSCs group at early time points. The healing of the attachment in ACL reconstruction was enhanced by Runx2-ADSCs.

  4. MiR-194 regulates chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by targeting Sox5.

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    Jun Xu

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, causes pain and disability worldwide. Cartilage regeneration is key to finding a cure for this disease. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are capable of differentiating into cartilage lineages in vitro and they have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-194 levels gradually decreased during the chondrogenic differentiation of human ASCs (hASCs. After predicting the target of miR-194 using Pictar and Targetscan, we hypothesized that Sox5 is potentially the key link between miR-194 and the chondrogenesis of ASCs. Initially, we demonstrated that Sox5 is a target of miR194 according to luciferase assay analysis. We further demonstrated that the differentiation of ASCs can be controlled by miR-194 through gain or loss of function experiments, and we observed that the down-regulation of miR-194 increases its direct target gene, Sox5, and results in enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs, whereas up-regulation decreases Sox5 and inhibits chondrogenesis. We also found that miR-194 correlates with Sox5 in osteoarthritis. These findings, taken together, are the first to illustrate the critical role of miR-194 in hASC chondrogenesis, and may provide novel insight beneficial to cell manipulation methods during cartilage regeneration.

  5. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

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    Peter Succar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL. At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA.

  6. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas; Tahermanesh, Kobra; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Abed, Seyedeh Mehr; Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x=1, 2 and 3wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24h. After 72h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells by microstructured nitinol actuator-mediated mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Sarah; Dudziak, Sonja; Hagemann, Ronny; Barcikowski, Stephan; Fliess, Malte; Israelowitz, Meir; Kracht, Dietmar; Kuhbier, Jörn W; Radtke, Christine; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    The development of large tissue engineered bone remains a challenge in vitro, therefore the use of hybrid-implants might offer a bridge between tissue engineering and dense metal or ceramic implants. Especially the combination of the pseudoelastic implant material Nitinol (NiTi) with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) opens new opportunities, as ASCs are able to differentiate osteogenically and therefore enhance osseointegration of implants. Due to limited knowledge about the effects of NiTi-structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) on ASCs the study started with an evaluation of cytocompatibility followed by the investigation of the use of SLM-generated 3-dimensional NiTi-structures preseeded with ASCs as osteoimplant model. In this study we could demonstrate for the first time that osteogenic differentiation of ASCs can be induced by implant-mediated mechanical stimulation without support of osteogenic cell culture media. By use of an innovative implant design and synthesis via SLM-technique we achieved high rates of vital cells, proper osteogenic differentiation and mechanically loadable NiTi-scaffolds could be achieved.

  8. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Tool for Dental Implant Osseointegration: an Experimental Study in the Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eriberto; Botticelli, Daniele; Sivolella, Stefano; Bengazi, Franco; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; Ricci, Sara; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The biological interaction between the jaw bones and dental implant is fundamental for the long-term success of dental implant placement. Nevertheless, the insufficient bone volume remains a major clinical problem, especially in case of immediate dental implant. Using a canine model, the present study proves the regenerative potential of adipose- derived stem cells (ADSCs) to repair peri-implant bone defects occurring in immediate dental implant placement. In six labradors, all mandibular premolars and the first molars were extracted bilaterally and three months later dental implants were installed with a marginal gap. The marginal defects were filled with hydroxyapatite (HA)-based scaffolds previously seeded with ADSCs. After one month of healing, specimens were prepared for histological and histomorphometric evaluations. Histological analyses of ground sections show that ADSCs significantly increase bone regeneration. Several new vessels, osteoblasts and new bone matrix were detected. By contrast, no inflammatory cells have been revealed. ADSCs could be used to accelerate bone healing in peri- implant defects in case of immediate dental implant placement.

  9. Effect of Cell Seeding Density and Inflammatory Cytokines on Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: an in Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukho, Panithi; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Hesselink, Jan Willem; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Verseijden, Femke; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M

    2017-04-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are known to be able to promote repair of injured tissue via paracrine factors. However, the effect of cell density and inflammatory cytokines on the paracrine ability of ASCs remains largely unknown. To investigate these effects, ASCs were cultured in 8000 cells/cm2, 20,000 cells/cm2, 50,000 cells/cm2, and 400,000 cells/cm2 with and without 10 or 20 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and 25 or 50 ng/ml interferon gamma (IFNγ). ASC-sheets formed at 400,000 cells/cm2 after 48 h of culture. With increasing concentrations of TNFα and IFNγ, ASC-sheets with 400,000 cells/cm2 had increased production of angiogenic factors Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Fibroblast Growth Factor and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes TNFA and Prostaglandin Synthase 2 (PTGS2) compared to lower density ASCs. Moreover, the conditioned medium of ASC-sheets with 400,000 cells/cm2 stimulated with the low concentration of TNFα and IFNγ enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and fibroblast migration. These results suggest that a high cell density enhances ASC paracrine function might beneficial for wound repair, especially in pro-inflammatory conditions.

  10. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of adipose-derived stem cells plus insulin on erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Hui, Yu; Xu, Yongde; Lei, Hongen; Yang, Bicheng; Guan, Ruili; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a distressing complication in men with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) plus insulin on ED in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Forty-five eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Eight weeks after the induction, the determined diabetic rats were randomly distributed into four groups: rats in DM + PBS group received a one-time intracavernous (IC) injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, DM + ADSCs group received IC injection of ADSCs, DM + Insulin group received subcutaneous injection of neutral protamine Hagedorn twice a day, and DM + ADSCs + Insulin group received both ADSCs and neutral protamine Hagedorn treatments. Another 10 normal rats were served as control group and received IC injection of PBS. Four weeks after the treatments, intracavernous pressure, histopathological changes in penis, functional proteins of ADSCs, and penis were measured. We found that ADSCs expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1), and lipopolysaccharide-inducible CXC chemokine (LIX). ADSC injection partially restored cavernous endothelium and smooth muscle contents and nNOS-positive nerves, and reduced apoptosis in penis compared with PBS-treated diabetic rats. Insulin treatment could further modulate inflammatory response and reduce advanced glycation end-product accumulation in penis. Better than single therapy, ADSCs combined with insulin ameliorate ED and pathological changes in diabetic rats to near-normal levels.

  12. Effect of human adipose derived stem cells on scar formation and remodeling in a pig model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Jeon, Yeo Reum; Lee, Won Jai; Lee, Jae Wook; Rah, Dong Kyun; Tark, Kwan Chul; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have positive effects in the wound healing process. To clarify whether ASCs positively mitigate scar formation in the wound remodeling process. Full-thickness skin defects were created on the dorsal skin of Yorkshire pigs. After the defects were transformed into early scars, ASCs were injected, and the same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was injected in the control group. Clinical and histologic examinations were performed. In the experimental group, the areas of scars were smaller than those of control groups. The color of scars was more similar to that of the surrounding normal tissue, and scar pliability was better. The number of mast cells decreased, and more-mature collagen arrangement was noted. In the early period of scar remodeling, the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)3 and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) was greater in the experimental group than in control group. In the late period, the level of alpha smooth muscle actin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were dramatically less, although the level of MMP1 was lower in the experimental group than in control group. Local injection of ASCs decreases scar size and provides better color quality and scar pliability. It decreases the activity of mast cells and inhibits the action of TGF-β against fibroblasts and positively stimulates scar remodeling through greater expression of MMP molecules. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: Laitw@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Dose-dependent Effect of Boric Acid on Myogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (hADSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apdik, Hüseyin; Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aydın, Safa; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-06-01

    Boron, a vital micronutrient for plant metabolism, is not fully elucidated for embryonic and adult body development, and tissue regeneration. Although optimized amount of boron supplement has been shown to be essential for normal gestational development in zebrafish and frog and beneficial for bone regeneration in higher animals, effects of boron on myogenesis and myo-regeneration remains to be solved. In the current study, we investigated dose-dependent activity of boric acid on myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) using immunocytochemical, gene, and protein expression analysis. The results revealed that while low- (81.9 μM) and high-dose (819.6 μM) boron treatment increased myogenic gene expression levels such as myosin heavy chain (MYH), MyoD, myogenin, and desmin at day 4 of differentiation, high-dose treatment decreased myogenic-related gene and protein levels at day 21 of differentiation, confirmed by immunocytochemical analysis. The findings of the study present not only an understanding of boron's effect on myogenic differentiation but also an opportunity for the development of scaffolds to be used in skeletal tissue engineering and supplements for embryonic muscle growth. However, fine dose tuning and treatment period arranging are highly warranted as boron treatment over required concentrations and time might result in detrimental outcomes to myogenesis and myo-regeneration.

  15. c-Kit-Positive Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote the Growth and Angiogenesis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs improve the regenerative ability and retention of fat grafts for breast reconstruction in cancer patients following mastectomy. However, ASCs have also been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. For the safety of ASC application, we aimed to identify specific markers for the subpopulation of ASCs that enhance the growth of breast cancer. Methods. ASCs and bone marrow-derived vascular endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs were isolated from Balb/c mice. c-Kit-positive (c-Kit+ or c-Kit-negative (c-Kit- ASCs were cocultured with 4T1 breast cancer cells. Orthotropic murine models of 4T1, EPCs + 4T1, and c-Kit+/-ASCs + 4T1/EPCs were established in Balb/c mice. Results. In coculture, c-Kit+ ASCs enhanced the viability and proliferation of 4T1 cells and stimulated c-Kit expression and interleukin-3 (IL-3 release. In mouse models, c-Kit+ASCs + 4T1/EPCs coinjection increased the tumor volume and vessel formation. Moreover, IL-3, stromal cell-derived factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A in the c-Kit+ASCs + 4T1/EPCs coinjection group were higher than those in the 4T1, EPCs + 4T1, and c-Kit-ASCs + 4T1/EPCs groups. Conclusions. c-Kit+ ASCs may promote breast cancer growth and angiogenesis by a synergistic effect of c-Kit and IL-3. Our findings suggest that c-Kit+ subpopulations of ASCs should be eliminated in fat grafts for breast reconstruction of cancer patients following mastectomy.

  16. miR-21 modulates tumor outgrowth induced by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Keun Koo; Lee, Ae Lim; Kim, Jee Young [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Engineering, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Medical Science Education Center, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Young [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Engineering, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Chan [Department of Plastic Surgery, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Sup, E-mail: jsjung@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Engineering, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Medical Science Education Center, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-21 modulates hADSC-induced increase of tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The action is mostly mediated by the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of miR-21 enhances the blood flow recovery in hindlimb ischemia. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical situations, due principally to their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs remains limited, unless the favorable effects of MSCs on tumor growth in vivo, and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs, can be more thoroughly understood. In this study, we determined whether microRNAs can modulate MSC-induced tumor outgrowth in BALB/c nude mice. Overexpression of miR-21 in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) inhibited hADSC-induced tumor growth, and inhibition of miR-21 increased it. Downregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2), but not of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, in hADSCs showed effects similar to those of miR-21 overexpression. Downregulation of TGFBR2 and overexpression of miR21 decreased tumor vascularity. Inhibition of miR-21 and the addition of TGF-{beta} increased the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in hADSCs. Transplantation of miR-21 inhibitor-transfected hADSCs increased blood flow recovery in a hind limb ischemia model of nude mice, compared with transplantation of control oligo-transfected cells. These findings indicate that MSCs might favor tumor growth in vivo. Thus, it is necessary to study the long-term safety of this technique before MSCs can be used as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  17. De novo lipogenesis and desaturation of fatty acids during adipogenesis in bovine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yongli; Zhang, Lichun; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Xueling; Yu, Haiquan

    2018-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are useful cell model to study adipogenesis and energy metabolism. However, the biological characteristics of bovine ADSCs (bADSCs) remain unclear. This study aimed to isolate and identify bADSCs and further investigate fatty acid (FA)-related gene expression and composition of FAs during adipogenesis. The growth curve showed the bADSCs of P5 cells had rapid proliferation superior to P10-P50. The colony formation assay showed colony number of P5 cells was higher than that of P50 cells (51.67 ± 3.06 vs 35.67 ± 6.43, P lipogenesis and lipolysis were assessed by real-time PCR and the FA composition was detected by GC-MS. Expression of lipogenesis-related genes showed coordinated regulation as peaking on day 7 and declining until induction ended, including PPARγ, SREBP1, ACC1, FAS, ELOVL6, SCD1, and FABP4. FA deposition-related genes (DGAT1 and ACAT1) increased until day 14. Lipolysis genes (CPT-1A, VLCAD, and ACO) showed a variant expression pattern. The profile of FAs showed that proportion of the FAs (C4-C15, ≥ C22) increased, but proportion of long-chain fatty acids (C16-C20) reduced after induction. And saturated FAs (SFA) decreased while monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) increased during adipogenesis. These data suggest that bADSCs possess the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and have active de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and desaturation of FAs during adipogenesis.

  18. Intra-articular injection of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Duško; Spasovski, Vesna; Baščarević, Zoran; Stojiljković, Maja; Vreća, Miša; Anđelković, Marina; Pavlović, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease and is considered to be the fourth leading cause of disability and the second cause of inability to work in men. Recently, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) came into focus for regenerative medicine as a promising tool for the treatment of OA. The administration of stem cells into impaired joints results in pain relief and improves quality of life, accompanied by restoration of hyaline articular cartilage. In the present study, nine patients (including two patients with bilateral symptoms) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (International Knee Documentation grade B in 5 and grade D in six knees) were treated using a single injection of AD-MSCs at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 × 10 7 cells and were followed up for 18 months. During follow-up, all the cases were evaluated clinically by Knee Society score (KSS), Hospital for Special Surgery knee score (HSS-KS), Tegner-Lysholm (T-L) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, as well as by plain radiography and by magnetic resonance imaging visualization with 2D Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score assessment. Significant improvement of all four clinical scores was observed within the first 6 months (KSS for 41.4 points, HSS-KS for 33.9 points, T-L score for 44.8 points, VAS of pain from 54.5 to 9.3) and improvement persisted throughout the rest of the follow-up. MOCART score showed significant cartilage restoration (from 43 ± 7.2 to 63 ± 17.1), whereas radiography showed neither improvement, nor further joint degeneration. The results obtained in the present study provide good basis for prospective randomized controlled clinical trials with respect to the use of AD-MSCs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fascia tissue engineering with human adipose-derived stem cells in a murine model: Implications for pelvic floor reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man-Jung; Wen, Mei-Chin; Huang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Gin-Den; Chou, Min-Min; Yang, Vivian Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Mesh-augmented vaginal surgery for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) does not meet patients' needs. This study aims to test the hypothesis that fascia tissue engineering using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be a potential therapeutic strategy for reconstructing the pelvic floor. Human ADSCs were isolated, differentiated, and characterized in vitro. Both ADSCs and fibroblastic-differentiated ADSCs were used to fabricate tissue-engineered fascia equivalents, which were then transplanted under the back skin of experimental nude mice. ADSCs prepared in our laboratory were characterized as a group of mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro fibroblastic differentiation of ADSCs showed significantly increased gene expression of cellular collagen type I and elastin (p fascia equivalents could be traced up to 12 weeks after transplantation in the subsequent animal study. Furthermore, the histological outcomes differed with a thin (111.0 ± 19.8 μm) lamellar connective tissue or a thick (414.3 ± 114.9 μm) adhesive fibrous tissue formation between the transplantation of ADSCs and fibroblastic-differentiated ADSCs, respectively. Nonetheless, the implantation of a scaffold without cell seeding (the control group) resulted in a thin (102.0 ± 17.1 μm) fibrotic band and tissue contracture. Our results suggest the ADSC-seeded implant is better than the implant alone in enhancing tissue regeneration after transplantation. ADSCs with or without fibroblastic differentiation might have a potential but different role in fascia tissue engineering to repair POP in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells partially rescue mitomycin C treated ARPE19 cells from death in co-culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar K; Srivastava, Girish K; García-Gutiérrez, María T; Pastor, J Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a retinal disease with important damage at the RPE layer. This layer is considered a target for therapeutical approaches. Stem cell transplantation is a promising option for retinal diseases. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells secret growth factors which might play a significant role in RPE maintenance. This study aimed to evaluate human AD-MSCs ability to rescue mitomycin C treated dying ARPE19 cells in co-culture condition. ARPE19 cells were treated with MMC (50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml) for 2 hours to induce cell death. These treated cells were co-cultured with hAD-MSCs in indirect co-culture system for 3 days and 3 weeks. Then the viability, growth and proliferation of these ARPE19 cells were evaluated by a cell viability/cytotoxicity assay kit and Alamar Blue (AB) assay. Untreated ARPE19 cells and human skin fibroblasts (HSF) were used as controls. MMC blocked ARPE19 cell proliferation significantly in 3 days and cells were almost completely dead after 3 weeks. Cell toxicity of MMC increased significantly with concentration. When these cells were co-cultured with hAD-MSCs, a significant growth difference was observed in treated cells compared to untreated cells. hAD-MSCs rescue capacity was also significantly higher than HSF for treated ARPE19 cells. This study showed that hAD-MSCs rescued MMC treated ARPE19 cells from death. It probably occurred due to undefined growth factors secreted by hAD-MSCs in the medium, shared by treated ARPE19 cells in co-culture conditions. This study supports further evaluation of the effect of hAD-MSCs subretinal transplantation over the RPE degeneration process in AMD patients.

  1. Externally Applied Static Magnetic Field Enhances Cardiac Retention and Functional Benefit of Magnetically Iron-Labeled Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Infarcted Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Deng, Jixian; Lin, Hung-Yu; Zheng, Dayang; Freed, Darren H.; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2016-01-01

    Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) hold the promise of effective therapy for myocardial infarction (MI), low cardiac retention of implanted ASCs has hindered their therapeutic efficiency. We investigated whether an externally applied static magnetic field (SMF) enhanced cardiac localization of “magnetic” ASCs preloaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and further improved heart function recovery. In conclusion, the SMF increased the cardiac retention of implanted...

  2. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content

    OpenAIRE

    Gattu, Arijeet K.; Swenson, E. Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T.; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteobla...

  3. Effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem and regenerative cells on lameness in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints: a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Linda L; Gaynor, James; Gahring, Dean; Adams, Cheryl; Aron, Dennis; Harman, Susan; Gingerich, Daniel A; Harman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Autologous stem cell therapy in the field of regenerative veterinary medicine involves harvesting tissue, such as fat, from the patient, isolating the stem and regenerative cells, and administering the cells back to the patient. Autologous adipose-derived stem cell therapy has been commercially available since 2003, and the current study evaluated such therapy in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis of the hip. Dogs treated with adipose-derived stem cell therapy had significantly improved scores for lameness and the compiled scores for lameness, pain, and range of motion compared with control dogs. This is the first randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial reporting on the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in dogs.

  4. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Delivery into Collagen Gels Using Chitosan Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    used and method to deliver. Biomaterial scaffolds are designed depending on the implantation type and site, with their material properties varying in...and Galan, M.A. Im- mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes in biocompatible microcapsules to cell therapy. Biotechnol Prog 23, 940

  5. Comparison of the characteristics and multipotential and in vivo cartilage formation capabilities between porcine adipose-derived stem cells and porcine skin-derived stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sun; Bae, Hyo-Kyung; Cheong, Hee-Tae

    2015-09-01

    To compare the characteristics and multipotential and in vivo cartilage formation capabilities of porcine adipose-derived stem cells (pASCs) with those of porcine skin-derived stem cell-like cells (pSSCs). Three 6-month-old female pigs and four 6-week-old female athymic mice. Adipose and skin tissue specimens were obtained from each pig following slaughter and digested to obtain pASCs and pSSCs. For each cell type, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR assays were performed to characterize the expression of cell surface and mesenchymal stem cell markers, and in vitro cell cultures were performed to determine the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic capabilities. Each cell type was then implanted into athymic mice to determine the extent of in vivo cartilage formation after 6 weeks. The cell surface and mesenchymal stem cell marker expression patterns, multipotential capability, and extent of in vivo cartilage formation did not differ significantly between pASCs and pSSCs. Results suggested that pSSCs may be a viable alternative to pASCs as a source of progenitor cells for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine.

  6. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Enhance Cancer Stem Cell Property and Tumor Formation Capacity in Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells Through an Interleukin-6 Paracrine Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jui-Hua; Wei, Hong-Jian; Peng, Bou-Yue; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Wei-Hong; Liu, Hen-Yu; Deng, Win-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells that have attracted much recent attention and emerged as therapeutic approaches in several medical fields. Although current knowledge of the biological impacts of ADSCs in cancer research is greatly improved, the underlying effects of ADSCs in tumor development remain controversial and cause the safety concerns in clinical utilization. Hence, we isolated primary ADSCs from the abdominal fat of mice and conducted interaction of ADSCs with Lewis lung carcinoma cells in culture and in mice to investigate the impacts of ADSCs on tumor development. Cytokine array and neutralizing antibody were further utilized to identify the key regulator and downstream signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that ADSCs enhance the malignant characteristics of LLC1 cells, including cell growth ability and especially cancer stem cell property. ADSCs were then identified to promote tumor formation and growth in mice. We further determined that ADSC interaction with LLC1 cells stimulates increased secretion of interleukin-6 mainly from ADSCs, which then act in a paracrine manner on LLC1 cells to enhance their malignant characteristics. Interleukin-6 was also identified to regulate genes related to cell proliferation and cancer stem cell, as well as to activate JAK2/STAT3, a predominant interleukin-6-activated pathway, in LLC1 cells. Collectively, we demonstrated that ADSCs play a pro-malignant role in tumor development of Lewis lung carcinoma cells by particularly promoting cancer stem cell property through interleukin-6 paracrine circuit, which is important for safety considerations regarding the clinical application of ADSCs.

  7. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Expressing the Neurogenin-2 Promote Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Linjun; Lu, Xiaocheng; Zhu, Ronglan; Qian, Tengda; Tao, Yi; Li, Kai; Zheng, Jinyu; Zhao, Penglai; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xi; Li, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is a proneural gene that directs neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells during development. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) over-expressing the Ngn2 transgene (Ngn2-ADSCs) could display the characteristics of neurogenic cells and improve functional recovery in an experimental rat model of SCI. ADSCs from rats were cultured and purified in vitro, followed by genetically modified with the Ngn2 gene. Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control, ADSCs, and Ngn2-ADSCs groups. The hind-limb motor function of all rats was recorded using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for 8 weeks. Moreover, hematoxylineosin staining and immunohistochemistry were also performed. After neural induction, positive expression rate of NeuN in Ngn2-ADSCs group was upon 90 %. Following transplantation, a great number of ADSCs was found around the center of the injury spinal cord at 1 and 4 weeks, which improved retention of tissue at the lesion site. Ngn2-ADSCs differentiated into neurons, indicated by the expression of neuronal markers, NeuN and Tuj1. Additionally, transplantation of Ngn2-ADSCs upregulated the trophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor), and inhibited the glial scar formation, which was indicated by immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein. Finally, Ngn2-ADSCs-treated animals showed the highest functional recovery among the three groups. These findings suggest that transplantation of Ngn2-overexpressed ADSCs promote the functional recovery from SCI, and improve the local microenvironment of injured cord in a more efficient way than that with ADSCs alone.

  8. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Han Cheol; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBISPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model.

  9. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect’s mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU- labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure (ICP. The ADSCs steadily secreted detectable pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF in vitro. The expression of PEDF increased in the penis of the bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI group for 14 days and then gradually decreased. On day 28 after the intracavernous injection, the ADSCs group exhibited a significantly increased ICP compared with the phosphate buffered saline- (PBS- treated group. Moreover, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and S100 expression in penile dorsal nerves and the smooth muscle content to collagen ratio in penile tissues significantly increased. Furthermore, elevated PEDF, p-Akt, and p-eNOS were identified in the ADSCs group. This study demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSCs improved erectile function, repaired the nerve, and corrected penile fibrosis. One potential mechanism is the PEDF secretion of ADSCs and subsequent PI3K/Akt pathway activation.

  10. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Qiyun; Zheng, Tao; Bian, Jun; Sun, Xiangzhou; Shi, Yanan; Liang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Guoquan; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect's mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU-) labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure (ICP). The ADSCs steadily secreted detectable pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in vitro. The expression of PEDF increased in the penis of the bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) group for 14 days and then gradually decreased. On day 28 after the intracavernous injection, the ADSCs group exhibited a significantly increased ICP compared with the phosphate buffered saline- (PBS-) treated group. Moreover, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and S100 expression in penile dorsal nerves and the smooth muscle content to collagen ratio in penile tissues significantly increased. Furthermore, elevated PEDF, p-Akt, and p-eNOS were identified in the ADSCs group. This study demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSCs improved erectile function, repaired the nerve, and corrected penile fibrosis. One potential mechanism is the PEDF secretion of ADSCs and subsequent PI3K/Akt pathway activation.

  11. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Qiyun; Zheng, Tao; Bian, Jun; Sun, Xiangzhou; Shi, Yanan; Liang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Guoquan; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect's mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU-) labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure (ICP). The ADSCs steadily secreted detectable pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in vitro. The expression of PEDF increased in the penis of the bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) group for 14 days and then gradually decreased. On day 28 after the intracavernous injection, the ADSCs group exhibited a significantly increased ICP compared with the phosphate buffered saline- (PBS-) treated group. Moreover, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and S100 expression in penile dorsal nerves and the smooth muscle content to collagen ratio in penile tissues significantly increased. Furthermore, elevated PEDF, p-Akt, and p-eNOS were identified in the ADSCs group. This study demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSCs improved erectile function, repaired the nerve, and corrected penile fibrosis. One potential mechanism is the PEDF secretion of ADSCs and subsequent PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:26783403

  12. Comparison of Immunomodulation Properties of Porcine Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells Derived from the Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Dermal Skin Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-A Ock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs demonstrate immunomodulation capacity that has been implicated in the reduction of graft-versus-host disease. Accordingly, we herein investigated the capacity of MSCs derived from several tissue sources to modulate both proinflammatory (interferon [IFN] γ and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α and immunosuppressive cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF] β and interleukin [IL] 10 employing xenogeneic human MSC-mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR test. Bone marrow-derived MSCs showed higher self-renewal capacity with relatively slow proliferation rate in contrast to adipose-derived MSCs which displayed higher proliferation rate. Except for the lipoprotein gene, there were no marked changes in osteogenesis- and adipogenesis-related genes following in vitro differentiation; however, the histological marker analysis revealed that adipose MSCs could be differentiated into both adipose and bone tissue. TGFβ and IL10 were detected in adipose MSCs and bone marrow MSCs, respectively. However, skin-derived MSCs expressed both IFNγ and IL10, which may render them sensitive to immunomodulation. The xenogeneic human MLR test revealed that MSCs had a partial immunomodulation capacity, as proliferation of activated and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected, but this did not differ among MSC sources. MSCs were not tumorigenic when introduced into immunodeficient mice. We concluded that the characteristics of MSCs are tissue source-dependent and their in vivo application requires more in-depth investigation regarding their precise immunomodulation capacities.

  13. Age-Related Changes in the Regenerative Potential of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from the Prominent Fat Pads in Human Lower Eyelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhai Ye

    Full Text Available The existence of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells isolated from human orbital fat (OF tissue has shown great therapeutic potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. But the use of stem cells for therapeutic applications is influenced by their proliferative and differentiation potentials, which may be affected by the age of the donor. So far there is little knowledge about the effects of donor age on the biological properties of human orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs. The intraorbital fat protrusion in the lower eyelids occurs as an aging process, and the protruded fat is routinely removed during aesthetic surgeries. Based on the ease of OF harvest and the availability of OASCs, we investigated in this study the relationship between age and the differentiation and proliferation potentials of human OASCs. Human orbital adipose samples were harvested from young (with normal lower eyelid appearance and old donors (having protruded fat pads in the lower eyelids. The morphological properties of orbital adipocytes were assessed and the fat cell size displayed a decreasing trend with advancing age. OASCs were isolated from the fat samples, expanded in vitro and cultured under appropriate inducive conditions. Compared to the young cells, although no difference was found in the cell yield and phenotype expression, aged OASCs showed fewer progenitor cell numbers, reduced proliferative rates, increased senescent features and decreased differentiation potentials towards adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Our data suggested that using autologous OASCs from elderly patients for potential therapeutic purposes might be restricted.

  14. Silica nanoparticles increase human adipose tissue-derived stem cell proliferation through ERK1/2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joo; Joe, Young Ae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Su Jin; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Cho, Dong-Woo; Rhie, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Silicon dioxide composites have been found to enhance the mechanical properties of scaffolds and to support growth of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Silica (silicon dioxide alone) exists as differently sized particles when suspended in culture medium, but it is not clear whether particle size influences the beneficial effect of silicon dioxide on hADSCs. In this study, we examined the effect of different sized particles on growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in hADSCs. Methods Silica gel was prepared by a chemical reaction using hydrochloric acid and sodium silicate, washed, sterilized, and suspended in serum-free culture medium for 48 hours, and then sequentially filtered through a 0.22 μm filter (filtrate containing nanoparticles smaller than 220 nm; silica NPs). hADSCs were incubated with silica NPs or 3 μm silica microparticles (MPs), examined by transmission electron microscopy, and assayed for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Results Eighty-nine percent of the silica NPs were around 50–120 nm in size. When hADSCs were treated with the study particles, silica NPs were observed in endocytosed vacuoles in the cytosol of hADSCs, but silica MPs showed no cell entry. Silica NPs increased the proliferation of hADSCs, but silica MPs had no significant effect in this regard. Instead, silica MPs induced slight apoptosis. Silica NPs increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, while silica MPs increased phosphorylation of p38. Silica NPs had no effect on phosphorylation of Janus kinase or p38. Pretreatment with PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, prevented the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proliferation induced by silica NPs. Conclusion Scaffolds containing silicon dioxide for tissue engineering may enhance cell growth through ERK1/2 activation only when NPs around 50–120 nm in size are included, and single component silica-derived

  15. NANOG Plays a Hierarchical Role in the Transcription Network Regulating the Pluripotency and Plasticity of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells.

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    Pitrone, Maria; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Laura; Coppola, Antonina; Morini, Lorenzo; Pantuso, Gianni; Ficarella, Romina; Guarnotta, Valentina; Perrini, Sebastio; Giorgino, Francesco; Giordano, Carla

    2017-05-23

    The stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) has increasingly come into focus in stem cell research, since these compartments represent a rich source of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs exhibit a self-renewal potential and differentiation capacity. Our aim was to study the different expression of the embryonic stem cell markers NANOG (homeobox protein NANOG), SOX2 (SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2) and OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and to evaluate if there exists a hierarchal role in this network in ASCs derived from both SAT and VAT. ASCs were isolated from SAT and VAT biopsies of 72 consenting patients (23 men, 47 women; age 45 ± 10; BMI between 25 ± 5 and 30 ± 5 range) undergoing elective open-abdominal surgery. Sphere-forming capability was evaluated by plating cells in low adhesion plastic. Stem cell markers CD90, CD105, CD29, CD31, CD45 and CD146 were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the stem cell transcription factors NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 were detected by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 interplay was explored by gene silencing. ASCs from VAT and SAT confirmed their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype expressing the specific MSC markers CD90, CD105, NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4. NANOG silencing induced a significant OCT4 (70 ± 0.05%) and SOX2 (75 ± 0.03%) downregulation, whereas SOX2 silencing did not affect NANOG gene expression. Adipose tissue is an important source of MSC, and siRNA experiments endorse a hierarchical role of NANOG in the complex transcription network that regulates pluripotency.

  16. Clinical studies on the ex-vivo expansion of autologous adipose derived stem cells for the functional reconstruction of mucous membrane in empty nose syndrome

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    Liang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using autologous adipose derived stem cells (ASCs for rebuilding the function of nasal mucosa in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS. Methods Autologous adipose tissue 15-20ml were obtained from each of 5 ENS patients admitted from Aug. 2013 to Feb. 2014, and from which stem cells were isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro. The phenotype, differentiation, and genetic stability of the third generation of amplified stem cells were identified. For the patients with rudimental turbinate (n=3, ASCs were injected into the damaged nasal mucosa for 4 times (once every 10 days. For the patients with no rudimental turbinate (n=2, autologous pure fat granules 1-5ml were extracted after 3 times of ASCs injection into the damaged nasal mucosa, and mixed with the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs for inferior or middle nasal turbinate angioplasty. Nasal endoscopic examination was performed before treatment and 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment for comparison, and the data of SNOT-20 questionnaire, nasality resistance and nasal mucociliary clearance action were statistically analyzed. Results With injection transplantation of the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs in 2 patients with no rudimental turbinate, and 3, 6 and 9 months after the combined ASCs and fat granules transplantation in 3 patients with rudimental turbinate, nasal endoscopy showed that no obvious absorption in conchoplasty, nasal mucosa was improved significantly, and same as SNOT-20 scores, with statistically significant difference (P0.05. Conclusions The reconstruction of mucosa function by nasal turbinate angioplasty combined with adipose derived stem cells and autologous adipose transplantation may significantly improve the symptoms in patients with ENS with lasting effects. It is a new procedure which is helpful for the mucosal repair in patients with ENS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.11

  17. Injections of adipose tissue-derived stem cells and stem cell lysate improve recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury

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    Albersen, Maarten; Fandel, Thomas M.; Lin, Guiting; Wang, Guifang; Banie, Lia; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a major complication after radical prostatectomy. The use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) has shown promising results for the treatment of ED. However, the mechanisms of action for stem cell therapy remain controversial, with increasing evidence pointing to paracrine pathways. Aim To determine the effects and to identify the mechanism of action of ADSC and ADSC-derived lysate in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: one group underwent sham operation, while three groups underwent bilateral CN crush. Crush-injury groups were treated at the time of injury with intracavernous injection of ADSC, lysate, or vehicle only (injured controls). Erectile function was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 4 weeks. Penile tissue was collected for histology. Main Outcome Measures Intracavernous pressure increase upon CN stimulation; neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content in the dorsal penile nerve; smooth muscle content, collagen content, and number of apoptotic cells in the corpus cavernosum. Results Both ADSC and lysate treatments resulted in significant recovery of erectile function, as compared to vehicle treatment. nNOS content was preserved in both the ADSC and lysate group, with significantly higher expression compared to vehicle-treated animals. There was significantly less fibrosis and a significant preservation of smooth muscle content in the ADSC and lysate groups compared to injured controls. The observed functional improvement after lysate injection supports the hypothesis that ADSC act through release of intracellular preformed substances or by active secretion of certain biomolecules. The underlying mechanism of recovery appears to involve neuron preservation and cytoprotection by inhibition of apoptosis. Conclusions Penile injection of both ADSC and ADSC-derived lysate can improve

  18. Injections of adipose tissue-derived stem cells and stem cell lysate improve recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury.

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    Albersen, Maarten; Fandel, Thomas M; Lin, Guiting; Wang, Guifang; Banie, Lia; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F

    2010-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a major complication after radical prostatectomy. The use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) has shown promising results for the treatment of ED. However, the mechanisms of action for stem cell therapy remain controversial, with increasing evidence pointing to paracrine pathways. To determine the effects and to identify the mechanism of action of ADSC and ADSC-derived lysate in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: one group underwent sham operation, while three groups underwent bilateral CN crush. Crush-injury groups were treated at the time of injury with intracavernous injection of ADSC, lysate, or vehicle only (injured controls). Erectile function was assessed by CN electrostimulation at 4 weeks. Penile tissue was collected for histology.   Intracavernous pressure increase upon CN stimulation; neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content in the dorsal penile nerve; smooth muscle content, collagen content, and number of apoptotic cells in the corpus cavernosum. Both ADSC and lysate treatments resulted in significant recovery of erectile function, as compared with vehicle treatment. nNOS content was preserved in both the ADSC and lysate group, with significantly higher expression compared with vehicle-treated animals. There was significantly less fibrosis and a significant preservation of smooth muscle content in the ADSC and lysate groups compared with injured controls. The observed functional improvement after lysate injection supports the hypothesis that ADSCs act through release of intracellular preformed substances or by active secretion of certain biomolecules. The underlying mechanism of recovery appears to involve neuron preservation and cytoprotection by inhibition of apoptosis. Penile injection of both ADSC and ADSC-derived lysate can improve recovery of erectile function in a rat model of neurogenic ED. © 2010

  19. Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 upregulates adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Malini Visweswaran

    Full Text Available With more than 1.4 billion overweight or obese adults worldwide, obesity and progression of the metabolic syndrome are major health and economic challenges. To address mechanisms of obesity, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are being studied to detail the molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenic differentiation. Activation of the Wnt signalling pathway has inhibited adipogenesis from precursor cells. In our study, we examined this anti-adipogenic effect in further detail stimulating Wnt with lithium chloride (LiCl and 6-bromo indirubin 3'oxime (BIO. We also examined the effect of Wnt inhibition using secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4, which we have previously shown to be pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic. Wnt stimulation in LiCl and BIO-treated ADSCs resulted in a significant reduction (2.7-fold and 12-fold respectively in lipid accumulation as measured by Oil red O staining while Wnt inhibition with sFRP4 induced a 1.5-fold increase in lipid accumulation. Furthermore, there was significant 1.2-fold increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα, and 1.3-fold increase in acetyl CoA carboxylase protein levels. In contrast, the expression of adipogenic proteins (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and acetyl CoA carboxylase were decreased significantly with LiCl (by 1.6, 2.6, and 1.9-fold respectively and BIO (by 7, 17, and 5.6-fold respectively treatments. These investigations demonstrate interplay between Wnt antagonism and Wnt activation during adipogenesis and indicate pathways for therapeutic intervention to control this process.

  20. Small activating RNA induces myogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by upregulating MyoD

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    Chenghe Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs, also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs. Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.

  1. Engraftment potential of adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation in the fetal rabbit.

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    Martínez-González, Itziar; Moreno, Rafael; Petriz, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard; Aran, Josep M

    2012-12-10

    Due to their favorable intrinsic features, including engraftment, differentiation, and immunomodulatory potential, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for therapeutic in utero intervention. Further improvement of such attributes for particular diseases might merely be achieved by ex vivo MSC genetic engineering previous to transplantation. Here, we evaluated for the first time the feasibility, biodistribution, long-term engraftment, and transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression of genetically engineered human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (EGFP(+)-ASCs) after intra-amniotic xenotransplantation at E17 of gestation into our validated pregnant rabbit model. Overall, the procedure was safe (86.4% survival rate; absence of anatomical defects). Stable, low-level engraftment of EGFP(+)-ASCs was confirmed by assessing the presence of the pWT-EGFP lentiviral provirus in the young transplanted rabbit tissues. Accordingly, similar frequencies of provirus-positive animals were found at both 8 weeks (60%) and 16 weeks (66.7%) after in utero intervention. The presence of EGFP(+)-ASCs was more frequent in respiratory epithelia (lung and trachea), according to the route of administration. However, we were unable to detect EGFP expression, neither by real-time polymerase chain reaction nor by immunohistochemistry, in the provirus-positive tissues, suggesting EGFP transgene silencing mediated by epigenetic events. Moreover, we noticed lack of both host cellular immune responses against xenogeneic ASCs and humoral immune responses against transgenic EGFP. Therefore, the fetal microchimerism achieved by the EGFP(+)-ASCs in the young rabbit hosts indicates induction of donor-specific tolerance after fetal rabbit xenotransplantation, which should boost postnatal transplantation for the early treatment/prevention of many devastating congenital disorders.

  2. Effect of combined use of autologous adipose-derived stem cells and sterile biological films on chronic wound

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    Ming-hui LI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of combined use of autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs and sterile biological films on chronic wound. Methods Sixty patients of chronic wound were selected from the General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, and randomly divided into three groups (20 each: the conventional treatment group (group A, the sterile biological films group (group B and ADSCs combined with sterile biological films group (group C. The wound healing time and healing rate of the 3 groups on 7, 21 and 40d after treatment were observed; The proliferation of the basilar membrane cells of wound epithelium in the 3 groups were observed before and 7, 14d after treatment, and the epithelization on 50d after treatment was also observed. The neonatal microvessel density (MVD in epidermal basal layer was calculated before and 7 days after treatment. Results On wound healing, the best result was shown in group C, manifested as the minor inflammatory response, the good formation of granulation tissue and faster speed in epithelial growth; and the result was better in group B than in group A. On wound healing time, the result was shown as group A > group B > group C, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. On wound healing rate, cell proliferation and MVD, group C showed the best result in the 3 groups, group B was better than group A, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion ADSCs combined with sterile biological films in treatment of chronic wound healing may significantly improve the proliferation of repaired cells, promote wound vascular regeneration, improve the local growth environment and accelerate the wound healing. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.11

  3. Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Phenotype of Smooth Muscle Cells to Limit Intimal Hyperplasia.

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    Liu, Rong; Shen, Hong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Leiqing; Wei, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in the reduction of inflammation in multiple disease models. However, their role in vein graft (VG) remodeling is undefined. We aimed to investigate the effect of EVs from adipose MSCs (ADMSC-EVs) on VG intimal hyperplasia and to explore the possible mechanisms. After generation and characterization of control-EVs and ADMSC-EVs in vitro, we investigated their effect on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Next, we established a mouse model of VG transplantation. Mice underwent surgery and received control-EVs or ADMSC-EVs by intraperitoneal injection every other day for 20 days. VG remodeling was evaluated after 4 weeks. We also assessed the effect of ADMSC-EVs on macrophage migration and inflammatory cytokine expression. Significant inhibitory effects of ADMSC-EVs on in vitro VSMC proliferation (p < 0.05) and migration (p < 0.05) were observed compared with control-EVs. The extent of intimal hyperplasia was significantly decreased in ADMSC-EV-treated mice compared with control-EV-treated mice (26 ± 8.4 vs. 45 ± 9.0 μm, p < 0.05). A reduced presence of macrophages was observed in ADMSC-EV-treated mice (p < 0.05). Significantly decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was also found in the ADMSC-EV-treated group (both p < 0.05). In addition, phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 in VGs was decreased in the ADMSC-EV-treated group. We demonstrated that ADMSC-EVs exert an inhibitory effect on VG neointima formation by regulating VSMC proliferation and migration, macrophage migration, inflammatory cytokine expression, and the related signaling pathways.

  4. Study of Carbon Nano-Tubes Effects on the Chondrogenesis of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Alginate Scaffold

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    Ali Valiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged populations in the World and could become the fourth principal cause of disability by the year 2020. One of the critical properties for cartilage tissue engineering (TE is the ability of scaffolds to closely mimic the extracellular matrix and bond to the host tissue. Therefore, TE has been presented as a technique to introduce the best combination of cells and biomaterial scaffold and to stimulate growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue resembling natural articular cartilage. The aim of study is to improve differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs into chondrocytes in order to provide a safe and modern treatment for patients suffering from cartilage damages. Methods: After functionalization, dispersions and sterilizing carbon nano-tubes (CNTs, a new type of nanocomposite gel was prepared from water-soluble CNTs and alginate. ADSCs seeded in 1.5% alginate scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media with and without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 for 7 and 14 days. The genes expression of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, types II and X collagens was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and the amount of aggrecan (AGC and type I collagen was measured by ELISA. Results: Our findings showed that the expression of essential cartilage markers, SOX9, type II collagen and AGC, in differentiated ADSCs at the concentration of 1 μg/ml CNTs in the presence of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001. Meanwhile, type X collagen expression and also type I collagen production were significantly decreased (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that utilized three-dimensional scaffold had a brilliant effect in promoting gene expression of chondrogenesis.

  5. Quantitative Spatiotemporal Chemical Profiling of Individual Lipid Droplets by Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in Living Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

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    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Langbein, Wolfgang; Watson, Pete; Borri, Paola

    2016-04-05

    There is increasing evidence showing that cytosolic lipid droplets, present in all eukaryotic cells, play a key role in many cellular functions. Yet their composition at the individual droplet level and how it evolves over time in living cells is essentially unknown due to the lack of suitable quantitative nondestructive measurement techniques. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of label-free hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, together with a quantitative image analysis algorithm developed by us, to quantify the lipid type and content in vol/vol concentration units of individual lipid droplets in living human adipose-derived stem cells during differentiation over 9 days in media supplemented with different fatty acids. Specifically, we investigated the addition of the polyunsaturated linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids into the normal differentiation medium (mostly containing monounsaturated fatty acids). We observe a heterogeneous uptake which is droplet-size dependent, time dependent, and lipid dependent. Cells grown in linoleic-acid-supplemented medium show the largest distribution of lipid content across different droplets at all times during differentiation. When analyzing the average lipid content, we find that adding linoleic or alpha-linolenic fatty acids at day 0 results in uptake of the new lipid components with an exponential time constant of 22 ± 2 h. Conversely, switching lipids at day 3 results in an exponential time constant of 60 ± 5 h. These are unprecedented findings, exemplifying that the quantitative imaging method demonstrated here could open a radically new way of studying and understanding cytosolic lipid droplets in living cells.

  6. Antioxidants cause rapid expansion of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells via CDK and CDK inhibitor regulation

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    2013-01-01

    Background Antioxidants have been shown to enhance the proliferation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in vitro, although the detailed mechanism(s) and potential side effects are not fully understood. In this study, human ADMSCs cultured in ImF-A medium supplemented with antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ascorbic acid-2-phosphate) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were compared with ADMSCs cultured with FGF-2 alone (ImF) or with FGF-2 under 5% pO2 conditions (ImF-H). Results During log-phase growth, exposure to ImF-A resulted in a higher percentage of ADMSCs in the S phase of the cell cycle and a smaller percentage in G0/G1 phase. This resulted in a significantly reduced cell-doubling time and increased number of cells in the antioxidant-supplemented cultures compared with those supplemented with FGF-2 alone, an approximately 225% higher cell density after 7 days. Western blotting showed that the levels of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 decreased after ImF-A treatment, whereas CDK2, CDK4, and CDC2 levels clearly increased. In addition, ImF-A resulted in significant reduction in the expression of CD29, CD90, and CD105, whereas relative telomere length, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and chondrogenesis were enhanced. The results were similar for ADMSCs treated with antioxidants and those under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion Antioxidant treatment promotes entry of ADMSCs into the S phase by suppressing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and results in rapid cell proliferation similar to that observed under hypoxic conditions. PMID:23915242

  7. Rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells transplantation attenuates cardiac dysfunction post infarction and biopolymers enhance cell retention.

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    Maria E Danoviz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac cell transplantation is compromised by low cell retention and poor graft viability. Here, the effects of co-injecting adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs with biopolymers on cell cardiac retention, ventricular morphometry and performance were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 99mTc-labeled ASCs (1x10(6 cells isolated from isogenic Lewis rats were injected 24 hours post-MI using fibrin a, collagen (ASC/C, or culture medium (ASC/M as vehicle, and cell body distribution was assessed 24 hours later by gamma-emission counting of harvested organs. ASC/F and ASC/C groups retained significantly more cells in the myocardium than ASC/M (13.8+/-2.0 and 26.8+/-2.4% vs. 4.8+/-0.7%, respectively. Then, morphometric and direct cardiac functional parameters were evaluated 4 weeks post-MI cell injection. Left ventricle (LV perimeter and percentage of interstitial collagen in the spare myocardium were significantly attenuated in all ASC-treated groups compared to the non-treated (NT and control groups (culture medium, fibrin, or collagen alone. Direct hemodynamic assessment under pharmacological stress showed that stroke volume (SV and left ventricle end-diastolic pressure were preserved in ASC-treated groups regardless of the vehicle used to deliver ASCs. Stroke work (SW, a global index of cardiac function, improved in ASC/M while it normalized when biopolymers were co-injected with ASCs. A positive correlation was observed between cardiac ASCs retention and preservation of SV and improvement in SW post-MI under hemodynamic stress. CONCLUSIONS: We provided direct evidence that intramyocardial injection of ASCs mitigates the negative cardiac remodeling and preserves ventricular function post-MI in rats and these beneficial effects can be further enhanced by administering co-injection of ASCs with biopolymers.

  8. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

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    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  9. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Experimental Murine Colitis via TSP-1-Dependent Activation of Latent TGF-β.

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    Takeyama, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Uemura, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Murata, Kohei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction in ASC therapy in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Acute colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium and ASCs administered intraperitoneally. Tregs and CD103+ dendritic cells were analyzed in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen, and colonic lamina propria (CLP). Activation of latent TGF-β by ASCs was analyzed in vitro using ELISA. siRNA technology was used to create ASCs in which TSP-1 or integrinαv was knocked down in order to investigate the involvement of these proteins in the activation of latent TGF-β. In addition, TSP-1-knockdown ASCs were administered to mice with colitis to assess their clinical efficacy in vivo. Systemic administration of ASCs significantly lessened the clinical and histopathological severity of colitis. ASCs were distributed throughout the lymphatic system in the MLNs and spleen. Tregs were increased in the MLNs and CLP, but CD103+ dendritic cells were not significantly altered. The ASCs activated latent TGF-β. TSP-1 knockdown impaired TGF-β activation in vitro and abrogated the therapeutic effects of the ASCs in vivo. Furthermore, Tregs were not increased in the MLNs and CLP from mice treated with TSP-1-knockdown ASCs. These results demonstrate that ASCs induce Tregs by activating latent TGF-β via TSP-1, independent of CD103+ dendritic cell induction.

  10. Intramyocardial Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Increases Pericardial Fat with Recovery of Myocardial Function after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

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    Jong-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC with mouse endothelial cells (mEC on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10, mASC (n = 10, mEC (n = 10 and mASC+mEC (n = 10 via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas. Echocardiography and cardiac positron emission tomography (PET were compared at baseline and on 28 days after AMI. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction measured by PET, increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to mEC and control groups. Furthermore, significant decreases in fibrosis were confirmed after sacrifice on 28 days in mASC and mASC+mEC groups. Successful cell engraftment was confirmed by positive Y-Chromosome staining in the transplantation region. Pericardial fat increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to control group, and pericardial fat was shown to originate from the AMI rat. mASC group expressed higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels in plasma than control group. In addition, pericardial fat from AMI rats demonstrated increased phospho-AMPK levels and reduced phospho-ACC levels. Intramyocardial mASC transplantation after AMI in rats increased pericardial fat, which might play a protective role in the recovery of myocardial function after ischemic myocardial damage.

  11. Efficient and sustained IGF-1 expression in the adipose tissue-derived stem cells mediated via a lentiviral vector.

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    Chen, Ting; Huang, Dangsheng; Chen, Guanghui; Yang, Tingshu; Yi, Jun; Tian, Miao

    2015-02-01

    The adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a significant area of the cell therapy. Genetic modification of ADSCs may further improve their therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed to generate a lentiviral vector expressing insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and investigate the impact of IGF-1 transduction on the properties of cultured ADSCs. Isolated rat ADSCs were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. IGF-1 was cloned and inserted into the pLenO-DCE plasmid to acquire pLenO-DCE-IGF-1 plasmid. Lentivirus was enveloped with pRsv-REV, pMDlg-pRRE and pMD2G plasmids in 293T cells. The ADSCs were transfected with the vectors. And then IGF-1-induced anti-apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC. Besides, proliferation of cells was detected by MTT assay and EdU. Moreover, Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Stable expression of IGF-1 in ADSCs was confirmed. ADSCs were positive for CD90 and CD29, but negative for CD31, CD34 and CD45. The transduction of IGF-1 to the ADSCs caused a dramatic increase in P-Akt expression. Over-expression of IGF-1 in ADSCs could improve the paracine of IGF-1 in a time-dependent manner, but could not promote the proliferation of ADSCs. This study indicated that lentiviral vectors offered a promising mean of delivering IGF-1 to the ADSCs. Lentiviral-mediated over-expression of therapeutic IGF-1 gene in ADSCs could prolong the anti-apoptosis effect of IGF-1, which might be induced by the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. And our data would improve the efficacy of ADSC-based therapies.

  12. The influence of static magnetic fields on canine and equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue.

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    Marędziak, Monika; Marycz, Krzysztof; Smieszek, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Daniel; Toker, Nezir Yaşar

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation rate and morphological changes of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells of canine and equine origin (Eq- and CaAdMSC). Investigated cells were exposed to a static magnetic field (MF) with the intensity of 0.5 T. Proliferation activity of cells was determined with the Alamar Blue assay. Obtained results, normalized in respect to the control culture, showed that EqAdMSC exposed to MF maintained a high proliferation status, whereas proliferation activity of CaAdMSC cultured in the presence of MF was decreased. Estimations of population doubling time (PDT) also revealed that EqAdMSCs exposed to static MF achieved a twofold increase in the total number of cells in a shorter amount of time than the control culture. The PDT value obtained for investigated CaAdMSCs indicated that MF exposure resulted in the prolongation of population doubling time. Morphology of cells and cellular composition was investigated using a light inverted microscope and a fluorescent microscope. A scanning electron microscope was used for microvesicles (MVs) imaging. Obtained results showed that both cell types maintained fibroblastic morphology and did not reveal signs of apoptosis or necrosis. However, the MF had an influence on the MVs secretion. While EqAdMSCs propagated in the presence of MF were characterized by the abundant MVs presence, CaAdMSCs revealed poor secretory activity. The approach presented provides complex analysis, which enables one to determine changes in equine and canine cytophysiology.

  13. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats

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    Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of preparing electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofibers coated with polydopamine • Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs on a PDA/PLA mat • Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK), collagen I levels, cell attachment and cell cycle progression with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of the Ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation of hADSCs is observed. • A promising method for bio-inspired surface modification on organic fiber substrates using PDA.

  14. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Differentiate into Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblast-Like Cells under the Influence of Tumor-Derived Factors

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    Constantin Jotzu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF are considered to contribute to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the cell type of origin remains unknown. Since human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs are locally adjacent to breast cancer cells and might directly interact with tumor cells, we investigated whether CAFs may originate from hASCs. We demonstrated that a significant percentage of hASCs differentiated into a CAF-like myofibroblastic phenotype (e.g., expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and tenascin-C when exposed to conditioned medium from the human breast cancer lines MDAMB231 and MCF7. The conditioned medium from MDAMB231 and MCF7 contains significant amounts of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1 and the differentiation of hASCs towards CAFs is dependent on TGFβ1 signaling via Smad3 in hASCs. The induction of CAFs can be abolished using a neutralizing antibody to TGFβ1 as well as by pretreatment of the hASCs with SB431542, a TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor. Additionally, we found that these hASC-derived CAF-like cells exhibit functional properties of CAFs, including the ability to promote tumor cell invasion in an in vitro invasion assay, as well as increased expression of stromal-cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 and CCL5. Taken together, these data suggest that hASCs are a source of CAFs which play an important role in the tumor invasion.

  15. Rapid and high-efficiency generation of mature functional hepatocyte-like cells from adipose-derived stem cells by a three-step protocol.

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    Xu, Fen; Liu, Junli; Deng, Jie; Chen, Xiaolei; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Pengchao; Cheng, Lin; Fu, Yanli; Cheng, Fuyi; Yao, Yunqi; Zhang, Yujing; Huang, Meijuan; Yu, Dechao; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2015-10-05

    The generation of functional hepatocytes is a major challenge for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Here we show a method that facilitates generation of induced functional hepatocytes (iHeps) from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) within 9 days. iHeps express hepatocytic gene programs and display functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes, including cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Upon transplantation into mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute fulminant liver failure, iHeps restore the liver function and prolong survival. The work could contribute to the development of alternative strategies to obtain nonhepatic cell-derived mature hepatocytes with potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells attenuate cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat osteoarthritis model.

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    Mei, Li; Shen, Bojiang; Ling, Peixue; Liu, Shaoying; Xue, Jiajun; Liu, Fuyan; Shao, Huarong; Chen, Jianying; Ma, Aibin; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 μL PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1β-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on

  17. Culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells attenuate cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat osteoarthritis model.

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    Li Mei

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 μL PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1β-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects

  18. Mass spectrometry analysis of adipose-derived stem cells reveals a significant effect of hypoxia on pathways regulating extracellular matrix.

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    Riis, Simone; Stensballe, Allan; Emmersen, Jeppe; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Birkelund, Svend; Zachar, Vladimir; Fink, Trine

    2016-04-14

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are being increasingly recognized for their potential to promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. These effects appear to be partly mediated by paracrine signaling pathways, and are enhanced during hypoxia. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a valuable tool for proteomic profiling of cultured ASCs, which may help to reveal the identity of the factors secreted by the cells under different conditions. However, serum starvation which is essentially required to obtain samples compatible with secretome analysis by MS can have a significant influence on ASCs. Here, we present a novel and optimized culturing approach based on the use of a clinically relevant serum-free formulation, which was used to assess the effects of hypoxia on the ASC proteomic profile. Human ASCs from three human donors were expanded in StemPro® MSC SFM XenoFree medium. Cells were cultured for 24 h in serum- and albumin-free supplements in either normoxic (20 %) or hypoxic (1 %) atmospheres, after which the cells and conditioned medium were collected, subfractionated, and analyzed using MS. Prior to analysis, the secreted proteins were further subdivided into a secretome (>30 kDa) and a peptidome (3-30 kDa) fraction. MS analysis revealed the presence of 342, 98, and 3228 proteins in the normoxic ASC secretome, peptidome, and proteome, respectively. A relatively small fraction of the proteome (9.6 %) was significantly affected by hypoxia, and the most regulated proteins were those involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and cell metabolism. No proteins were found to be significantly modulated by hypoxic treatment across all cultures for the secretome and peptidome samples. This study highlights ECM remodeling as a significant mechanism contributing to the ASC regenerative effect after hypoxic preconditioning, and further underscores considerable inter-individual differences in ASC response to hypoxia. The novel culture paradigm provides a basis for future

  19. Hyaluronan size alters chondrogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells via the CD44/ERK/SOX-9 pathway.

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    Wu, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Wang, Jyun-Ya; Lin, Yi-Shan; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2018-01-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a natural linear polymer that is one of the main types of extracellular matrix during the early stage of chondrogenesis. We found that the chondrogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be initiated and promoted by the application of HA to mimic the chondrogenic niche. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal HA molecular weight (Mw) for chondrogenesis of ADSCs and the detailed mechanism. In this study, we investigated the relationships among HA Mw, CD44 clustering, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/SOX-9 pathway during chondrogenesis of ADSCs. Human ADSCs (hADSCs) and rabbit ADSCs (rADSCs) were isolated and expanded. Chondrogenesis was induced in rADSCs by culturing cells in HA-coated wells (HA Mw: 80 kDa, 600 kDa and 2000 kDa) and evaluated by examining cell aggregation, chondrogenic gene expression (collagen type II and aggrecan) and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) deposition in vitro. Cartilaginous tissue formation in vivo was confirmed by implanting HA/rADSCs into joint cavities. CD44 clustering, ERK phosphorylation, SOX-9 expression and SOX-9 phosphorylation in cultured hADSCs were further evaluated. Isolated and expanded rADSCs showed multilineage potential and anchorage-independent growth properties. Cell aggregation, chondrogenic gene expression, and sGAG deposition increased with increasing HA Mw in rADSCs. The 2000 kDa HA had the most pronounced chondrogenic effect on rADSCs in vitro, and implanted 2000 kDa HA/rADSCs exhibited marked cartilaginous tissue formation in vivo. CD44 clustering and cell aggregation of hADSCs were enhanced by an increase in HA Mw. In addition, higher HA Mws further enhanced CD44 clustering, ERK phosphorylation, and SOX-9 expression and phosphorylation in hADSCs. Inhibiting CD44 clustering in hADSCs reduced HA-induced chondrogenic gene expression. Inhibiting ERK phosphorylation also simultaneously attenuated HA-induced SOX-9 expression and phosphorylation and

  20. Células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo humano: desafios atuais e perspectivas clínicas Human adipose-derived stem cells: current challenges and clinical perspectives

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    Samira Yarak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As células-tronco adultas ou somáticas detêm grande promessa para a reparação e regeneração de tecidos. Atualmente, o interesse dos cientistas é contínuo na investigação da biologia de células-tronco mesenquimais, tanto em aspectos básicos, quanto no potencial de aplicações terapêuticas. As células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo, em comparação com as células-tronco derivadas do estroma da medula óssea, apresentam como vantagem o método fácil de obtenção da fonte tecidual. As células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo apresentam potencial para se diferenciarem em células de tecidos mesodérmicos, como os adipócitos, as cartilagens, os ossos e o músculo esquelético e não mesodérmicos, como os hepatócitos, as células pancreáticas endócrinas, os neurônios, os hepatócitos e as células endoteliais vasculares. Entretanto, os dados disponíveis na literatura científica sobre as características das células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo e os procedimentos para sua obtenção e manipulação no laboratório são inconsistentes. É necessário o desenvolvimento de metodologias e procedimentos eficazes de isolamento dessas células para obtenção de células em quantidade e qualidade suficientes para aplicação terapêutica. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os métodos correntes de coleta de tecido adiposo, isolamento e caracterização de células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo, com ênfase na futura aplicação em medicina regenerativa e nos possíveis desafios nesse recente campo da ciência.Adult or somatic stem cells hold great promise for tissue regeneration. Currently, one major scientific interest is focused on the basic biology and clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells share similar characteristics with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, but have some advantages including

  1. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

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    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  2. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

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    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  3. Histological changes induced by Polyglycolic-Acid (PGA) scaffolds seeded with autologous adipose or muscle-derived stem cells when implanted on rabbit bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Joao Paulo; de Sá Barretto, Letícia Siqueira; Nakamura, Ahy Nathally Sawaki E; Duailibi, Silvio; Leite, Kátia; Magalhaes, Renata S; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ross, Christina L; Peloso, Andrea; Almeida, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the morphological and histological changes induced by PGA scaffold seeded with autologous adipose or muscle derived stem cells implanted on rabbit bladder wall. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were obtained from the inguinal fat of eight rabbits and muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) from the anterior tibial muscle of other eight rabbits. After culture and isolation, the cells were stained with Vybrant Red CM DiI and then implanted at third passage. Two PGA scaffolds were implanted on the bladder submucosa of each animal. On the right bladder side was implanted unseeded PGA scaffold while on the left side was implanted ADSCs or skeletal MDSCs seeded PGA scaffold. ADSCs were implanted in eight animals and MDSC in other eight animals. The animals were sacrificed at four and eight weeks. Histological evaluation was performed with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's Trichrome and smooth muscle α-actin. We observed a mild inflammatory response in all the three groups. Seeded scaffolds induced higher lymphocytes and lower polimorphonuclear migration than controls. Fibrosis was more pronounced in the control groups. Smooth muscle α-actin was positive only in ADSC and MDSC seeded scaffolds. At four and eight weeks ADCSs and skeletal MDSCs labeled cells were found at the implant sites. The implantation of PGA scaffolds seeded with ADSC and MDSC induced less fibrosis than control and smooth muscle regeneration.

  4. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the molecular cargo of extracellular vesicles derived from porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Woollard, John R; Tang, Hui; Dasari, Surendra; Lerman, Amir; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each). TargetScan and ComiR were used to predict miRNA target genes. Functional annotation analysis was performed using DAVID 6.7 database to rank primary gene ontology categories for the enriched mRNAs, miRNA target genes, and proteins. STRING was used to predict associations between mRNA and miRNA target genes. Differential expression analysis revealed 4 miRNAs, 255 mRNAs, and 277 proteins enriched in EVs versus MSCs (fold change >2, pextracellular matrix remodeling, blood coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Porcine MSC-derived EVs contain a genetic cargo of miRNAs and mRNAs that collectively control TF activity in EVs and recipient cells, as well as proteins capable of modulating cellular pathways linked to tissue repair. These properties provide the fundamental basis for considering therapeutic use of EVs in tissue regeneration.

  5. Concomitant Transurethral and Transvaginal-Periurethral Injection of Autologous Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Phase One Clinical Trial

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    Babak Arjmand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence is a common medical problem among women. The urethral closure complex and/or the supportive mechanisms are responsible for incontinence in the majority of patients. Several surgical procedures with different degrees of invasiveness and outcomes have been reported to treat the problem. Although most of these procedures are reasonably effective, a general trend towards the study of natural and biocompatible tissues is emerging over popular synthetic materials. Here we report our experience of autologous adipose-derived stem cells transplantation into the periurethral region as a new method of stress urinary incontinence treatment. Ten women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence were treated by injections of autologous adipose-derived stem cells into the periurethral region via transurethral and transvaginal approach under urethroscopic observation. This report presents the short-term outcome of the patients. The outcome measured by pad test results, ICIQ-SF scores, and Qmax. The mean age of the participants was 45.8±8.7 years. Urinary incontinence significantly decreased through the first two, 6 and 24 weeks after the injection therapy. The difference was significant in pad test results (P<0.001 and ICIQ-SF scores (P<0.001, especially comparing results between 2 and 6 weeks and among 6 and 24 weeks, but not for 2 and 6 weeks compared to each other. Surprisingly, Qmax showed improvement after the study period (means 32.6 vs. 35.7; P=0.002. This study showed that injection of the autologous adipose-derived stem cells to the periurethral region is a safe, yet short-term effective treatment option for stress urinary incontinence. Further studies with longer follow up are needed to confirm its long term efficacy.

  6. [Effects of alginate/collagen scaffold on cell proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells].

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    Cheng, W; Han, X P; Mou, S L; Yang, F; Liu, L P

    2017-04-09

    Objective: To build scaffold materials with different concentrations of alginate and collagen, and to observe the effects of alginate/collagen ratio on the proliferation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC) and osteogenic differentiation. The optimal concentration of alginate/collagen will be chosen for constructing hydrogel that will be used for bone tissue engineering. Methods: Soluble hydrogel scaffold materials containing alginate/collagen were prepared, and the following groups were established based on different alginate/collagen ratio: 4∶1 (group A), 2∶1 (group B), and 1∶1 (group C). Cell proliferation on the material surface was observed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, while cell viability in each material group were observed using live/dead staining. Quantitative real-time PCR(qPCR) was used to measure the differential expression of osteogenesis-related genes on and in the materials. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the differential gene expression of osteogenesis-related proteins in each group. Results: The results from the CCK-8 assay showed increasing cell proliferation rate on the lyophilized hydrogel material surface as the collagen concentration increased, and the highest cell proliferation was observed in group C. Live/dead staining assay indicated that cells were able to proliferate in all three types of hydrogel materials, and the highest cell viability was found in material from group B ([87.50±2.65]%). qPCR showed that the expression of osteogenesis-related genes in group C was the highest, among the three groups, while the expression of osteocalcin in group B was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (Palginate/collagen scaffold materials did not show adverse effects on the cell proliferation of hAMSC and osteogenenic differentiation. Bone tissue engineering can use 10% hydrogel material, and when the sodium alginate and collagen have a ratio of 2∶1, the hydrogel can be

  7. [EFFECT OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS COMBINED WITH CHITOSAN ON IMMEDIATE RETRACTION RATE OF EXPANDED SKIN IN RABBIT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongming; Zhang, Zemin; Yan, He; Wu, Caifeng; Hu Fei; Yang, Biaobing

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan on the immediate retraction rate of rabbit expanded skin. ADSCs were isolated from rabbit fresh fat under sterile conditions and cultured to the 3rd generation by methods of enzymatic digestion; the specific surface markers and the differentiation into epidermal cells and cartilage cells were identified. Forty New Zealand white rabbits (aged, 2-3 months) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): control group (group A), ADSCs group (group B), chitosan group (group C), and ADSCs+chitosan group (group D). ADSCs cell suspension with the concentration of 5 x 10⁶ cells/mL was prepared. The skin expansion model was made by embedding 30 mL dilator into the back of rabbit. Chitosan (2%, 5 mL) was coated on the surface of the dilator in groups C and D, and ADSCs cell suspension (1 mL) was injected into the skin in groups B and D. Conventional tissue expansion was performed to expected capacity at 4 weeks, and maintained for 1 week. The expanded skin was harvested to measure the immediate retraction rate, and the thickness of skin, epidermis, and fibrous capsule with HE staining. Masson staining was used to observe the characteristics of collagen in the fibrous capsule, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 to determine the microvessel density (MVD). ADSCs were successfully isolated, and had multiple differentiation ability. All the animals survived to the end of the experiment. The immediare retraction rate of group D was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P histological staining revealed that there were more mature fibroblasts and coarse collagen fibers with regular arrangement in groups A and B; there were more naive fibroblasts and tiny and sparse collagen fibers in groups C and D. The thickness of skin and epidermis, and MVD of groups B and D were significantly larger than those of groups A and C (P 0.05). ADSCs can promote angiogenesis and regeneration of

  8. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

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    Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Deng, Bing [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Wen, Jianghui [Wu Han University of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Kun [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun [Wuhan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430208 (China); Jiang, Siwen, E-mail: jiangsiwen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Xiong, Yuanzhu, E-mail: xiongyzhu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Agricultural Ministry and Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  9. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in combination with xanthan gum attenuate osteoarthritis progression in an experimental rat model.

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    Mei, Li; Shen, Bojiang; Xue, Jiajun; Liu, Shaoying; Ma, Aibin; Liu, Fuyan; Shao, Huarong; Chen, Jianying; Chen, Qixin; Liu, Fei; Ying, Yong; Ling, Peixue

    2017-12-09

    The current study explored the efficacy of an intra-articular (IA) injection of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with xanthan gum (XG) in a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model. We confirmed that XG significantly inproved proliferation of ADSCs in a dose dependent manner in vitro. The rat OA model was induced by an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and at 4 weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups: the XG-ADSCs group, the ADSCs group, the XG group and the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. A single dose of 1 × 10 6 allogeneic ADSCs suspended in 1% XG, ADSCs suspended in PBS, 1% XG alone or PBS alone was injected into the OA joint of rats in the respective treatment groups. Rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after surgery. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by weight-bearing control of the hind limbs, gross morphological analysis, histological analysis and specific staining of articular cartilage, and measurement of inflammatory factors in synovial fluid. For the rats in the XG-ADSC-s and ADSCs-treated groups, the weight-bearing percentage of the right hind limb was significantly increased compared to that in the PBS group and was sustained over 4 weeks. However, the positive effect in the XG-ADSCs group was significantly greater than that in the ADSCs group. For the rats in the XG group, the efficacy decreased during the third week after surgery. The articular cartilage was relatively normal in the XG-ADSCs group, and moderate degeneration was observed in the ADSCs and XG groups. ADSCs and XG-ADSC treatments significantly decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3 and MMP-13 in synovial fluid; however, the attenuating effect of the XG-ADSCs treatment was significantly enhanced compared with that of the ADSCs treatment alone. These results indicate that a single IA injection of allogeneic ADSCs combined with XG efficiently attenuated OA progression with a therapeutic effect that was significantly

  10. [Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells-biomaterial mixture in vivo after 3D bio-printing].

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    Song, Yang; Wang, Xiao-fei; Wang, Yu-guang; Sun, Yu-chun; Lv, Pei-jun

    2016-02-18

    To construct human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs)-biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body and detect its osteogenesis in vivo, and to establish a guideline of osteogenesis in vivo by use of 3D bio-printing technology preliminarily. P4 hASCs were used as seed cells, whose osteogenic potential in vitro was tested by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining after 14 d of osteogenic induction. The cells were added into 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin mixture (cell density was 1 × 10(6)/mL), and the cell-sodium alginate-gelatin mixture was printed by Bioplotter 3D bio-printer (Envision company, Germany), in which the cells'survival rate was detected by live- dead cell double fluorescence staining. Next, the printing body was osteogenically induced for 1 week to gain the experimental group; and the sodium alginate-gelatin mixture without cells was also printed to gain the control group. Both the experimental group and the control group were implanted into the back of the nude mice. After 6 weeks of implantation, the samples were collected, HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Inveon Micro CT test were preformed to analyze their osteogenic capability. The cells'survival rate was 89%± 2% after printing. Six weeks after implantation, the samples of the control group were mostly degraded, whose shape was irregular and gel-like; the samples of the experimental group kept their original size and their texture was tough. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the bone-like tissue and vessel in-growth could be observed in the experimental group 6 weeks after implantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that the result of osteocalcin was positive, and Micro CT results showed that samples of the experimental group had a higher density and the new bone volume was 18% ± 1%. hASCs -biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body has capability of ectopic bone formation in nude mice, and it is feasible to

  11. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the molecular cargo of extracellular vesicles derived from porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Alfonso Eirin

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs.Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each. TargetScan and ComiR were used to predict miRNA target genes. Functional annotation analysis was performed using DAVID 6.7 database to rank primary gene ontology categories for the enriched mRNAs, miRNA target genes, and proteins. STRING was used to predict associations between mRNA and miRNA target genes.Differential expression analysis revealed 4 miRNAs, 255 mRNAs, and 277 proteins enriched in EVs versus MSCs (fold change >2, p<0.05. EV-enriched miRNAs target transcription factors (TFs and EV-enriched mRNAs encode TFs, but TF proteins are not enriched in EVs. Rather, EVs are enriched for proteins that support extracellular matrix remodeling, blood coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis.Porcine MSC-derived EVs contain a genetic cargo of miRNAs and mRNAs that collectively control TF activity in EVs and recipient cells, as well as proteins capable of modulating cellular pathways linked to tissue repair. These properties provide the fundamental basis for considering therapeutic use of EVs in tissue regeneration.

  12. Impact of adipose tissue or umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on the immunogenicity of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Kefang Tan

    Full Text Available The application of autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC transplantation is a promising approach in therapeutic cardiovascular diseases and ischemic diseases. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity of EPCs, adipose tissue (AD-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and umbilical cord (UC-derived MSCs by flow cytometry and the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The impact of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs on the immunogenicity of EPCs was analyzed by the mixed lymphocyte reaction and cytokine secretion in vitro and was further tested by allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC induced immuno-rejection on a cell/matrigel graft in an SCID mouse model. EPCs and AD-MSCs express higher levels of MHC class I than UC-MSCs. All three kinds of cells are negative for MHC class II. UC-MSCs also express lower levels of IFN-γ receptor mRNA when compared with EPCs and AD-MSCs. EPCs can stimulate higher rates of proliferation of lymphocytes than AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs. Furthermore, AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs can modulate immune response and inhibit lymphocyte proliferation induced by EPCs, mainly through inhibition of the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Compared with UC-MSCs, AD-MSCs can significantly improve vessel formation and maintain the integrity of neovascular structure in an EPC+MSC/matrigel graft in SCID mice, especially under allo-PBMC induced immuno-rejection. In conclusion, our study shows that AD-MSC is a powerful candidate to minimize immunological rejection and improve vessel formation in EPC transplantation treatment.

  13. A comparative assessment of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat as a potential cell source for knee osteoarthritis treatment.

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    Tang, Yan; Pan, Zhang-Yi; Zou, Ying; He, Yi; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Yin, Feng

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is a novel potential therapy for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the efficacy of ASCs from different regions of the body remains unknown. This study investigated whether ASCs from subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue provide the same improvement of OA. Mouse and human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were excised for ASC isolation. Morphology, proliferation, surface markers and adipocyte differentiation of subcutaneous ASCs (S-ASCs) and visceral ASCs (V-ASCs) were analysed. A surgically induced rat model of OA was established, and 4 weeks after the operation, S-ASCs, V-ASCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, control) were injected into the articular cavity. Histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses were performed 6 weeks after ASC injection. The ability of ASCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed by in vitro chondrogenesis, and the immunosuppressive activity of ASCs was evaluated by co-culturing with macrophages. The proliferation of V-ASCs was significantly greater than that of S-ASCs, but S-ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V-ASCs. In addition, the infracted cartilage treated with S-ASCs showed significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V-ASCs. Moreover, S-ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an effective cell source for cell therapy of OA as it promotes stem cell differentiation into chondrocytes and inhibits immunological reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content

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    Gattu, Arijeet K.; Swenson, E. Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T.; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteoblast precursors, and human MSCs. Blockade of adipogenesis by PEDF suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, and other adipocyte markers by nearly 90% compared with control-treated cells (P50% compared with controls, illustrating its systemic role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Bones from KO mice demonstrated a reduction in mineral content recapitulating the OI type VI phenotype. These results demonstrate that the human diseases associated with PEDF reflect its ability to modulate MSC differentiation.—Gattu, A. K., Swenson, E. S., Iwakiri, Y., Samuel, V. T., Troiano, N., Berry, R., Church, C. D., Rodeheffer, M. S., Carpenter, T. O., Chung, C. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content. PMID:23887690

  15. Concomitant Transurethral and Transvaginal-Periurethral Injection of Autologous Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Phase One Clinical Trial.

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    Arjmand, Babak; Safavi, Majid; Heidari, Reza; Aghayan, Hamidreza; T Bazargani, Soroush; Dehghani, Sanaz; Goodarzi, Parisa; Mohammadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Heidari, Fariba; Payab, Moloud; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2017-06-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common medical problem among women. The urethral closure complex and/or the supportive mechanisms are responsible for incontinence in the majority of patients. Several surgical procedures with different degrees of invasiveness and outcomes have been reported to treat the problem. Although most of these procedures are reasonably effective, a general trend towards the study of natural and biocompatible tissues is emerging over popular synthetic materials. Here we report our experience of autologous adipose-derived stem cells transplantation into the periurethral region as a new method of stress urinary incontinence treatment. Ten women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence were treated by injections of autologous adipose-derived stem cells into the periurethral region via transurethral and transvaginal approach under urethroscopic observation. This report presents the short-term outcome of the patients. The outcome measured by pad test results, ICIQ-SF scores, and Qmax. The mean age of the participants was 45.8±8.7 years. Urinary incontinence significantly decreased through the first two, 6 and 24 weeks after the injection therapy. The difference was significant in pad test results (Pincontinence. Further studies with longer follow up are needed to confirm its long term efficacy.

  16. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

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    Chao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs. We found (1 MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2 MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3 real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4 furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.

  17. Effect of intraarticular injection of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem and regenerative cells on clinical signs of chronic osteoarthritis of the elbow joint in dogs.

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    Black, Linda L; Gaynor, James; Adams, Cheryl; Dhupa, Sarit; Sams, Andrew E; Taylor, Robert; Harman, Susan; Gingerich, Daniel A; Harman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC) therapy involves harvesting fat from the patient, isolating the stem and regenerative cells, and administering the cells back to the patient. Autologous AD-MSC therapy in veterinary regenerative medicine has been commercially available since 2003. Previously reported results from a blinded, controlled trial in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral (hip) joint demonstrated efficacy of a single intraarticular injection of autologous AD-MSC therapy. The primary objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this therapy in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis of the humeroradial (elbow) joints and to determine the duration of effect. Fourteen dogs were recruited. Veterinarians assessed each dog for lameness, pain on manipulation, range of motion, and functional disability using a numeric rating scale at baseline and specified intervals up to 180 days after treatment. Statistically significant improvement in outcome measures was demonstrated.

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Two Calcium Phosphate/Collagen Composite Materials and Their Osteogenic Effects on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are ideal seed cells for use in bone tissue engineering and they have many advantages over other stem cells. In this study, two kinds of calcium phosphate/collagen composite scaffolds were prepared and their effects on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs were investigated. The hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composite scaffolds (HTPSs, which have an additional β-tricalcium phosphate, resulted in better proliferation of ADSCs and showed osteogenesis-promoting effects. Therefore, such composite scaffolds, in combination with ADSCs or on their own, would be promising for use in bone regeneration and potential clinical therapy for bone defects.

  19. Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series

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    Pak Jaewoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is a series of clinical case reports demonstrating that a combination of percutaneously injected autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride may be able to regenerate bones in human osteonecrosis, and with addition of a very low dose of dexamethasone, cartilage in human knee osteoarthritis. Case reports Stem cells were obtained from adipose tissue of abdominal origin by digesting lipoaspirate tissue with collagenase. These stem cells, along with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride, were injected into the right hip of a 29-year-old Korean woman and a 47-year-old Korean man. They both had a history of right hip osteonecrosis of the femoral head. For cartilage regeneration, a 70-year-old Korean woman and a 79-year-old Korean woman, both with a long history of knee pain due to osteoarthritis, were injected with stem cells along with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma, calcium chloride and a nanogram dose of dexamethasone. Pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans, physical therapy, and pain score data were then analyzed. Conclusions The MRI data for all the patients in this series showed significant positive changes. Probable bone formation was clear in the patients with osteonecrosis, and cartilage regeneration in the patients with osteoarthritis. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes, subjective pain, and functional status all improved. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell injection, in conjunction with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride, is a promising minimally invasive therapy for osteonecrosis of femoral head and, with low-dose dexamethasone, for osteoarthritis of human knees.

  20. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF

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    Aimei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF.

  1. The Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Differentiated Into Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts on Healing of Critical Size Calvarial Defects.

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    Orbay, Hakan; Busse, Brittany; Leach, Jonathan Kent; Sahar, David E

    2017-10-01

    Delayed vascularization and resultant resorption limits the clinical use of tissue engineered bony constructs. The objective of this study is to develop a strategy to accelerate the neovascularization of tissue-engineered bony constructs using endothelial differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). The authors harvested ASC from inguinal fat pads of male Lewis rats (n = 5) and induced toward endothelial and osteoblastic lineages. The authors created critical size calvarial defects on male Lewis rats (n = 30) and randomized the animals into 4 groups. For the repair of the defects the authors used hydroxyapatite/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [HA-PLG] scaffolds in group I, HA-PLG scaffolds seeded with ASC in group II, HA-PLG scaffolds seeded with ASC-derived endothelial cells in group III, and HA-PLG scaffolds seeded with ASC-derived osteoblasts in group IV. The authors evaluated the bone healing histologically and with micro-computed tomography (CT) scans 8 weeks later. Adipose-derived stem cells exhibited the characteristics of endothelial and osteogenic lineages, and attached on HA-PLG scaffolds after differentiation. Micro-CT analysis revealed that highest bone mineral density was in group IV (1.46 ± 0.01 g/cm) followed by groups III (1.43 ± 0.05 g/cm), I (1.42 ± 0.05 g/cm), and II (1.3 ± 0.1 g/cm). Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining revealed similar results with the highest bone regeneration in group IV followed by groups II, III, and I. Regenerated bone in group IV also had the highest vascular density, but none of these differences achieved statistical significance (P > 0.05). The ASC-derived endothelial cells and osteoblasts provide a limited increase in calvarial bone healing when combined with HA-PLG scaffolds.

  2. In Vitro Behavior of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Poly(ε-caprolactone) Film for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications.

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    Romagnoli, Cecilia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Galli, Gianna; Puppi, Dario; Pirosa, Alessandro; Chiellini, Federica; Martelli, Francesco Saverio; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field, representing one of the most exciting challenges for scientists and clinicians. The possibility of combining mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds to create engineered tissues has brought attention to a large variety of biomaterials in combination with osteoprogenitor cells able to promote and regenerate bone tissue. Human adipose tissue is officially recognized as an easily accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), a significant factor for use in tissue regenerative medicine. In this study, we analyze the behavior of a clonal finite cell line derived from human adipose tissue seeded on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film, prepared by solvent casting. PCL polymer is chosen for its good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. We observe that AMSCs are able to adhere to the biomaterial and remain viable for the entire experimental period. Moreover, we show that the proliferation process and osteogenic activity of AMSCs are maintained on the biofilm, demonstrating that the selected biomaterial ensures cell colonization and the development of an extracellular mineralized matrix. The results of this study highlight that AMSCs and PCL film can be used as a suitable model to support regeneration of new bone for future tissue engineering strategies.

  3. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Aesthetic Surgery: A Mixed Methods Evaluation of the Current Clinical Trial, Intellectual Property, and Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zeeshaan; Halioua-Haubold, Celine-Lea; Roberts, Mackenna; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Branford, Oliver A; Brindley, David A; Davies, Benjamin M; Pettitt, David

    2018-02-17

    Adipose tissue, which can be readily harvested via a number of liposuction techniques, offers an easily accessible and abundant source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Consequently, ASCs have become an increasingly popular reconstructive option and a novel means of aesthetic soft tissue augmentation. This paper examines recent advances in the aesthetic surgery field, extending beyond traditional review formats to incorporate a comprehensive analysis of current clinical trials, adoption status, and the commercialization pathway. Keyword searches were carried out on clinical trial databases to search for trials using ASCs for aesthetic indications. An intellectual property landscape was created using commercial software (Thomson Reuters Thomson Innovation, New York, NY). Analysis of who is claiming what in respect of ASC use in aesthetic surgery for commercial purposes was analyzed by reviewing the patent landscape in relation to these techniques. Key international regulatory guidelines were also summarized. Completed clinical trials lacked robust controls, employed small sample sizes, and lacked long-term follow-up data. Ongoing clinical trials still do not address such issues. In recent years, claims to intellectual property ownership have increased in the "aesthetic stem cell" domain, reflecting commercial interest in the area. However, significant translational barriers remain including regulatory challenges and ethical considerations. Further rigorous randomized controlled trials are required to delineate long-term clinical efficacy and safety. Providers should consider the introduction of patient reported outcome metrics to facilitate clinical adoption. Robust regulatory and ethical policies concerning stem cells and aesthetic surgery should be devised to discourage further growth of "stem cell tourism."

  4. A tissue engineering approach for periodontal regeneration based on a biodegradable double-layer scaffold and adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Requicha, João F; Viegas, Carlos A; Muñoz, Fernando; Azevedo, Jorge M; Leonor, Isabel B; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-09-01

    Human and canine periodontium are often affected by an inflammatory pathology called periodontitis, which is associated with severe damages across tissues, namely, in the periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. However, the therapies used in the routine dental practice, often consisting in a combination of different techniques, do not allow to fully restore the functionality of the periodontium. Tissue Engineering (TE) appears as a valuable alternative approach to regenerate periodontal defects, but for this purpose, it is essential to develop supportive biomaterial and stem cell sourcing/culturing methodologies that address the complexity of the various tissues affected by this condition. The main aim of this work was to study the in vitro functionality of a newly developed double-layer scaffold for periodontal TE. The scaffold design was based on a combination of a three-dimensional (3D) fiber mesh functionalized with silanol groups and a membrane, both made of a blend of starch and poly-ɛ-(caprolactone). Adipose-derived stem cells (canine adipose stem cells [cASCs]) were seeded and cultured onto such scaffolds, and the obtained constructs were evaluated in terms of cellular morphology, metabolic activity, and proliferation. The osteogenic potential of the fiber mesh layer functionalized with silanol groups was further assessed concerning the osteogenic differentiation of the seeded and cultured ASCs. The obtained results showed that the proposed double-layer scaffold supports the proliferation and selectively promotes the osteogenic differentiation of cASCs seeded onto the functionalized mesh. These findings suggest that the 3D structure and asymmetric composition of the scaffold in combination with stem cells may provide the basis for developing alternative therapies to treat periodontal defects more efficiently.

  5. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study

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    Shahbazi-Gahrouei D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle, during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05 except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  6. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D; Hashemi-Beni, B; Ahmadi, Z

    2016-12-01

    As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle), during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05) except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  7. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

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    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  8. First-in-Human Case Study: Pregnancy in Women With Crohn's Perianal Fistula Treated With Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A Safety Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Baro, Raquel; García-Arranz, Mariano; Guadalajara, Hector; de la Quintana, Paloma; Herreros, Maria Dolores; García-Olmo, Damián

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) had any influence on fertility, course of pregnancy, newborn weight, or physical condition of newborns. We performed a retrospective study of patients with a desire to become pregnant after having received intralesional injection of autologous ASCs for the treatment of perianal or rectovaginal fistula associated with Crohn's disease. We collected data on the resulting pregnancies, deliveries, and newborns of these patients. ASCs were expanded in vitro and characterized according to the international guidelines for cell surface markers (clusters of differentiation) and differentiated to adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes prior to implantation (except first implant in 2002). We analyzed five young women with Crohn's disease treated with ASCs: one for rectovaginal and perianal fistula, two for rectovaginal fistula only, and two for perianal fistula only. All patients received 2 doses of 20 million and 40 million cells at an interval of 3-4 months. Another patient received 2 doses of 6.6 million and 20 million ASCs with 9 months between each dose. Fertility and pregnancy outcomes were not affected by cell therapy treatment. No signs of treatment-related malformations were observed in the neonates by their respective pediatricians. In the patients studied, cell therapy with ASCs did not affect the course of pregnancy or newborn development. Local treatment with mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue seems not to affect the ability to conceive, the course of pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, or newborns' health in female patients. This is the first publication about pregnancy outcome in women with perianal fistula and Crohn's disease treated with stem cell therapy, and could be of interest for doctors working in cell therapy. This is a very important question for patients, and there was no answer for them until now. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Toward angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds with type I collagen and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Geun; Bak, Seon Young; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Woo; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies for liver disease are being studied by many researchers worldwide, but scientific evidence to demonstrate the endocrinologic effects of implanted cells is insufficient, and it is unknown whether implanted cells can function as liver cells. Achieving angiogenesis, arguably the most important characteristic of the liver, is known to be quite difficult, and no practical attempts have been made to achieve this outcome. We carried out this study to observe the possibility of angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds. This study used adipose tissue-derived stem cells that were collected from adult patients with liver diseases with conditions similar to the liver parenchyma. Specifically, microfilaments were used to create an artificial membrane and maintain the structure of an artificial organ. After scratching the stomach surface of severe combined immunocompromised (SCID) mice (n=4), artificial scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and type I collagen were implanted. Expression levels of angiogenesis markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and CD105 were immunohistochemically assessed after 30 days. Grossly, the artificial scaffolds showed adhesion to the stomach and surrounding organs; however, there was no evidence of angiogenesis within the scaffolds; and VEGF, CD34, and CD105 expressions were not detected after 30 days. Although implantation of cells into artificial scaffolds did not facilitate angiogenesis, the artificial scaffolds made with type I collagen helped maintain implanted cells, and surrounding tissue reactions were rare. Our findings indicate that type I collagen artificial scaffolds can be considered as a possible implantable biomaterial.

  10. Electrospun poly(ester-Urethane- and poly(ester-Urethane-Urea fleeces as promising tissue engineering scaffolds for adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Alfred Gugerell

    Full Text Available An irreversible loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients after tumor removal or deep dermal burns makes soft tissue engineering one of the most important challenges in biomedical research. The ideal scaffold for adipose tissue engineering has yet not been identified though biodegradable polymers gained an increasing interest during the last years. In the present study we synthesized two novel biodegradable polymers, poly(ε-caprolactone-co-urethane-co-urea (PEUU and poly[(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone-co-(L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate-block-oligo(ethylene glycol-urethane] (PEU, containing different types of hydrolytically cleavable bondings. Solutions of the polymers at appropriate concentrations were used to fabricate fleeces by electrospinning. Ultrastructure, tensile properties, and degradation of the produced fleeces were evaluated. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs were seeded on fleeces and morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation were assessed. The biomaterials show fine micro- and nanostructures composed of fibers with diameters of about 0.5 to 1.3 µm. PEUU fleeces were more elastic, which might be favourable in soft tissue engineering, and degraded significantly slower compared to PEU. ASCs were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on both scaffolds. Morphology of the cells was slightly better on PEUU than on PEU showing a more physiological appearance. ASCs differentiated into the adipogenic lineage. Gene analysis of differentiated ASCs showed typical expression of adipogenetic markers such as PPARgamma and FABP4. Based on these results, PEUU and PEU meshes show a promising potential as scaffold materials in adipose tissue engineering.

  11. Thrombospondin-1 Partly Mediates the Cartilage Protective Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis

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    Marie Maumus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAssuming that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs respond to the osteoarthritic joint environment to exert a chondroprotective effect, we aimed at investigating the molecular response setup by MSCs after priming by osteoarthritic chondrocytes in cocultures.MethodsWe used primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and adipose stem cells (ASCs in mono- and cocultures and performed a high-throughput secretome analysis. Among secreted proteins differentially induced in cocultures, we identified thrombospondin-1 (THBS1 as a potential candidate that could be involved in the chondroprotective effect of ASCs.ResultsSecretome analysis revealed significant induction of THBS1 in ASCs/chondrocytes cocultures at mRNA and protein levels. We showed that THBS1 was upregulated at late stages of MSC differentiation toward chondrocytes and that recombinant THBS1 (rTHBS1 exerted a prochondrogenic effect on MSC indicating a role of THBS1 during chondrogenesis. However, compared to control ASCs, siTHBS1-transfected ASCs did not decrease the expression of hypertrophic and inflammatory markers in osteoarthritic chondrocytes, suggesting that THBS1 was not involved in the reversion of osteoarthritic phenotype. Nevertheless, downregulation of THBS1 in ASCs reduced their immunosuppressive activity, which was consistent with the anti-inflammatory role of rTHBS1 on T lymphocytes. THBS1 function was then evaluated in the collagenase-induced OA model by comparing siTHBS1-transfected and control ASCs. The protective effect of ASCs evaluated by histological and histomorphological analysis of cartilage and bone was not seen with siTHBS1-transfected ASCs.ConclusionOur data suggest that THBS1 did not exert a direct protective effect on chondrocytes but might reduce inflammation, subsequently explaining the therapeutic effect of ASCs in OA.

  12. L-carnitine Effectively Induces hTERT Gene Expression of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from the Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092

  13. Cotransplantation of adipose tissue-derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells: a novel therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikar, A V; Dave, S D; Thakkar, U G; Trivedi, H L

    2010-12-20

    Aims. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with disturbed glucose/insulin metabolism, requiring life-long insulin replacement therapy (IRT), 30% of patients develop end-organ failure. We present our experience of cotransplantation of adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-AD-MSC) and cultured bone marrow (CBM) as IRT for these patients. Methods. This was a prospective open-labeled clinical trial to test efficacy and safety of IS-AD-MSC+CBM co-transplantation to treat IDDM, approved by the institutional review board after informed consent in 11 (males : females: 7 : 4) patients with 1-24-year disease duration, in age group: 13-43 years, on mean values of exogenous insulin requirement of 1.14 units/kg BW/day, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac): 8.47%, and c-peptide levels: 0.1 ng/mL. Intraportal infusion of xenogeneic-free IS-AD-MSC from living donors, subjected to defined culture conditions and phenotypically differentiated to insulin-secreting cells, with mean quantum: 1.5 mL, expressing Pax-6, Isl-1, and pdx-1, cell counts: 2.1 × 10(3)/μL, CD45(-)/90(+)/73(+):40/30.1%, C-Peptide level:1.8 ng/mL, and insulin level: 339.3  IU/mL with CBM mean quantum: 96.3 mL and cell counts: 28.1 × 10(3)/μL, CD45(-)/34(+):0.62%, was carried out. Results. All were successfully transplanted without any untoward effect. Over mean followup of 23 months, they had a decreased mean exogenous insulin requirement to 0.63 units/kgBW/day, Hb1Ac to 7.39%, raised serum c-peptide levels to 0.38 ng/mL, and became free of diabetic ketoacidosis events with mean 2.5 Kg weight gain on normal vegetarian diet and physical activities. Conclusion. This is the first report of treating IDDM with insulin-secreting-AD-MSC+CBM safely and effectively with relatively simple techniques.

  14. Cotransplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Insulin-Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cells: A Novel Therapy for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vanikar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with disturbed glucose/insulin metabolism, requiring life-long insulin replacement therapy (IRT, 30% of patients develop end-organ failure. We present our experience of cotransplantation of adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-AD-MSC and cultured bone marrow (CBM as IRT for these patients. Methods. This was a prospective open-labeled clinical trial to test efficacy and safety of IS-AD-MSC+CBM co-transplantation to treat IDDM, approved by the institutional review board after informed consent in 11 (males : females: 7 : 4 patients with 1–24-year disease duration, in age group: 13–43 years, on mean values of exogenous insulin requirement of 1.14 units/kg BW/day, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac: 8.47%, and c-peptide levels: 0.1 ng/mL. Intraportal infusion of xenogeneic-free IS-AD-MSC from living donors, subjected to defined culture conditions and phenotypically differentiated to insulin-secreting cells, with mean quantum: 1.5 mL, expressing Pax-6, Isl-1, and pdx-1, cell counts: 2.1×103/μL, CD45−/90+/73+:40/30.1%, C-Peptide level:1.8 ng/mL, and insulin level: 339.3  IU/mL with CBM mean quantum: 96.3 mL and cell counts: 28.1×103/μL, CD45−/34+:0.62%, was carried out. Results. All were successfully transplanted without any untoward effect. Over mean followup of 23 months, they had a decreased mean exogenous insulin requirement to 0.63 units/kgBW/day, Hb1Ac to 7.39%, raised serum c-peptide levels to 0.38 ng/mL, and became free of diabetic ketoacidosis events with mean 2.5 Kg weight gain on normal vegetarian diet and physical activities. Conclusion. This is the first report of treating IDDM with insulin-secreting-AD-MSC+CBM safely and effectively with relatively simple techniques.

  15. In vivo evaluation of adipose- and muscle-derived stem cells as a treatment for nonhealing diabetic wounds using multimodal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Joanne; Pincu, Yair; Marjanovic, Marina; Bower, Andrew J.; Chaney, Eric J.; Jensen, Tor; Boppart, Marni D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a significant comorbid condition of diabetes, which often results in nonhealing diabetic ulcers due to poor peripheral microcirculation, among other factors. The effectiveness of the regeneration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) was assessed using an integrated multimodal microscopy system equipped with two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging. These imaging modalities, integrated in a single platform for spatial and temporal coregistration, allowed us to monitor in vivo changes in the collagen network and cell dynamics in a skin wound. Fluorescently labeled ADSCs and MDSCs were applied topically to the wound bed of wild-type and diabetic (db/db) mice following punch biopsy. Longitudinal imaging demonstrated that ADSCs and MDSCs provided remarkable capacity for improved diabetic wound healing, and integrated microscopy revealed a more organized collagen remodeling in the wound bed of treated mice. The results from this study verify the regenerative capacity of stem cells toward healing and, with multimodal microscopy, provide insight regarding their impact on the skin microenvironment. The optical method outlined in this study, which has the potential for in vivo human use, may optimize the care and treatment of diabetic nonhealing wounds.

  16. Differential inflammatory networks distinguish responses to bone marrow-derived versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapies in vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Ruben; Ravuri, Sudheer K; Plock, Jan A; Vodovotz, Yoram; Gorantla, Vijay S

    2017-07-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is aimed at enabling injured individuals to return to their previous lifestyles. Unfortunately, VCA induces an immune/inflammatory response, which mandates lifelong, systemic immunosuppression, with attendant detrimental effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-both adipose-derived (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived (BM-MSC)-can reprogram inflammation and have been suggested as an alternative to immunosuppression, but their mechanism of action is as yet not fully elucidated. We sought to gain insights into these mechanisms using a systems biology approach. PKH26 (red) dye-labeled AD-MSC or BM-MSC were administered intravenously to Lewis rat recipients of mismatched Brown-Norway hindlimb transplants. Short course tacrolimus (FK-506) monotherapy was withdrawn at postoperative day 21. Sera were collected at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 18 weeks; assayed for 29 inflammatory/immune mediators; and the resultant data were analyzed using Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA), Dynamic Bayesian Network (DyBN) inference, and Principal Component Analysis. DyNA network complexity decreased with time in AD-MSC rats, but increased in BM-MSC rats. DyBN and Principal Component Analysis suggested mostly different central nodes and principal characteristics, respectively, in AD-MSC versus BM-MSC rats. AD-MSC and BM-MSC are associated with both overlapping and distinct dynamic networks and principal characteristics of inflammatory/immune mediators in VCA grafts with short-course tacrolimus induction therapy. The decreasing inflammatory complexity of dynamic networks in the presence of AD-MSC supports the previously suggested role for T regulatory cells induced by AD-MSC. The finding of some overlapping and some distinct central nodes and principal characteristics suggests the role of key mediators in the response to VCA in general, as well as potentially differential roles for other mediators ascribed to the actions of the different MSC populations. Thus

  17. Enhancement of Ischemic Wound Healing by Spheroid Grafting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Treated with Low-Level Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Su; Chung, Phil-Sang; Ahn, Jin Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level light irradiation prior to transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) spheroids in an animal skin wound model stimulated angiogenesis and tissue regeneration to improve functional recovery of skin tissue. The spheroid, composed of hASCs, was irradiated with low-level light and expressed angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Immunochemical staining analysis revealed that the spheroid of the hASCs was CD31+, KDR+, and CD34+. On the other hand, monolayer-cultured hASCs were negative for these markers. PBS, human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, and the ASC spheroid were transplanted into a wound bed in athymic mice to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the ASC spheroid in vivo. The ASC spheroid transplanted into the wound bed differentiated into endothelial cells and remained differentiated. The density of vascular formations increased as a result of the angiogenic factors released by the wound bed and enhanced tissue regeneration at the lesion site. These results indicate that the transplantation of the ASC spheroid significantly improved functional recovery relative to both ASC transplantation and PBS treatment. These findings suggest that transplantation of an ASC spheroid treated with low-level light may be an effective form of stem cell therapy for treatment of a wound bed.

  18. Human adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate repetitive behavior, social deficit and anxiety in a VPA-induced autism mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungji; Park, Hyunjun; Mahmood, Usman; Ra, Jeong Chan; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Chang, Keun-A

    2017-01-15

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and patients often display co-occurring repetitive behaviors. Although the global prevalence of ASD has increased over time, the etiology and treatments for ASD are poorly understood. Recently, some researchers have suggested that stem cells have therapeutic potential for ASD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), a kind of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adipose tissue, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism model mice. Human ASCs were injected into the neonatal pups (P2 or P3) intraventricularly and then we evaluated major behavior symptoms of ASD. VPA-treated mice showed increased repetitive behaviors, decreased social interactions and increased anxiety but these autistic behaviors were ameliorated through transplantation of hASCs. In addition, hASCs transplantation restored the alteration of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and p-AKT/AKT ratio in the brains of VPA-induced ASD model mice. The decreased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) by VPA were rescued in the brains of the hASC-injected VPA mice. With these results, we experimentally found hASCs' therapeutic effects on autistic phenotypes in a ASD model mice for the first time. This animal model system can be used to elucidate further mechanisms of therapeutic effects of hASCs in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Autologous Transplantation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markedly Reduced Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury in a Rodent Model

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    Fu Morgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the hypothesis that autologous transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs can effectively attenuate acute pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 24 were equally randomized into group 1 (sham control, group 2 (IR plus culture medium only, and group 3 (IR plus intravenous transplantation of 1.5 × 106 autologous ADMSCs at 1h, 6h, and 24h following IR injury. The duration of ischemia was 30 minutes, followed by 72 hours of reperfusion prior to sacrificing the animals. Blood samples were collected and lungs were harvested for analysis. Results Blood gas analysis showed that oxygen saturation (% was remarkably lower, whereas right ventricular systolic pressure was notably higher in group 2 than in group 3 (all p Conclusion ADMSC therapy minimized lung damage after IR injury in a rodent model through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.

  20. The in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for acute liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Kurata, Hayato; Tamai, Rie; Banas, Agnieszka; Ishii, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. In the prior decade, many animal studies have demonstrated that MSCs are therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of liver disease. The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model has been the most widely used model in these studies. Our group has utilized the CCl4-induced mouse hepatitis model to study the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs). We have demonstrated that systemically administered hADSCs engrafted into the damaged liver and promoted tissue repair. This phenomenon likely reflected the paracrine effects of the administered hADSCs. In this chapter, we describe a method to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the systemic administration of hADSCs in the CCl4-induced mouse model of acute hepatitis.

  1. Differential effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 on gene expression of collagen-modifying enzymes in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M.N.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Bank, R.A.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are under evaluation for bone tissue engineering. Posttranslational modification of type I collagen is essential for functional bone tissue with

  2. Differential effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 on gene expression of collagen-modifying enzymes in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M.N.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Bank, R.A.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are under evaluation for bone tissue engineering. Posttranslational modification of type I collagen is essential for functional bone tissue with

  3. Evaluation of 2 Purification Methods for Isolation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Based on Red Blood Cell Lysis With Ammonium Chloride and Hypotonic Sodium Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Liao, Xuan; Zhou, Tian-En; Xiao, Li-Ling; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Wu, Fan; Wang, Jing-Ru; Cheng, Biao; Song, Jian-Xing; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare 2 purification methods for isolation of human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or stem cells (ADSCs) based on red blood cell (RBC) lysis with 155 mM ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hypotonic sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, and try to develop a safe, convenient, and cost-effective purification method for clinical applications. Adipose-derived stem cells and RBC were harvested from the fatty and fluid portions of liposuction aspirates, respectively. The suitable concentration of hypotonic NaCl solution on RBC lysis for purification of ADSCs was developed by RBC osmotic fragility test and flow cytometry analysis. The effects of 155 mM NH4Cl or 0.3% NaCl solution on ADSCs proliferation and RBC lysis efficiency were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and lysis efficiency test, respectively. In addition, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, phenotype and genetic stability of ADSCs were evaluated by oil red staining, alkaline phosphatase activity measurement, flow cytometry, and karyotype analysis, respectively. Sodium chloride solution in 0.3% concentration effectively removed RBCs and did not influence the survival of ADSCs in the 10-minute incubation time. The lysis efficiency did not differ significantly between 0.3% NaCl and 155 mM NH4Cl. Moreover, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, surface marker expression and karyotype of the ADSCs were not affected by lysis solutions or by lysis per se. However, the proliferation capacity in the 0.3% NaCl group was superior to that in 155 mM NH4Cl group. Our data suggest that 0.3% NaCl solution is useful for isolating ADSCs from liposuction aspirate for clinical applications with safety, convenience, and cost-effect.

  4. Comparative Expression Profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs Among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Breast, Face, and Abdominal Adipose Tissues

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    Kai-Hung Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined the expression of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs from human mesenchymal stem cells BM19, FM30, and AM3, which is derived from breast, face, and abdominal adipose tissues, respectively. BM19, FM30, and AM3 cells exhibited considerably similar mRNA profiles, and their 1,038 abundantly common genes were involved in regulating six cell adhesion and three cytoskeleton remodeling processes among the top ten GeneGo canonical pathway maps. The 39 most abundant miRNAs in AM3 cells were expressed at very similar levels in BM19 cells. However, seven abundant miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-320, miR-186, miR-199a, miR-339, miR-99a, and miR-152 in AM3 cells were expressed at much lower levels than that in FM30 cells, and 38 genes targeted by these miRNAs were consequently upregulated more than 3-fold in FM30 cells compared with AM3 cells. Therefore, autologous abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are suitable for tissue engineering of breast reconstruction because of very similar expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs between AM3 and BM19 cells. Conversely, abdominal AM3 cells might not be suitable for facial rejuvenation, since the 38 highly expressed genes targeted by miRNAs in FM30 cells might play an important role(s in the development of facial tissue.

  5. Cultures of Schwann-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells on PDMS/MWNT sheets as a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Ho; Sun, Fangfang; Choi, Yoon Ji; Zou, Fengming; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Byung Kwan; Song, Geun Sung; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates as novel scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. Schwann cells (SCs) are attractive therapeutic targets due to their pivotal role in peripheral nerve regeneration, but primary SCs have limitations for clinical application. However, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may differentiate into Schwann-like cells. The present study assesses the potential applicability of multiwall CNTs (MWNTs) composited with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which were then seeded with differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dASCs) to promote neuronal differentiation and growth. Aqueous MWNT dispersion was filtered, and the PDMS/MWNT sheets were prepared using a simple printing-transfer method. Characterization of PDMS/MWNT sheets indicated their unique physical properties, such as superior mechanical strength and electroconductivity, compared with bare PDMS sheets. ASCs were differentiated into Schwann-like cells using a mixture of glial growth factors. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were co-cultured with SCs and dASCs on PDMS/MWNTs sheets or noncoated dishes. An alamar blue proliferation assay of dASC and SCs showed significantly more dASC and SCs cultured on PDMS/MWNT sheets at 48 h and 72 h than when cultured on noncoated dishes (p proliferation of DRG neurons and the longest neurite outgrowth length per neuron were significantly greater than when DRG were cultured on PDMS/MWNT sheets alone or on noncoated dishes seeded with SCs or dASCs (p cells differentiated from ASCs. Seeding the dASCs on PDMS/MWNT sheets may produce synergistic effects in peripheral nerve regeneration, similarly to SCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Up-to-date Clinical Trials of Hair Regeneration Using Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Won, Chong Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kyung; Park, Byung-Soon

    2017-01-01

    The primary roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are to maintain the stem cell niche, facilitate recovery after injury, and ensure healthy aging and the homeostasis of organ and tissues. MSCs have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option for hair loss. Since adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are the most accessible sources of MSCs, ADSCbased hair regeneration is investigated. Besides replacing degenerated cells in affected organs, ADSCs exhibit their beneficial effects through the paracrine actions of various cytokines and growth factors. Several laboratory experiments and animal studies have shown that ADSC-related proteins can stimulate hair growth. In addition, we introduce our clinical pilot studies using conditioned media of ADSCs for pattern hair loss in men and women. We believe that conditioned media of ADSCs represents a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for hair loss. We also discuss practical therapeutic challenges and the direction of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Enhancement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as a Potential Chondrogenic Marker during Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoshie; Park, Sunghyun; Choi, Bogyu; Ko, Kyoung-Won; Choi, Won Chul; Lee, Joong-Myung; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Hun-Kuk; Han, Inbo; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-06-17

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have a capacity to undergo adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Recently, hASCs were applied to various fields including cell therapy for tissue regeneration. However, it is hard to predict the direction of differentiation of hASCs in real-time. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one family of proteolytic enzymes that plays a pivotal role in regulating the biology of stem cells. MMPs secreted by hASCs are expected to show different expression patterns depending on the differentiation state of hASCs because biological functions exhibit different patterns during the differentiation of stem cells. Here, we investigated proteolytic enzyme activity, especially MMP-2 activity, in hASCs during their differentiation. The activities of proteolytic enzymes and MMP-2 were higher during chondrogenic differentiation than during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. During chondrogenic differentiation, mRNA expression of MMP-2 and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased, which also correlated with Col II. It is concluded that proteolytic enzyme activity and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased during chondrogenic differentiation, which was accelerated in the presence of Col II protein. According to our findings, MMP-2 could be a candidate maker for real-time detection of chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs.

  8. Use of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Support Topical Skin Adhesive for Wound Closure: A Preliminary Report from Animal In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the local and systemic effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs as a component of topical skin adhesive in an animal artificial wound closure model. In presented study the cosmetic effects, histological analysis, mechanical properties, and cell migration have been assessed to evaluate the usefulness of ADSCs as supporting factor for octyl blend cyanoacrylate adhesive. The total of 40 rats were used and divided into six groups. In the Study Group, ADSCs were administered by multipoint injection of the six surrounding intrawound areas with additional freely leaving procedure of the cells between the skin flaps just before applying adhesive to close the wound. Five control groups without using ADSCs, utilizing different types of standard wound closure, were created in order to check efficiency of experimental stem cell therapy. In our study, we proved that ADSCs could be used effectively also as a supportive tool in topical skin adhesive for wound closure. However we did not achieve any spectacular differences related to such aspects as better mechanical properties or special biological breakthroughs in wound healing properties. The use of stem cells, especially ADSCs for wound closure can provide an inspiring development in plastic and dermatologic surgery.

  9. Safety Studies for Use of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model for Osteoarthritis to Support a Phase I Clinical Trial.

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    Riester, Scott M; Denbeigh, Janet M; Lin, Yang; Jones, Dakota L; de Mooij, Tristan; Lewallen, Eric A; Nie, Hai; Paradise, Christopher R; Radel, Darcie J; Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T; Larson, Dirk R; Qu, Wenchun; Krych, Aaron J; Frick, Matthew A; Im, Hee-Jeong; Dietz, Allan B; Smith, Jay; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2017-03-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) offer potential as a therapeutic option for clinical applications in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine because of their immunomodulatory functions and capacity for trilineage differentiation. In preparation for a phase I clinical trial using AMSCs to treat patients with osteoarthritis, we carried out preclinical studies to assess the safety of human AMSCs within the intra-articular joint space. Culture-expanded human AMSCs grown in human platelet-lysate were delivered via intra-articular injections into normal healthy rabbit knees and knees at risk for the development of osteoarthritis after bilateral medial anterior hemimeniscectomy. Treatment outcomes and safety were evaluated by assessing the general health, function, and behavior of the animals. Joint tissues were analyzed by x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology. Intra-articular AMSC therapy was well tolerated in this study. We did not observe adverse systemic reactions, nor did we find evidence of damage to intra-articular joint tissues. Thus, the data generated in this study show a favorable safety profile for AMSCs within the joint space in support of a phase I clinical trial evaluating the clinical utility of AMSCs to treat osteoarthritis. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:910-922. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  10. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

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    Eom, Young Woo [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin [Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Jin [Dr. Park' s Aesthetic Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong In, E-mail: oncochem@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo, E-mail: khsmd@unitel.co.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  11. Combined influence of basal media and fibroblast growth factor on the expansion and differentiation capabilities of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Lysaght, Joanne; Lynch, Amy P

    2014-01-01

    Interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has increased in recent years due to their multi-linage differentiation capabilities. While much work has been done to optimize the differentiation media, few studies have focused on examining the influence of different expansion media on cell behavior. In this study, three basal media (low glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), high glucose DMEM and DMEM-F12) supplemented with or without fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF) were examined to assess their suitability for expanding ASCs. Flow cytometry, colony-forming unit assays (CFU-Fs) and differentiation assays were utilized to study cell behavior. High glucose media CFU-Fs produced fewest colonies while the addition of FGF increased colony size. By passage 2, the majority of cells were positive for CD44, 45, 73, 90 and 105 and negative for CD14, 31 and 45, indicating a mesenchymal phenotype. A sub-population of CD34 positive cells was present among passage 2 cells; however, by passage 4 the cells were negative for CD34. FGF has a negative effective on passage 4 ASC adipogenesis and high glucose media plus FGF-enhanced osteogenic capacity of passage 4 ASCs. FGF supplemented basal media were most suitable for chondrogenesis. High glucose media plus FGF appeared to be the most beneficial for priming ASCs to induce a keratocyte phenotype. These findings demonstrate the reciprocal effect FGF and basal media have on ASCs. This research has implications for those interested regenerating bone, cartilage, cornea or adipose tissues.

  12. The potential of GMP-compliant platelet lysate to induce a permissive state for cardiovascular transdifferentiation in human mediastinal adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Camilla; Chimenti, Isotta; Bordin, Antonella; Ponti, Donatella; Iudicone, Paola; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Rendina, Erino Angelo; Calogero, Antonella; Pierelli, Luca; Ibrahim, Mohsen; De Falco, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are considered eligible candidates for cardiovascular stem cell therapy applications due to their cardiac transdifferentiation potential and immunotolerance. Over the years, the in vitro culture of ADMSCs by platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivate containing numerous growth factors and cytokines derived from platelet pools, has allowed achieving a safe and reproducible methodology to obtain high cell yield prior to clinical administration. Nevertheless, the biological properties of PL are still to be fully elucidated. In this brief report we show the potential ability of PL to induce a permissive state of cardiac-like transdifferentiation and to cause epigenetic modifications. RTPCR results indicate an upregulation of Cx43, SMA, c-kit, and Thy-1 confirmed by immunofluorescence staining, compared to standard cultures with foetal bovine serum. Moreover, PL-cultured ADMSCs exhibit a remarkable increase of both acetylated histones 3 and 4, with a patient-dependent time trend, and methylation at lysine 9 on histone 3 preceding the acetylation. Expression levels of p300 and SIRT-1, two major regulators of histone 3, are also upregulated after treatment with PL. In conclusion, PL could unravel novel biological properties beyond its routine employment in noncardiac applications, providing new insights into the plasticity of human ADMSCs.

  13. The Potential of GMP-Compliant Platelet Lysate to Induce a Permissive State for Cardiovascular Transdifferentiation in Human Mediastinal Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs are considered eligible candidates for cardiovascular stem cell therapy applications due to their cardiac transdifferentiation potential and immunotolerance. Over the years, the in vitro culture of ADMSCs by platelet lysate (PL, a hemoderivate containing numerous growth factors and cytokines derived from platelet pools, has allowed achieving a safe and reproducible methodology to obtain high cell yield prior to clinical administration. Nevertheless, the biological properties of PL are still to be fully elucidated. In this brief report we show the potential ability of PL to induce a permissive state of cardiac-like transdifferentiation and to cause epigenetic modifications. RTPCR results indicate an upregulation of Cx43, SMA, c-kit, and Thy-1 confirmed by immunofluorescence staining, compared to standard cultures with foetal bovine serum. Moreover, PL-cultured ADMSCs exhibit a remarkable increase of both acetylated histones 3 and 4, with a patient-dependent time trend, and methylation at lysine 9 on histone 3 preceding the acetylation. Expression levels of p300 and SIRT-1, two major regulators of histone 3, are also upregulated after treatment with PL. In conclusion, PL could unravel novel biological properties beyond its routine employment in noncardiac applications, providing new insights into the plasticity of human ADMSCs.

  14. Ligament Tissue Engineering Using a Novel Porous Polycaprolactone Fumarate Scaffold and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Platelet Lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Bravo, Dalibel; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Riester, Scott M; Chase, Steven; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Dietz, Allan B; van Wijnen, Andre J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Surgical reconstruction of intra-articular ligament injuries is hampered by the poor regenerative potential of the tissue. We hypothesized that a novel composite polymer "neoligament" seeded with progenitor cells and growth factors would be effective in regenerating native ligamentous tissue. We synthesized a fumarate-derivative of polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) to create macro-porous scaffolds to allow cell-cell communication and nutrient flow. Clinical grade human adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) were cultured in 5% human platelet lysate (PL) and seeded on scaffolds using a dynamic bioreactor. Cell growth, viability, and differentiation were examined using metabolic assays and immunostaining for ligament-related markers (e.g., glycosaminoglycans [GAGs], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagens, and tenascin-C). AMSCs seeded on three-dimensional (3D) PCLF scaffolds remain viable for at least 2 weeks with proliferating cells filling the pores. AMSC proliferation rates increased in PL compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) (p human fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that AMSCs proliferate and eventually produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix on porous PCLF scaffolds. This novel scaffold has potential in stem cell engineering and ligament regeneration.

  15. Human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from young and elderly women: their differentiation potential and scaffold interaction during in vitro osteoblastic differentiation.