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Sample records for adiponectin predicts hypertension

  1. Leptin, not adiponectin, predicts hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, and glucose, and with leptin and adiponectin included...

  2. Serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ping; YANG Cheng-ti; GAO Xing-yu; ZHANG Ling; HU Hou-xiang; CHEN Li

    2004-01-01

    To explore the serum levels of adiponectin in patients with essential hypertension and the relationbetween adiponectin and blood pressure. Methods: Forty-five cases with essential hypertension and 43 healthy control sub-jects have been taken fasting blood samples for measurements of plasma glucose, plasma lipids, insulin, C-peptide, thyroidhormones, TNF-α, leptin and adiponectin. Glucose tolerance was assessed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance est. Results: Theconcentrations of adiponectin in cases with essential hypertension were significantly lower than those in the control group(4.15 ± 1.99 vs 7.04 ± 3.13 mg/ml, P = 0.000). Pearson relation analysis showed that serum adiponectin concentrationswere negatively and significantly correlated with body-mass index ( r = - 0. 274, P = 0. 038 ), total cholesterol(r = -0.257, P = 0.048)in control groups, while adiponectin concentrations were negatively and significantly correlatedwith systolic blood pressure ( r = - 0.356, P = 0.016), triglyceride ( r = - 0.367, P = 0.013), tumor necrosis factor-al-pha ( r = - 0. 298, P = 0.047) and triiodothyronine ( r = - 0.317, P = 0. 034) in essential hypertension group. Multipleregression analysis showed that body-mass index was the independent factor to adiponectin levels, and SBP and TNF-α wereadiponectin independent factors in the essential hypertension group. Conclusion: The serum adiponectin concentrations aresignificant lower in patients with essential hypertension, and there is negative and significantly correlation between adiponec-tin and blood pressure.

  3. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk....... In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension....... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130...

  4. Plasma adiponectin: a contributing factor for cardiac changes in visceral obesity-associated hypertension.

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    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Licata, Anna; Argano, Christiano; Duro, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Scaglione, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the impact of adiponectin levels on left ventricular geometry and function in visceral obesity-associated hypertension. 94 consecutive subjects, 53 of them were hypertensives and 41 normotensives with age ≤ 65 years, subgrouped according to the presence or absence of visceral obesity, were studied. Total adiponectin levels were measured by a validated competitive radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular telediastolic internal diameter, interventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, total left ventricular mass (LVM) and normalized for height to the 2.7 power (LVM/h(2.7)), relative wall thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography and isovolumic relaxation time, E/A ratio and deceleration time of E velocity, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in visceral obesity-associated hypertensives than lean hypertensives (p hypertensive groups, and in visceral obesity-associated normotensives in comparison with lean normotensives. Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with LVM/h(2.7) but only in normotensives (adjusted R squared 0.77, p hypertensives (0.67, p obesity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that adiponectin levels remain significantly associated (p obesity-associated normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In this last group, adiponectin, more than blood pressure, may be able to explain the development of cardiac damage.

  5. Serum adiponectin level in hypertensive patients and its association with atherosclerotic risk factors

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    Bülent Uygungelen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by white adipose tissue; it is known to have anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and macrophages. Methods. A total of 80 individuals including 48 hypertensive and 32 normotensive individuals were included in the study. Groups were separated as obese and non-obese. Results. It was found out that the patient group had statistically higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high sensitive C reactive protein and microalbuminuria values than the control group while high density lipoprotein values were significantly lower (p<0.05. When adiponectin levels of the groups were compared, the patient group had an adiponectin level of 8.66±2.75 µg/mL and the control group had an adiponectin level of 15.01±3.99 µg/mL. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (p<0.05. There was a negative correlation between adiponectin level and atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusion. Adiponectin level was lower in hypertensive group when compared to the control group; there was also a significant association between adiponectin and atherosclerotic risk factors. A low adiponectin level constitutes an important risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  6. Effects of sympatholytic therapy with moxonidine on serum adiponectin levels in hypertensive women.

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    Ebinç, H; Ozkurt, Z N; Ebinç, F A; Ucardag, D; Caglayan, O; Yilmaz, M

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether moxonidine influences lipid profile, insulin resistance, adiponectin levels, renal function and microalbuminuria in women with essential hypertension in a study of 55 non-diabetic hypertensive patients and 53 normotensive women. Hypertensive patients received moxonidine for 12 weeks. At baseline the hypertensive group had significantly higher mean blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, urinary albumin excretion and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), together with significantly lower mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine clearance and serum adiponectin than the normotensive group. Moxonidine significantly decreased blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and albumin excretion, but significantly increased serum adiponectin. The change in adiponectin level was negatively correlated with the change in HOMA-IR. Moxonidine treatment may improve unfavourable metabolic status related to insulin resistance by increasing adiponectin levels in patients with essential hypertension. Since it can improve adiponectin levels, it may be used in the antihypertensive treatment of patients at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  7. High adiponectin levels fail to protect against the risk of hypertension and,in women,against coronary disease:involvement in autoimmunity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Altan; Onat; Mesut; Aydln; Günay; Can; Bayram; Kroglu; Ahmet; Karagz; Servet; Altay

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether serum adiponectin protects against cardiometabolic risk in a population sample with prevailing metabolic syndrome.METHODS:Middle-aged adults representative of a general population with baseline circulating adiponectin measurements(n=1224)were analyzed prospectively at a mean of 3.8 years’follow-up,using continuous values or sex-specific tertiles.Total adiponectin was assayed by an ELISA kit.Type-2 diabetes was identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association.Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure≥140 mmHg and/or≥90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medication.Outcomes were predicted using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that were controlled for potential confounders.RESULTS:In models of multiple linear regression,sex hormone-binding globulin,fasting insulin(inverse)and,in men,age were significant independent covariates of serum adiponectin which further tended in women to be positively associated with serum creatinine.Cox regression analyses for incident coronary heart disease(CHD),adjusted for sex,age,non-HDL cholesterol,waist circumference and C-reactive protein,revealed significant inverse association with adiponectin tertiles in men but not women(HR=0.66;95%CI:0.32-1.38 for highest tertile).Cox regression for type-2 diabetes in a similar model(wherein glucose replaced non-HDL cholesterol),adiponectin tertiles appeared to protect in each gender.HR for incident hypertension roughly displayed unity in each of the adiponectin tertiles(P-trend=0.67).CONCLUSION:High adiponectin levels failed to protect against the development of hypertension and,in women,against CHD,presumably paralleling impairment in renal function as well.Involvement of adiponectin in autoimmune complex with loss of antioxidative-antiatherogenic properties may be underlying.

  8. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels and Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients

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    Dagmar Horáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the potential use of lower total and HMW adiponectin levels for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Concentrations of total adiponectin or high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin decrease in association with the development of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity, insulin resistance, or T2DM. Increased adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease. A total of 551 individuals were assessed. The first group comprised metabolically healthy participants (143 females, and 126 males and the second group were T2DM patients (164 females, and 118 males. Both total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in diabetic patients were significantly lower when compared with the group of metabolically healthy individuals. There was a weak monotonic correlation between HMW adiponectin levels and triglycerides levels. Binary logistic regression analysis, gender adjusted, showed a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic persons when both total adiponectin (OR = 1.700 and HMW adiponectin (OR = 2.785 levels were decreased. A decrease in total adiponectin levels as well as a decrease in its HMW adiponectin is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in individuals with T2DM. This association suggests that adiponectin levels may be potentially used as an epidemiological marker for cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  9. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

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    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  10. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension.

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    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(-)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(-) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(-) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin.

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease, Obesity, and Hypertension: The Role of Leptin and Adiponectin

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    M. Tesauro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem and characterized by a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney. Several elements contribute to determine a progression of the kidney injury, inducing a worsening of renal damage and accelerating the decline of renal function: obesity and hypertension are two known factors of kidney progression. Remarkable improvements have been recently achieved in the study of the endocrine features of the adipose tissue and have been able to produce hormone-like peptides named adipokines or adipocytokines. Among these adipocytokines, which represent a link between obesity, hypertension, and chronic nephropathy, leptins and adiponectin appear to play an important role. Leptin not only is a prohypertension element (renal progression factor through the activation sympathetic nervous, but also is able to induce prosclerotic effects directly on the kidney. In contrast, a decline of adiponectin levels has been shown to be related to a picture of hypertension: an endothelial dysfunction has been described as the main pathogenic mechanism responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Adiponectin gene polymorphism is selectively associated with the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome and essential hypertension.

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    Hsin-Bang Leu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk increases with the presence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypertension (HTN. Although the adiponectin (ADIPOQ gene has been reported to be involved in MetS, its association with HTN remained undetermined. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ gene with the phenotypes of HTN and MetS. METHODS: A total of 962 participants from 302 families from the Taiwan young-onset hypertension genetic study were enrolled. Plasma adiponectin were measured, and association analysis was conducted by using GEE regression-based method. Another study, of 1448 unrelated participants, was conducted to replicate the association between ADIPOQ gene and variable phenotypes of MetS with or without HTN. RESULTS: Among 962 subjects from family samples, the lowest plasma adiponectin value was observed in MetS with HTN component (9.3±0.47 µg/ml compared with hypertensives (13.4±0.74 µg /ml or MetS without HTN (11.9±0.60 µg/ml, P<0.05. The SNP rs1501299 (G276T in ADIPOQ gene was found associated with the presence of HTN in MetS (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.14-5.3, p = 0.02, but not rs2241766 (T45G. No association of ADIPOQ gene with HTN alone or MetS without HTN was observed. The significant association of the SNP rs1501299 (G276T with the phenotype of presence of HTN in MetS was confirmed (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3 in the replication study. CONCLUSIONS: ADIPOQ genetic variants were selectively and specifically associated with the concomitant presence of MetS and HTN, suggesting potential genetic linkage between MetS and HTN.

  13. Combined use of serum adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 levels was comparable to 2-hour post-load glucose in diabetes prediction.

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    Yu-Cho Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated adipokine secretion are implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the use of serum adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, and several proinflammatory adipokines, as biomarkers of diabetes risk and whether they add to traditional risk factors in diabetes prediction. METHODS: We studied 1300 non-diabetic subjects from the prospective Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS. Serum adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNF-α R2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured in baseline samples. RESULTS: Seventy-six participants developed diabetes over 5.3 years (median. All five biomarkers significantly improved the log-likelihood of diabetes in a clinical diabetes prediction (CDP model including age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, waist circumference, fasting glucose and dyslipidaemia. In ROC curve analysis, "adiponectin + TNF-α R2" improved the area under ROC curve (AUC of the CDP model from 0.802 to 0.830 (P = 0.03, rendering its performance comparable to the "CDP + 2-hour post-OGTT glucose" model (AUC = 0.852, P = 0.30. A biomarker risk score, derived from the number of biomarkers predictive of diabetes (low adiponectin, high TNF-α R2, had similar performance when added to the CDP model (AUC = 0.829 [95% CI: 0.808-0.849]. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of serum adiponectin and TNF-α R2 as biomarkers provided added value over traditional risk factors for diabetes prediction in Chinese and could be considered as an alternative to the OGTT.

  14. The plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men : A prospective nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van Beek, Andre P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plasma leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a preferential marker of atherosclerosis susceptibility compared to leptin and adiponectin alone. We determined the extent to which the L/A ratio predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) taking account of clinical risk f

  15. Serum adiponectin predicts all-cause mortality and end stage renal disease in patients with type I diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A.; Tarnow, L.; Frystyk, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin levels are increased in patients with type I diabetes especially in the presence of microangiopathy. Here we determined the predictive value of serum adiponectin levels and 8 adiponectin gene polymorphisms for mortality, cardiovascular events and end-stage renal disease in type I...... predicted end stage renal disease in a covariate-adjusted analysis. Two of eight gene polymorphisms, found in the 878 patients, were associated with increased serum adiponectin levels but none of the polymorphisms were associated with a renal or cardiovascular outcome. These studies show that high serum...... adiponectin levels predict mortality and progression to end stage renal disease in type I diabetic patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  16. Serum Adiponectin, Vitamin D, and Alpha-Fetoprotein in Children with Chronic Hepatitis C: Can They Predict Treatment Response?

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    Khedr, Mohamed Ahmed; Sira, Ahmad Mohamed; Saber, Magdy Anwar; Raia, Gamal Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims. The currently available treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children is costly and with much toxicity. So, predicting the likelihood of response before starting therapy is important. Methods. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured before starting pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for 50 children with CHC. Another 21 healthy children were recruited as controls. Results. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and AFP were higher in the CHC group than healthy controls (p < 0.0001, p = 0.071, and p = 0.87, resp.). In univariate analysis, serum adiponectin was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (p < 0.0001) and at a cutoff value ≥8.04 ng/mL it can predict treatment response by 77.8% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity, while both AFP and viremia were significantly lower in responders than nonresponders, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively, and at cutoff values ≤3.265 ng/mL and ≤235,384 IU/mL, respectively, they can predict treatment response with a sensitivity of 83.3% for both and specificity of 85.7% and 78.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin was found to be the only independent predictor of treatment response (p = 0.044). Conclusions. The pretreatment serum level of adiponectin can predict the likelihood of treatment response, thus avoiding toxicities for those unlikely to respond to therapy.

  17. Serum Adiponectin, Vitamin D, and Alpha-Fetoprotein in Children with Chronic Hepatitis C: Can They Predict Treatment Response?

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    Mohamed Ahmed Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims. The currently available treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC in children is costly and with much toxicity. So, predicting the likelihood of response before starting therapy is important. Methods. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were measured before starting pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for 50 children with CHC. Another 21 healthy children were recruited as controls. Results. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and AFP were higher in the CHC group than healthy controls (p<0.0001, p=0.071, and p=0.87, resp.. In univariate analysis, serum adiponectin was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (p<0.0001 and at a cutoff value ≥8.04 ng/mL it can predict treatment response by 77.8% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity, while both AFP and viremia were significantly lower in responders than nonresponders, p<0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively, and at cutoff values ≤3.265 ng/mL and ≤235,384 IU/mL, respectively, they can predict treatment response with a sensitivity of 83.3% for both and specificity of 85.7% and 78.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin was found to be the only independent predictor of treatment response (p=0.044. Conclusions. The pretreatment serum level of adiponectin can predict the likelihood of treatment response, thus avoiding toxicities for those unlikely to respond to therapy.

  18. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

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    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani,1 Somayeh Mohammadi,2 Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini,3 Parviz Fallah,4 Zahra Bazi5 1Nutrition Research Center, 2Department of Nutrition, 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of

  19. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

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    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  20. High-molecular-weight adiponectin does not predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Aso, Yoshimasa; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Inukai, Toshihiko; Brix, Johanna; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2009-04-01

    Low circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HMW adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The investigation took place in a specialized outpatient clinic for metabolic diseases and included 147 patients with T2DM following a cross-sectional and a prospective study protocol. Ninety patients had macrovascular disease at baseline defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, previous stroke, or peripheral artery disease. HMW adiponectin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and routine clinical parameters were determined in all patients at baseline. The occurrence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) during the follow-up period was evaluated. No significant correlations between traditional cardiovascular risk markers and HMW adiponectin could be detected. HMW adiponectin did not differ between subjects with and without macrovascular disease at baseline (3.5 [interquartile range [IQR]: 2.2-5.7] mg/L vs 4.0 [IQR: 2.5-7.1] mg/L). During a follow-up of 19.3 (IQR: 16-25) months, 61 endpoints (41 myocardial infarctions, 10 strokes, and 10 deaths) were observed. A 1-standard-deviation increment of log-transformed HMW adiponectin was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.54; P = 0.835). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin was not related to present macrovascular disease and is not associated with future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. It is unlikely that HMW adiponectin has significant vasoprotective effects in these patients.

  1. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

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    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-07-10

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia.

  2. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension in Koreans.

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    Cho, Joo-Jang; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iridological constitution and angiotensinogen (AGN) gene polymorphism in hypertensives. In addition to angiotensin converting enzyme gene, AGN genotype is also one of the most well studied genetic markers of hypertension. Furthermore, iridology, one of complementary and alternative medicine, is the diagnosis of the medical conditions through noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris. Iridological constitution has a strong familial aggregation and is implicated in heredity. Therefore, the study classified 87 hypertensive patients with familial history of cerebral infarction and controls (n = 88) according to Iris constitution, and determined AGN genotype. As a result, the AGN/TT genotype was associated with hypertension (chi2 = 13.413, p iridological constitutional classification increased the relative risk for hypertension in the subjects with AGN/T allele. These results suggest that AGN polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension associated with AGN/T in a Korean population.

  3. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

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    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  4. Inflammation and Arterial Hypertension: From Pathophysiological Links to Risk Prediction.

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    Pietri, Panagiota; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, ample data have demonstrated the pivotal role of low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. It is well established that inflammatory activation, serving either as a substrate, in the chronic phase of atherosclerotic disease, or as a trigger, in the acute phase, increases cardiovascular events. Considering hypertension, the inflammatory process is implicated in its pathophysiology through a bidirectional relationship since arterial hypertension may enhance inflammation and vice versa. Inflammatory biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, have shown predictive value for both the incidence of hypertension and the clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. In the present review, data on the association between arterial hypertension and low-grade inflammation will be reported and potential pathophysiological pathways and clinical implications underlying this association will be discussed.

  5. Prediction and prognosis of hypertension in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders represent the most significant complication of pregnancy and affect about 10% of all pregnancies. Early referral for specialist care for those who are at risk might translate into improved management of these women, while the possibility to identify women at very low risk for

  6. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  7. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and blood adiponectin in diabetic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Izadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related disorders characterized by insulin resistance such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased adiponectin levels. The purpose of the present study was to determine association of lipid profile and obesity markers with serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetes adult males. Methods: For this purpose, forty one adult males with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study randomly. Blood samples were collected after a 10-12 hour overnight fasting for measuring serum glucose and lipid profile and adiponectin. The anthropometrical indices were measured too. A multivariate linear regression analysis used to predict relation between variables. Results: The data analysis showed that circulatory adiponectin had significant negative association with glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, visceral fat and cholesterol/HDL ratio (P ≤0.05. There were no significant correlation between adiponectin level and HDL and LDL. Conclusion: Our findings support negative relationship between serum adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

  8. Risk models to predict hypertension: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As well as being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, hypertension is also a health condition in its own right. Risk prediction models may be of value in identifying those individuals at risk of developing hypertension who are likely to benefit most from interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To synthesize existing evidence on the performance of these models, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE; examined bibliographies of retrieved articles; contacted experts in the field; and searched our own files. Dual review of identified studies was conducted. Included studies had to report on the development, validation, or impact analysis of a hypertension risk prediction model. For each publication, information was extracted on study design and characteristics, predictors, model discrimination, calibration and reclassification ability, validation and impact analysis. Eleven studies reporting on 15 different hypertension prediction risk models were identified. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, and blood pressure variables were the most common predictor variables included in models. Most risk models had acceptable-to-good discriminatory ability (C-statistic>0.70 in the derivation sample. Calibration was less commonly assessed, but overall acceptable. Two hypertension risk models, the Framingham and Hopkins, have been externally validated, displaying acceptable-to-good discrimination, and C-statistic ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. Lack of individual-level data precluded analyses of the risk models in subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination ability of existing hypertension risk prediction tools is acceptable, but the impact of using these tools on prescriptions and outcomes of hypertension prevention is unclear.

  9. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-05

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production.

  10. High serum adiponectin predicts incident fractures in elderly men: Osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; Lerner, Ulf H; Jutberger, Hans; Lorentzon, Mattias; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Karlsson, Magnus K; Ljunggren, Osten; Smith, Ulf; McCloskey, Eugene; Kanis, John A; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common progenitor, and there is, therefore, potential for both autocrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin on skeletal metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether high serum adiponectin was associated with an increased risk of fracture in elderly men. We studied the relationship between serum adiponectin and the risk of fracture in 999 elderly men drawn from the general population and recruited to the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Baseline data included general health questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin, osteocalcin, and leptin. Men were followed for up to 7.4 years (average, 5.2 years). Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, other risk variables and the time-to-event hazard function of fracture. Median levels of serum adiponectin at baseline were 10.4 µg/mL (interquartile range, 7.7-14.3). During follow-up, 150 men sustained one or more fractures. The risk of fracture increased in parallel with increasing serum adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR]/SD, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.72) and persisted after multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR/SD, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55). Serum adiponectin shows graded stepwise association with a significant excess risk of fracture in elderly men that was independent of several other risk factors for fracture. Its measurement holds promise as a risk factor for fracture in men.

  11. Relationship between adiponectin, obesity and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ardenghi Balsan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the conditions of obesity and overweight pose a major risk for a number of comorbidities, including clinical syndromes resulting from atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies strongly indicate that adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes bioactive factors such as adipokines. Adiponectin appears to have a regulatory role in the mechanism of insulin resistance and in the development of atherosclerosis. This systematic review aims to evaluate the anti-atherogenic effects of adiponectin and its properties to improve and mimic metabolic and vascular actions of insulin and its influence on endothelial function. Methods: a qualitative, exploratory and literature review was performed in the PubMed, Portal Capes and Scielo databases using as key-words "adiponectin", "obesity", "insulin resistance", "anti-inflammatory", "therapeutic strategies" and "future prospects". Results: evidence suggests that adiponectin has anti-atherogenic properties with anti-inflammatory effects on the vascular wall. Moreover, it modifies the vascular intracellular signaling and has indirect antioxidant effects on the human myocardium. On the other hand, there are studies suggesting that increased levels of adiponectin are paradoxically associated with a worse prognosis in heart failure syndrome, although the mechanisms are not clear. Conclusion: it is not clear whether adiponectin levels have any clinical significance for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease or if they simply reflect the activation of complex underlying mechanisms. Changes in lifestyle and some drug treatments for hypertension and coronary heart disease have shown significant effect to increase adiponectin levels, and simultaneously decrease in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Is adiponectin a risk factor for transient ischaemic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Ufuk; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Kose, Sukran; Ozcelik, Murat; Zorlu, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, and it plays a role in atherosclerosis. The role of adiponectin in the development of ischaemic stroke is controversial. Up to now, adiponectin was not evaluated in transient ischaemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin and transient ischaemic attack. Forty patients with transient ischaemic attack were included into the study. In all patients, traditional risk factors of ischaemic stroke and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were determined. Also, the relationship between these parameters and adiponectin levels were examined. No difference was found in terms of adiponectin levels between patients and healthy subjects. In addition, there was no association between adiponectin levels and traditional risk factors. Our results suggest that adiponectin may not be a predictive risk factor of transient ischaemic attack.

  13. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence...

  14. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  15. The Risk Factors That Predict Chronic Hypertension After Delivery in Women With a History of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Won; Park, Sung-Ji; Oh, Soo-Young; Chang, Sung-A; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is one of the most important lethal complications in pregnant mothers. It is also associated with the subsequent development of chronic hypertension. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical risk factors of postpartum chronic hypertension in women diagnosed with HDP.Six hundred patients as HDP, who diagnosed and followed-up at least 6 month after delivery, were included in the study. We divided the included subjects in 2 groups based on the development of postpartum chronic hypertension: presenting with the chronic hypertension, "case group" (n = 41) and without chronic hypertension, "control group" (n = 559).Clinical and demographic factors were evaluated. By multiple regression analysis, early onset hypertension with end-organ dysfunction, smoking, higher prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS), were associated with progression to chronic hypertension in the postpartum period. The value of area under the curves (AUC) for the 5 models, that generated to combine the significant factors, increased from 0.645 to 0.831, which indicated improved prediction of progression to the chronic hypertension. Additional multivariate analysis revealed significant specific risk factors.This retrospective single hospital-based study demonstrated that the clinical risk factors, that is early onset hypertension with end-organ dysfunction, smoking, and higher prepregnancy BMI, were significant independent predictors of chronic hypertension in women after delivery. Identification of risk factors allowed us to narrow the subject field for monitoring and managing high blood pressure in the postpartum period.

  16. Does a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy help predict future essential hypertension? Findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, L K; Mamun, A; McIntyre, H D; Williams, G M; Najman, J M; Nitert, M D; Lawlor, D A

    2013-05-01

    Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is considered an important determinant in the prediction of future hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine whether HDP improves prediction of future hypertension, over prediction based on established risk factors measured during pregnancy. We used a community based cohort study of 2117 women who received antenatal care at a major hospital in Brisbane between 1981 and 1983 and had blood pressure assessed 21 years after the index pregnancy. Of these 2117 women, 193 (9.0%) experienced HDP and 345 (16.3%) had hypertension at 21 years postpartum. For women with HDP, the odds of being hypertensive at 21 years postpartum were 2.46 (95% CI 1.70, 3.56), adjusted for established risk factors including age, education, race, alcohol, cigarettes, exercise and body mass index. Addition of HDP did not improve the prediction model that included these established risk factors, with the area under the curve of receiver operator (AUROC) increasing from 0.710 to 0.716 (P-value for difference in AUROC=0.185). Our findings suggest that HDP is strongly and independently associated with future hypertension, and women who experience this condition should be counselled regarding lifestyle modification and careful ongoing blood pressure monitoring. However, the development of HDP during pregnancy does not improve our capacity to predict future hypertension, over risk factors identifiable at the time of pregnancy. This suggests that counseling regarding lifestyle modification and ongoing blood pressure monitoring might reasonably be provided to all pregnant and postpartum women with identifiable risk factors for future hypertension.

  17. ADIPONECTIN IN SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations differ between patients with severe preeclampsia and those with normal pregnancies, and to explore the relationship between plasma adiponectin and the results of Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries. Methods This case-control study included two groups: (1) patients with severe preeclampsia (n=50) and (2) patients with normal pregnancies (n=150). Pulsed-wave and color Doppler ultrasound examination of the uterine arteries were performed. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Patients with severe preeclampsia had a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. (2) The median plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ between women with severe preeclampsia who had a high impedance to blood flow in the uterine arteries and those with normal impedance to blood flow. (3) Among patients with normal pregnancies, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with BMI in the first trimester and at sampling. Conclusions Women with severe preeclampsia have a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. This may reflect a compensatory feedback mechanism to the metabolically-altered, anti-angiogenic and pro-atherogenic state of severe preeclampsia. PMID:17919115

  18. Hypertension: Development of a prediction model to adjust self-reported hypertension prevalence at the community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentz Graciela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate estimates of hypertension prevalence are critical for assessment of population health and for planning and implementing prevention and health care programs. While self-reported data is often more economically feasible and readily available compared to clinically measured HBP, these reports may underestimate clinical prevalence to varying degrees. Understanding the accuracy of self-reported data and developing prediction models that correct for underreporting of hypertension in self-reported data can be critical tools in the development of more accurate population level estimates, and in planning population-based interventions to reduce the risk of, or more effectively treat, hypertension. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported survey data in describing prevalence of clinically measured hypertension in two racially and ethnically diverse urban samples, and evaluates a mechanism to correct self-reported data in order to more accurately reflect clinical hypertension prevalence. Methods We analyze data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP Survey conducted in 2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES 2001–2002 restricted to urban areas and participants 25 years and older. We re-calibrate measures of agreement within the HEP sample drawing upon parameter estimates derived from the NHANES urban sample, and assess the quality of the adjustment proposed within the HEP sample. Results Both self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence of hypertension were higher in the HEP sample (29.7 and 40.1, respectively compared to the NHANES urban sample (25.7 and 33.8, respectively. In both urban samples, self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence is higher than that reported in the full NHANES sample in the same year (22.9 and 30.4, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between clinical and self-reported hypertension prevalence were ‘moderate to good’ within

  19. A Risk Score to Predict Hypertension in Primary Care Settings in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P Sankara; Razum, Oliver; Thrift, Amanda Gay; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2016-01-01

    We used the data of 297 participants (15-64 years old) from a cohort study (2003-2010) who were free from hypertension at baseline, to develop a risk score to predict hypertension by primary health care workers in rural India. Age ≥35 years, current smoking, prehypertension, and central obesity were significantly associated with incident hypertension. The optimal cutoff value of ≥3 had a sensitivity of 78.6%, specificity of 65.2%, positive predictive value of 41.1%, and negative predictive value of 90.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the risk score was 0.802 (95% confidence interval = 0.748-0.856). This simple and easy to administer risk score could be used to predict hypertension in primary care settings in rural India.

  20. [Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is well known to one of the risk factors to reduce cognitive function, however, it is still unclear whether anti-hypertensive therapy is effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies suggested antihypertensive therapy from the middle-age could reduce risk of dementia. The meta-analysis including HYVET also suggested blood pressure lowering from the elderly might be also effective to prevent development of dementia. The network meta-analysis and the cohort study using mega-data bank suggested ARB might be effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease compared to administration with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Although the further major clinical investigation is required, anti-hypertensive treatment might be useful to manage hypertensive patients with dementia.

  1. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death. 1 Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension. 2,3 In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system. 4 The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of peo...

  2. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  3. Common Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Gene ACDC Are Not Associated With Diabetes in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Hanson, Robert L; Funahashi, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein with important metabolic effects. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and low adiponectin levels predict insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Two variants in the adiponectin gene ACDC have been previously...... diabetes, BMI, serum lipid levels, serum adiponectin levels, and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion. None of the ACDC variants were associated with type 2 diabetes, BMI, or measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. One variant, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-12823, was associated...

  4. Resistin, Visfatin, Adiponectin, and Leptin: Risk of Breast Cancer in Pre- and Postmenopausal Saudi Females and Their Possible Diagnostic and Predictive Implications as Novel Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. A. Assiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of adipokines could promote breast cancer (BC development. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin with BC risk in pre- and postmenopausal females. A total of 82 BC newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients and 68 age and BMI matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both groups were subdivided into post- and premenopausal subgroups. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. There were significantly higher levels of leptin, resistin, and visfatin in postmenopausal BC patients than their respective controls. Only in postmenopausal subgroups, leptin, resistin, and visfatin levels were positively correlated with TNM staging, tumor size, lymph node (LN metastasis, and histological grading. In postmenopausal females, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin were risk factors for BC. Our results suggested that serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels as risk factors for postmenopausal BC may provide a potential link with clinicopathological features and are promising to be novel biomarkers for postmenopausal BC.

  5. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Pblood pressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth.

  6. Adiponectin provides cardiovascular protection in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-23

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  7. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome.

  8. Circulating Adiponectin Is Associated with Renal Function Independent of Age and Serum Lipids in West Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Doumatey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, has been associated with renal dysfunction. However, these observations have not been adequately investigated in large epidemiological studies of healthy individuals in general and in African populations in particular. Hence, we designed this study to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and renal function in a large group of nondiabetic West Africans. Total adiponectin was measured in 792 participants. MDRD and Cockroft-Gault (CG- estimated GFR were used as indices of renal function. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between adiponectin and renal function. Adiponectin showed an inverse relationship with eGFR in univariate (BetaMDRD=-0.18, BetaCG=-0.26 and multivariate (BetaMDRD=-0.10, BetaCG=-0.09 regression analyses. The multivariate models that included age, sex, BMI, hypertension, smoking, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and adiponectin explained 30% and 55.6% of the variance in GFR estimated by MDRD and CG methods, respectively. Adiponectin was also a strong predictor of moderate chronic kidney disease (defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We demonstrate that adiponectin is associated with renal function in nondiabetic West Africans. The observed relationship is independent of age and serum lipids. Our findings suggest that adiponectin may have clinical utility as a biomarker of renal function.

  9. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Defining hypertension in pregnancy is challenging because blood pressure levels in pregnancy are dynamic, having a circadian rhythm and also changing with advancing gestational age. The accepted definition is a sustained systolic (sBP) of ≥140 mmHg or a sustained diastolic blood pressure (dBP) ≥90 mmHg, by office (or in-hospital) measurement. Measurement of blood pressure in pregnancy should follow standardised methods, as outside pregnancy. Blood pressure measurement may occur in three types...

  10. 血浆脂联素水平预测妊娠期糖尿病的前瞻性研究%Prospective study on the value of plasma level of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦雅苹; 谭燕; 黄泳华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆脂联素水平预测妊娠期糖尿病的应用价值.方法:选择妊娠期糖尿病高危因素孕妇,所有孕妇于孕14~18周进行常规体检测身高、体重、血压、血浆脂联素、空腹血糖及胰岛素、总胆固醇、甘油三脂.孕24 ~ 28周复查血浆脂联素、OGTT葡萄糖耐量及胰岛素,计算胰岛素抵抗指数,跟踪孕妇至分娩,根据糖耐量结果分为妊娠期糖尿病组与正常妊娠妇女组.总结妊娠期糖尿病发病情况,将妊娠期糖尿病孕早、中期血浆脂联素水平及其他检验指标进行比较.结果:GDM组14~18周及24 ~ 28周血清脂联素水平均明显低于NGT组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);孕14 ~ 18周血清脂联素与孕前体重指数、孕晚期体重指数、空腹血糖、空腹胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数、新生儿体重,存在显著负相关性.结论:脂联素水平是预测妊娠期糖尿病的敏感指标,孕14~ 18周脂联素水平已明显下降,即在临床上诊断妊娠期糖尿病前体内脂联素水平已有下降,脂联素水平可以早期预测妊娠期糖尿病.%Objective-. To investigate the value of plasma level of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), then to provide scientific evidence for early prediction of GDM. Methods: Pregnant women with high risk factors of GDM were enrolled into this study, body height, body weight, blood pressure, plasma adiponectin, fasting blood glucose and insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride were tested at 14 ~ 18 weeks of pregnancy. And plasma adiponectin, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood insulin were tested again at 24 ~28 weeks of pregnancy, then the insulin resistance index was calculated. According to the result of OGTT, two groups were divided, including GDM group and normal glucose tolerance ( NGT) group to summary the incidence of GDM and compare all the test indexes at early and midtrimester pregnancy. Results: The plasma level of

  11. Myeloperoxidase-Dependent LDL Modifications in Bloodstream Are Mainly Predicted by Angiotensin II, Adiponectin, and Myeloperoxidase Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Men

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    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paradigm of atherogenesis proposes that low density lipoproteins (LDLs are trapped in subendothelial space of the vascular wall where they are oxidized. Previously, we showed that oxidation is not restricted to the subendothelial location. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages, can modify LDL (Mox-LDL at the surface of endothelial cells. In addition we observed that the activation of the endothelial cells by angiotensin II amplifies this process. We suggested that induction of the NADPH oxidase complex was a major step in the oxidative process. Based on these data, we asked whether there was an independent association, in 121 patients, between NADPH oxidase modulators, such as angiotensin II, adiponectin, and levels of circulating Mox-LDL. Our observations suggest that the combination of blood angiotensin II, MPO activity, and adiponectin explains, at least partially, serum Mox-LDL levels.

  12. Prediction of postpartum hemorrhage in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; Van der Tuuk, Karin; Groen, Henk; Doornbos, Johannes P. R.; De Graaf, Irene M.; Van der Salm, Pauline C. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Kuppens, Simone M. I.; Wijnen, Ella J.; Aardenburg, Robert; Van Loon, Aren J.; Akerboom, Bettina M. C.; Van der Lans, Peggy J. A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Van Pampus, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether postpartum hemorrhage can be predicted in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term. DESIGN: A cohort study in which we used data from our multicentre randomized controlled trial (HYPITAT trial). SETTING: The study was conducted in 38 hospitals in

  13. A comparison of the predictive power of anthropometric indices for hypertension and hypotension risk.

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    Bum Ju Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is commonly accepted that body fat distribution is associated with hypertension, but the strongest anthropometric indicator of the risk of hypertension is still controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of hypotension with anthropometric indices have been reported. The objectives of the present study were to determine the best predictors of hypertension and hypotension among various anthropometric indices and to assess the use of combined indices as a method of improving the predictive power in adult Korean women and men. METHODS: For 12789 subjects 21-85 years of age, we assessed 41 anthropometric indices using statistical analyses and data mining techniques to determine their ability to discriminate between hypertension and normotension as well as between hypotension and normotension. We evaluated the predictive power of combined indices using two machine learning algorithms and two variable subset selection techniques. RESULTS: The best indicator for predicting hypertension was rib circumference in both women (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.813; AUC = 0.669 and men (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.601; AUC = 0.627; for hypotension, the strongest predictor was chest circumference in women (p = <0.0001; OR = 0.541; AUC = 0.657 and neck circumference in men (p = <0.0001; OR = 0.522; AUC = 0.672. In experiments using combined indices, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC for the prediction of hypertension risk in women and men were 0.721 and 0.652, respectively, according to the logistic regression with wrapper-based variable selection; for hypotension, the corresponding values were 0.675 in women and 0.737 in men, according to the naïve Bayes with wrapper-based variable selection. CONCLUSIONS: The best indicators of the risk of hypertension and the risk of hypotension may differ. The use of combined indices seems to slightly improve the predictive

  14. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  15. First Trimester Urine and Serum Metabolomics for Prediction of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension: A Prospective Screening Study

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    Marie Austdal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, are major contributors to maternal morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of metabolomics to predict preeclampsia and gestational hypertension from urine and serum samples in early pregnancy, and elucidate the metabolic changes related to the diseases. Metabolic profiles were obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of serum and urine samples from 599 women at medium to high risk of preeclampsia (nulliparous or previous preeclampsia/gestational hypertension. Preeclampsia developed in 26 (4.3% and gestational hypertension in 21 (3.5% women. Multivariate analyses of the metabolic profiles were performed to establish prediction models for the hypertensive disorders individually and combined. Urinary metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 51.3% and 40% sensitivity, respectively, at 10% false positive rate, with hippurate as the most important metabolite for the prediction. Serum metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 15% and 33% sensitivity, respectively, with increased lipid levels and an atherogenic lipid profile as most important for the prediction. Combining maternal characteristics with the urinary hippurate/creatinine level improved the prediction rates of preeclampsia in a logistic regression model. The study indicates a potential future role of clinical importance for metabolomic analysis of urine in prediction of preeclampsia.

  16. First Trimester Urine and Serum Metabolomics for Prediction of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension: A Prospective Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austdal, Marie; Tangerås, Line H; Skråstad, Ragnhild B; Salvesen, Kjell; Austgulen, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Bathen, Tone F

    2015-09-08

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, are major contributors to maternal morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of metabolomics to predict preeclampsia and gestational hypertension from urine and serum samples in early pregnancy, and elucidate the metabolic changes related to the diseases. Metabolic profiles were obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of serum and urine samples from 599 women at medium to high risk of preeclampsia (nulliparous or previous preeclampsia/gestational hypertension). Preeclampsia developed in 26 (4.3%) and gestational hypertension in 21 (3.5%) women. Multivariate analyses of the metabolic profiles were performed to establish prediction models for the hypertensive disorders individually and combined. Urinary metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 51.3% and 40% sensitivity, respectively, at 10% false positive rate, with hippurate as the most important metabolite for the prediction. Serum metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 15% and 33% sensitivity, respectively, with increased lipid levels and an atherogenic lipid profile as most important for the prediction. Combining maternal characteristics with the urinary hippurate/creatinine level improved the prediction rates of preeclampsia in a logistic regression model. The study indicates a potential future role of clinical importance for metabolomic analysis of urine in prediction of preeclampsia.

  17. SSA 04-3 LEPTIN/ADIPONECTIN IN CARDIOMETABOLIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-09-01

    2, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy. High concentrations of adiponectin are associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, with an improvement in the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes, and with increased endotelial nitric oxide production. Therefore, it appears that interactions between angiotensin II and leptin/adiponectin imbalance may be important mediators of the elevated risk of developing DM2 and CVD associated with AO.While in the developed world the incidence of CVD is stabilizing or decreasing and prognosis is improving, incidence is increasing in the developing world. These differences in the global epidemiological profile of CVD may be due to diverse geographical, environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and ethnic characteristics. One of the explanations for these differences is that the populations of developing countries are more prone to develop cardiovascular and metabolic diseases at lower levels of AO as a result of shorter exposure times to the new lifestyles associated with modernization. The shorter the exposure time, the less adapted the population and the greater the risk of an inflammatory imbalance at lower levels of AO. Ethnic differences in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disease risk have been described and it has been proposed that these may be the result of differences in circulating adipokines and inflammatory markers associated with ethnic variations in obesity and body fat distribution. In United States (US) significant ethnic differences in adiponectin has been reported, compared with white Americans, African-American men and women, Japanese-American women, and native Hawaiian women have significantly lower levels. Another study conducted in healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults found that South Asians had the greatest insulin resistance, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were

  18. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-02-08

    The replenishment of adiponectin-an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects-has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between SBM supplementation and adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans.

  19. Cardiac magnetic resonance findings predicting mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.M. Baggen (Vivan J. M.); I. Leiner; M.C. Post (Martijn); A.P.J. van Dijk (Arie); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); H. Boersma (Eric); J. Habets; G.T. Sieswerda (Gertjan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of all reported cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings that predict clinical deterioration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched for longitudinal studies p

  20. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

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    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  1. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  2. Crosstalk between adiponectin and IGF-IR in breast cancer

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    Loredana eMauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia. Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer.

  3. Clinical Study on the Effect of Amlodipine Besylate and Moxonidine on Blood Pressure Variability and Serum Adiponectin Concentrations in Elderly Patitents with Hypertension%苯磺酸氨氯地平和莫索尼定对老年高血压患者血压变异性和血清脂联素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭朝明; 黄吟雪; 田鹏; 蔡君; 王丽平; 张磊

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较苯磺酸氨氯地平和莫索尼定对老年高血压病患者24 h动态血压变异性和血清脂联素水平的影响。方法选取120例老年高血压患者,随机分为 A、B 两组, A 组( n=56)口服苯磺酸氨氯地平片,5 mg/d;B组(n=58)口服莫索尼定,0.2 mg/d。监测两组患者服药前及服药4周后24 h动态血压,计算体质量指数(BM I),并检测血清脂联素水平。结果两种降压药物均能有效降低血压及血压变异性;治疗后,A组24 h SBP、24 h DBP 、24 h SBPV 和24 h DBPV均低于B组,两组24 h SBPV 和24 h DBPV比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),A组BMI水平高于B组(P<0.05),而血清脂联素水平低于B组(P<0.05)。结论在降低血压变异性上,苯磺酸氨氯地平优于莫索尼定;在控制BM I及血清脂联素水平上,莫索尼定优于苯磺酸氨氯地平。%Objective To investigate the effects of amlodipine besylate and moxonidine on blood pressure variability and serum adiponectin concentrations in elderly patients with hypertension .Methods 120 patients with hypertension were divided into two groups of A and B .Patients in Group A (n=56) took amlodipine besylate orally at doses of 5 mg/d ,while patients in Group B(n=58)took moxonidine tablets orally at doses of 0.2 mg/d .24‐hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ,body mass index (BMI)and serum adiponectin concentrations were monitored before the treatment and 4 weeks after the treatment respectively .Results The blood pressure and BPV in both groups were lower after treatment than before treatment .24‐hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,24‐hour diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,24‐hour systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV ) ,and 24‐hour diastolic blood pressure variability (DBPV) were significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (P< 0.05) ,while BMI and serum adiponectin concentrations is significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P

  4. Adiponectin: linking the metabolic syndrome to its cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R; Kamari, Yehuda; Avni, Irit; Grossman, Ehud; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2005-05-01

    Obesity and its related disorders, glucose intolerance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, collectively named the metabolic syndrome, result in substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent data point to several underlying regulatory mechanisms through which obesity links these various outcomes. Adipose tissue is now understood to function not merely as a passive energy storage depot but as an active endocrine organ, producing a variety of bioactive substances termed adipocytokines. Adiponectin, an adipocytokine first described as the most abundant protein produced by adipocytes, appears to serve as a central regulatory protein in many of the physiologic pathways controlling lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and to mediate various vascular processes. Adiponectin displays both anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. Unlike other adipocytokines, its levels are paradoxically decreased in obesity and insulin-resistance states including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as hypertension and coronary artery disease. This review will detail the relationship of adiponectin to various features of obesity and insulin-resistance syndromes, as well as its relationship to the cardiovascular complications of these disorders.

  5. Prediction of hypertensive crisis based on average, variability and approximate entropy of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, A W; Erne, P; Ammann, S; Perrig, M; Bürgi, U; Stuck, A E

    2008-01-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) of blood pressure (BP) can be easily measured based on software analysing 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), but the clinical value of this measure is unknown. In a prospective study we investigated whether ApEn of BP predicts, in addition to average and variability of BP, the risk of hypertensive crisis. In 57 patients with known hypertension we measured ApEn, average and variability of systolic and diastolic BP based on 24-h ABPM. Eight of these fifty-seven patients developed hypertensive crisis during follow-up (mean follow-up duration 726 days). In bivariate regression analysis, ApEn of systolic BP (Phypertensive crisis. The incidence rate ratio of hypertensive crisis was 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 631.5; Phypertensive crisis. A combination of these two measures had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 91%, respectively. ApEn, combined with other measures of 24-h ABPM, is a potentially powerful predictor of hypertensive crisis. If confirmed in independent samples, these findings have major clinical implications since measures predicting the risk of hypertensive crisis define patients requiring intensive follow-up and intensified therapy.

  6. The significance of adiponectin as a biomarker in metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease

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    Stojanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Adiponectin exerts profound protective actions during insulin resistence or prediabetes progression towards more severe clinical entities such as metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease. Since hypoadiponectinaemia contributes to the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease the level of circulating adiponectin may be an early marker of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum adiponectin levels and parameters of both insulin sensitivity and obesity in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease, as well as to assess predictive value of adiponectin serum levels as a biomarker of these entitetis. Methods. The study included 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease with different degree of insulin resistance and healthy, normoglycemic individuals. The control group comprising healthy, normoglycemic individuals was used for comparison. Serum level of adiponectin, fasting glucose, fasting insulinemia Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMAIR index and anthropometric parameters were determined in all the subjects. Adiponectin was measured by using the ultrasensitive ELISA method. Insulinemia was measured by the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The presence of glycemic disorders was assessed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Results. Adiponectin level was inversely correlated with age (ρ = - 0.015, parameters of both obesity (R = 0.437; p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (R = 0.374; p < 0.01. Decreasing in the level of adiponectin was strongly implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Most importantly, a statistically significant rapid decrease in adiponectin was in the prediabetic stages (p < 0.01. The predictor value of adiponectin was 1,356.32 ± 402.65 рg/mL. Conclusions. The obtained resultats suggest that adiponectin may be a useful marker in

  7. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-01-01

    The replenishment of adiponectin—an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects—has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between SBM supplementation and adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans. PMID:28208744

  8. Adipokines (adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhhibitor-1 in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS, which strongly predicts the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Adipokines may contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and may be a causal link between MS, diabetes and CVD. Hence, we studied the adipokines - adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 - in subjects with MS. Materials and Methods: We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, insulin, adiponectin, and PAI-1 measurement. Results: Subjects with MS had lower adiponectin (4.01 ± 2.24 vs. 8.7 ± 1.77 μg/ml; P < 0.0001 and higher PAI-1 (53.85 ± 16.45 vs. 17.35 ± 4.45 ng/ml; P < 0.0001 levels than controls. Both were related with the number of metabolic abnormalities. Adiponectin was negatively and PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio (WHR, body fat mass, percent body fat, and all the parameters of MS, except HDL where the pattern reversed. WHR and triglycerides were independent predictors of adipokines in multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that adiponectin (6.7 μg/ml and PAI-1 (25.0 ng/ml levels predicted the MS with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in Indian population. Conclusions: Subjects with MS have lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve the various components of MS, and hence there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent the ongoing epidemic of diabetes and CVD.

  9. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p physical activity, alcohol...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...

  10. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with plasma adiponectin but not with the leptin : adiponectin ratio independently of metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A recent report showed no benefit of the leptin: adiponectin ratio (L: A ratio) over individual adipokine levels in CHD prediction [ 8]. We determined associations of carotid intima media thickness (IMT) with the L: A ratio taking account of cardiovascular risk factors in a high risk popula

  11. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose

  12. Prediction of recurrence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostwaard, M.F. van; Langenveld, J.; Bijloo, R.; Wong, K.M.; Scholten, I.; Loix, S.; Hukkelhoven, C.W.; Vergouwe, Y.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Mol, B.W.; Ganzevoort, W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the recurrence risk of late-preterm hypertensive disease of pregnancy, and to determine whether potential risk factors are predictive. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three secondary and three tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands. POPULATION: We identified wom

  13. Inverse Correlation between Adiponectin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Japanese Male Workers

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    Miyazaki,Motonobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a close association between adiponectin and both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has not yet been well-investigated. To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. Two hundred and thirty-two of the 869 subjects (26.7% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63 and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84 quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001 after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. The current findings suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male workers.

  14. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphism with adiponectin levels and risk for insulin resistance syndrome

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    Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We observed the very strong association of the adiponectin 45-276 genotypes and haplotypes with adiponectin levels in healthy north Indian population and TG haplotypes also associated with metabolic parameters of the IR syndrome.

  15. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patients than controls. In MCI subjects, adiponectin level was negatively correlated with leptin, IL-1 β levels and BMI. Leptin concentration was correlated with IL-1 β level. Univariate logistic regression models revealed that the factors which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with T2DM were higher levels of HbA1c, leptin, IL-1 β and triglycerides, as well as lower levels of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similarly, previous CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, hypoglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, increased number of co-morbidities, older age, fewer years of formal education were found to be associated with MCI. The multivariable model indicated fewer years of formal education, previous CVD, hypertension, increased number of co-morbidities, higher HbA1c and IL-1 β levels and lower adiponectin level. Elderly diabetic patients with MCI have higher levels of leptin and IL-1 β and lower levels of adiponectin. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these markers in the progression to dementia.

  16. STUDY OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS & ITS COR R ELATION WITH BMI AND WAIST HIP RATIO

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    Arshiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not simply an inert storage depot for lipids but an important endocrine organ. It secretes many hormones called Adipocytokines which include Adiponectin , which increase insulin sensitivity , has an ti - inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: To study serum Adiponectin levels in type II DM individuals and compare the results with healthy controls and also to study the effect of BMI and WHR on serum Adiponectin levels. MATERIALS AND ME THOD: The study was carried out in seventy seven subjects who included 6 healthy male controls and 6 healthy female controls , 30 diabetic males and 35 diabetic female individuals. The healthy controls both male and female of age around 40 to 50 years (+5 years were selected with no history of diabetes or hypertension. The study group were selected of the same age as the control group from the Outpatient Department , Diabetology unit , of our Medical College. Individuals Height , Weight and Waist Hip Ratio we re measured and BMI was calculated with the formula - Weight in Kg/ Height in m². Estimation of serum Adiponectin with Human Adiponectin/Acrp 30 Immunoassay by Solid - phase ELISA which employs – Quantitative Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Technique. Plasma Gluc ose by GOD/POD method. RESULTS: The result shows that 1. Males have low levels of Adiponectin when compared to females which is not statistically significant and could be due to androgens like testosterone which inhibits the secretion of Adiponectin from a dipocytes. 2. Comparison of serum Adiponectin levels in type 2 DM subjects and healthy controls shows statistically significant decrease in Serum Adiponectin levels (P Value < 0.05 in type II DM subjects. 3. Negative correlation between serum Adiponectin and WHR and BMI but it is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Serum Adiponectin levels are decreased in Type II DM individuals. Adiponectin may be considered as one of the significant novel markers in

  17. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  18. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  19. Hypoadiponectinemia predicts impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: an 8-year prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XIAO Yang; LIU Hui; CHEN Xiao-yan; LI Xin-ying; TANG Wei-li; LIU Shi-ping; XU Ai-min; ZHOU Zhi-guang

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic properties.The aim of this study was to investigate whether low adiponectin levels predict the impairment of endothelial function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients in an 8-year prospective study.Methods In the prospective study,we enrolled 133 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without subclinical atherosclerosis and gave them intensive therapy; the mean treatment period was 8 years.Intensive treatment was a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacological therapy targeting hyperglycaemia,hypertension,dyslipidaemia and obesity.We measured baseline circulating adiponectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation by high-resolution vascular ultrasound.At year 8,102 patients were reexamined for endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation.Results Sex-adjusted adiponectin level was positively correlated with endothelium-independent vasodilation both at baseline (r=0.150,P=0.043) and at year 8 (r=0.339,P=0.001),whereas no association was found between adiponectin and endothelium-dependent vasodilation.In a stepwise multivariate linear regression model,adiponectin was an independent predictor for impaired endothelium-independent vasodilation at year 8 (P=0.001).Conclusions Plasma adiponectin concentration was associated with endothelium-independent vasodilation and hypoadiponectinemia predicted the impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients under multifactorial intervention.These data support the causative link of impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation with hypoadiponectinemia.

  20. Pretreatment renal vascular tone predicts the effect of specific renin inhibition on natriuresis in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Paassen, P; Navis, GJ; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1999-01-01

    Background In essential hypertension an elevated renal vascular resistance (RVR) may be a marker of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-mediated impairment of renal sodium excretion. This hypothesis was tested by investigating whether, in subjects with essential hypertension, the natriuretic respon

  1. Predictive model for the detection of pulmonary hypertension in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, Shoma; Miyagawa, Yuichi; Toda, Noriko; Tominaga, Yoshinori; Takemura, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often occurs due to a left heart disease, such as myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), in dogs and is diagnosed using Doppler echocardiography and estimated pulmonary arterial pressure. Diagnosis of PH in dogs requires expertise in echocardiography: however, the examination for PH is difficult to perform in a clinical setting. Thus, simple and reliable methods are required for the diagnosis of PH in dogs. The purpose of this study was to develop models using multiple logistic regression analysis to detect PH due to left heart disease in dogs with MMVD without echocardiography. The medical records of dogs with MMVD were retrospectively reviewed, and 81 dogs were included in this study and classified into PH and non-PH groups. Bivariate analysis was performed to compare all parameters between the groups, and variables with P values of 5.2 v, and a length of sternal contact of >3.3 v was considered suitable for the detection of PH. The predictive accuracy of this model (85.9%) was judged statistically adequate, and therefore, this model may be useful to screen for PH due to left heart disease in dogs with MMVD without echocardiography.

  2. Adiponectin as a routine clinical biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein synthesized and secreted predominantly by adipocytes into the peripheral blood. However, circulating adiponectin level is inversely related with body weight, especially visceral fat accumulation. The mechanism of this paradoxical relation remains obscure. Low circulating adiponectin concentrations (hypoadiponectinemia; metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia), atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease), sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gastritis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, pancreatitis, osteoporosis, and cancer (endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer). On the other hand, hyperadiponectinemia is associated with cardiac, renal and pulmonary diseases. This review article focuses on the significance of adiponectin as a clinical biomarker of obesity-related diseases. Routine measurement of adiponectin in patients with lifestyle-related diseases is highly recommended.

  3. Risk Prediction Models for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: Role of 12-Lead Electrocardiography

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    Angeli Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, affecting 6 to 8 percent of gestations. They may lead to severe maternal and fetal complications.

  4. Prediction and prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders : a clinical and pathophysiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Dekker

    1989-01-01

    textabstractpregnancyinduced hypertensive disease depends on a functional imbalance between two eicosanoid substances with opposing physiologic effects, it may be attempted to correct the putative imbalance by means of pharmacologic manipulation. The demonstration that such a pharmacologic intervent

  5. Usefulness of the second heart sound for predicting pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease

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    Sandra de Barros Cobra

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: P2 hyperphonesis is considered to be a valuable finding in semiological diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH. The aim here was to evaluate the accuracy of the pulmonary component of second heart sounds for predicting PH in patients with interstitial lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the University of Brasilia and Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. METHODS: Heart sounds were acquired using an electronic stethoscope and were analyzed using phonocardiography. Clinical signs suggestive of PH, such as second heart sound (S2 in pulmonary area louder than in aortic area; P2 > A2 in pulmonary area and P2 present in mitral area, were compared with Doppler echocardiographic parameters suggestive of PH. Sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and positive (LR+ and negative (LR- likelihood ratios were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between S2 or P2 amplitude and PASP (pulmonary artery systolic pressure (P = 0.185 and 0.115; P= 0.13 and 0.34, respectively. Higher S2 in pulmonary area than in aortic area, compared with all the criteria suggestive of PH, showed S = 60%, Sp= 22%; LR+ = 0.7; LR- = 1.7; while P2> A2 showed S= 57%, Sp = 39%; LR+ = 0.9; LR- = 1.1; and P2 in mitral area showed: S= 68%, Sp = 41%; LR+ = 1.1; LR- = 0.7. All these signals together showed: S= 50%, Sp = 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The semiological signs indicative of PH presented low sensitivity and specificity levels for clinically diagnosing this comorbidity.

  6. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease in male renal transplant recipients: baseline results from the LANDMARK 2 study

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    Mudge David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a major adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Adiponectin levels correlate inversely with renal function and higher levels are predictive of lower cardiovascular disease (CVD in patients with normal renal function and chronic kidney disease. No data exists on the association between adiponectin and CVD in renal transplant recipients (RTR. Methods Standard biochemistry, clinical data and adiponectin were collected from 137 RTR recruited to the LANDMARK 2 study at baseline. The LANDMARK 2 study is an ongoing randomized controlled study that compares the outcome of aggressive risk factor modification for cardiovascular disease versus standard post-transplant care in renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. Results Mean patient age was 53.4 ± 12 years and the median post-transplantation period was 5 (0.5-31.9 years. Mean serum adiponectin level was 12.3 ± 7.1 μg/mL. On univariate analysis, adiponectin was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.01 and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (P Conclusion In conclusion, adiponectin is positively correlated with inflammation, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance in RTR. Furthermore, hypoadiponectinemia correlated with increased baseline CVD in male RTR.

  7. ROC curves of obesity indicators have a predictive value for children hypertension aged 7-17 years

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    Li Tai-shun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the distribution of integrated covariate and its association with blood pressure (BP among children in Anhui province, China, and assess the predictive value of integrated covariate to children hypertension. Methods: A total of 2,828 subjects (1,588 male and 1,240 female aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waistline, hipline and BP of all subjects were measured, obesity and overweight were defined by an international standard, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. High BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP > 95th percentile for age and gender. Results: Our results revealed that the prevalence of children hypertension was 11.03%, the SBP and DBP of obesity group were significantly higher than that of normal group. Anthropometric obesity indices such as body mass index (BMI were positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Integrated covariate had a better performance than the single covariate in the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve, the cut-off value; the sensitivity and the specificity of the integrated covariate were 0.112, 0.577, 0.683, respectively. Conclusion: Integrated covariate is a simple and effective anthropometric index to identify childhood hypertension.

  8. Association of adiponectin with cardiovascular events in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients

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    Amir Elokely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a novel collagen-like protein synthesized by white adipose tissue. Its levels are decreased in obesity, type-2 diabetes and insulin-resistant states, and are increased in chronic renal failure. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. This study was planned to evaluate the levels of adiponectin in uremic patients with and without diabetes and to find any relationship between adiponectin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine the possible predictive value of adiponectin for cardiovascular complications (CVC. The study included 100 subjects, 20 of them were healthy subjects and served as the control group (group I, 40 were uremic non-diabetic patients (group II (half of them were without CVC, group IIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIB and, lastly, 40 uremic diabetic patients (group III (half of them were without CVC, group IIIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIIB. All subjects were subjected to complete clinical examination, including determination of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio, routine laboratory investigations, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, lipid profile (cholesterol, TG, LDL, HDL, determination of insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR and estimation of serum levels of adiponectin. There was a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels in all the uremic patients (group II and group III when compared with the control (group I group, P <0.01; also, serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in uremic diabetic patients (group III when compared with uremic non-diabetic patients (group II, P <0.01; but this was still higher than in the controls. The patients with CVC, whether uremic non-diabetic (group IIB or uremic diabetic (group IIIB, had a significant decrease in serum adiponectin levels when compared with patients without CVC (group IIA and

  9. Adiponectin Signaling Regulates Lipid Production in Human Sebocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Ra; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Phil; Seo, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Im, Myung

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in metabolic function, inflammation and multiple biological activities in various tissues. However, evidence for adiponectin signaling in sebaceous glands is lacking, and its role remains to be clarified. This study investigated the role of adiponectin in lipid production in sebaceous glands in an experimental study of human sebocytes. We demonstrated that human sebaceous glands in vivo and sebocytes in vitro express adiponectin receptor and that adiponectin increased cell proliferation. Moreover, based on a lipogenesis study using Oil Red O, Nile red staining and thin layer chromatography, adiponectin strongly upregulated lipid production in sebocytes. In three-dimensional culture of sebocytes, lipid synthesis was markedly enhanced in sebocytes treated with adiponectin. This study suggested that adiponectin plays a significant role in human sebaceous gland biology. Adiponectin signaling is a promising target in the clinical management of barrier disorders in which sebum production is decreased, such as in atopic dermatitis and aged skin. PMID:28081218

  10. Prediction of pregnancy-induced hypertension by a shift of blood pressure class according to the JSH 2009 guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Arata, Naoko; Sakamoto, Naoko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Aoki, Hiroaki; Kurauchi-Mito, Asako; Dongmei, Qiu; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kitagawa, Michihiro

    2011-11-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) at early or mid pregnancy is a known risk factor for pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). However, the association between BP changes during the first half of pregnancy and subsequent PIH development is unknown. We used changes in maternal BP between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation to evaluate the risk of PIH. A total of 976 pregnant women with BP estimations recorded before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation participated in this study. BPs were classified by the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2009 Hypertension Treatment Guidelines (JSH 2009). There was a significant trend for future PIH in women whose JSH 2009 BP class increased between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation, and the risk of PIH was highest among women whose BP was Class IV Hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP≥90 mm Hg). The risk of PIH increased in women whose BPs shifted from Classes I Optimal (systolic BP<120 mm Hg and diastolic BP<80 mm Hg) and II Normal (systolic BP 120-129 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 80-84 mm Hg) before 16 weeks to Class III High-Normal (systolic BP 130-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 85-89 mm Hg) at 20 weeks of gestation. These shifts in BP class were significantly correlated with the risk of PIH after adjustments for variables (P-value for trend <0.05). Within JSH 2009 Classes I, II and III, a shift in BP from a low to a high class between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation predicts the subsequent development of PIH.

  11. Chronic kidney disease predicts impaired membrane microviscosity of red blood cells in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that abnormalities in physical properties of the cell membranes may be strongly linked to hypertension and other circulatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) might be a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible relationship between kidney function and membrane fluidity (a reciprocal value of membrane microviscosity) of red blood cells (RBCs) in hypertensive and normotensive subjects using an electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin-labeling method. The order parameter (S) for the ESR spin-label agent (5-nitroxide stearate) in RBC membranes was significantly higher in hypertensive subjects than in normotensive subjects, indicating that membrane fluidity was decreased in hypertension. The order parameter (S) of RBCs was inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting that a decreased eGFR value might be associated with reduced membrane fluidity of RBCs. Multivariate regression analysis also demonstrated that, after adjustment for general risk factors, eGFR might be a significant predictor of membrane fluidity of RBCs. The reduced levels of both membrane fluidity of RBCs and eGFR were associated with increased plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (an index of oxidative stress) and decreased plasma nitric oxide (NO)-metabolites, suggesting that kidney function could be a determinant of membrane microviscosity of RBCs, at least in part, via oxidative stress- and NO-dependent mechanisms. The ESR study suggests that CKD might have a close correlation with impaired rheologic behavior of RBCs and microcirculatory disorders in hypertensive subjects.

  12. LOW CIRCULATING MATERNAL ADIPONECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PYELONEPHRITIS: ADIPONECTIN AT THE CROSSROADS OF PREGNANCY AND INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Kim, Sun Kwon; Gotsch, Francesca; Lamont, Ronald; Ogge, Giovanna; Pacora, Percy; Goncalves, Luis; Kim, Chong Jai; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Objective An emerging theme in modern biology is that adipose tissue can respond to metabolic stress, and to inflammatory stimuli, by regulating the secretion of a complex network of soluble mediators, termed adipokines. Adiponectin, the most prevalent circulating adipokine in human, has profound insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Indeed, the notion that adiponectin plays an important role in the interactions between the metabolic and the immune systems has been strongly suggested. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal serum adiponectin concentrations. Study design This cross-sectional study included women in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=50). Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma adiponectin concentration was lower in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 2) among pregnant women with a normal weight, patients with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 3) similarly, among overweight/obese patients, those with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); and 4) the presence of pyelonephritis was independently associated with maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, gestational age at sampling, and pre-gestational BMI. Conclusion 1) The findings that acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is characterized by low maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin in both lean and overweight/obese patients are novel and concur with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin; and 2) the results of this study support the notion that adiponectin may play a role in the

  13. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

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    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  14. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  15. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maïmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported.

  16. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  17. Adiponectin Trajectories Before Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabák, Adam G.; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991–1993, 1997–1999, and 2003–2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year0) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. RESULTS Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187–10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535–12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year0: 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference −1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, −1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. CONCLUSIONS Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development. PMID:22933430

  18. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin have similar utility for the identification of insulin resistance

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    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR and related metabolic disturbances are characterized by low levels of adiponectin. High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total adiponectin. The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index for the identification of IR and related metabolic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in a group of ambulatory subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, in Mexico City. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for total, HMWA and the SA index were plotted for the identification of metabolic disturbances. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the identification of IR were calculated. Results The study included 101 men and 168 women. The areas under the ROC curve for total and HMWA for the identification of IR (0.664 vs. 0.669, P = 0.74, obesity (0.592 vs. 0.610, P = 0.32, hypertriglyceridemia (0.661 vs. 0.671, P = 0.50 and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (0.624 vs. 0.633, P = 0.58 were similar. A total adiponectin level of 8.03 μg/ml was associated with a sensitivity of 57.6%, a specificity of 65.9%, a positive predictive value of 50.0%, a negative predictive value of 72.4%, and an accuracy of 62.7% for the diagnosis of IR. The corresponding figures for a HMWA value of 4.25 μg/dl were 59.6%, 67.1%, 51.8%, 73.7% and 64.2%. The area under the ROC curve of the SA index for the identification of IR was 0.622 [95% CI 0.554-0.691], obesity 0.613 [95% CI 0.536-0.689], hypertriglyceridemia 0.616 [95% CI 0.549-0.683], and hypoalphalipoproteinemia 0.606 [95% CI 0.535-0.677]. Conclusions Total adiponectin, HMWA and the SA index had similar utility for the identification of IR and metabolic disturbances.

  19. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, protects arterial walls against atherosclerosis, and regulates glucose metabolism, and is decreased in obese, insulin resistant, and type 2 diabetic patients. Adiponectin circulates in plasma as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW...

  20. Adiponectin increases secretion of rat submandibular gland via adiponectin receptors-mediated AMPK signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ding

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2 are expressed in various tissues and are involved in the regulation of multiple functions such as energy metabolism and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of adiponectin and AdipoRs in submandibular glands has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein of both adiponectin and AdipoR1/2 were expressed in rat submandibular glands and in the SMG-C6 cell line, as evidenced by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining showed that adiponectin was diffused in the cytoplasm, while AdipoR1/2 was concentrated in the membrane of acinar cells. Saliva flow was significantly increased by full length adiponectin (fAd or globular adiponectin (gAd perfusion in isolated rat submandibular glands. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK activator, also increased saliva secretion. fAd, gAd, and AICAR all increased the average width of apical tight junctions in perfused submandibular glands, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER in SMG-C6 cells, suggesting that adiponectin promoted secretion by modulating paracellular permeability. fAd and gAd increased p-AMPK levels, while AraA, an AMPK antagonist, abolished fAd- and gAd-induced changes in secretion, tight junction ultrastructure, and TER. Moreover, both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were required for fAd- or gAd-induced p-AMPK and TER responses, suggesting from their inhibition following AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 knockdown, and co-knockdown of AdipoRs by RNA interference. Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability.

  1. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    KAUST Repository

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: role of adiponectin (preliminary results

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    Yulia Nikolaevna Gorbunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical value of the disorders and diseases integrated within the metabolic syndrome (MS is in the combination of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD, which significantly accelerates the development of cardiovascular events (CVEs. The detection rate for MS in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is shown to be higher than in the controls regardless of the diagnostic criteria for MS. At present, there are confusing data on the role of adipokins in RA. Objective: to determine the rate of MS and its components in RA patients and the association of the level of adipokin (adiponectin with the components of MS in relation to the duration of RA. Subjects and methods: The investigation enrolled 69 RA patients divided into two groups: 1 34 patients with early-stage (<2-year RA and 2 35 patients with end-stage (>2-year RA. Results. MS occurred in 12 (17.4% of the 69 patients with RA. There was central (abdominal obesity in 37 (53.6% patients with RA, hypertension in 29 (42%, low high-density cholesterol levels in 20 (29%, hyperglycemia in 11 (15.9%, and hypertriglyceridemia in 10 (14.5%. According to the presence or absence of MS, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 12 patients with MS; 2 57 without MS. In the patients with RA and MS, the duration of the disease was shorter; DAS28 and CDAI were higher than in those without MS: 15.4 [7; 24] months versus 51.8 [6; 72] months; DAS28 was 5.8 [4.9; 6.7] scores versus 5.1 [4.5; 5.8] scores; CDAI: 34.8 [21.8; 41.4] scores versus 24.2 [18; 31] scores, respectively (p < 0.05 in all cases. The serum level of adiponectin was lower: 13.1 [5.7; 10.7] ng/ml versus 20.6 [6.9; 30.9] ng/ml in the patients with RA and MS as compared to those without MS; but there were no significant differences. In the patients with early-end RA, the rate of MS was twice higher than that in those with end-stage RA; however, the differences were statistically insignificant (p = 0.1. The components of MS

  3. Serum adiponectin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhograj, Abhijit; Suryanarayana, K. M.; Nayak, Ashwini; Murthy, N. S.; Dharmalingam, Mala; Kalra, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.[1] Pregnancy is a unique situation in which there is a physiological temporary increase in insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms responsible for the gestational-induced IR are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to compare adiponectin levels during 24–28 weeks period of gestation in drug-naive newly diagnosed GDM women with a cohort of normoglycemic pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A total of 47 pregnant women in the age group of 18–40 years were included in this cross-sectional study, of which 13 were GDM cases and 34 were normoglycemic controls. Serum adiponectin level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean adiponectin level was 16.92 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] = 2.78) and 19.38 ng/ml (SD = 2.71) in case and control groups, respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated decreased serum adiponectin levels in women with GDM when compared with age- and body mass index-matched euglycemic pregnant women. PMID:27867874

  4. Usefulness of latent left ventricular dysfunction assessed by Bowditch Treppe to predict stress-induced pulmonary hypertension in minimally symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricola, Eustachio; Bombardini, Tonino; Oppizzi, Michele; Margonato, Alberto; Pisani, Matteo; Melisurgo, Giulio; Picano, Eugenio

    2005-02-01

    We assessed whether the presence of latent myocardial dysfunction, evaluated by echocardiographic derived force-frequency relationship (FFR) during exercise, predicts the appearance of stress-induced pulmonary hypertension in minimally symptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Two groups of patients were identified: group I with normal (40 mm Hg) peak stress systemic pulmonary artery pressure. Group I had normal and upsloping FFR and group II had abnormal flat or biphasic FFR. Therefore, in patients with severe MR and apparently normal left ventricular function, the stress-induced pulmonary hypertension seems to be related to the presence of latent left ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Correlation of Progranulin, Granulin, Adiponectin and Vaspin with Metaflammation (hs-CRP in Indonesian Obese Men

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    Rosalia E Napitupulu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to chronic, low grade systemic inflammation (metaflammation and it leads to further metabolic complications such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes due to the adipocytokine imbalance. This study was carried out to assess the correlation between progranulin, granulin, adiponectin and visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (Vaspin with metaflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in centrally obese men. METHODS: This study was observational with a cross sectional design involving 60 men aged 30-60 years, consisted of 43 obese men (waist circumference (WC ≥90 cm and 13 non obese men (WC 105 cm. CONCLUSIONS: We found metaflammation (hs-CRP was significantly correlated with Vaspin, but not with progranulin, granulin and adiponectin, in obese men. We suggest the possibility of a dynamic expression of adipokines related to WC that are subjected to adipocytes hypertrophy-hyperplasia phenomenon. KEYWORDS: progranulin, granulin, adiponectin, Vaspin, hs-CRP, metaflammation, central obesity.

  6. Adiponectin and Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Patrick H. Dessein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the potential impact of adiponectin on carotid ultrasound determined atherosclerosis in 210 (119 black and 91 white RA patients in mixed regression models. Total adiponectin concentrations were smaller in patients with compared to those without the metabolic syndrome (MetS defined waist criterion (median (range = 6.47 (1.23–34.54 versus 8.38 (0.82–85.30 ng/mL, P=0.02, resp.; both total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin concentrations were larger in patients with compared to those without joint deformities (7.97 (0.82–85.30 and 3.51 (0.01–35.40 versus 5.36 (1.29–19.49 and 2.34 (0.01–19.49 ng/mL, P=0.003 and 0.02, resp.. Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were associated with carotid artery plaque in patients with MetS waist (odds ratio (95% CI = 0.87 (0.76–0.99 and 0.92 (0.85–0.99 per 1-standard deviation increment, P=0.02 for both and those without joint deformities (odds ratio (95% CI = 0.94 (0.88–0.99 and 0.94 (0.89–0.99, P=0.03 for both. Plaque prevalence was lower in patients without compared to those with joint deformities (23.4% versus 42.6, P=0.004 in multivariable analysis. In RA patients with abdominal obesity or no clinically evident joint damage, adiponectin concentrations are reduced but nevertheless associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis.

  7. Hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Raymond S; Kasner, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    The definition of hypertension has continuously evolved over the last 50 years. Hypertension is currently defined as a blood pressure greater than 140/90mmHg. One in every four people in the US has been diagnosed with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases further with age, affecting 75% of people over the age of 70. Hypertension is by far the most common risk factor identified in stroke patients. Hypertension causes pathologic changes in the walls of small (diameter<300 microns) arteries and arterioles usually at short branches of major arteries, which may result in either ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Reduction of blood pressure with diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have all been shown to markedly reduce the incidence of stroke. Hypertensive emergency is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120mmHg with end organ dysfunction, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, encephalopathy, or focal neurologic deficits. Hypertensive encephalopathy is believed to be caused by acute failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Hypertensive emergency is treated with intravenous antihypertensive agents to reduce blood pressure by 25% within the first hour. Selective inhibition of cerebrovascular blood vessel permeability for the treatment of hypertensive emergency is beginning early clinical trials.

  8. Evaluation of circulating proteins and hemodynamics towards predicting mortality in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Brandie D Wagner

    Full Text Available Although many predictors have been evaluated, a set of strong independent prognostic mortality indicators has not been established in children with pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The aim of this study was to identify a combination of clinical and molecular predictors of survival in PAH.This single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed from children with PAH between 2001 and 2008 at Children's Hospital Colorado. Blood samples from 83 patients (median age of 8.3 years-old were obtained. We retrospectively analyzed 46 variables, which included 27 circulating proteins, 7 demographic variables and 12 hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables for establishing the best predictors of mortality. A data mining approach was utilized to evaluate predictor variables and to uncover complex data structures while performing variable selection in high dimensional problems.Thirteen children (16% died during follow-up (median; 3.1 years and survival rates from time of sample collection at 1 year, 3 years and 5 years were 95%, 85% and 79%, respectively. A subset of potentially informative predictors were identified, the top four are listed here in order of importance: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1, apolipoprotein-AI, RV/LV diastolic dimension ratio and age at diagnosis. In univariate analysis, TIMP-1 and apolipoprotein-AI had significant association with survival time (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.25 [1.03, 1.51] and 0.70 [0.54-0.90], respectively. Patients grouped by TIMP-1 and apolipoprotein-AI values had significantly different survival risks (p<0.01.Important predictors of mortality were identified from a large number of circulating proteins and clinical markers in this cohort. If confirmed in other populations, measurement of a subset of these predictors could aid in management of pediatric PAH by identifying patients at risk for death. These findings also further support a role for the clinical

  9. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations.

  10. Prediction of the left ventricular mass from the electrocardiogram in systemic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, SO; Heesen, WF; Beltman, FW; Kroese, AH; May, JF; Smit, AJ; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Although echocardiography provides a reliable method to determine left ventricular (LV) mass, it may not be available in all settings. Numerous electrocardiographic (EGG) criteria for the detection of LV hypertrophy have been developed, but few attempts have been made to predict the LV mass itself f

  11. Predictive value of D-dimer for portal vein thrombosis after portal hypertension surgery in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictive value of D-dimer as a predictive indicator of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after portal hypertension surgery in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in 52 patients who had undergone surgery for portal hypertension in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.Changes in perioperative dynamic D-dimer were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of D-dimer were calculated, and ROC curves were analyzed.RESULTS: The D-dimer levels in the group developing postoperative PVT was significantly higher than those in the group not developing PVT (P = 0.001), and the ROC semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis of D-dimer showed a moderate predictive value in PVT (semiquantitative value Az = 0.794, P = 0.000; qualitative analysis: Az = 0.739, P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Dynamic monitoring of D-dimer levels in patients with portal hypertension after surgery can help early diagnosis of PVT, as in cases where the D-dimer levels steadily increase and exceed 16 μg/mL, the possibility of PVT is very high.

  12. Serum adiponectin levels in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92-12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients.

  13. 血浆APN水平与男性HBP合并CHD患者冠脉病变稳定性的相关性研究%Correlation between the level of serum adiponectin and the stability of coronary artery atheromatous plaque of coronary artery disease in male patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小丽; 何妍; 林劲; 王圣; 林慕如

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the predictive value for the stability of the coronary artery atheromatous plaque in the male patients with HBP combined with CHD. METHODS Analysis was done in 80 male cases with HBP who attended to the cardiovascular department of Hainan province hospital.Those cases were divided into the simple hypertensive group 20 cases, ACS group 38 cases, AMI group 20 cases, UAP group 18 cases and SAP group 22 cases. The level of the serum APN was evaluated. RESULTS The level of serum APN in the HBP combined with CHD group was lower than the simple hypertensive group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION The level of serum APN in the male patients with HBP combined with CHD has a correlation to the stability of the coronary artery atheromatous plaque. It takes advantages to predict the stability of the coronary artery atheromatous plaque in the male patients with HBP combined with CHD.%目的 探讨血浆脂联素(APN)水平对男性高血压病(HBP)合并冠心病(CHD)患者冠脉粥样斑块稳定性的预测价值.方法 入选80例因胸闷痛入院行冠脉造影术的男性HBP患者,按临床诊断分组,20例单纯HBP患者,HBP合并ACS患者38例,合并AMI患者20例,合并UAP患者18例;合并SAP患者22例.检测各受试对象的血浆APN水平.结果 HBP合并CHD组的血浆APN水平明显低于单纯HBP组(P<0.05);HBP合并ACS组血浆APN水平与HBP合并SAP组比较显著降低(P<0.05);HBP合并AMI组血浆APN水平低于HBP合并UAP组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 血浆APN水平与男性HBP合并CHD患者冠脉斑块稳定性显著相关,有助于临床预测此类患者冠脉斑块不稳定性.

  14. Chemerin and adiponectin contribute reciprocally to metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are considered chronic inflammatory states. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, may play an important role in linking MetS and inflammation. We investigated the association of chemerin with inflammatory markers and with characteristics of MetS in apparently healthy overweight and obese adults. We studied 92 adults; 59 men and 33 women whose average body mass index (BMI was 28.15 ± 5.08 kg/m(2. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance indices, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, adiponectin, and chemerin were measured. Controlling for age, gender, and BMI, serum chemerin level was positively correlated with body fat and serum triglyceride, and negatively correlated with adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C, and was not correlated with altered hsCRP or PTX3 levels. Among the low, moderate and high chemerin groups, high chemerin individuals are more likely to have lower HDL-C. Conversely, individuals in the low adiponectin group are more likely to have lower HDL-C and show more MetS phenotypic traits than moderate and high adiponectin subjects. To determine the relationships of chemerin and adiponectin to MetS and its components, participants were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and adiponectin levels (high chemerin/high adiponectin, high chemerin/low adiponectin, low chemerin/high adiponectin, or low chemerin/low adiponectin. Participants who were in the high chemerin/low adiponectin group more likely to have dyslipidemia and MetS (OR: 5.79, 95% CI:1.00-33.70 compared to the other three group. Our findings suggest that chemerin and adiponectin may reciprocally participate in the development of MetS.

  15. Adiponectin--a key adipokine in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J P; Richards, A A; Hickman, I J; Macdonald, G A; Prins, J B

    2006-05-01

    Adiponectin is a recently described adipokine that has been recognized as a key regulator of insulin sensitivity and tissue inflammation. It is produced by adipose tissue (white and brown) and circulates in the blood at very high concentrations. It has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle and the vasculature, with prominent roles to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity, increase fuel oxidation [via up-regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity] and decrease vascular inflammation. Adiponectin exists in the circulation as varying molecular weight forms, produced by multimerization. Recent data indicate that the high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes have the predominant action in the liver. In contrast to other adipokines, adiponectin secretion and circulating levels are inversely proportional to body fat content. Levels are further reduced in subjects with diabetes and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin antagonizes many effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) and this, in turn, suppresses adiponectin production. Furthermore, adiponectin secretion from adipocytes is enhanced by thiazolidinediones (which also act to antagonize TNF-alpha effects). Thus, adiponectin may be the common mechanism by which TNF-alpha promotes, and the thiazolidinediones suppress, insulin resistance and inflammation. Two adiponectin receptors, termed AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have been identified and these are ubiquitously expressed. AdipoR1 is most highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has a prominent action to activate AMPK, and hence promote lipid oxidation. AdipoR2 is most highly expressed in liver, where it enhances insulin sensitivity and reduces steatosis via activation of AMPK and increased peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand activity. T-cadherin, which is expressed in endothelium and smooth muscle, has been identified as an adiponectin-binding protein with preference for HMW adiponectin multimers. Given the low

  16. Cardiac magnetic resonance findings predicting mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggen, Vivan J.M. [AHMaZON Centre for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen and St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leiner, Tim; Habets, Jesse [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Post, Marco C.; Dijk, Arie P. van; Sieswerda, Gertjan T. [AHMaZON Centre for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen and St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boersma, Eric [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To provide a comprehensive overview of all reported cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings that predict clinical deterioration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched for longitudinal studies published by April 2015 that reported associations between CMR findings and adverse clinical outcome in PAH. Studies were appraised using previously developed criteria for prognostic studies. Meta-analysis using random effect models was performed for CMR findings investigated by three or more studies. Eight papers (539 patients) investigating 21 different CMR findings were included. Meta-analysis showed that right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction was the strongest predictor of mortality in PAH (pooled HR 1.23 [95 % CI 1.07-1.41], p = 0.003) per 5 % decrease. In addition, RV end-diastolic volume index (pooled HR 1.06 [95 % CI 1.00-1.12], p = 0.049), RV end-systolic volume index (pooled HR 1.05 [95 % CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.013) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (pooled HR 1.16 [95 % CI 1.00-1.34], p = 0.045) were of prognostic importance. RV and LV mass did not provide prognostic information (p = 0.852 and p = 0.983, respectively). This meta-analysis substantiates the clinical yield of specific CMR findings in the prognostication of PAH patients. Decreased RV ejection is the strongest and most well established predictor of mortality. (orig.)

  17. Postoperative Adiponectin Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

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    A. Thaler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients’ preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline ( and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (, , length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (, , and the inotropic score (, . Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels.

  18. Potential biomarkers predicting risk of pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease: the role of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ling; Sun Shuo; Li Yufen; Pan Wei; Xie Yumei; Wang Shushui; Zhang Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD).Although risk stratification is vital for prognosis and therapeutic guidance,the need for understanding the role of novel biomarkers cannot be overlooked.The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide levels and find potential biomarkers for early detection and treatment.Methods Between September 2012 and April 2013,we prospectively collected data on 158 pediatric patients with left to right shunt CHD at our institution.Standard right heart catheterizations were performed in all cases.Seventy-seven cases were associated with PH.The levels of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide were detected with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and a sensitive silver-sulphur electrode,respectively.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR),cystathionine β-synthase (CBS),and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE).Radioimmunoassays were used to obtain folic acid and vitamin B12 levels.Results The difference in the levels of homocysteine,folic acid,vitamin B12,hydrogen sulfide,as well as the MTHFR and CSE expression between patients with PH and without PH were statistically significant (all P <0.05).Homocysteine had the best sensitivity and specificity to predict PH (P <0.001).Subgroup analysis showed that the levels of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide,and the expression of CSE and MTHFR between patients with dynamic and obstructive PH were significantly different (all P <0.05).Based on the ROC curve,homocysteine had the best sensitivity and specificity to predict obstructive PH (P=0.032),while CSE had the most significant sensitivity and specificity to predict the dynamic PH (P=0.008).Conclusions Increased levels of homocysteine and decreased levels of hydrogen sulfide were significantly negatively correlated in PH associated with CHD.The underlying mechanism

  19. Prediction models for the 15 years risk of new-onset hypertension in Chinese people aged from 35 to 64 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国奇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To set up prediction models for the risk of new-onset hypertension in Chinese people and explorethe risk scores to facilitate the clinical application.Methods A cohort set up since 1992 with participants aged 35-64 years old from 11 provinces and cities of China was prospectively studied.Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for the incidence of hy-

  20. Obesity-Related Hypertension: Focus on Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard

    suggested to play a role in obesity-related hypertension such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system, inflammation, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, and abnormal production of adipocytokines. Of all adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin have received most...... attention and both hormones are considered as candidate intermediaries between adipose tissue and overweight and obesity-related disorders. Objectives: To study obesity-related hypertension with special focus on the hormone leptin. As obesity-related hypertension is multifactorial, other biological systems...... proposed to play a major role were also studied. Primary hypotheses: 1. leptin is a significant mediator of overweight- and obesity-related hypertension. 2. by investigating several biological systems involved in blood pressure regulation, it would be possible to identify specific factors which would...

  1. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on serum adiponectin level and mean arterial pressure in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-long; YIN Kai-sheng; LI Chong; JIA En-zhi; LI Yan-qun; GAO Zhao-fang

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might be independently associated with hypoadiponectinemia, which was linked to some complications of OSAS, such as hypertension, diabetes,etc. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on changes of both serum adiponectin levels and mean arterial pressure and their possible links in male OSAS patients.Methods Twenty-three adult male patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS but without obesity, coronary heart disease and diabetes were recruited. Their blood sampleswere collected and moming mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured before CPAP treatment and on day 3, 7, 14 of CPAP treatment respectively. The serum adiponectin concentration was tested with radioimmunoassay.Results Compared with the serum adiponectin level before CPAP treatment, no significant change was found in OSAS patients on day 3 and day 7 of CPAP treatment (P>0.05). It was not until day 14 of CPAP treatment did a significant elevation in serum adiponectin level occur (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the MAP showed no statistically significant difference among its levels before CPAP, on day 3 and day 7 of CPAP treatment (P>0.05). However, on day 14 of CPAP treatment,a significantly lower MAP than that obtained before treatment was observed (P<0.05).Conclusions CPAP treatment can gradually reverse hypoadiponectinemia and reduce MAP in OSAS patients.Hypoadiponectinemia might be involved in the pathogenesis of OSAS-mediated hypertension.

  2. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ortega Moreno

    Full Text Available High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR and 365 from Foggia (FG. Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [β (standard error, SE for 1 standard deviation (SD of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64] and in FG [β(SE=-5.70(1.28] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [β(SE=-3.99(0.59];(p<0.0001 for all. In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [β (SE= -2.19 (0.59, p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted β(SE=-4.42(1.16 ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.21-1.64 in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.21-1.94 in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.27-1.64 in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all. In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above

  3. An update on the role of adipokines in arterial stiffness and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Andréa R; Fontana, Vanessa; Laurent, Stephane; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-03-01

    Adipokines are hormones produced by adipocytes and have been involved in multiple pathologic pathways, including inflammatory and cardiovascular complications in essential hypertension. Arterial stiffness is a frequent vascular complication that represents increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Adipokines, such as adiponectin, leptin and resistin, might be implicated in hypertension, as well as in vascular alterations associated with this condition. Arterial stiffness has proven to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. Obesity and target-organ damage such as arterial stiffness are features associated with hypertension. This review aims to update the association between adipokines and arterial stiffness in essential and resistant hypertension (RHTN).

  4. Hypertension in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  5. Adiponectin is partially associated with exosomes in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoonsawat, Worrawalan; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Sonoyama, Kei

    2014-06-06

    Exosomes are membrane vesicles 30-120 nm in diameter that are released by many cell types and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA. Cultured adipocytes reportedly release exosomes that may play a role in cell-to-cell communication during the development of metabolic diseases. However, the characteristics and function of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo remain to be elucidated. Clearly, adipocyte-derived exosomes could exist in the circulation and may be associated with adipocyte-specific proteins such as adipocytokines. We isolated exosomes from serum of mice by differential centrifugation and analyzed adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in the exosome fraction. Western blotting detected adiponectin but no leptin and only trace amounts of resistin in the exosome fraction. The adiponectin signal in the exosome fraction was decreased by proteinase K treatment and completely quenched by a combination of proteinase K and Triton X-100. Quantitative ELISA showed that the exosome fraction contains considerable amounts of adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin. The concentration of adiponectin in the serum and the ratio of adiponectin to total protein in the exosome fraction were lower in obese mice than in lean mice. These results suggest that a portion of adiponectin exists as a transmembrane protein in the exosomes in mouse serum. We propose adiponectin as a marker of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo.

  6. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studi

  7. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  8. Impact of the adipokine adiponectin and the hepatokine fetuin-A on the development of type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort- and cross-sectional phenotyping studies.

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    Norbert Stefan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A are independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes in humans, and the major mechanisms involved. METHODS: Relationships with incident diabetes were tested in two cohort studies: within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study (628 cases and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 470 cases. Relationships with body fat compartments, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were studied in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP; N = 358. RESULTS: Circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A, independently of several confounders and of each other, associated with risk of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam (RR for 1 SD: adiponectin: 0.45 [95% CI 0.37-0.54], fetuin-A: 1.18 [1.05-1.32] and the NHS (0.51 [0.42-0.62], 1.35 [1.16-1.58]. Obesity measures considerably attenuated the association of adiponectin, but not of fetuin-A. Subjects with low adiponectin and concomitantly high fetuin-A had the highest risk. Whereas both proteins were independently (both p<1.8×10(-7 associated with insulin sensitivity, circulating fetuin-A (r = -0.37, p = 0.0004, but not adiponectin, associated with insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel information that adiponectin and fetuin-A independently of each other associate with the diabetes risk. Furthermore, we suggest that they are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes via different mechanisms, possibly by mediating effects of their source tissues, expanded adipose tissue and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

  9. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J.; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J.; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A.; Hart, Deborah J.; Spector, Tim D.; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent sampl

  10. PRIMEROS INTENTOS HACIA LA OBTENCIÓN DE ÍNDICES PREDICTIVOS EN LA HIPERTENSIÓN ARTERIAL DEL ADOLESCENTE / First attempts to obtain predictive indexes in adolescent hypertension

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    Guillermo Alberto Pérez Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: There are many risk factors for developing hypertension. In the XXI century, smarter ways to investigate are needed, so preventing the turning of an adolescent into a hypertensive adult must be a priority. The aim of this paper is to predict the risk of hypertension onset in adulthood, from cardiovascular tension and risk stratification since adolescence. Methods: A representative sample of 125 adolescents from the project PESESCAD-HTA was studied. They were diagnosed with prehypertension in 2001, and were followed for 8 years (96 months until January 2009. Results: Two predictive indexes were obtained. The first, based on the total cardiovascular risk and the second from the multiplication of these risks with an accuracy index for each of 61.6% and 70.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The index based on the multiplication of cardiovascular risk can predict, with adequate accuracy, the turning of a prehypertensive adolescent into hypertensive once he/she reaches adulthood.

  11. Novel Electrocardiographic Patterns for the Prediction of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy—From Pathophysiology to Practical Implications

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    Fabio Angeli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of poor outcome, including placental abruption, organ failure, cerebrovascular accident and disseminated intravascular coagulation. These disorders are associated with increased fetal risk of intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine death and prematurity. Electrocardiography (ECG recently emerged as a useful tool to evaluate cardiovascular complications during pregnancy. Specifically, left atrial abnormalities detected by standard ECG are associated with a fourfold increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The mechanisms linking left atrial abnormality on ECG with hypertensive disorders are still elusive. Several mechanisms, possibly reflected by abnormal left atrial activation on ECG, has been suggested. These include increased reactivity to angiotensin II and up-regulation of angiotensin type 1 receptors, with activation of autoantibodies targeting these receptors.

  12. Activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Lin, Huan; Li, Yehua; Liu, Ling; Meng, Qinghang; Cui, Ting; Liu, Jing; Li, Zhen

    2011-06-23

    Adiponectin is assembled into trimer (LMW), hexamer (MMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimer in adipocytes. The HMW adiponectin is more metabolically active and closely associated with peripheral insulin sensitivity. In this study, we reported that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with insulin-sensitizing effect, inhibits the expression of adiponectin, but promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin. Berberine activates AMPK. Knockdown of AMPKα1 abolishes the effect of berberine. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increases the level of HMW adiponectin. Our study suggested that activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization.

  13. Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Adiponectin Production in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Relation to Severity of Cardiac Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Shrestha, Kevin; Tong, Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Troughton, Richard W.; Borowski, Allen G.; Klein, Allan L.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic adipokine elevated in heart failure (HF) that may protect against endothelial dysfunction by influencing underlying nitric oxide bioavailablity. In this study, we examine the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and measures of nitric oxide bioavailability and myocardial performance in patients with chronic systolic HF. In 139 ambulatory patients with stable, chronic systolic HF (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I to IV), we measured plasma levels of adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and global arginine bioavailability (GABR), and performed comprehensive echocardiography with assessment of cardiac structure and performance. Adverse events (all-cause mortality or cardiac transplantation) were prospectively tracked for a median of 39 months. Plasma adiponectin levels directly correlated with plasma ADMA levels (Spearman’s r=0.41, p<0.001) and NT-proBNP levels (r=0.55, p<0.001), inversely correlated with GABR (r= −0.39, p<0.001), and were not associated with hsCRP (p=0.81) or MPO (p=0.07). Interestingly, increased plasma adiponectin levels remained positively correlated with plasma ADMA levels only in patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels (r= 0.33, p=0.009). Higher plasma adiponectin levels were associated with worse LV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), RV systolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), and RV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.011), but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels. Plasma adiponectin levels predicted increased risk of adverse clinical events (HR [95% CI]: 1.45 [1.02–2.07], p=0.038) but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels, or echocardiographic indices of diastolic or RV systolic dysfunction. In patients with chronic systolic HF, adiponectin production is more closely linked with nitric oxide bioavailability than inflammation, and appears to be more robust

  14. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

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    Norah G. Verbout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg. Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia.

  15. Effect of the diet components on adiponectin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, which requires nutritional interventions for its effective control. Adiponectin has antiinflammatory capacity, improves glucose tolerance and presents decreased plasma expression and concentration in obese individuals. Studies with animals reveal improvement in insulin resistance after the infusion of adiponectin; in humans, caloric restriction increases its levels. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of dietary components on gene expression and plasma concentration of adiponectin. Sixteen articles were found following a literature review -seven with interventions in animal models and nine in human. The results in animal models demonstrate that the consumption of hyperlipidemic diets, rich in saturated fat, reduces the levels of adiponectin, while the diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and supplementation with omega-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid increase its gene expression and plasma levels. In humans, the consumption of a healthy and Mediterranean diet are positively associated with adiponectin levels, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Due to the importance of adiponectin in preventing metabolic diseases and reducing cardiovascular risk, more research are needed on food strategies to promote the increase of adiponectin levels. Therefore, studies must be carried out to evaluate the response to different sources and levels of various dietary components and the safety of the supplementation of specific nutrients.

  16. Plasma proteomics classifiers improve risk prediction for renal disease in patients with hypertension or type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, Michelle J.; Jankowski, Joachim; Heinze, Georg; Kohl, Maria; Heinzel, Andreas; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Rossing, Peter; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Jankowski, Vera

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Micro and macroalbuminuria are strong risk factors for progression of nephropathy in patients with hypertension or type 2 diabetes. Early detection of progression to micro and macroalbuminuria may facilitate prevention and treatment of renal diseases. We aimed to develop plasma proteomics

  17. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, and status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous MgSO(4) is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  18. The predictive value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels on outcome in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery

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    Ayse Baysal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In children undergoing congenital heart surgery, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels may have a role in development of low cardiac output syndrome that is defined as a combination of clinical findings and interventions to augment cardiac output in children with pulmonary hypertension. Methods: In a prospective observational study, fifty-one children undergoing congenital heart surgery with preoperative echocardiographic study showing pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. The plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were collected before operation, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation. The patients enrolled into the study were divided into two groups depending on: (1 Development of LCOS which is defined as a combination of clinical findings or interventions to augment cardiac output postoperatively; (2 Determination of preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value by receiver operating curve analysis for low cardiac output syndrome. The secondary end points were: (1 duration of mechanical ventilation ≥72 h, (2 intensive care unit stay >7days, and (3 mortality. Results: The differences in preoperative and postoperative brain natriuretic peptide levels of patients with or without low cardiac output syndrome (n = 35, n = 16, respectively showed significant differences in repeated measurement time points (p = 0.0001. The preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value of 125.5 pg mL−1 was found to have the highest sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 96.9% in predicting low cardiac output syndrome in patients with pulmonary hypertension. A good correlation was found between preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide level and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.67, p = 0.0001. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery, 91% of patients with preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels above 125.5 pg mL−1 are at risk of developing low cardiac

  19. [Hypertension In pregnancy: practical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Jaafar; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2014-09-10

    Hypertension is the most frequent medical disorder of pregnancy. Whether in the form of a chronic hypertension or a pregnancy induced-hypertension, or preeclampsia, it is associated with major maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improvement of prenatal care allowed a reduction in the number of poor outcomes. However, our partial understanding of the origin of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia limits the establishment of robust prediction models and efficient preventive interventions. This review discusses actual considerations on the clinical approach to hypertension in pregnancy.

  20. New obesity indices and adipokines in normotensive patients and patients with hypertension: comparative pilot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Mariusz; Stepien, Anna; Banach, Maciej; Wlazel, Rafal N; Paradowski, Marek; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Rysz, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    We compared the obesity parameters and selected adipokines-leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-in obese patients with hypertension and normotensive patients. A total of 67 nondiabetic obese outpatients were divided into 2 groups: A-hypertensive and B-normotensive. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and insulin were measured. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio, visceral adiposity index, and body adiposity index (BAI). Among patients with hypertension, significant positive correlations were observed between leptin and body mass index and BAI (r = .31 and r = .63, respectively). In normotensive patients, leptin positively correlated with BAI (r = .73, P obesity and leptin are associated with hypertension in obese patients.

  1. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Caren G; Seely, Ellen W

    2011-12-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Preeclampsia, in particular, is associated with substantial risk to both the mother and the fetus. Several risk factors have been recognized to predict risk for preeclampsia. However, at present no biomarkers have sufficient discriminatory ability to be useful in clinical practice, and no effective preventive strategies have yet been identified. Commonly used medications for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy include methyldopa and labetalol. Blood pressure thresholds for initiating antihypertensive therapy are higher than outside of pregnancy. Women with prior preeclampsia are at increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease.

  2. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  4. Diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for pre-eclampsia in patients with established hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Kate; Seed, Paul T; Lightstone, Liz; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Gill, Carolyn; Webster, Philip; Poston, Lucilla; Chappell, Lucy C

    2016-04-01

    Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hypertension (CHT) frequently develop superimposed pre-eclampsia, but distinction from pre-existing disease is challenging. Plasma placental growth factor (PlGF), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and serum relaxin concentrations were quantified in a longitudinal prospective cohort of 121 women with CKD: 44 with chronic hypertension, and 79 healthy controls. Biomarker concentrations were compared with 32 women with pre-eclampsia without pre-existing disease. Test performance was evaluated for diagnosis of superimposed pre-eclampsia requiring delivery within 14 days of sampling. PlGF was evaluated as a promising marker in a validation cohort of women with suspected pre-eclampsia (29 with CKD; 94 with chronic hypertension; 29 with superimposed pre-eclampsia requiring delivery within 14 days) and compared with women without pre-existing disease (290 with no pre-eclampsia and 176 with pre-eclampsia requiring delivery within 14 days). From 20 and up to 42 weeks of gestation, lower maternal PlGF concentrations had high diagnostic accuracy for superimposed pre-eclampsia requiring delivery within 14 days (receiver operator characteristic 0.85) and confirmed in the validation cohort. The other plasma and serum biomarkers were not discriminatory. Thus, plasma PlGF concentrations could potentially help guide clinical decision making regarding admission and delivery for superimposed pre-eclampsia.

  5. Adiponectin action: a combination of endocrine and autocrine/paracrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eSweeney

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and work in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin levels and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectins beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways and its principal physiological effects (ie. metabolic and cardiovascular. The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed.

  6. Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity to Liver Cancer Additional Content Medical News Portal Hypertension By Steven K. Herrine, MD, Thomas Jefferson ... Liver Hepatic Encephalopathy Jaundice in Adults Liver Failure Portal Hypertension (See also Overview of Liver Disease .) Portal ...

  7. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  8. C-reactive protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Saisho

    Full Text Available AIMS: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP and high-molecular-weight (HMW adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria and 53 (7.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.

  9. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial.

  10. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  11. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ciwei Lim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults.We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.1.Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population.

  12. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 in the porcine uterus, conceptus, and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Kiezun, Marta; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-15

    Adiponectin, one of the several adipocytokines secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and controls female fertility. Female reproductive functions are closely associated with nutritional status, and adiponectin seems to be an important factor linking the regulation of metabolic homeostasis with reproductive processes. The biological activity of adiponectin is mediated by two distinct receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy and on Days 10 to 11 of the estrous cycle and in the conceptus and trophoblast. The highest level of adiponectin transcript was observed on Days 15 to 16 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 15 to 16 of gestation in the myometrium. The highest expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes was detected on Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the endometrium, and Days 12 to 13 in the myometrium. The highest content of adiponectin protein was noted on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32 of gestation in the endometrium and Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the myometrium. The expression of adiponectin protein was higher on Days 27 to 28 and 30 to 32 in the conceptuses. AdipoR1 protein content in the myometrium was highest on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32. In contrast, in the endometrium, it was more constant. The highest content of AdipoR2 protein was detected on Days 15 to 16 and 30 to 32 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the myometrium. In the conceptuses, the highest AdipoR1 protein content was observed on Days 15 to 16, and the highest AdipoR2 protein expression was determined on Days 15 to 16 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, AdipoR1 protein content was higher on Days 27 to 28 than on Days 30

  13. 妊娠高血压疾病产前预测及预防%Prediction and Prevention in Prenatal Hypertension of Pregnancy Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淑荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and preventions of hypertension of pregnancy disease. Methods 30 cases of hypertension of pregnancy had predicted the risk factors,in order to be avoided the happening of the disease and prevented the complications. Results Total 30 patients were analyzed, 9 cases were adopt artificial midwifery,21 cases were adopt cesarean section. Conclusion The effective prevention and treatment intervention are given in early pregnancy,in order to prevent the happening of the complications caused by disease.%目的:探讨妊娠期高血压疾病有关的危险因素及预防。方法对妊娠期高血压疾病患者30例进行高危因素预测,避免疾病的发生及预防疾病所致并发症的发生。结果30例患者,生产时行人工助产9例,剖宫产21例。结论早期妊娠时需发挥有效的预防和治疗干预,清楚了解疾病的病因并避免疾病的发生。

  14. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  15. [Adipokines: adiponectin, leptin, resistin and coronary heart disease risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopff, Barbara; Jegier, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Visceral obesity is among the known risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. As long as adipose tissue was considered only an inert store of excess energy, accumulated in triglycerides, explanation of the mechanisms causing increased cardiovascular risk in obesity was difficult. Finding that the adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and that the adipokines secreted in it influence several metabolic processes, allowed better understanding of this correlation. Several disturbances in secretion, function and balance of adipokines occur in the course of obesity. Changes of adiponectin, leptin and resistin concentrations are among the reasons of accelerated atherosclerosis occurring in the visceral adiposity. Adiponectin concentrations are decreased in visceral adiposity. Adiponectin is adipokine possessing antiatherogenic properties. It's effects exerted though the specific receptors in skeletal muscles and liver include decreased insulin resistance and improved plasma lipid profile. Acting directly in the vessel wall adiponectin prevents development of atheromatic lesions by inhibiting production of adhesive molecules and formation of foam cells. It has been found that decreased adiponectin concentrations are connected not only with increased coronary risk but also with progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels. Moreover it was found that adiponectin plasma concentration is significantly decreased in acute coronary incidences. Leptin regulates energy metabolism and balance. The concentrations of this adipokine are increased in obesity and correlate with insulin resistance. Hiperleptinemia has been also recognized as cardiovascular diseases risk factor. Resistin is considered to be a substance increasing insulin resistance, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Resistin plasma concentrations are increased in obese subjects and correlate with the inflammatory state that underlies the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic

  16. Adiponectin as a protective factor in hepatic steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Norberto C. Chávez-Tapia; Antonio R. Villa; Karla Sánchez-Lara; Daniel Zamora-Valdés; Martha H. Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Obesityand insulin resistance (IR) are closely related to hepatic steatosis (HS), and adiponectin is a hepatic insulin sensitizer that has important effects in liver function.This study aims at investigating the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and the presence of HS.METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit of a University Hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 196 subjects, comprising 98 subjects with HS (27 women, 71 men) and 98 controls (37 women and 61men). Anthropometric, metabolic and biochemical variables were measured in the two groups. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were determined,their association with grade of HS tested, and concentrations,according to quartiles, compared between cases and controls. χ2 analysis for linear trends was used to test for a dose-response relationship and logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for a protective effect of adiponectin.RESULTS: The HS subjects were older and more obese than controls, with a central obesity pattern. In the fourth quartile of adiponectin concentrations, HS was less common and severe. In a multivariate model of the fourth quartile of the adiponectin concentrations, we observed a protective effect (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.04-0.67, P= 0.01).In subjects with more severe HS, we observed higher leptin concentrations, and caloric intakes, total fat and iron consumption were higher than in controls.CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that a high serum concentration of adiponectin is associated with a protective effect against HS.

  17. SNPs and other features as they predispose to complex disease: genome-wide predictive analysis of a quantitative phenotype for hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Ho Won

    Full Text Available Though recently they have fallen into some disrepute, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been formulated and applied to understanding essential hypertension. The principal goal here is to use data gathered in a GWAS to gauge the extent to which SNPs and their interactions with other features can be combined to predict mean arterial blood pressure (MAP in 3138 pre-menopausal and naturally post-menopausal white women. More precisely, we quantify the extent to which data as described permit prediction of MAP beyond what is possible from traditional risk factors such as blood cholesterol levels and glucose levels. Of course, these traditional risk factors are genetic, though typically not explicitly so. In all, there were 44 such risk factors/clinical variables measured and 377,790 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped. Data for women we studied are from first visit measurements taken as part of the Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC study. We begin by assessing non-SNP features in their abilities to predict MAP, employing a novel regression technique with two stages, first the discovery of main effects and next discovery of their interactions. The long list of SNPs genotyped is reduced to a manageable list for combining with non-SNP features in prediction. We adapted Efron's local false discovery rate to produce this reduced list. Selected non-SNP and SNP features and their interactions are used to predict MAP using adaptive linear regression. We quantify quality of prediction by an estimated coefficient of determination (R(2. We compare the accuracy of prediction with and without information from SNPs.

  18. The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Boersema, Jeltje; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bilirubin may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heme oxygenase pathway is crucial for bilirubin generation, and is stimulated by adiponectin. We tested the relationship of plasma bilirubin with adiponectin, and determined whether the association of incident

  19. Renovascular hypertension. Ability to renal vein ratio to predict the blood pressure level 18-24 months after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Fjeldborg, O; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients with severe hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated surgically. One patient died 4 days after surgery due to a cerebral thrombosis. The other 13 patients were followed for 18-24 months. Five were considered cured since the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was less than or equal to 90 mm Hg without therapy. Five were improved since DBP was less than or equal to 100 mm Hg during treatment with only one or two antihypertensive agents. There were unchanged. Renal vein renin ratio (RVRR) was greater than or equal to 1.5 either before or after furosemide in all patients who were cured or improved and less than or equal to 1.5 in 2 of 3 who were unchanged. It can be concluded that surgical treatment cured or improved 77% of the patients, and that a RVRR greater than or equal to 1.5 is a good predictor of the blood pressure lowering effect of surgery.

  20. Evidence that adiponectin receptor 1 activation exacerbates ischemic neuronal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thundyil John

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Adiponectin is a hormone produced in and released from adipose cells, which has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in peripheral cells. Two cell surface adiponectin receptors (ADRs mediate the majority of the known biological actions of adiponectin. Thus far, ADR expression in the brain has been demonstrated in the arcuate and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, where its activation affects food intake. Recent findings suggest that levels of circulating adiponectin increase after an ischemic stroke, but the role of adiponectin receptor activation in stroke pathogenesis and its functional outcome is unclear. Methods- Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 1 h, followed by reperfusion. Primary cortical neuronal cultures were established from individual embryonic neocortex. For glucose deprivation (GD, cultured neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium for 6, 12 or 24 h. For combined oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD, neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium in an oxygen-free chamber with 95% N2/5% CO2 atmosphere for either 3, 6, 9, 12 or 24 h. Primary neurons and brain tissues were analysed for Adiponectin and ADRs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunoblot and immunochemistry methods. Results- Cortical neurons express ADR1 and ADR2, and that the levels of ADR1 are increased in neurons in response to in vitro or in vivo ischemic conditions. Neurons treated with either globular or trimeric adiponectin exhibited increased vulnerability to oxygen and glucose deprivation which was associated with increased activation of a pro-apoptotic signaling cascade involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Conclusions- This study reveals a novel pathogenic role for adiponectin and adiponectin receptor activation in ischemic stroke. We show that

  1. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin release of primary human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Neumeier, Markus; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2013-12-01

    Adipocytes in obesity have inappropriately low cholesterol while adiponectin release is reduced. Cholesterol shortage may contribute to low adiponectin and 3T3-L1 cells treated with lovastatin have diminished adiponectin in cell supernatants. LDL and HDL deliver cholesterol to adipocytes. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin in cell supernatants of primary human adipocytes. The effect of LDL is not blocked by receptor associated protein suggesting that members of the LDL-receptor family are not involved. To evaluate whether these in vitro observations translate into changes in systemic adiponectin, adiponectin was measured in serum of three patients before, immediately after and 3d after LDL-apheresis. Whereas circulating lipoproteins are reduced immediately after apheresis adiponectin is not changed. Therefore, acute lowering of lipoproteins does not affect systemic adiponectin also excluding that plenty of adiponectin is bound to lipoprotein particles. Accordingly, levels of adiponectin in purified lipoproteins are quite low. Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is a rare disorder associated with low plasma LDL. Serum adiponectin is, however, similar compared to healthy controls. Thus, neither LDL nor HDL directly contributes to circulating adiponectin concentrations.

  2. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and serum total adiponectin concentrations. Relationships between variables were assessed using Student's t-tests, Pearson's and Spearman's Rho correlations, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hispanic women had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than NHW women, even after controlling for body fat (%) (P women combined and for NHW women (P ≤ 0.04), but not for Hispanic women. Insulin resistance was inversely related to adiponectin for all women and for NHW women (P women. Adiponectin concentration was not significantly associated with number of CVD risk factors for these women. While adiponectin was associated with markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance for all women of this study and despite lower adiponectin concentrations for Hispanic women than NHW women, the role of adiponectin to these conditions among Hispanics remains unclear. There was no significant association between adiponectin and CVD risk for these women. Future research should focus on understanding mechanisms for up-regulating adiponectin secretion and if ethnicity affects adiponectin gene expression and secretion given the beneficial effects derived from elevated adiponectin levels.

  3. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  4. Gene Expression of Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptor 1 in Type 2 Diabetic Rats and the Relationship with the Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hui; LING Hanhua; WANG Hongwei; ZHANG Longjiang; HUANG Xiaoyan; XIA Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to confirm whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue and mRNA levels of AdipoR1 in the skeletal muscles were correlated with the serum parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and to clarify the regulation of adiponectin receptor gene expression in diabetic states, serum adiponectin, mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue and mRNA levels of AdipoR1 in the skeletal muscles were examined in type 2 diabetic rats. The model of type 2 diabetes was prepared by feeding high fat diet and injecting low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic rats were screened out by oral glucose tolerance test. One group of type 2 diabetic rats received rosiglitazone. The serum adiponectin concentration was detected by using ELISA and mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR. The serum adiponectin levels and mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic rats were significantly decreased as compared with the normal control rats (P<0.05, P<0.01 respectively). No siglificant changes were observed in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats. The mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue were reversely correlated with serum insulin (r=-0.66, P<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.58, P<0.05), cholesterol (r=-0.49, P<0.05), interleukin-6 (r=-0.49, P<0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (r=-0.43, P<0.05). The expression of adiponectin receptors was not altered in the skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. The decreased serum adiponectin was caused by the decreased expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue rather than the adiponectin receptors in the skeletal muscle, which could be improved by rosiglitazone.

  5. Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations and Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Bronchial Asthma in the Chinese Li Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of changes in the plasma  adiponectin  concentration  in  patients  with  bronchial  asthma  and  to  test  the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs2241766 and rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene and bronchial asthma in the Chinese Li population.We selected 120 cases and 120 controls, and plasma adiponectin, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor  necrosis  factor-alpha  (TNF-α  levels  were  measured  by  enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, we genotyped two tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs and evaluated their association with bronchial asthma using the χ2 test and genetic model analysis.Compared to controls, patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma showedsignificantly lower adiponectin and significantly higher IL-6 and TNF-α levels (p<0.01. Apositive association was found between the rs1501299 SNP and acute exacerbation (OR =1.62; 95% CI= 1.08-2.43; p= 0.019.The inverse correlation between the plasma adiponectin concentration and asthma exacerbation indicates that adiponectin may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Meanwhile, our findings suggest that ADIPOQ polymorphisms influence the risk of developing bronchial asthma in Chinese Li population.

  6. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  7. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo eOtvos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC. In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399. The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400 was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400 at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  8. Pre-diagnostic levels of adiponectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are associated with colorectal cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathilde Touvier; Pilar Galan; Sébastien Czernichow; Léopold Fezeu; Namanjeet Ahluwalia; Chantal Julia; Nathalie Charnaux; Angela Sutton; Caroline Méjean; Paule Latino-Martel; Serge Hercberg

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the relationships between pre-diag-nostic biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk and assess their relevance in predictive models.METHODS:A nested case-control study was designed to include all first primary incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed between inclusion in the SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort in 1994 and the end of follow-up in 2007.Cases (n =50) were matched with two randomly selected controis (n =100).Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between prediagnostic levels of hs-CRP,adiponectin,leptin,soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1),soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1,E-selectin,monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and colorectal cancer risk.Area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) and relative integrated discrimination improvement (RIDI) statistics were used to assess the discriminatory poten tial of the models.RESULTS:Plasma adiponectin level was associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend =0.03).Quartiles of sVCAM-1 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend =0.02).No association was observed with any of the other biomarkers.Compared to standard models with known risk factors,those including both adiponectin and sVCAM-1 had substantially improved performance for colorectal cancer risk prediction (P for AUC improvement =0.01,RIDI =26.5%).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that pre-diagnostic plasma adiponectin and sVCAM-1 levels are associated with decreased and increased colorectal cancer risk,respectively.These relationships must be confirmed in large validation studies.

  9. Adiponectin Expression in the Porcine Ovary during the Oestrous Cycle and Its Effect on Ovarian Steroidogenesis

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    Anna Maleszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and is also involved in the control of the reproductive system. The goal of the present study was to investigate changes in adiponectin gene and protein expression in porcine ovarian structures during the oestrous cycle and to examine the effects of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotrophin- and/or insulin-induced secretion of ovarian steroid hormones. Both gene and protein expression of adiponectin were enhanced during the luteal phase of the cycle. Adiponectin affected basal secretion of progesterone by luteal cells, oestradiol by granulosa cells, and testosterone by theca interna cells. The gonadotrophin/insulin-induced release of progesterone from granulosa and theca interna cells and the release of oestradiol and androstenedione from theca cells was also modified by adiponectin. In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin mRNA and protein in the porcine ovary coupled with our previous results indicating adiponectin receptors expression suggest that adiponectin may locally affect ovarian functions. The changes in adiponectin expression throughout the oestrous cycle seem to be dependent on the hormonal status of pigs related to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis suggests that this adipokine influences reproductive functions in pigs.

  10. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  11. Adiponectin self-regulates its expression and multimerization in adipose tissue: an autocrine/paracrine mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huan; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin, a 30-kDa peptide hormone discovered in the mid 1990s, is secreted abundantly and exclusively by adipose tissue. Adiponectin exists in three major forms: a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, a medium molecular weight (MMW) hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) 18-36 oligomer. The HMW oligomer has the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity therefore impaired adiponectin multimerization may lead to impaired glycemic control. Decreased ratio of HMW/total adiponectin has been observed in patients with obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance-related metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have indicated that berberine or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses the expression of adiponectin but promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes. Since adiponectin activates AMPK through adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) in the membranes of adipocytes, we speculate that adiponectin self-regulates its expression and multimerization in adipose tissue. The hypothesis suggests a potential drug target for treating insulin resistance and provides new interpretation of several clinical observations. In addition, we propose a rapid method for one-step detection of the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in approximately 30 min, based on the open sandwich immunoassay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology. With the development of this new method, the ratio of HMW/total adiponectin may be applied in clinical diagnosis as a novel biomarker for insulin resistance and metabolic disorders.

  12. Adipokines: A Possible Contribution to Vascular and Bone Remodeling in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Evgenia A; Ugai, Ludmila G; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya V; Nevzorova, Vera A

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of cardio-respiratory diseases, but the mechanistic links between pulmonary arterial hypertension and bone remain elusive. The purpose of the stud was to evaluate serum adipokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) NYHA class III-IV and to determine its associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Pulmonary and hemodynamic parameters, BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), were evaluated in 32 patients with IPAH NYHA class III-IV and 30 healthy volunteers. Leptin, adiponectin and ET-1 were higher in the patients with IPAH than in healthy subjects. Visfatin level showed a tendency to increase compared to that of healthy subjects (p = 0.076). The univariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between BMD Z-scores at both sites and 6-min walk test, and inverse relation with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). Adiponectin and visfatin showed positive correlations with PVR (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Serum adiponectin, visfatin and leptin were inversely associated with Z-scores. After adjusting for BMI and FMI, such associations persisted between visfatin and adiponectin levels and Z-scores at both sites. ET-1 related to mPAP, cardiac index and PVR. Negative correlation was observed between ET-1 and FN BMD (p = 0.01). Positive correlations have revealed between ET-1 and adiponectin (p = 0.02), visfatin (p = 0.004) in IPAH patients. These results provide further evidence that adipokine and endothelial dysregulation may cause not only a decrease in BMD, but also an increase in hemodynamic disorders of IPAH.

  13. Body mass index and waist circumference combined predicts obesity-related hypertension better than either alone in a rural Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guoan; Zhang, Hongyan; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the association of obesity defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident hypertension in rural China. A total of 9,174 participants ≥18 years old from rural areas in middle of China, free of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke, were selected in this cohort study. Questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline (2007–2008) and follow-up (2013–2014). During the 6 years of follow-up, hypertension developed in 733/3,620 men and 1,051/5,554 women. After controlling for age, education level, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and family history of hypertension, the relative risk of hypertension was lower for participants with high BMI but normal WC than those with both BMI and WC obesity for men 18–39 and 40–59 years old. Women 18–39 years old with normal BMI but high WC showed a 1.96-fold risk of hypertension, and being female with age 40–59 years and high BMI but normal WC was independently associated with hypertension incidence as compared with both normal BMI and WC. BMI is more associated with hypertension as compared with WC in both genders. High WC tends to add additional risk of hypertension in young women. PMID:27545898

  14. Prediction of neonatal outcome in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia after 36 weeks of gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuuk, K.; Scholtenhuis, M. A. G. Holswilder-Olde; Koopmans, C. M.; van den Akker, E. S. A.; Pernet, P. J. M.; Ribbere, L. S. M.; van Meir, C. A.; Boers, K.; Drogtrop, A. P.; van Loon, A. J.; Hanssen, M. J. C. P.; Sporken, J. M. J.; Mol, B. W. J.; van den Berg, P. P.; Groen, H.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is little knowledge about neonatal complications in GH and PE and induction at term, we aim to assess whether they can be predicted from clinical data. Methods: We used data of the HYPITAT trial and evaluated whether adverse neonatal outcome (Apgar score Results: We included 1153 p

  15. Influence of androgens on circulating adiponectin in male and female rodents.

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    Joshua F Yarrow

    Full Text Available Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5α reducible androgen 17β-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM, gonadectomy (GX, or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05. GX increased total adiponectin by 29-34% in both sexes (p<0.05, while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46-53% below respective SHAMs (p≤0.001 and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r = -0.746 and females: r = -0.742, p≤0.001; however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p≤0.001 in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p≤0.001. Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05. In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05. Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r = 0.596, p≤0.001 and adult animals (r = 0.657, p≤0.001. Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW

  16. Adiponectin and thiazolidinedione targets CRTC2 to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Sil; Ryu, Dongryeol; Lee, Min Woo; Hong, Sungpyo; Koo, Seung Hoi

    2009-08-31

    During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.

  17. Study the relationship between adiponectin and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hui Yang; Li-Xin Zhao; Yan-Hong Lu; Xiao-Jun Li; Jun Shi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study whether adiponectin in serum of patients with coronary heart disease is reduced, and compare with the test results in total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood glucose (GLU), C-reactive protein (CRP). Method: We selected 80 cases of coronary heart disease patients as the experimental group, 50 healthy subjects as control group. The coronary heart disease group compared with the control group, we know the changes of adiponectin in coronary heart disease group and compared coronary heart disease group with control group in test results of blood lipid, blood glucose, C-reactive protein. Results: Adiponectin in coronary heart disease group was (0.47±0.09) mg/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-18.4, P<0.001), HDL-C in coronary heart disease group was (1.24±0.04) mmol/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-27.67, P<0.001). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The level’s adiponectin in patients of coronary heart disease dropped, which lead to hypoadiponectinemia, Hypoadiponectinemia may be one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease.

  18. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

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    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  19. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  20. 脂联素与肺脏疾病的研究进展%Progress on association between adiponectin and pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虎; 许建英

    2012-01-01

    脂联素作为一种主要由脂肪组织生成分泌的蛋白质,拥有抗肥胖、心血管保护及抗炎症的性能.本文总结了现今关于脂联素与肺脏疾病相关性研究的文献,主要讨论了脂联素在慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘、肺动脉高压、睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征以及肺癌中的作用.%Adiponectin is a protein mostly produced and secreted by adipocytes and has important anti-inflammatory,cardioprotective and anti-obesity effects.This article summarizes present studies on the correlation of adiponectin and pulmonary disease,reviews the effect of adiponectin on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,asthma,pulmonary hypertension,sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome as well as lung cancer.

  1. The effects of paternal high-fat diet exposure on offspring metabolism with epigenetic changes in the mouse adiponectin and leptin gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Eguchi, Takeshi; Tamada, Shoko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that epigenetic changes resulting from malnutrition might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. Previously, we observed that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero caused a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of the adiponectin and leptin genes that persisted for multiple generations. Recent etiological studies indicated that paternal BMI had effects on offspring BMI that were independent of but additive to maternal BMI effects. Thus, we examined whether paternal HFD-induced obesity affected the metabolic status of offspring through epigenetic changes in the adiponectin and leptin genes. Additionally, we investigated whether a normal diet during subsequent generations abolished the epigenetic changes associated with paternal HFD exposure before conception. We observed the effects of paternal HFD exposure before conception over multiple generations on offspring metabolic traits, including weight and fat gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adipocytokine levels, hypertension, and adiponectin and leptin gene expression and epigenetic changes. Normal diet consumption by male offspring during the subsequent generation following paternal HFD exposure diminished whereas consumption for two generations completely abolished the effect of paternal HFD exposure on metabolic traits and adipocytokine promoter epigenetic changes in the offspring. The effects of paternal HFD exposure on offspring were relatively weaker than those following HFD exposure in utero. However, paternal HFD exposure had an additive metabolic effect for two generations, suggesting that both paternal and maternal nutrition might affect offspring metabolism through epigenetic modifications of adipocytokine genes for multiple generations.

  2. Enhanced fatty acid flux triggered by adiponectin overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shoba; Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Cho, You-Ree; Brown, Jonathan; Plutzky, Jorge; Muise, Eric S; Horton, Jay D; Scherer, Philipp E; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin overexpression in mice increases insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Here, we combined stable isotope infusion and in vivo measurements of lipid flux with transcriptomic analysis to characterize fatty acid metabolism in transgenic mice that overexpress adiponectin via the aP2-promoter (ADNTg). Compared with controls, fasted ADNTg mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.008), a doubling of ketones (P = 0.028), and a 68% increase in free fatty acid turnover in plasma (15.1 ± 1.5 vs. 25.3 ± 6.8 mg/kg · min, P = 0.011). ADNTg mice had 2-fold more brown adipose tissue mass, and triglyceride synthesis and turnover were 5-fold greater in this organ (P = 0.046). Epididymal white adipose tissue was slightly reduced, possibly due to the approximately 1.5-fold increase in the expression of genes involved in oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, and uncoupling protein 3). In ADNTg liver, lipogenic gene expression was reduced, but there was an unexpected increase in the expression of retinoid pathway genes (hepatic retinol binding protein 1 and retinoic acid receptor beta and adipose Cyp26A1) and liver retinyl ester content (64% higher, P < 0.02). Combined, these data support a physiological link between adiponectin signaling and increased efficiency of triglyceride synthesis and hydrolysis, a process that can be controlled by retinoids. Interactions between adiponectin and retinoids may underlie adiponectin's effects on intermediary metabolism.

  3. Circulating leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Enrica; Petramala, Luigi; Caliumi, Chiara; Cotesta, Darlo; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Panzironi, Giuseppe; Diacinti, Daniele; Minisola, Savatore; D' Erasmo, Emilio; Mazzuoli, Gian Franco; Letizia, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Moreover, many metabolic abnormalities are frequently present in patients with PHPT. Several substances (such as leptin and adiponectin) are secreted from adipocytes, which may contribute to regulate energy homeostasis and the development of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels and metabolic disorders in 67 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with PHPT and in 46 healthy subjects (HS). Twenty (29.8%) patients with PHPT presented a metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria). Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in HS were 6.28 +/- 3.3 ng/mL (range, 1.7-19.2 ng/mL) and 6.65 +/- 1.7 microg/mL (range, 3.72-10.86 microg/mL), respectively. In all patients with PHPT, the mean leptin levels (34.28 +/- 20.4 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of HS (P < .01) and, in particular, in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (52.63 +/- 31.2 ng/mL) and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and cholesterol. The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower (4.34 +/- 3.5 mug/mL) only in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (P < .005) and negatively correlated with waist circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that increased serum level of leptin and decreased serum level of adiponectin coexist in patients with PHPT and may represent a pathogenetic factor for cardiovascular disease in this condition.

  4. Migraine and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Tabeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of a relationship between migraine and hypertension are being continued. In spite of numerous studies, the association of some types of migraine (migraine with aura and migraine without aura with hypertension has not been fully elucidated. This issue is particularly relevant since these forms differ both clinically and pathophysiologically. Of even greater importance are the analysis and prediction of associations between migraine and cardiovascular diseases (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease. The review deals with the clinical and pathophysiological features of the relationship between hypertension and migraine. There is evidence for the anatomic and functional correlation between the antinociceptive system and blood pressure (BP regulation control. It has been speculated that the increase in pain threshold is not the result of just hypertension as a disease, but it is caused by elevated BP-related hypalgesia. The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs is the fact that supports the association between hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Identification of groups of patients having migraine and a high cardiovascular risk will allow timely early primary prevention and therapy. Introduction of a stratification approach at diagnostic stages may cause a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates.

  5. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  6. Malignant hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and periarteritis nodosa) Kidney problems Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure ( toxemia ) You are at ... Hypertensive kidney References Badr KF, Brenner BM. Vascular injury to the kidney. In: Fauci A , Kasper D, Longo DL, et ...

  7. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, more than 800 papers were published in the field of pulmonary hypertension. A Clinical Year in Review article cannot possibly incorporate all this work and needs to be selective. The recently published European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension contain an inclusive summary of all published clinical studies conducted until very recently. Here, we provide an overview of papers published after the finalisation of the guideline. In addition, we summaris...

  9. Endokrin hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Ibsen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma-aldosterone-to-renin ......Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma...

  10. Pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition associated with various diseases, which must be remembered by the physicians, since early diagnosis may anticipate and avoid dangerous complications and even death if appropriate measures were not taken. The relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, important pathological process that is in increasing prevalence in developing countries, and leading position as cause of death, emphasizes its importance. Here are presented the classifications, pathophysiology, and general rules of treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

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    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  12. Correlation between Serum Level of Adiponectin and Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Juan; Zhou Shuxian; Xue Shengneng; Zhang Yuling; Fang Chang; Luo Niansang

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the correlation between serum level of adiponectin and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Methods Coronary angiographies were performed and serum levels of adiponectin were measured in 88 patients with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients were divided into groups according to the coronary angiographies and Gensini's scores of coronary artery atherosclerosis. The serum levels of adiponectin were compared in different groups, and multiple regressions were used to analyze the correlation factors of adiponectin. Results ①Serum adiponectin concentration in CHD group [ 7.1 mg/L(2.4 ~21.1 mg/L) ] was decreased as compared with that in control group [ 11.6 mg/L(4.4 ~ 28.2 mg/L),P<0.01 ]; ②The serum levels of adiponectin fell while the Gensini' s scores of coronary artery atherosclerosis increased ( P<0.05, P<0.01 ); ③Serum level of adiponectin was positively correlated with the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while negatively correlated with the Gensini' s score of coronary artery atherosclerosis and triglyceride (P<0.01 ). Conclusions Serum adiponectin concentration was decreased in patients with CHD.Low serum levels of adiponectin reflected the severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Adiponectin was a protective factor of cardiovascular system.

  13. Adiponectin and leptin are secreted through distinct trafficking pathways in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linglin; O'Reilly, Cormac P; Chapes, Stephen K; Mora, Silvia

    2008-02-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are two adipokines secreted by white adipose tissue that regulate insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported that adiponectin but not leptin release depends on GGA-coated vesicle formation, suggesting that leptin and adiponectin may follow different secretory routes. Here we have examined the intracellular trafficking pathways that lead to the secretion of these two hormones. While adiponectin and leptin displayed distinct localization in the steady-state, treatment of adipocytes with brefeldin A inhibited both adiponectin and leptin secretion to a similar level, indicating a common requirement for class III ADP-ribosylating factors and an intact Golgi apparatus. Adiponectin secretion was significantly reduced by endosomal inactivation in both 3T3L1 and rat isolated adipocytes, whereas this treatment had no effect on leptin secretion. Importantly, endosomal inactivation completely abolished the insulin stimulatory effect on adiponectin release in rat adipocytes. Confocal microscopy studies revealed colocalization of adiponectin with endogenous rab11 a marker for the recycling endosome, and with expressed rab5-GFP mutant (rab5Q75L) a marker for the early endosome compartment. Colocalization of adiponectin and rab5Q75L was increased in endosome inactivated cells. Consistent with these findings adiponectin secretion was reduced in cells expressing mutants of Rab11 and Rab5 proteins. In contrast, expression of an inactive (kinase dead) mutant of Protein Kinase D1 moderately but significantly inhibited leptin secretion without altering adiponectin secretion. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin and adiponectin secretion involve distinct intracellular compartments and that endosomal compartments are required for adiponectin but not for leptin secretion.

  14. Perioperative hypertension

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    G. Pinna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perioperative hypertension is a situation whose management is suggested by the clinical judgement much more than clinical evidences. JNC 7 guidelines give a classification of blood pressure (BP, without any mention specifically dedicated to patients undergoing surgery. The ACC/AHA guidelines recommend deferring surgery if diastolic BP is above 110 mmHg and systolic BP is above 180 mmHg. AIM OF THE STUDY In this review we considered pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic factors related to perioperative management of hypertensive patients. DISCUSSION In actual trend of the preoperative evaluation, alone hypertension is considered as a minor risk factor. BP values ≤ 180/110 mmHg do not influence the outcomes in patients who underwent noncardiac surgery. Therefore, in these conditions it’s not necessary to delay surgery. Hypertensive picks are possible during the operation, mostly because of the intubation, but, much more dangerous, falls of pressure are possible. The intraoperative arterial pressure should be maintained within 20% of the best estimated preoperative arterial pressure, especially in patients with markedly elevated preoperative pressures. After surgery the arterial BP can increase for stress factors, pain, hypoxia and hypercapnia, hypothermia and infusional liquids overload. For all these reasons a careful monitoring is mandatory. Anti-hypertensive medication should be continued during the postoperative period in patients with known and treated hypertension, as unplanned withdrawal of treatment can result in rebounded hypertension. The decision to give anti-hypertensive drugs must be made for each patient, taking into account their normal BP and their postoperative BP. With regard to the optimal treatment of the patient with poorly or uncontrolled hypertension in the perioperative evaluation, recent guidelines suggest that the best treatment may consider cardioselective β-blockers therapy, but also clonidin by

  15. Hypertensive Encephalopathy

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    Mostafa SHARIFIAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Sharifian M. Hypertensive Encephalopathy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3:1-7.Hypertension is called the silent killer and vital organs such as the brain, eyes,kidneys and the heart are the targets. Seizure, central nervous system (CNShemorrhage, and cerebrovascular accident (CVA, blindness and heart attacksare the end points.The prevalence of hypertension in children is much less than adults, but evidencereveals that the source of hypertension in adulthood goes back to childhood. In70-80% of cases hypertension is due to renal diseases. In children, hypertensiveencephalopathy (HE may be the first manifestation of renal diseases. Seizure isone of the most common manifestations of HE.In this article, definitions, etiology, pathophysiology and finally the acute andchronic managements of HE will be discussed.ReferencesSawicka K, Szczyrek M, Jastrzębska I, Prasal M, ZwolakA, Jadwiga D. Hypertension – The silent killer. J Pre-Clin Clin Res 2011;5(2:43-6.Croix B, Feig DI. Childhood hypertension is not a silent disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2006 Apr;21(4:527-32.Wong TY, Mitchell P. Hypertensive retinopathy. N Engl J Med 2004 Nov;351(22:2310-7.Krzesinski JM, Cohen EP.Hypertension and the kidney.Acta Clin Belg 2007 Jan-Feb;62(1:5-14.Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children – 1987. Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Pediatrics 1987Jan;79(1:1-25.Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1996 Oct;98(4 Pt1:649-58.Ataei N, Aghamohammadi A, Yousefi E, Hosseini M, Nourijelyani K, Tayebi M, et al. Blood pressure nomograms for school children in Iran. Pediatr Nephrol 2004 Feb;19

  16. Adiponectin receptor as a key player in healthy longevity and obesity-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-02-05

    Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone whose reduction plays central roles in obesity-linked diseases including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. The cloning of Adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has stimulated adiponectin research, revealing pivotal roles for AdipoRs in pleiotropic adiponectin actions, as well as some postreceptor signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin signaling has thus become one of the major research fields in metabolism and clinical medicine. Studies on AdipoRs will further our understanding of the role of adiponectin in obesity-linked diseases and shortened life span and may guide the design of antidiabetic and antiaging drugs with AdipoR as a target.

  17. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Brian P; Del Bas, Josep Maria; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  18. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Carson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  19. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  20. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  1. Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (--arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases.

  2. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-08-05

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  3. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  4. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

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    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  5. Role of redox environment on the oligomerization of higher molecular weight adiponectin

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    Nuñez Martha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory actions. The assembly of trimeric, hexameric, and higher molecular weight (HMW species of adiponectin is a topic of significant interest because physiological actions of adiponectin are oligomer-specific. In addition, adiponectin assembly is an example of oxidative oligomerization of multi-subunit protein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Results We previously reported that trimers assemble into HMW adiponectin via intermediates stabilized by disulfide bonds, and complete oxidation of available cysteines locks adiponectin in hexameric conformation. In this study, we examined the effects of redox environment on the rate of oligomer formation and the distribution of oligomers. Reassembly of adiponectin under oxidizing conditions accelerated disulfide bonding but favored formation of hexamers over the HMW species. Increased ratios of HMW to hexameric adiponectin could be achieved rapidly under oxidizing conditions by promoting disulfide rearrangement. Conclusions Based upon these observations, we propose oxidative assembly of multi-subunit adiponectin complexes in a defined and stable redox environment is favored under oxidizing conditions coupled with high rates of disulfide rearrangement.

  6. Adiponectin modulates excitability of rat paraventricular nucleus neurons by differential modulation of potassium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyda, Ted D; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-07-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin acts at two seven-transmembrane domain receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2, present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate neuronal excitability and endocrine function. Adiponectin depolarizes rat parvocellular preautonomic neurons that secrete either thyrotropin releasing hormone or oxytocin and parvocellular neuroendocrine corticotropin releasing hormone neurons, leading to an increase in plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone concentrations while also hyperpolarizing a subgroup of neurons. In the present study, we investigate the ionic mechanisms responsible for these changes in excitability in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurons. Patch clamp recordings of currents elicited from slow voltage ramps and voltage steps indicate that adiponectin inhibits noninactivating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in a majority of neurons. This inhibition produced a broadening of the action potential in cells that depolarized in the presence of adiponectin. The depolarizing effects of adiponectin were abolished in cells pretreated with tetraethyl ammonium (0/15 cells depolarize). Slow voltage ramps performed during adiponectin-induced hyperpolarization indicate the activation of voltage-independent potassium current. These hyperpolarizing responses were abolished in the presence of glibenclamide [an ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker] (0/12 cells hyperpolarize). The results presented in this study suggest that adiponectin controls neuronal excitability through the modulation of different potassium conductances, effects which contribute to changes in excitability and action potential profiles responsible for peptidergic release into the circulation.

  7. Relationship between Adiponectin Level, Insulin Sensitivity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

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    Kristina Blaslov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin is known to be decreased in insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MS which can be present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin level, MS, and insulin sensitivity in T1DM. Research Design and Methods. The study included 77 T1DM patients divided into two groups based on the total plasma adiponectin median value. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the equation for eGDR, and MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results. Patients with higher adiponectin level ( had significantly lower waist circumference (, fasting venous glucose levels (, higher HDL3-cholesterol (, and eGDR ( in comparison to the group with lower adiponectin who showed higher prevalence of MS (. eGDR increased for 1.09 mg/kg−1 min−1 by each increase of 1 µg/mL total fasting plasma adiponectin (. In the logistic regression model, adiponectin was inversely associated with the presence of MS (. Conclusion. Higher adiponectin concentration is associated with lower prevalence of MS in T1DM. Whether higher adiponectin concentration has a protective role in the development of the MS in T1DM needs to be clarified in future follow-up studies.

  8. Relationship between Adiponectin Level, Insulin Sensitivity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaslov, Kristina; Zibar, Karin; Duvnjak, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Adiponectin is known to be decreased in insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) which can be present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin level, MS, and insulin sensitivity in T1DM. Research Design and Methods. The study included 77 T1DM patients divided into two groups based on the total plasma adiponectin median value. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the equation for eGDR, and MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results. Patients with higher adiponectin level (n = 39) had significantly lower waist circumference (P < 0.002), fasting venous glucose levels (P < 0.001), higher HDL3-cholesterol (P = 0.011), and eGDR (P = 0.003) in comparison to the group with lower adiponectin who showed higher prevalence of MS (P = 0.045). eGDR increased for 1.09 mg/kg−1 min−1 by each increase of 1 µg/mL total fasting plasma adiponectin (P = 0.003). In the logistic regression model, adiponectin was inversely associated with the presence of MS (P = 0.014). Conclusion. Higher adiponectin concentration is associated with lower prevalence of MS in T1DM. Whether higher adiponectin concentration has a protective role in the development of the MS in T1DM needs to be clarified in future follow-up studies. PMID:23956744

  9. Nutrients can modulate the adiponectin concentrations in apparently healthy young adults

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    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived peptide, has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and improves insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about dietary predictors and their interactions with lifestyle on adiponectin concentrations, in apparently healthy young adults. Objective: To evaluate the associations between plasma concentrations of adiponectin with dietary components and lifestyle in apparently healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric and body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diet and lifestyle data of 157 healthy young adults, aged 18 and 35, were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 12 hours to determine adiponectin concentrations. Dietary and anthropometric indexes were calculated and analyzed. Results: Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher for women compared to men; and there was an indirect and significant correlation between adiponectin concentrations with BMI. There was a significant association between adiponectin concentrations with the healthy eating index, calories, lipids, proteins, fibers, riboflavin, and phosphorus, among others; and a tendency with carbohydrates and niacin. In multiple linear regression analysis, fiber and riboflavin (r² = 0.0928; p = 0.0013 and carbohydrates and phosphorus were associated with the concentrations of adiponectin. The association with carbohydrates and phosphorus suffered interaction with gender (r²= 0.2400; p < 0.0001, as well as the association with phosphorus also suffered interaction with physical activity (r²= 0.1275; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, in healthy young adults, seem to be modulated by components of diet depending on gender and physical activity.

  10. Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christa Buechler; Josef Wanninger; Markus Neumeier

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprising hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),and progressive liver fibrosis is considered the most common liver disease in western countries. Fatty liver is more prevalent in overweight than normal-weight people and liver fat positively correlates with hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis is regarded as a benign stage of NAFLD but may progress to NASH in a subgroup of patients. Besides liver biopsy no diagnostic tools to identify patients with NASH are available, and no effective treatment has been established. Visceral obesity is a main risk factor for NAFLD and inappropriate storage of triglycerides in adipocytes and higher concentrations of free fatty acids may add to increased hepatic lipid storage, insulin resistance, and progressive liver damage. Most of the adipose tissue-derived proteins are elevated in obesity and may contribute to systemic inflammation and liver damage. Adiponectin is highly abundant in human serum but its levels are reduced in obesity and are even lower in patients with hepatic steatosis or NASH. Adiponectin antagonizes excess lipid storage in the liver and protects from inflammation and fibrosis. This review aims to give a short survey on NAFLD and the hepatoprotective effects of adiponectin.

  11. Role of body mass index history in predicting risk of the development of hypertension in Japanese individuals: Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 18 (TOPICS 18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Kodama, Satoru; Arase, Yasuji; Hsieh, Shiun Dong; Yoshizawa, Sakiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazumi; Tanaka, Shiro; Hara, Shigeko; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-08-01

    It has not been clarified whether overall adiposity in early adulthood or at the lifetime maximum weight would confer a residual risk of hypertension after considering the risk associated with current adiposity. Studied were 6121 Japanese without hypertension. The risk of developing hypertension 4 years after a baseline examination was investigated using the body mass index in the early 20s, at the lifetime maximum, or at the baseline examination. An elevated body mass index at baseline or at the maximum rather than in the early 20s was strongly associated with future hypertension. Compared with individuals with low body mass index both at baseline and in the early 20s, those with an elevated body mass index at the baseline alone had an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.58–2.27) and those with an elevated body mass index both at baseline and in the early 20s had the highest odds ratio of 2.26 (1.76–2.89). Individuals with an elevated body mass index both at baseline and at the maximum had a 2.26-fold (1.87–2.72) increased risk of hypertension compared with those without the 2 factors. An elevated body mass index at the baseline examination weakened the favorable influence of a low body mass index in early adulthood on developing hypertension. Adding information on body mass index in early adulthood or at the maximum in addition to that at the baseline examination contributed to differentiating the risk of hypertension among Japanese, particularly among those with an elevated overall adiposity at present.

  12. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    control group was examined twice, separated by 12 months. ADPN levels declined significantly following Tx (P filtration rate (eGFR) increased (P ... before and after Tx including kidney function, insulin resistance, use of immunosuppressive agents and BMI. Pretransplant ADPN level did not predict development of new-onset diabetes mellitus or even deterioration of the glucose tolerance following Tx....

  13. High fat diet induced changes in gastric vagal afferent response to adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Stephen J; Ratcliff, Kyle; Li, Hui; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2015-12-01

    Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Adiponectin, secreted primarily from adipocytes, also has a role in regulating food intake. However, the involvement of vagal afferents in this effect remains to be established. We aimed to determine if adiponectin can modulate gastric vagal afferent (GVA) satiety signals and further whether this is altered in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a HFD for 12weeks. Plasma adiponectin levels were assayed, and the expression of adiponectin in the gastric mucosa was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The location of adiponectin protein within the gastric mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the direct effect of adiponectin on vagal afferent endings we determined adiponectin receptor expression in whole nodose ganglia (NDG) and also specifically in GVA neurons using retrograde tracing and qRT-PCR. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the effect of adiponectin on GVA response to mechanical stimulation. HFD mice exhibited an increased body weight and adiposity and showed delayed gastric emptying relative to SLD mice. Plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly different in HFD compared to SLD mice. Adiponectin mRNA was detected in the gastric mucosa of both SLD and HFD mice and presence of protein was confirmed immunohistochemically by the detection of adiponectin immunoreactive cells in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) mRNA was present in both the SLD and HFD whole NDG and also specifically traced gastric mucosal and muscular neurons. There was a reduction in ADIPOR1 mRNA in the mucosal afferents of the HFD mice relative to the SLD mice. In HFD mice adiponectin potentiated gastric mucosal afferent responses to mucosal stroking, an effect not observed in SLD mice. Adiponectin reduced

  14. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovas Sandor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254, we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2. In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 μM concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin. Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2 in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide

  15. Protective role of adiponectin in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Hui; Yang, Yue-Wu; Dai, Hai-Tao; Cai, Song-Wang; Chen, Rui-Han; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential protective role of adiponectin in intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: A rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established. The serum level of adiponectin in rats with intestinal I/R injury was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also measured by ELISA. Apoptosis of intestinal cells was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and villous injury scores were also measured. RESULTS: Adiponectin was downregulated in the serum of rats with intestinal I/R injury compared with sham rats. No significant changes in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 were found between sham and I/R rats. Pre-treatment with recombinant adiponectin attenuated intestinal I/R injury. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in rats with intestinal I/R injury was reduced by adiponectin pre-treatment. The production of MDA was inhibited, and the release of SOD was restored by adiponectin pre-treatment in rats with intestinal I/R injury. Adiponectin pre-treatment also inhibited cell apoptosis in these rats. Treatment with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway inhibitor, compound C, or the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, Snpp, attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin against intestinal I/R injury. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exhibits protective effects against intestinal I/R injury, which may involve the AMPK/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26715807

  16. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Patwardhan, Varsha M.; Ghanghas, Ravi; Halasawadekar, Nimish R.; Patil, Praveenkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results: The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance. PMID:24741521

  17. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita J Ramanand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results : The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45. Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027. Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56. It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038. Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57. A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH, LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN of insulin resistance.

  18. Adiponectin increases glucose-induced insulin secretion through the activation of lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patané, G; Caporarello, N; Marchetti, P; Parrino, C; Sudano, D; Marselli, L; Vigneri, R; Frittitta, L

    2013-12-01

    The expression of adiponectin receptors has been demonstrated in human and rat pancreatic beta cells, where globular (g) adiponectin rescues rat beta cells from cytokine and fatty acid-induced apoptosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether adiponectin has a direct effect on insulin secretion and the metabolic pathways involved. Purified human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells (INS-1E) were exposed (1 h) to g-adiponectin, and glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured. A significant increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion was observed in the presence of g-adiponectin (1 nmol/l) with respect to control cells in both human pancreatic islets (n = 5, p < 0.05) and INS-1E cells (n = 5, p < 0.001). The effect of globular adiponectin on insulin secretion was independent of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or glucose oxidation. In contrast, g-adiponectin significantly increased oleate oxidation (n = 5, p < 0.05), and the effect of g-adiponectin (p < 0.001) on insulin secretion by INS-1E was significantly reduced in the presence of etomoxir (1 μmol/l), an inhibitor of fatty acid beta oxidation. g-Adiponectin potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion in both human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells via an AMPK independent pathway. Increased fatty acid oxidation rather than augmented glucose oxidation is the mechanism responsible. Overall, our data indicate that, in addition to its anti-apoptotic action, g-adiponectin has another direct effect on beta cells by potentiating insulin secretion. Adiponectin, therefore, in addition to its well-known effect on insulin sensitivity, has important effects at the pancreatic level.

  19. Impact of Serum Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio on Regression of Metabolic Syndrome in High-Risk Individuals: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Ryong; Yadav, Dhananjay; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The ratio of serum leptin to adiponectin (L/A ratio) could be used as a marker for insulin resistance. However, few prospective studies have investigated the impact of L/A ratio on improvement of metabolic components in high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome. We examined the association between L/A ratio and the regression of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. Materials and Methods A total of 1017 subjects (431 men and 586 women) with metabolic syndrome at baseline (2005–2008) were examined and followed (2008–2011). Baseline serum levels of leptin and adiponectin were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive ability of L/A ratio for the regression of metabolic syndrome. Results During an average of 2.8 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome disappeared in 142 men (32.9%) and 196 women (33.4%). After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for regression of metabolic syndrome in comparisons of the lowest to the highest tertiles of L/A ratio were 1.84 (1.02–3.31) in men and 2.32 (1.37–3.91) in women. In AUROC analyses, L/A ratio had a greater predictive power than serum adiponectin for the regression of metabolic syndrome in both men (p=0.024) and women (p=0.019). Conclusion Low L/A ratio is a predictor for the regression of metabolic syndrome. The L/A ratio could be a useful clinical marker for management of high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome. PMID:28120564

  20. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18...336664 Title Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macro

  1. Endocytosis of adiponectin receptor 1 through a clathrin-and Rab5-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiurong Ding; Zhenzhen Wang; Yan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, receptor endocytosis is a key event regulating signaling transduction. Adiponectin receptors belong to a new receptor family that is distinct from G-protein-coupled receptors and has critical roles in the pathogen-esis of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Here, we analyzed the endocytosis of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and found that they are both internalized into transferrin-positive compartments that follow similar traffic routes. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis by expressing Epsl5 mutants or depleting K+ trapped AdipoRl at the plasma membrane, and K+ depletion abolished adiponectin internalization, indicating that the endocytosis of AdipoRl and adiponectin is clathrin-dependent. Depletion of K+ and overexpression of Eps15 mutants enhance adiponectin-stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, suggesting that the endocytosis of AdipoR1 might down-regulate adiponectin signaling. In addition, AdipoR1 colocalizes with the small GTPase Rab5, and a dominant negative Rab5 abrogates AdipoR1 endocytosis. These data indicate that AdipoRl is internalized through a clathrin- and Rab5-dependent pathway and that endocytosis may play a role in the regulation of adiponectin signaling.

  2. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Skalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGFβ, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs.

  3. Adiponectin Decreases Plasma Glucose and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo HU; Meihua SHE; Hongjie HOU; Qinkai LI; Qingyun SHEN; Yi LUO; Weidong YIN

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of recombinant human adiponectin on the metabolism of diabetic swine induced by feeding a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD), diabetic animal models were constructed by feeding swine with HFSD for 6 months. The effects of recombinant adiponectin were assessed by detecting the change of plasma glucose levels by commercially available enzymatic method test kits and evaluating the insulin sensitivity by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). About 1.5 g purified recombinant adiponectin was produced using a 15-liter fermenter. A single injection of purified recombinant human adiponectin to diabetic swine led to a 2- to 3-fold elevation in circulating adiponectin, which triggered a transient decrease in basal glucose level (P<0.05). This effect on glucose was not associated with an increase in insulin level. Moreover, after adiponectin injection, swine also showed improved insulin sensitivity compared with the control (P<0.05). Adiponectin might have the potential to be a glucose-lowering agent for metabolic disease. Adiponectin as a potent insulin enhancer linking adipose tissue and glucose metabolism could be useful to treat insulin resistance.

  4. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  5. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Negatively Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Minority Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adar Emken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and physical activity (PA in minority female youth. Methods. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 39 females (mean age 9.2±0.9 years; 30 Latina, 9 African-American; 56% overweight. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Mean minutes per day spent in daily PA (DPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs, moderate PA (MPA(4–7 METs, vigorous PA (VPA(≥7 METs, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA(≥4 METs were calculated. The association between adiponectin and PA, controlling for age, fat weight, lean weight, and insulin sensitivity (SI was analyzed using linear regression. Results. Adiponectin correlated with fat weight (r=-0.43, P<.01 and SI (r=0.52, P<.01. Minutes spent in DPA (β=-0.40, P=.02, MPA (β=-0.36, P=.04, or MVPA (β=-0.37, P=.03 were predictors of adiponectin in the adjusted model. Conclusions. Higher PA levels were related to lower adiponectin levels. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of adiponectin receptors or an increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin with increasing PA.

  6. The association between adiponectin and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with obesity among young Jordanian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alomari Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk for multiple diseases and an independent cause of morbidity and mortality with staggering global rates. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide associated with reduced obesity. In this study, the effect of ADIPOQ gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on obesity and adiponectin relationship was examined. The study was conducted on 389 adult females. Obesity was measured using body weight, BMI, percent body fat, and waist and hip ratio. ADIPOQ G276T and I164T SNPs were genotyped using RFLP procedure. Adiponectin plasma levels were quantified using ELISA technique. Adiponectin correlated with all obesity measures (p0.05 with GG and TT of the G276T SNP. With respect to` I164T SNP, the correlations between adiponectin and obesity measures remained in all genotypes except with W/H ratio and %Bf remained in the participants with CC genotype and with W/H ratio in CT/TT genotypes. Further analyses reveled that adiponectin was lower (p<0.05 in the participants with GT versus the GG and TT genotypes of G276T SNP. The data confirms the effect of adiponectin for obesity. It also shows the importance of ADIPOQ SNPs in the relationship between adiponectin and obesity in young adult females.

  7. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Frankel, David S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Magnani, Jared W.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Meigs, James B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether higher concentrations of resistin and lower concentrations of adiponectin relate to incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether this association is mediated by AF risk factors and inflammation. Resistin and adiponectin are adipokines that have been asso

  8. Adiponectin potentiates the acute effects of leptin in arcuate Pomc neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a requirement for PI3K signaling in the acute adiponectin-induced effects on the cellular activity of arcuate melanocortin neurons. Moreover, these data provide evidence for PI3K as a substrate for both leptin and adiponectin to regulate energy balance and glucose metabolism via melanocortin activity.

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. LeCaire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ≤30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987–1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at −80°C measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n=304, during 2007–2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes.

  10. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M;

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training aff...

  11. Adiponectin in Fresh Frozen Plasma Contributes to Restoration of Vascular Barrier Function After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiyun; Cao, Yanna; Huby, Maria P; Duan, Chaojun; Baer, Lisa; Peng, Zhanglong; Kozar, Rosemary A; Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E; Ko, Tien C

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable deaths in civilian and military trauma. Use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients requiring massive transfusion is associated with improved outcomes. FFP contains significant amounts of adiponectin, which is known to have vascular protective function. We hypothesize that FFP improves vascular barrier function largely via adiponectin. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 19 severely injured patients in hemorrhagic shock (HS). Compared with normal individuals, plasma adiponectin levels decreased to 49% in HS patients before resuscitation (P < 0.05) and increased to 64% post-resuscitation (but not significant). In a HS mouse model, we demonstrated a similar decrease in plasma adiponectin to 54% but a significant increase to 79% by FFP resuscitation compared with baseline (P < 0.05). HS disrupted lung vascular barrier function, leading to an increase in permeability. FFP resuscitation reversed these HS-induced effects. Immunodepletion of adiponectin from FFP abolished FFP's effects on blocking endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro, and on improving lung vascular barrier function in HS mice. Replenishment with adiponectin rescued FFP's effects. These findings suggest that adiponectin is an important component in FFP resuscitation contributing to the beneficial effects on vascular barrier function after HS.

  12. Hypertension Briefing

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force exerted on artery walls as the heart pumps blood through the body. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when blood pressure is constantly higher than the pressure needed to carry blood through the body. The Chronic Conditions Hub is a website that brings together information on chronic health conditions. It allows you to easily access, manage and share relevant information resources. The Chronic Conditions Hub includes the Institute of Public Health in Irel...

  13. HYPERTENSION IN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Michael, Albert

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Known cases of hypertension and those fulfilling WHO criteria for diagnosis of hypertension were identified in psychiatric patients and compared with non - hypertensive psychiatric patients. Hypertension was detected in 141 (9.98%) cases, and was significantly more associated with elder age, married status, urban background and neurotic illness. The implications are in early detection and effective management of hypertension in psychiatric patients.

  14. Hypertension hos gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise;

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...... and disadvantages of different classes of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy and lactation are described....

  15. [Hypertension during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E.R.; Johansen, M.; Kamper, A.L.;

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...... and disadvantages of different classes of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy and lactation are described Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  16. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  17. Investigating the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a mendelian randomization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L. L. N.; Skaaby, T.; Martinussen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach. Subjects/Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two Da...... a causal relationship.......Background/Objectives: The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach. Subjects/Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two...... doubling of 25(OH)D was 4.78, 95% CI: 1.96, 7.68, Pcausal effect in % was estimated to 61.46, 95% CI: 17.51, 120.28, P=0.003 higher adiponectin per doubling of 25(OH)D. In the MONICA10...

  18. Adiponectin deficiency contributes to the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi; Xu, Huan; Gu, Meng; Liu, Chong; Wang, Qiong; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Peng, Yubing; Cai, Zhikang; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is increasing among obese individuals, but few studies have fully explained the underlying mechanisms. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between obesity and BPH. Herein, we show that in prostatic epithelial and stromal cells, adiponectin exerts multifunctional effects including anti-proliferation, blocking of G1/S-phase progression and the promotion of apoptosis via inhibiting the MEK-ERK-p90RSK axis. Furthermore, we found that a high-fat diet (HFD) led to adiponectin deficiency and microscopic BPH in a mouse model of obesity. And an adiponectin supplement protected the obese mice from microscopic BPH. The present study provides evidence that adiponectin is a protective regulator in the development and progression of BPH and that adiponectin deficiency causally links BPH with obesity. PMID:28256562

  19. Adult Neurogenic and Antidepressant Effects of Adiponectin: A Potential Replacement for Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Yau, Suk-Yu; Machado, Sergio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; So, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise has long been recognized to benefit locomotor and cardiovascular systems. Although an increasing body of evidence also suggests it to be an effective non-medicinal remedy for mental disorders such as depression, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. A recent study has demonstrated that increases of the adipocyte-secreted hormone adiponectin in the central nervous system following exercise may be responsible for these neuropsychological changes, including enhanced generation of neurons in the adult hippocampus, as well as mitigation of depressive severity. The present review introduces the previously-reported functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and adiponectin, and discusses the potential relevance of adiponectin signaling in exercise-induced neural changes. Revealing these novel biological effects of adiponectin in the brain may help hunt reliable biomarkers to better guide the anti-depressive therapy with exercise intervention; meanwhile, pharmaceutical agents that raise endogenous levels of adiponectin or mimic its biological effects might serve as a replacement for physical exercise.

  20.  Adiponectin in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Trine Bay

      Dato 31. januar 2006Title Adiponectin in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisAuthors:Trine Bay Laurberg,Torkell Ellingsen,Jan Frystyk,Ib Hansen,Anette Jørgensen,Ulrik Tarp,Merete Lund Hetland,Kim Hørslev-Petersen,Nete Hornung,Jørgen Hjelm Poulsen,Allan Flyvbjerg......,Kristian Stengaard-PedersenBackground: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic, autoimmune disease, which affects the joints with inflammation leading to destruction of cartilage and bone. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterised by low level of chronic inflammation, slow...... diabetes mellitus. It is unknown if adiponectin is involved in the disease process of RA and OA.Objectives:  The aim was to quantify plasma adiponectin (p-adiponectin) from RA and OA patients and to evaluate p-adiponectin as a marker of treatment response to methotrexate (MTX) and disease activity in RA...

  1. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-07-14

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  2. Hypertension in pregnancy: The endocrine and metabolic aspect

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    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical disorder complicating pregnancy. However, how pregnancy incites or aggravates hypertension remains unsolved despite decades of intensive research. Various endocrine and metabolic mechanisms have been postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in pregnancy. Understanding the endocrine aspect of the possible pathophysiological mechanism might open new vistas in prediction, prevention and management of this condition.

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  4. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

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    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  5. Adiponectin and its receptors in rodent models of fatty liver disease and liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Neumeier; Jürgen Sch(o)lmerich; Christa Buechler; Claus Hellerbrand; Erwin G(a)bele; Roland Buettner; Cornelius Bollheimer; Johanna Weigert; Andreas Sch(a)ffler; Thomas S Weiss; Monika Lichtenauer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine circulating and hepatic adiponectin in rodents with fatty liver disease or liver cirrhosis and investigate expression of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 on the mRNA and protein level and AdipoR2 on the mRNA level.METHODS: Fat fed rats were used as a model for fatty liver disease and bile duct ligation in mice to investigate cirrhotic liver. Expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA was determined by real time RT-PCR. AdipoR1 protein was analysed by immunoblot. Adiponectin was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Systemic adiponectin is reduced in fat fed rats but is elevated in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). Hepatic adiponectin protein is lower in steatotic liver but not in the liver of BDL-mice when compared to controls. Adiponectin mRNA was not detected in human liver samples or primary human hepatocytes nor in rat liver but recombinant adiponectin is taken up by isolated hepatocytes in-vitro. AdipoR1 mRNA and AdipoR1 protein levels are similar in the liver tissue of control and fat fed animals whereas AdipoR2 mRNA is induced. AdipoR2 mRNA and AdipoR1 mRNA and protein is suppressed in the liver of BDL-mice.CONCLUSION: Our studies show reduced circulating adiponectin in a rat model of fatty liver disease whereas circulating adiponectin is elevated in a mouse model of cirrhosis and similar findings have been described in humans. Diminished hepatic expression of adiponectin receptors was only found in liver cirrhosis.

  6. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and hepatocellular carcinoma with HCV infection.

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    Shuji Sumie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is shown to be inversely associated with development and progression of various cancers. We evaluated whether adiponectin level was associated with the prevalence and histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 97 HCC patients (cases and 97 patients (controls matched for sex, Child-Pugh grade and platelet count in patients with HCV infection. The serum total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and examined in their association with the prevalence of HCC. In addition, the relationship between these adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI, progression of liver fibrosis, and histological grade of HCC was also evaluated. Liver fibrosis was assessed using the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the serum total and HMW adiponectin levels between cases and controls. Moreover, there were no inverse associations between serum total and HMW adiponectin levels and BMI in both cases and controls. On the other hand, serum total and HMW adiponectin levels are positively correlated with APRI in both cases (r = 0.491, P<0.001 and r = 0.485, P<0.001, respectively and controls (r = 0.482, P<0.001 and r = 0.476, P<0.001, respectively. Interestingly, lower serum total (OR 11.76, 95% CI: 2.97-46.66 [P<0.001] and HMW (OR 10.24, CI: 2.80-37.40 [P<0.001] adiponectin levels were independent risk factors of worse histological grade of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that serum total and HMW adiponectin levels were predictors of liver fibrosis, but not prevalence of HCC in patients with HCV infection. Moreover, low these adiponectin levels were significantly associated with worse histological grades.

  7. Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease

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    Sun Zongquan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disorders of endocrine substances in epicardial adipose tissue are known causes of coronary artery disease (CAD. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, expression of adiponectin in epicardial adipose tissue and its function in CAD pathogenesis is unclear. This study investigates adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue in CAD patients. Methods Vessels or adipose tissue samples collected from CAD patients and non-CAD controls were examined after immunochemical staining. Adiponectin, cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression level in adipose tissue were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Adiponectin concentrations in peripheral and coronary sinus vein plasma were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral vein plasma biochemistries were performed with routine laboratory techniques. Monocytes were collected from blood using lymphocyte separation medium. Expression level of cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB were measured to learn the effect of adiponectin on stearic acid-stimulated monocytes. Percentage of TLR4 positive monocytes was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Histological examination revealed increased macrophage infiltration into epicardial adipose tissue of CAD patients. Decreased adiponectin displayed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR was associated with enhanced cytokines of IL-6 and TNF-α or TLR4 expression level in epicardial adipose tissue, suggesting decreased circulating adiponectin may be useful as a more sensitive predictor for coronary atherosclerosis than routine laboratory examinations. Adiponectin suppressed secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in stimulated monocytes and TLR4 was expressed on cell surfaces. Conclusions Endocrine disorders in epicardial adipose tissue are strongly linked to CAD, and adiponectin has a protective effect by inhibiting macrophage

  8. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat.

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    Tommaso Iannitti

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10-5000 ng on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation.

  9. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, Holger Jon;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can pre...

  10. Reappraisal of effects of serum chemerin and adiponectin levels and nutritional status on cardiovascular outcomes in prevalent hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although chemerin, an adipokine, increases the cardiovascular (CV) risk in obese people, it is associated with a survival advantage in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. We explored the potential effects of chemerin on CV outcomes in prevalent HD patients. This prospective study included 343 prevalent HD patients. The composite outcome was the occurrence of CV events and death during follow-up. We used multivariate Cox regression analysis to test the predictive power of different chemerin and adiponectin levels and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) for the outcomes. HD patients with higher chemerin levels (≥211.4 ng/mL) had a lower risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.98) and composite CV outcome (adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45–0.99) than those with lower chemerin levels (<211.4 ng/mL). When evaluating CV outcomes, we identified an interaction between chemerin levels and GNRI, but not between chemerin and adiponectin levels. The findings remained robust in the sensitivity analysis. Thus, in prevalent HD patients with negligible residual renal function, higher chemerin levels predict more favourable CV outcomes. PMID:27667092

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  12. Do uterine natural killer cell numbers in peri-implantation endometrium predict hypertensive disorder in pregnancy in women with a history of reproductive failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice Wai Yee; Archer, Bethan; Mariee, Najat; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not increased uterine natural killer (uNK) cell numbers in the peri-implantation endometrium are associated with an increased risk of hypertensive disorders in a subsequent pregnancy. This is a retrospective study including 80 women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage or recurrent implantation failure. Precisely timed endometrial biopsies were obtained from women 7-9 days after the luteinising hormone surge. uNK cells were immunostained for CD56+ and expressed as a percentage of total stromal cells. Patients were defined as having a high uNK cell count if the percentage of total stromal cells was more than 13.9%. Five out of 29 (17.2%) women in the high uNK cell count group and 5 out of 51 (9.8%) women in the normal uNK cell count group developed gestational hypertension. Pre-eclampsia was diagnosed in 2 (6.9%) patients in the high uNK cell count group and 1 (2.0%) patient from the normal uNK cell count group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of either gestational hypertension (P=0.483) and pre-eclampsia (P=0.296) between groups. The overall incidence of hypertensive disease in women with high uNK cell count (24.1%) was two times higher than women with normal uNK cell count (11.8%), but it was not statistically significant (P=0.208). An increased uNK cells count in the peri-implantation period in a cycle prior to conception did not appear to significantly increase the likelihood of hypertensive disease of pregnancy.

  13. A risk prediction model for the assessment and triage of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings: the miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk multi-country prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications.From 1 July 2008 to 31 March 2012, in five LMICs, data were collected prospectively on 2,081 women with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy admitted to a participating centre. Candidate predictors collected within 24 hours of admission were entered into a step-wise backward elimination logistic regression model to predict a composite adverse maternal outcome within 48 hours of admission. Model internal validation was accomplished by bootstrapping and external validation was completed using data from 1,300 women in the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (fullPIERS dataset. Predictive performance was assessed for calibration, discrimination, and stratification capacity. The final miniPIERS model included: parity (nulliparous versus multiparous; gestational age on admission; headache/visual disturbances; chest pain/dyspnoea; vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain; systolic blood pressure; and dipstick proteinuria. The miniPIERS model was well-calibrated and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC of 0.768 (95% CI 0.735-0.801 with an average optimism of 0.037. External validation AUC ROC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.658-0.768. A predicted probability ≥25% to define a positive test classified women with 85.5% accuracy. Limitations of this study include the composite outcome and the broad inclusion criteria of any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. This broad approach was used to optimize model generalizability.The miniPIERS model shows reasonable ability to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. It could be

  14. The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Aroor, Annayya R; Sowers, James R

    2014-06-01

    The combination of obesity and hypertension is associated with high morbidity and mortality because it leads to cardiovascular and kidney disease. Potential mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension include dietary factors, metabolic, endothelial and vascular dysfunction, neuroendocrine imbalances, sodium retention, glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and maladaptive immune and inflammatory responses. Visceral adipose tissue also becomes resistant to insulin and leptin and is the site of altered secretion of molecules and hormones such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF and IL-6, which exacerbate obesity-associated cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence also suggests that the gut microbiome is important for modulating these mechanisms. Uric acid and altered incretin or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activity further contribute to the development of hypertension in obesity. The pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension is especially relevant to premenopausal women with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus who are at high risk of developing arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction. In this Review we discuss the relationship between obesity and hypertension with special emphasis on potential mechanisms and therapeutic targeting that might be used in a clinical setting.

  15. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammaro, Alessia; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; Militello, Mariapia; Pedata, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: 1) chronic hypertension, 2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, 3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and 4) gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy or chronic hyper...

  16. Treating Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Dietmar; Homuth, Volker; Dechend, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is present in about 10 % of all pregnancies. The frequency of chronic hypertension and that of gestational hypertension is increasing. The management of pregnant women with hypertension remains a significant, but controversial, public health problem. Although treatment of hypertension in pregnancy has shown to reduce maternal target organ damage, considerable debate remains concerning treatment. We review current evidence regarding treatment goals, the ideal treatment starting time, and which drugs are available for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  17. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

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    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  18. RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS WITH ADIPOSITY, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, LEPTIN AND INSULIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 唐金凤; 汪启迪; 李凤英; 顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张一波; 周丽斌; 李荣英; 陈名道

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels with adiposity,glucocorticoids , insulin and leptin in Cushing' s syndrome, obesity and non-obese subjects. Methods The serum adiponectin concentrations were measured in 104 non-obese and 57 overweight or obese (BMI≥25) subjects by RIA. 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 10 with obesity and 9 non-obese subjects were investigated, with their serum adiponectin, glucocorticoids, insulin and leptin levels measured at 8: 00, 12: 00, 16: 00, 20: 00, 24: 00 and 3:00. Dexamethasone suppression tests in both obesity and Cushing's syndrome were performed at the dose of lmg,2mg and 5mg. Results The serum adiponectin concentrations in non-obese were (10.15±6.33) mg/L in male and (13.82 ±6. 09 ) mg/L in female, and those in overweight or obese ones were(5. 78 ±3.55)mg/L in male and (8. 13 ± 4. 32 ) mg/L in female. In both men and women, the fasting adiponectin levels in overweight or obese subjects were lower than those of the non-obese ones, and serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly nagetively correlated with BMI, % Fat and waist circumference. The circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin was not distinct, but the adiponectin levels in obesity were lower than those of the non-obese subjects at all 6 time spots. The serum adiponectin area under curve (AUC) were significantly nagetively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and insulin AUC. The adiponectin levels with dexamethasone administration for a short-term both at higher doses and lower doses did not change, but was decreased after surgery. Conclusion Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes which may intimately related to obese and insulin resistance. Therefore, any treatment that could be used to increase adiponectin should be beneficial. Neither long-term endogenous hyper-glucocorticoid nor short-term dexamethasone administration may affect the adiponectin levels, and similarly, no change with elevated postprandial

  19. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, ... Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes PH ...

  20. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2014-11-10

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative program involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by coordinated cytokine and growth factor actions. We investigated the mechanisms underlying Adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn-/- mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn-/- mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to IL-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-15

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative programme involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by the coordinated actions of cytokine and growth factors. We investigated the mechanisms underlying adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn(-/-) mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn(-/-) mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to interleukin-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of the main transcription factors for adiponectin gene promoter in regulation of adiponectin levels: association analysis in three European cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Kedenko

    Full Text Available Adiponectin serum concentrations are an important biomarker in cardiovascular epidemiology with heritability etimates of 30-70%. However, known genetic variants in the adiponectin gene locus (ADIPOQ account for only 2%-8% of its variance. As transcription factors are thought to play an under-acknowledged role in carrying functional variants, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the main transcription factors for the ADIPOQ promoter influence adiponectin levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at these genes were selected based on the haplotype block structure and previously published evidence to be associated with adiponectin levels. We performed association analyses of the 24 selected SNPs at forkhead box O1 (FOXO1, sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG and transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B gene loci with adiponectin levels in three different European cohorts: SAPHIR (n = 1742, KORA F3 (n = 1636 and CoLaus (n = 5355. In each study population, the association of SNPs with adiponectin levels on log-scale was tested using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, applying both an additive and a recessive genetic model. A pooled effect size was obtained by meta-analysis assuming a fixed effects model. We applied a significance threshold of 0.0033 accounting for the multiple testing situation. A significant association was only found for variants within SREBF1 applying an additive genetic model (smallest p-value for rs1889018 on log(adiponectin = 0.002, β on original scale = -0.217 µg/ml, explaining ~0.4% of variation of adiponectin levels. Recessive genetic models or haplotype analyses of the FOXO1, SREBF1, SIRT1, TFAPB2B genes or sex-stratified analyses did not reveal additional information on the regulation of adiponectin levels. The role of genetic

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Main Transcription Factors for Adiponectin Gene Promoter in Regulation of Adiponectin Levels: Association Analysis in Three European Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Kapur, Karen; Bergmann, Sven; Waterworth, Dawn; Heid, Iris M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kedenko, Igor; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin serum concentrations are an important biomarker in cardiovascular epidemiology with heritability etimates of 30–70%. However, known genetic variants in the adiponectin gene locus (ADIPOQ) account for only 2%–8% of its variance. As transcription factors are thought to play an under-acknowledged role in carrying functional variants, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the main transcription factors for the ADIPOQ promoter influence adiponectin levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at these genes were selected based on the haplotype block structure and previously published evidence to be associated with adiponectin levels. We performed association analyses of the 24 selected SNPs at forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) gene loci with adiponectin levels in three different European cohorts: SAPHIR (n = 1742), KORA F3 (n = 1636) and CoLaus (n = 5355). In each study population, the association of SNPs with adiponectin levels on log-scale was tested using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, applying both an additive and a recessive genetic model. A pooled effect size was obtained by meta-analysis assuming a fixed effects model. We applied a significance threshold of 0.0033 accounting for the multiple testing situation. A significant association was only found for variants within SREBF1 applying an additive genetic model (smallest p-value for rs1889018 on log(adiponectin) = 0.002, β on original scale = −0.217 µg/ml), explaining ∼0.4% of variation of adiponectin levels. Recessive genetic models or haplotype analyses of the FOXO1, SREBF1, SIRT1, TFAPB2B genes or sex-stratified analyses did not reveal additional information on the regulation of adiponectin levels. The

  4. Globular adiponectin induces differentiation and fusion of skeletal muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Fiaschi; Domenico Cirelli; Giuseppina Comito; Stefania Gelmini; Giampietro Ramponi; Maria Serio; Paola Chiarugi

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest in skeletal muscle regeneration is associated with the opening of new therapeutic strategies for muscle injury after trauma, as well as several muscular degenerative pathologies, including dystrophies, muscu-lar atrophy, and cachexia. Studies focused on the ability of extracellular factors to promote myogenesis are therefore highly promising. We now report that an adipocyte-derived factor, globular adiponectin (gAd), is able to induce mus-cle gene expression and cell differentiation, gAd, besides its well-known ability to regulate several metabolic func-tions in muscle, including glucose uptake and consumption and fatty acid catabolism, is able to block cell cycle entry of myoblasts, to induce the expression of specific skeletal muscle markers such as myosin heavy chain or eaveolin-3, as well as to provoke cell fusion into multinucleated syneytia and, finally, muscle fibre formation, gAd exerts its pro-differentiative activity through redox-dependent activation of p38, Akt and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase path-ways. Interestingly, differentiating myoblasts are autocrine for adiponectiu, and the mimicking of pro-inflammatory settings or exposure to oxidative stress strongly increases the production of the hormone from differentiating cells. These data suggest a novel function of adiponectin, directly coordinating the myogenic differentiation program and serving an autocrine function during skeletal myogenesis.

  5. Hypertension and renovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, P; Ibsen, H; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    % of the patients before entering the diagnostic programme. We conclude that the RVRS demands a very restrictive referral pattern if it should be of prognostic value for the blood pressure outcome after intervention. No indices of lateralised renin concentrations proved high predictive value. However, a peripheral......The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21...

  6. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

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    Heidi N. Bagley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI- induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1 normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2 increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  7. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association.

  8. The role of leptin/adiponectin ratio in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; López-López, Jose; López-López, Cristina; Martínez-Ortega, Javier; Gómez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Triana-Cubillos, Stefany

    2014-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Attention has focused on the visceral adipose tissue production of cytokines (adipokines) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin are decreased, while proinflammatory cytokines are elevated, creating a proinflammatory state associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will give special attention to the role of the leptin/adiponectin ratio. We have previously demonstrated that in individuals with severe coronary artery disease, abdominal obesity was uniquely related to decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin and increased leptin levels. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance was associated with increased waist circumference and a decreased vascular response to acetylcholine and increased vasoconstriction due to angiotensin II. Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance. Leptin upregulates proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6; these are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties and downregulates the expression and release of a number of proinflammatory immune mediators. Therefore, it appears that interactions between angiotensin II and leptin/adiponectin imbalance may be important mediators of the elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases associated with abdominal obesity.

  9. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  10. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kopp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001 and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05 and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01. Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001. The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  11. Adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in relation with glycemic control in type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniebetabasi S. Obot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes, though the mechanism of association is still uncertain. The adiponectin levels and lipid profile in relation to glycemic control were investigated in type 2 diabetics. Methods: Forty two diabetic subjects (35-64 years and 33 age-matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited into this case control study. Socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric indices and blood pressure were obtained. Total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein, (HDL, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were estimated using colorimetric methods, atherogenic index (AI was calculated, while serum adiponectin was determined by ELISA method. Results: Adiponectin levels of type 2 diabetics were not significantly different from the non-diabetics studied (p>0.05. Higher TG levels were observed in diabetics with poor glycemic control compared with those with good glycemic control (p0.05. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics do not have lower adiponectin levels. Gender, duration of diabetes and glycemic control does not seem to exert any influence on adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis through its effects on HDL cholesterol metabolism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 563-570

  12. Exendin-4 Upregulates Adiponectin Level in Adipocytes via Sirt1/Foxo-1 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anping; Li, Ting; An, Ping; Yan, Wenhua; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor plays an essential role in regulating glucose metabolism. GLP-1 receptor agonists have been widely used for treating diabetes and other insulin resistance-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 on the expression of adiponectin, an insulin sensitizing hormone. We found that exendin-4 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that exendin-4 upregulated adiponectin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in adipocytes and adipose tissues. The effects of exendin-4 on adiponectin expression were dependent on the GLP-1 receptor. We further demonstrated important roles of Sirt1 and transcriptional factor Foxo-1 in mediating the function of exendin-4 in regulating adiponectin expression. Suppression of Sirt1 or Foxo-1 expression significantly impaired exendin-4-induced adiponectin expression. Consistently, exendin-4 up-regulated Sirt1 and Foxo-1 expression in vivo. Our work is the first study demonstrating the role of Sirt1/Foxo-1 in regulating the regulatory function of a GLP-1 receptor agonist in adiponectin expression both in vitro and in vivo. The results provide important information for the mechanism underlying the function of GLP-1R on improving insulin resistance and related diseases. PMID:28122026

  13. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  14. Association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Su; Xilong Zhang; Shicheng Su

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin genotype polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: Using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method, the single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene were determined in Chinese of the Han nationality in the Nanjing district. The OSAHS group consisted of 78 patients, and the control group contained 40 subjects. The association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome was analyzed. Results: No evidence of a direct association was found between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype SNP at positions 45 and 276(P> 0.05). However, compared with those OSAHS patients having G/T+T/T genotype at position 276, the OSAHS patients with the G/G genotype showed a greater neck circumference(NC), a prolonged duration of the longest apnea event, and elevated levels of blood cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P < 0.05). Conclusion: No direct association was detected between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype distribution at positions 45 and 276 in Chinese of Han nationality in the Nanjing district. However, OSAHS patients with the adiponectin GIG genotype at position 276 had a larger NC and the longest apnea event compared to those having the adiponectin SNP276 G/T +T/T genotype. This may have an indirect influence on the development of OSAHS.

  15. A preliminary study on correlation between adiponectin genotype polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Juan; SU Shi-cheng; HUANG Han-peng; DING Ning; YIN Min; HUANG Mao; ZHANG Xi-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is regarded as a disease with strong genetic background and associated with hypoadiponectinemia.It is worthwhile to investigate the possible correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene and OSAHS.Methods With the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method,the SNPs at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene were determined in Chinese of Han nationality in Nanjing district consisting of 103 OSAHS patients (OSAHS group) and 67 normal controls (control group).The association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with OSAHS was analyzed.Results No evidence of a direct association was found between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype SNP at positions 45 and 276 (P >0.05).However,compared with those OSAHS patients having G/T+T/T genotype at position 276,the OSAHS patients with G/G genotype showed a longer neck circumference,a prolonged duration of the longest apnea event,and an elevated level of blood cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P <0.05).Conclusions No direct association was suggested between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype distribution at positions 45 and 276 in Chinese of Han nationality in Nanjing district.However,in OSAHS patients,those with adiponectin G/G genotype at position 276,seemed to have a higher potential risk in development of OSAHS than those having adiponectin SNP276 G/T +T/T genotype.

  16. Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifen; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Junyang; Yang, Zhuanbo; Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    Adiponectin is an important insulin-sensitizing adipokine with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-associated medical complications. It is secreted from adipocytes into circulation as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW, and LMW). Each oligomeric form of adiponectin exerts non-overlapping biological functions, with the HMW oligomer possessing the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity. In this study, we reported that emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, activates AMPK in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 293T cells. Activation of AMPK by emodin promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW adiponectin to total adiponectin in 3T1-L1 adipocytes. Emodin might activate AMPK by an indirect mechanism similar to berberine. We also found that emodin activates PPARγ and promotes differentiation and adiponectin expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Therefore, emodin is a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity. Our results demonstrate that the effects of emodin on adiponectin expression and multimerization are the ultimate effects resulting from both AMPK activation and PPARγ activation. The dual-activity makes emodin or the derivatives potential drug candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  17. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  19. Predictive Value of Having Positive Family History of Cardiovascular Disorders, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khedmat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the relationship between family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes with laboratorial abnormalities and syndromes in Iranian patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. A total of 332 NAFLD patients from our outpatient clinic were consecutively entered into analysis. Exclusion criteria were having diabetes mellitus and fasting blood glucose over 126, active hepatitis B virus infection, having HCV positive serology, and to be under corticosteroid therapy. Family history of CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were taken from patients and related to the study variables. Family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD was associated with low HDL levels (P=0.05. Patients with positive family history of diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have AST/ALT levels proportion of higher than one (P=0.044. Family history of dyslipidemia was a predictor for hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.02, higher prothrombin time levels (P=0.013, lower albumin (P=0.024 and T4 (P=0.043 levels. Family history of hypertension was associated with dysglycemia/diabetes (P=0.038, high ALT (P=0.008, and low TIBC (P=0.007 and albumin levels (P=0.001. Family history for CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were of clinical importance in the Iranian patients with NAFLD. We therefore recommend that physicians should precisely get family history of main disorders in all NAFLD patients; and to pay more attention to those having the mentioned family histories. Further studies with larger patient population and prospective approach are needed for confirming our findings.

  20. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

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    Keith Dadson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO. Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO and wild-type (WT mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1α1 and collagen 1α3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1α only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects.

  1. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease.

  2. Genetic Architecture of Plasma Adiponectin Overlaps With the Genetics of Metabolic Syndrome–Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Peter; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Frants, Rune R.; Zorkoltseva, Irina V.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Frolich, Marijke; Oostra, Ben A.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, is of particular interest in metabolic syndrome, because it is inversely correlated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. However, it is not known to what extent the genetics of plasma adiponectin and the genetics of obesity and insulin sensitivity are interrelated. We aimed to evaluate the heritability of plasma adiponectin and its genetic correlation with the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome–related traits and the association between these traits and 10 ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We made use of a family-based population, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (1,258 women and 967 men). Heritability analysis was performed using a polygenic model. Genetic correlations were estimated using bivariate heritability analyses. Genetic association analysis was performed using a mixed model. RESULTS Plasma adiponectin showed a heritability of 55.1%. Genetic correlations between plasma adiponectin HDL cholesterol and plasma insulin ranged from 15 to 24% but were not significant for fasting glucose, triglycerides, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein. A significant association with plasma adiponectin was found for ADIPOQ variants rs17300539 and rs182052. A nominally significant association was found with plasma insulin and HOMA-IR and ADIPOQ variant rs17300539 after adjustment for plasma adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS The significant genetic correlation between plasma adiponectin and HDL cholesterol and plasma insulin should be taken into account in the interpretation of genome-wide association studies. Association of ADIPOQ SNPs with plasma adiponectin was replicated, and we showed association between one ADIPOQ SNP and plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:20067957

  3. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

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    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  4. Low adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... in skeletal muscle and insulin secretion. In healthy humans, low plasma adiponectin levels associate with increased risk of T2DM; however, the relationship between adiponectin and T2DM in patients with MI has never been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively included 666 patients with ST-segment...

  5. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low

  6. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders.

  7. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed......The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...

  8. Genetic variants of adiponectin receptor 2 are associated with increased adiponectin levels and decreased triglyceride/VLDL levels in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göke Burkhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin acts as an antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the recently discovered adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine whether variations in the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes may contribute to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation. Methods We sequenced all seven coding exons of both genes in 20 unrelated German subjects with metabolic syndrome and tested genetic variants for association with glucose, lipid and inflammatory parameters. Results We identified three AdipoR2 variants (+795G/A, +870C/A and +963C/T in perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1 with a minor allele frequency of 0.125. This haplotype was associated with higher plasma adiponectin levels and decreased fasting triglyceride, VLDL-triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol levels. No association, however, was observed between the AdipoR2 SNP cluster and glucose metabolism. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify an association between genetic variants of the adiponectin receptor genes and plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, our data suggest that AdipoR2 may play an important role in triglyceride/VLDL metabolism.

  9. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  10. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    , double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT......), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and thigh subcutaneous fat area (TFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Adiponectin levels were measured using an in-house immunofluorometric assay. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. RESULTS: LEFM was decreased (b=–0......OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6...

  11. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnav Katira; Peng H Tan

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done.

  12. Significance of adiponectin in the risk of coronary lesions in patients with impaired glucose regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of impaired glucose regulation and adiponectin(APN) with the clinical severity of coronary lesions. Methods A total of 210 cases of suspected coronary heart disease were examined

  13. Adiponectin and peak bone mass in men: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein classically known to be secreted by adipocytes, is also secreted by bone-forming cells. Results of previous studies have been contradictory as to whether serum adiponectin and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible...... association between serum adiponectin and BMD in young, healthy men at a time of peak bone mass. BMD in the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine were measured in this population-based cross-sectional study of 700 men aged 20-29 years participating in the Odense Androgen Study. Magnetic resonance imaging...... was inversely associated with total hip BMD in men at the time of peak bone mass, but this association may be explained by factors related to muscle size and function. The observed association between adiponectin and femoral bone marrow size was retained even after adjustment for potential covariates....

  14. Adiponectin: an attractive marker for metabolic disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Turchiarelli, Viviana; Nigro, Ersilia; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scudiero, Olga; Sofia, Matteo; Daniele, Aurora

    2013-10-14

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease which may be complicated by development of co-morbidities including metabolic disorders. Metabolic disorders commonly associated with this disease contribute to lung function impairment and mortality. Systemic inflammation appears to be a major factor linking COPD to metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue seems to interfere with systemic inflammation in COPD patients by producing a large number of proteins, known as "adipokines", involved in various processes such as metabolism, immunity and inflammation. There is evidence that adiponectin is an important modulator of inflammatory processes implicated in airway pathophysiology. Increased serum levels of adiponectin and expression of its receptors on lung tissues of COPD patients have recently highlighted the importance of the adiponectin pathway in this disease. Further, in vitro studies have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for this adipokine at the level of lung epithelium. This review focuses on mechanisms by which adiponectin is implicated in linking COPD with metabolic disorders.

  15. Adiponectin may improve osseointegration of dental implants in T2DM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Yin, Guozhu; Luo, En

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Compared with the general population, a higher failure rate is seen in T2DM patients. There is also evidence that chronically high levels of plasma glycemia leads to inflammatory effect and a negative influence on bone formation and remodeling, and reduce osseointegration of implants. Recently studies reveal that adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, and closely associated with T2DM. Adiponectin has potent anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to increase bone density by inhibiting osteoclast formation and promoting the formation of osteoblasts. We therefore hypothesize systemically infused or locally used adiponectin could accelerate osseointegration of dental implants in T2DM. Our hypothesis could help to create an option to improve success ratio of dental implants in T2DM by the replenishment of adiponectin in T2DM patients.

  16. Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleidi, Shereen; Issa, Ala; Bustanji, Haidar; Khalil, Mohammad; Bustanji, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue is not only an inert storage depot for lipids, but also it secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, known as adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Adiponectin is the most abundant of these adipocytokines and is known to have a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and to establish a correlation between adiponectin serum levels and the degree of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty participants were enrolled in this study; 61 type 2 diabetic patients and 19 apparently healthy subjects. Serum level of adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each participant. Data collection sheet was filled with all required information for each participant. Adiponectin level in the diabetic patients (5.05 ± 2.61 μg/ml) was lower than in non-diabetic healthy controls (5.71 ± 2.35 μg/ml). When the results were compared according to gender, diabetic females showed significantly higher adiponectin levels (5.76 ± 2.64 μg/ml) than diabetic males (4.366 ± 2.43 μg/ml, P = 0.035). In addition, female diabetic patients with abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) ⩾ 88 cm) had lower adiponectin levels (5.58 ± 2.58 μg/ml) than diabetic females without abdominal obesity (6.96 ± 3.12 μg/ml). The correlation analysis indicated that adiponectin had a significant positive correlation with age (r = −0.450, P < 0.001). In conclusion, female diabetic patients had a statistically significant higher adiponectin level than male diabetic patients which could indicate a gender effect. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to insulin resistance; as patients with abdominal obesity had lower serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26106273

  17. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  18. Hyperthyroidism-Associated Insulin Resistance Is Not Mediated by Adiponectin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Chu

    2011-01-01

    values were significantly decreased after management of hyperthyroidism. Pearson's correlation revealed that insulin and HOMA-IR values positively correlated with triiodothyronine (T3 and free thyroxine (FT4 levels. However, adiponectin did not correlate with T3, FT4, insulin, HOMA-IR and thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TRAb levels. In conclusion, insulin resistance associated with hyperthyroidism is not mediated by the levels of plasma adiponectin.

  19. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  20. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  1. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  2. Adiponectin alleviates contractile dysfunction of genioglossus in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-jing; LU Gan; DING Ning; HUANG Han-peng; DING Wen-xiao; ZHANG Xi-long

    2013-01-01

    Background Genioglossal dysfuntion takes an important role in pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is the major pathological origin.Recent studies have suggested genioglossal injury induced by CIH might be improved by adiponectin.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adiponectin on genioglossus contractile properties in rats exposed to CIH.Methods Thirty-nine healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:normal control (NC),CIH and adiponectin supplement (CIH+Ad) with 13 rats in each.Rats in NC were kept breathing normal air,while rats in CIH and CIH+Ad experienced the same CIH environment eight hours per day for 35 successive days.Rats in CIH+Ad were given intravenous adiponectin of 10 μg twice a week for 30 successive days.Rats in the NC and CIH were injected with normal saline as a control.After 35 days' CIH exposure,the levels of serum adiponectin and genioglossus contractile properties were compared.Results Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in CIH than in NC (1210 ng/ml vs.2236 ng/ml).Serum adiponectin level in CIH+Ad (1844 ng/ml) was significantly higher than CIH but lower than NC.Twitch tension,time to peak tension,half relaxation time and tetanic tension were significantly lower in CIH than NC and improved in CIH+Ad.All mean tetanic fatigue indices decreased more rapidly in the first 20 seconds than during the subsequent 100 seconds.Tetanic fatigue indices in NC and CIH+Ad were significantly higher compared to CIH.Conclusions CIH could lead to hypoadiponectinaemia,impaired genioglossus contractile properties and decreased fatigue resistance in rats.Such changes could be partially offset by supplementation of adiponectin.

  3. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  4. Serum adiponectin and transient elastography as non-invasive markers for postoperative biliary atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomsinprasert Wanvisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the extrahepatic bile ducts leading to the obliteration of bile flow. The purpose of this study was to determine serum adiponectin in BA patients and to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with clinical parameters and liver stiffness scores. Methods Sixty BA patients post Kasai operation and 20 controls were enrolled. The mean age of BA patients and controls was 9.6 ± 0.7 and 10.1 ± 0.7 years, respectively. BA patients were classified into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin (TB levels (non-jaundice, TB Results BA patients had markedly higher serum adiponectin levels (15.5 ± 1.1 vs. 11.1 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P = 0.03 and liver stiffness than controls (30.1 ± 3.0 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 kPa, P P P r = 0.58, r = 0.46, and r = 0.60, P Conclusions Serum adiponectin and liver stiffness values were higher in BA patients compared with normal participants. The elevated serum adiponectin levels also positively correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and liver fibrosis. Accordingly, serum adiponectin and transient elastography could serve as the useful non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring the severity and progression in postoperative BA.

  5. Evidence of a causal relationship between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Fall, Tove; van Dam, Rob M; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Zethelius, Björn; Ingelsson, Erik; Hägg, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin is associated with insulin sensitivity in observational studies. We aimed to evaluate whether this relationship is causal using a Mendelian randomization approach. In a sample of Swedish men aged 71 years (n = 942) from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), insulin sensitivity (M/I ratio) was measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp. We used three genetic variants in the ADIPOQ locus as instrumental variables (IVs) to estimate the potential causal effect of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and compared these with results from conventional linear regression. The three ADIPOQ variants, rs17300539, rs3774261, and rs6444175, were strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P ≤ 5.3 × 10(-9)) and were also significantly associated with M/I ratio in the expected direction (all P ≤ 0.022). IV analysis confirmed that genetically determined adiponectin increased insulin sensitivity (β = 0.47-0.81, all P ≤ 0.014) comparable with observational estimates (β = 0.50, all P(difference) ≥ 0.136). Adjustment for BMI and waist circumference partly explained the association of both genetically determined and observed adiponectin levels with insulin sensitivity. The observed association between higher adiponectin levels and increased insulin sensitivity is likely to represent a causal relationship partly mediated by reduced adiposity.

  6. Rheumatoid Arthritis Impacts on the Independent Relationships between Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations and Cardiovascular Metabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Dessein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin are likely involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and therefore potential new therapeutic targets. Adiponectin inhibition could be expected to enhance cardiovascular metabolic risk. However, it is unknown whether RA changes the influence of adipokines on cardiovascular metabolic risk. We determined whether RA impacts on the independent relationships of circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in 277 black African subjects from a developing population; 119 had RA. RA impacted on the relationships of adiponectin concentrations with lipid concentrations and blood pressure, independent of confounders including adiposity (interaction P<0.05. This translated into an association of adiponectin concentrations with more favorable lipid variables including HDL cholesterol (P=0.0005, non-HDL cholesterol (P=0.007, and triglyceride (P=0.005 concentrations, total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol (P=0.0002 and triglycerides-HDL cholesterol (P=0.0003 ratios, and higher systolic (P=0.0006, diastolic (P=0.0004, and mean blood pressure (P=0.0007 in RA but not non-RA subjects. Leptin was not associated with metabolic risk after adjustment for adiposity. The cIMT did not differ by RA status, and adipokine concentrations were unrelated to atherosclerosis. This study suggests that leptin and adiponectin inhibition may not alter overall cardiovascular risk and disease in RA.

  7. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yuan, Bingbing; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Patterson, Heide Christine; Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-09-04

    The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. Compared with WT mice, adiponectin KO mice fed a chow diet exhibited decreased mRNA expression of rate-limiting enzymes in several important glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty-acid activation and synthesis, triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. In addition, binding of the transcription factor Hnf4a to DNAs encoding several key metabolic enzymes was reduced in KO mice, suggesting that adiponectin might regulate hepatic gene expression via Hnf4a. Phenotypically, adiponectin KO mice possessed smaller epididymal fat pads and showed reduced body weight compared with WT mice. When fed a high-fat diet, adiponectin KO mice showed significantly reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. These lipogenic defects are consistent with the down-regulation of lipogenic genes in the KO mice.

  8. Regulation of Serum Response Factor and Adiponectin by PPARγ Agonist Docosahexaenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that significant health benefits involving the regulation of signaling proteins result from the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs. Serum response factor (SRF is involved in transcriptional regulation of muscle growth and differentiation. SRF levels are increased in the aging heart muscle. It has not been examined whether SRF is made by adipocytes and whether SRF secretion by adipocytes is modulated by PPARγ agonist DHA. Adiponectin is made exclusively by adipocytes. We and others have previously reported that PUFAs such as DHA increase adiponectin levels and secretion in adipocytes. Here we show that DHA downregulates SRF with a simultaneous upregulation of adiponectin and that both these responses are reversible by PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore, there appears to be a direct relationship between DHA exposure and increased levels of membrane-associated high-density adiponectin, as well as lower levels of membrane-associated SRF. Thus, we find that the levels of SRF and adiponectin are inversely related in response to treatment with PPARγ agonist DHA. Decreased levels of SRF along with increase in membrane-associated adiponectin could in part mediate the health benefits of DHA.

  9. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide/ D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura; Norio Hayashi; Shinji Tamura; Yoshihiro Kamada; Shinichi Kiso; Juichi Fukushima; Akira Wada; Norikazu Maeda; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of adiponectin on the functions of Kupffer cells, key modulators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced liver injury.METHODS: D-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally into adiponectin-/- mice and wild type mice. Kupffer cells, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, were preincubated with or without adiponectin, and then treated with LPS.RESULTS: In knockout mice, GalN/LPS injection significantly lowered the survival rate, significantly raised the plasma levels of alanine transaminase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and significantly reduced IL-10 levels compared with wild type mice. TNF-α gene expression in the liver was which higher and those of IL-10 were lower in knockout mice than in wild type mice. In cultured adiponectin-pre-treated Kupffer cells, LPS significantly lowered TNF-α levels and raised IL-10 levels in the culture media and their respective gene expression levels, compared with Kupffer cells without adiponectinpre-treatment.CONCLUSION: Adiponectin supresses TNF-α production and induces IL-10 production by Kupffer cells in response to LPS stimulation, and a lack of adiponectin enhances LPS-induced liver injury.

  10. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  11. Is adiponectin level a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nondiabetic male patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haluk Sargin; Mehmet Sargin; Hülya Gozu; Asuman Orcun; Gülcan Baloglu; Murat Ozisik; Mesut Seker; Oya Uygur-Bayramicli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the levels of adiponectin in nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in comparison with control group.METHODS: Thirty-five patients who had elevated serum aminotransferase levels with bright liver and 34 healthy volunteers without liver disease were evaluated. Age,gender and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, proinsulin and lipid profile were measured. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with insulin response was performed and the index of insulin resistance was calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method.RESULTS: According to the OGTT results, none of the participants had diabetes. Serum adiponectin levels were statistically significantly lower in patients with NAFLD than in control group (8.14±3.4 μg/mL vs12.4±9.4 μg/mL,respectively, P<0.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between adiponectin and BMI (r: -0.33, P<0.01),HOMA (r: -0.26, P<0.05), proinsulin (r: -0.32, P<0.01),AST (r: -0.25, P<0.05), ALT (r: -0.26, P<0.05) or GGT (r: -0.22, P<0.05). In multiple regression analysis models,adiponectin levels were the only predictor of NAFLD in males, whereas in female group it was the BMI.CONCLUSION: Low adiponectin level might be a predictor of NAFLD especially in male nondiabetics.

  12. Serum adiponectin level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希龙; 殷凯生; 毛辉; 王虹; 杨玉

    2004-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, secreted by adipocytes, has been found to be associated with diabetes, obesity and some cardiovascular diseases. Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is also closely related to obesity and easily complicated with diabetes and some cardiovascular diseases. This study was carried out to explore the change of serum adiponectin level in patients with OSAHS.Methods Polysomnography was performed in 71 patients with OSAHS (OSAHS group) and 26 simple obese controls (control group). The two groups had no significant difference in age and body mass index (BMI). Radioimmunoassy was used to test serum adiponectin level.Results Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in OSAHS group [(5.03±1.01) mg/L] than that in the control group [(7.09±1.29) mg/L, P<0.05]. The differences between two groups were independent of gender. In OSAHS groups, serum adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (r=-0.78, P<0.01), BMI (r=-0.13, P<0.05), waist circumsference (r=-0.36, P<0.01), and neck circumference (r=-0.42, P<0.01), but positively correlated with the minimal pulse oxyhemoglobin saturation (r=0.48, P<0.01). Conclusion OSAHS may contribute to the decrease of serum adiponectin level independent of obesity.

  13. Adiponectin concentrations increase during acute FFA elevation in humans treated with rosiglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, K; Mittermayer, F; Krugluger, W; Roden, M; Schernthaner, G; Wolzt, M

    2007-10-01

    The adipocytokine adiponectin is released by adipocytes upon activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). PPAR gamma has binding sites for thiazolidinediones and free fatty acids (FFAs). To evaluate if adiponectin serum concentrations are synergistically regulated by FFAs and thiazolidinediones IN VIVO plasma FFAs were acutely elevated in healthy subjects pre-treated with rosiglitazone or placebo. Sixteen healthy male subjects (23-37 years) were included in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Rosiglitazone 8 mg or placebo was administered daily for 21 days. On the last day plasma FFA concentrations were increased by an intravenous triglyceride/heparin infusion. Blood for determination of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, resistin, FFAs, glucose, and insulin was drawn at baseline and on day 21 before and after 5 hours of triglyceride/heparin infusion. Adiponectin concentrations increased and FFA levels decreased in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (all p<0.05 VS. baseline). Lipid infusion significantly increased FFA plasma concentrations, with an attenuated elevation in rosiglitazone-treated subjects. However, adiponectin concentrations were only increased in subjects on rosiglitazone (p=0.018 VS. before lipid infusion), but not in controls. Leptin increased during lipid infusion in subjects receiving placebo but not in those on rosiglitazone. CRP and resistin were not affected by rosiglitazone or FFAs. The acute increase in circulating adiponectin concentrations during acutely elevated FFA depends on PPAR gamma activation in healthy subjects.

  14. Succination of thiol groups in adipose tissue proteins in diabetes: succination inhibits polymerization and secretion of adiponectin.

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    Frizzell, Norma; Rajesh, Mathur; Jepson, Matthew J; Nagai, Ryoji; Carson, James A; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2009-09-18

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate with cysteine residues in protein, a process termed succination of protein. Both fumarate and succination of proteins are increased in adipocytes cultured in high glucose medium (Nagai, R., Brock, J. W., Blatnik, M., Baatz, J. E., Bethard, J., Walla, M. D., Thorpe, S. R., Baynes, J. W., and Frizzell, N. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 34219-34228). We show here that succination of protein is also increased in epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of diabetic (db/db) mice and that adiponectin is a major target for succination in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. Cys-39, which is involved in cross-linking of adiponectin monomers to form trimers, was identified as a key site of succination of adiponectin in adipocytes. 2SC was detected on two of seven monomeric forms of adiponectin immunoprecipitated from adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue. Based on densitometry, 2SC-adiponectin accounted for approximately 7 and 8% of total intracellular adiponectin in cells and tissue, respectively. 2SC was found only in the intracellular, monomeric forms of adiponectin and was not detectable in polymeric forms of adiponectin in cell culture medium or plasma. We conclude that succination of adiponectin blocks its incorporation into trimeric and higher molecular weight, secreted forms of adiponectin. We propose that succination of proteins is a biomarker of mitochondrial stress and accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates in adipose tissue in diabetes and that succination of adiponectin may contribute to the decrease in plasma adiponectin in diabetes.

  15. 脂联素与慢性阻塞性肺病相关性研究%Correlation of Adiponectin and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德刚; 万毅新

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究脂联素与慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)患者肺功能、年龄、性别的相关性。方法选择COPD急性加重期(急性加重组)和稳定期(稳定组)患者各60例,另择60例健康者为对照组,3组男、女均各30例,采用ELISA法检测血清脂联素,使用肺功能测试仪测量并计算FEV1/FVC、FEV1%预计值和RV/TLC。结果急性加重组总体、男性和女性脂联素水平均高于稳定组和对照组,且稳定组高于对照组(均P<0.05);3组女性脂联素水平均高于男性(均P<0.05)。急性加重组和稳定组FEV1%、FEV1/FVC预计值均低于对照组,且急性加重组和稳定组的RV/TLC均高于对照组(均P<0.05)。急性加重组与稳定组血清脂联素水平与FEV1%预计值、FEV1/FVC均呈负相关,与RV/TLC呈正相关(均P<0.01)。除正常男性血清脂联素与年龄呈正相关(r=0.943,P<0.01)外,其余组二者均无相关性(P>0.05)。结论 COPD患者血清脂联素水平明显升高,推测脂联素起促炎作用并与气道阻力有关;血清脂联素存在性别差异,并可能与年龄有关。%Objective To study the relationship between adiponectin and pulmonary function, age and gender in pa-tients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 120 COPD patients with normal body mass index (BMI<24 kg/m2 ) were selected and divided into acute exacerbation group (n=60) and stable group (n=60). And 60 healthy people were included as controls. There were equal numbers of male and female in each group. The serum level of ad-iponectin was sdetected by ELISA in there groups. The pulmonary function was collected,and values of FEV1/FVC, FEV1%predicted and RV/TLC were calculated in three groups. Results The serum level of adiponectin was significantly higher in acute exacerbation group than that of stable group and control group (P<0.05). And the serum level of adiponectin was significantly higher

  16. Hypertensive heart disease

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. [Hypertensive urgency and emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Handschin, Anja; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    European and North-American guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension refer to hypertensive crisis as an acute and critical increase of blood pressure>180/120 mmHg. Presence of acute hypertensive target organ damage, such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure, in this situation defines a “hypertensive emergency”. In these patients, immediate lowering of blood pressure (about 25% within one to two hours) in an intensive care setting is mandatory to prevent further progression of target organ damage. In contrast to hypertensive emergencies, hypertensive urgencies are characterized by an acute and critical increase in blood pressure without signs or symptoms of acute hypertensive target organ damage. In these patients, blood pressure should be lowered within 24 to 48 hours in order to avoid hypertensive target organ damage. In general, hospitalization is not required, and oral antihypertensive therapy usually is sufficient. However, further and continuing outpatient care has to be ensured.

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Overview of hypertension in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 19, 2015. Egan BM. Treatment of hypertension in blacks. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 19, 2015. Kaplan NM. ...

  20. Drosophila adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates glucose and lipid metabolism by controlling insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Kwak

    Full Text Available Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application.

  1. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels.

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    J Brent Richards

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD. We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531 and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202. Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8. We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733. A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8, n = 14,733. This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6, n = 22,421 more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3, n = 10,128, and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.

  2. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  3. Circulating adiponectin levels in various malignancies: an updated meta-analysis of 107 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tai; Ye, Peng; Peng, Xin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-07-26

    Early detection of cancers is challenging for lack of specific biomarkers. Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly derived from adipocytes and hypoadiponectinemia has been reported to associate with risk of many types of cancers. However, available evidence is controversial. Some studies show that increased adiponectin levels correlate with cancer risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between circulating adiponectin levels and cancer development. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Library was conducted for eligible studies involving circulating adiponectin and malignancies from inception to August 8, 2015. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by use of a random-effect model. Funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test were conducted to examine the risk of publication bias. 107 studies were included with 19,319 cases and 25,675 controls. The pooled analysis indicated that circulating adiponectin levels were lower in patients with various cancers than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.334 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.465 to -0.203, P = 0.000). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Circulating high molecular weight adiponectin levels were also lower in cancer patients than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.502 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.957 to -0.047, P = 0.000). This meta-analysis provides further evidence that decreased adiponectin levels is associated with risk of various cancers. Hypoadiponectinemia may represent a useful biomarker for early detection of cancers.

  4. Hypertension in developing countries.

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    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  5. Pulmonary Hypertension Association

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    ... at www.AHeartCures.org . Help Kickoff November’s Pulmonary Hypertension Awareness Month Want to help raise awareness for ... Heart2CurePH | Help promote Awareness Month Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Awareness Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is ...

  6. Hypertension in pregnancy

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    Andrea Ungar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories: chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension. A relative paucity of investigative data, as well as the frequent difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis, may lead to problems in its management. This case report analyses current concepts regarding the hypertensive disorders of gestation, focusing on chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks gestation. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity and remain a leading source of maternal mortality. A prompt diagnosis is needed also because hypertension may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia, a condition which can evolve into serious complications. Maintaining blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg is recommended, although treatment should be determined on an individual basis. Many anti-hypertensive agents appear to be safe for use during pregnancy: methildopa has been the most studied of the anti-hypertensive drugs and has the best safety record. Labetalol, idralazine and nifedipine also have been found to be safe; ACE-inhibitors are absolutely contraindicated, because they are associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  7. Adiponectin haploinsufficiency promotes mammary tumor development in MMTV-PyVT mice by modulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog activities.

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    Janice B B Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipokine possessing beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. A negative association of adiponectin levels with breast cancer development has been demonstrated. However, the precise role of adiponectin deficiency in mammary carcinogenesis remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice with reduced adiponectin expressions were established and the stromal effects of adiponectin haploinsufficiency on mammary tumor development evaluated. In mice from both FVB/N and C57BL/6J backgrounds, insufficient adiponectin production promoted mammary tumor onset and development. A distinctive basal-like subtype of tumors, with a more aggressive phenotype, was derived from adiponectin haplodeficient MMTV-PyVT mice. Comparing with those from control MMTV-PyVT mice, the isolated mammary tumor cells showed enhanced tumor progression in re-implanted nude mice, accelerated proliferation in primary cultures, and hyperactivated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/beta-catenin signaling, which at least partly attributed to the decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN activities. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was inactivated by a redox-regulated mechanism. Increased association of PTEN-thioredoxin complexes was detected in tumors derived from mice with reduced adiponectin levels. The activities of thioredoxin (Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 were significantly elevated, whereas treatment with either curcumin, an irreversible inhibitor of TrxR1, or adiponectin largely attenuated their activities and resulted in the re-activation of PTEN in these tumor cells. Moreover, adiponectin could inhibit TrxR1 promoter-mediated transcription and restore the mRNA expressions of TrxR1. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin haploinsufficiency facilitated mammary tumorigenesis by down-regulation of PTEN activity and activation of PI3K

  8. Cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning in rats involves upregulating adiponectin.

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    Wang, Hui; Wu, Wenjing; Duan, Jun; Ma, Ming; Kong, Wei; Ke, Yuannan; Li, Gang; Zheng, Jingang

    2017-02-20

    It has been reported that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adiponectin (APN) are cardioprotective in many cardiovascular disorders. However, whether APN mediates the effect of IPC on myocardial injury has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate whether IPC affects myocardial ischemic injury by increasing APN expression. Male adult rats with cardiac knockdowns of APN and its receptors via intramyocardial small-interfering RNA injection were subjected to IPC and then myocardial infarction (MI) at 24 h post-IPC. Globular APN (gAd) was injected at 10 min before MI. APN mRNA and protein levels in myocardium as well as the plasma APN concentration were markedly high at 6 and 12 h after IPC. IPC ameliorated myocardial injury as evidenced by improved cardiac functions and a reduced infarct size. Compared with the control MI group, rats in the IPC + MI group had elevated levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and a smaller MI size (PIPC are partially due to upregulation of APN, and provide a further insight into IPC-mediated signaling effects.

  9. The role of adiponectin in human vascular physiology.

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    Vaiopoulos, Aristeidis G; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2012-03-08

    Adiponectin (ApN) is an adipose tissue-derived hormone which is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology via actions on a broad spectrum of target organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and vascular endothelium. Besides possessing insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties ApN also exerts a pivotal role in vascular protection through activation of multiple intracellular signaling cascades. Enhancement of nitric oxide generation and attenuation of reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells along with reduced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration constitute some of ApN's vasoprotective actions. Additionally, recent data indicate that ApN has direct myocardio-protective effects. Decreased plasma ApN levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis and may serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as a rational pharmaco-therapeutic target to treat these disorders. This review article summarizes recent work on the cardiovascular actions of ApN.

  10. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

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    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  11. Adiponectin protects rat myocardium against chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiao Ding

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5-6% for 8 hours/day, for 5 weeks. Subsequent CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction was measured by echocardiograph. Compared with the normal control (NC group, rats in the CIH-exposed group experienced elevated levels of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic volume and depressed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening (p<0.05. However, when adiponectin (Ad was added in CIH + Ad group, we saw a rescue in the elevations of the aforementioned left ventricular function (p<0.05. To assess critical cardiac injury, we detected myocardial apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL analysis. It was showed that the apoptosis percentage in CIH group (2.948% was significantly higher than that in NC group (0.4167% and CIH + Ad group (1.219% (p<0.05. Protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-12 validated our TUNEL results (p<0.05. Mechanistically, our results demonstrated that the proteins expressed with endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS were significantly elevated under CIH conditions, whereas Ad supplementation partially decreased them. Overall, our results suggested that Ad augmentation could improve CIH

  12. A prospective evaluation of CT features predictive of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in critically ill surgical patients

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    Al-Bahrani, A.Z. [Department of Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Abid, G.H. [Department of Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sahgal, E. [Department of Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); O' Shea, S. [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lee, S. [Department of Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Ammori, B.J. [Department of Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bammori@btinternet.com

    2007-07-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the computed tomography (CT) features of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by relating them to the clinical measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in critically ill surgical patients. Materials and methods: The intra-vesical pressure was measured to reflect IAP in 24 critically ill patients. CT examinations obtained within 24 h of IAP measurement were reviewed and scored independently by two consultant radiologists. Each CT examination was scored for the seven proposed features of IAH. Images obtained during the presence of IAH were compared with those obtained in the absence of IAH. Results: Forty-eight abdominal CT examinations were evaluated, of which 18 (38%) were obtained in the presence of IAH, whereas eight (17%) were obtained in the presence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). At CT, the round belly sign (RBS) and bowel wall thickening with enhancement (BWTE) were significantly more frequently detected during the presence of IAH than when the IAP was less than 12 mmHg (78 versus 20% of examinations, p < 0.001 and 39 versus 3% of examinations, p = 0.003, respectively), but only BWTE was significantly associated with the presence of ACS (40 versus 11% of examinations, p = 0.047). Conclusion: The presence of RBS and BWTE on CT images of critically ill surgical patients should alert clinicians to the possibility of presence of IAH and ACS, and prompt measurement of the IAP and consideration of suitable interventions.

  13. Associations of Adiponectin with Individual European Ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

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    Aurelian eBidulescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin

  14. Three-month treatment with pioglitazone reduces circulating C1q-binding adiponectin complex to total-adiponectin ratio, without changes in body mass index, in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Kobayashi, Hironori; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    We measured circulating C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) levels before and after 3-month treatment with pioglitazone in people with type 2 diabetes. The results indicate 3-month treatment with pioglitazone reduces circulating levels of C1q-APN/total-adiponectin ratio without changes in body mass index.

  15. Ratiometric measurements of adiponectin by mass spectrometry in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus with iron overload reveal an association with insulin resistance and glucagon

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    Benjamin A Neely

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight (HMW adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload have higher levels of 2 h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n=4 and without (n=5 iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2 h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean ± S.D. at 763 ± 298 and 727 ± 291 pmol/ml, respectively (p = 0.91; however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared controls (30.0 ± 6.3 versus 17.0 ± 6.6%, respectively; p = 0.016. Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r = 0.999, p < 0.001, but not in cases, which is possibly a reflection of insulin resistance. Although total adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with

  16. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men

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    Luciane Viater Tureck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018, while the rare homozygous genotype (TT gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005 and total cholesterol (TC (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005 compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively, the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044. We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study.

  17. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

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    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  18. Study of Leptin and Adiponectin as Disease Markers in Subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Sana Al Mutairi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Published studies showed conflicting results of the associations between adiponectin and leptin levels and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. In obese patients, plasma leptin is elevated and adiponectin is decreased, and we postulate that these adipokines could be potential markers of clinical and metabolic perturbations in patients with OSA. Methods. 147 patients with suspected OSA had polysomnography to determine the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI. We measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG, fasting serum insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin, and full lipid profile. Patients were classified on the basis of the RDI, degree of adiposity, and insulin resistance (IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR. Results. 28.6% of subjects had normal polysomnography, 34.8% had mild OSA, 19.6% had moderate OSA, and 17% had severe OSA. Obesity was more prevalent in subjects with moderate-severe OSA (47%. Adiponectin decreased significantly (P=0.041 with increasing severity of OSA. Though BMI was significantly higher in subjects with severe OSA, paradoxically, leptin was lowest in those subjects independent of gender dimorphism. Conclusions. Adiponectin is an independent marker of disease severity in patients with OSA. The paradoxical decrease in circulating leptin, which suggests impaired secretion, deserves further studies as a potential marker of severe OSA.

  19. Insulin Resistance and Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 张春秀

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The insulin sensitivity in hypertensive patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT),impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and the insulin resistance(IR) under the disorder of glucose metabolism and hypertension were studied. By glucose toler-ance test and insulin release test, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and the ratio of area under glucosetolerance curve (AUCG) to area under insulin release curve (AUC1) were calculated and analyzed.The results showed that ISI was decreased to varying degrees in the patients with hypertension,the mildest in the group of NGT with hypertension, followed by the group of IGT without hyper-tension, the group of IGT with hypertension and DM (P=0). There was very significant differ-ence in the ratio of AUCG/AUC1 between the hypertensive patients with NGT and controls (P=0). It was concluded that a significant IR existed during the development of IGT both in hyperten-sion and nonhypertension. The increase of total insulin secretion (AUC1) was associated with non-hypertension simultaneously. IR of the hypertensive patients even existed in NGT and was wors-ened with the deterioration of glucose metabolism disorder, but the AUC1 in the HT groupchanged slightly. A relative deficiency of insulin secretion or dysfunction of β-cell of islet existed inIGT and DM of the hypertensive patients.

  20. Secondary Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malha, Line; August, Phyllis

    2015-07-01

    Hypertension is a common medical complication of pregnancy. Although 75-80 % of women with preexisting essential hypertension will have uncomplicated pregnancies, the presence of secondary forms of hypertension adds considerably to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Renovascular hypertension, pheochromocytoma, and Cushing's syndrome in particular are associated with accelerating hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and fetal loss. Primary aldosteronism is a more heterogeneous disorder; there are well-documented cases where blood pressure and hypokalemia are improved during pregnancy due to elevated levels of progesterone. However, superimposed preeclampsia, worsening hypertension, and early delivery are also reported. When possible, secondary forms of hypertension should be diagnosed and treated prior to conception in order to avoid these complications.

  1. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  2. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

  3. The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk : A study within the prospective EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, Verena A.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Stegger, Jakob; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Becker, Susen; Montonen, Jukka; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Argueelles, Marcial; Duell, Eric J.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Jeurnink, Suzanne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Bjoern; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Crowe, Francesca L.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Jenab, Mazda; Romaguera, Dora; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating

  4. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  5. Serum adiponectin level in obese and non-obese COPD patients during acute exacerbation and stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Omar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in obese and nonobese COPD than controls, the rising is more during exacerbation than stable condition and more in non obese than obese COPD and non significant correlation between changes in adiponectin and ventilatory functions was found.

  6. Adiponectin expression is induced by vitamin E via a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrier, Jean-François; Gouranton, Erwan; El Yazidi, Claire; Malezet, Christiane; Balaguer, Patrick; Borel, Patrick; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2009-12-01

    Adiponectin is a well-known adipokine secreted by adipocytes that presents insulin-sensitizing properties. The regulation of expression of this adipokine by micronutrients is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that adiponectin expression is induced in adipocytes after exposure to tocopherols via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) pathway. Vitamin E force feeding resulted in an induction of adiponectin in mice at both mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin mRNA and protein secretion were also increased by vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) in 3T3-L1 cells, together with PPARgamma mRNA, independent of an antioxidant effect. In transient transfections, both alpha- and gamma-vitamers induced the luciferase gene reporter under the control of a human adiponectin promoter via a PPAR-responsive element. The induction of adiponectin by tocopherols seems to be PPARgamma dependent, because it was blocked by the specific antagonist GW9662. Finally, we showed that intracellular concentrations of a PPARgamma endogenous ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, increased after treatment with tocopherols in 3T3-L1 cells. In summary, vitamin E up-regulates adiponectin expression via a mechanism that implicates PPARgamma together with its endogenous ligand 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2. The induction of adiponectin via an original molecular mechanism could be considered as the basis for the beneficial effect of vitamin E on insulin sensitivity.

  7. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    optimization. RESULTS: In a generalized linear model adjusted for BMI SDS, total serum adiponectin concentrations were correlated to age in girls (psexes combined (psexes was found. Reference intervals were calculated using...... age as a continuous variable. The best fitted reference curve for both sexes was: 50th percentile: Y=-0.1478∗X+6.046; 2.5th percentile: Y=-0.06256∗X+2.34; 97.5th percentile: Y=-0.4086∗X+22.39, where Y=adiponectin in μg/mL and X=years of age (from 6 to 18years). CONCLUSION: We developed a pediatric...... reference levels for total serum adiponectin in a sample of 1193 Danish children and adolescents aged 6-18years. A correlation with age was demonstrated in children, but no significant difference was seen between the sexes....

  8. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  9. Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Gherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766 and SNP+276 (rs1501299 would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-α were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD. Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P0.05. Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD.

  10. Association between adiponectin concentrations and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xiaohong; Wu Qunhong; Li Yuan; Hao Yanhua; Ning Ning; Kang Zheng; Cui Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have investigated the association between adiponectin concentrations and diabetic retinopathy (DR) caused by type 2 diabetic mellitus.However,the results remain conflicting.We performed a metaanalysis to explore the relationship between adiponectin concentrations and risk of DR caused by type 2 diabetic mellitus from published articles.Methods A published literature search was performed through the PubMed,Cochrane Library,EMBASE,Science Citation Index Expanded database,Chinese CNKI,and Chinese Wan Fang databases for articles published in English and Chinese.Pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% Cls) were calculated using random or fixed effects model.Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q test and/2 statistics.Results Nineteen studies with a total of 1 545 cases and 1 502 controls were retrieved.The original meta-analysis found a significant difference in the adiponectin concentrations between the DR and non-DR (NDR) groups.After excluding the high heterogeneity studies,the second meta-analysis also demonstrated the significant association (SMD (95% CI) =-0.62 (-0.80 to-0.44),P=0.0001).According to the available data,there was statistical significance in the adiponectin concentrations considering non-proliferative DR (NPDR) versus NDR,PDR versus NPDR in Chinese populations with high heterogeneity.Conclusion Adiponectin concentrations are correlated with DR; however,the relationship between adiponectin concentrations and DR needs more in-depth investigations with larger sample sizes.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide induces a downregulation of adiponectin receptors in-vitro and in-vivo

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    Alison Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory response through production of cytokines, recruitment of macrophages and modulation of the adiponectin system. Previous studies have identified a down-regulation of adiponectin in pathologies characterised by acute (sepsis and endotoxaemia and chronic inflammation (obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that LPS would reduce adiponectin receptor expression in a murine model of endotoxaemia and in adipoocyte and myocyte cell cultures.Methods. 25 mg/kg LPS was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6J mice, equivalent volumes of normal saline were used in control animals. Mice were killed at 4 or 24 h post injection and tissues harvested. Murine adipocytes (3T3-L1 and myocytes (C2C12 were grown in standard culture, treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml–10 µg/ml and harvested at 4 and 24 h. RNA was extracted and qPCR was conducted according to standard protocols and relative expression was calculated.Results. After LPS treatment there was a significant reduction after 4 h in gene expression of adipo R1 in muscle and peri-renal fat and of adipo R2 in liver, peri-renal fat and abdominal wall subcutaneous fat. After 24 h, significant reductions were limited to muscle. Cell culture extracts showed varied changes with reduction in adiponectin and adipo R2 gene expression only in adipocytes.Conclusions. LPS reduced adiponectin receptor gene expression in several tissues including adipocytes. This reflects a down-regulation of this anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising pathway in response to LPS. The trend towards base line after 24 h in tissue depots may reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms. Adiponectin receptor regulation differs in the tissues investigated.

  12. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

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    Martin Braun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/- mice and wildtypes (WT. In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24% in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  13. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  14. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors in Human Placenta and Its Possible Implication in Gestational Diabetes

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    Naglaa F. Al Husseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Similar to obese patients and type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectin levels are reduced in former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM patients and are lower in GDM women during late pregnancy compared with pregnant control subjects matched for BMI. Diabetic insult at later stages in gestation, such as may occur in gestational diabetes, will foremost lead to short-term changes in a variety of molecules for key functions including gene expression in the placenta. Approach: In this study we assessed the expression of adiponectin receptors in human placenta to identify the site (s of expression and to clarify the effect of gestational diabetes in this expression. This study was carried on 10 normoglycemic pregnant women and 20 GDM women. The placental tissue was collected immediately after delivery and tissue biopsies were taken from both fetal and maternal sides of each placenta. One step-RT-PCR for ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 was done by Real Time PCR using Syber Green technique. Relative quantification of mRNA of the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes was measured using ABI7900 Real Time machine. Results: Both types of Adiponectin Receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are expressed in human placenta. ADIPOR1 is more highly expressed than ADIPOR2 in both fetal and maternal sides of GDM cases and normal pregnant women. ADIPOR1 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in GDM women compared to normal pregnant women, whereas no significant difference in the expression of ADIPOR2 was detected between the two groups. There was no evidence of maternal-fetal side difference in the expression of adiponectin receptors in GDM cases but in normal pregnant women there is a statistically significant difference between both sides in the expression of both ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. Conclusion: We concluded that adiponectin plays an important role in mediation the glucose metabolism in fetal tissues through its receptors, mainly Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1.

  15. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  16. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C; Hoffmann, Michael M; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  17. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  18. Comparing machine learning and logistic regression methods for predicting hypertension using a combination of gene expression and next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Elizabeth; Cape, Joshua; Tintle, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning methods continue to show promise in the analysis of data from genetic association studies because of the high number of variables relative to the number of observations. However, few best practices exist for the application of these methods. We extend a recently proposed supervised machine learning approach for predicting disease risk by genotypes to be able to incorporate gene expression data and rare variants. We then apply 2 different versions of the approach (radial and linear support vector machines) to simulated data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 and compare performance to logistic regression. Method performance was not radically different across the 3 methods, although the linear support vector machine tended to show small gains in predictive ability relative to a radial support vector machine and logistic regression. Importantly, as the number of genes in the models was increased, even when those genes contained causal rare variants, model predictive ability showed a statistically significant decrease in performance for both the radial support vector machine and logistic regression. The linear support vector machine showed more robust performance to the inclusion of additional genes. Further work is needed to evaluate machine learning approaches on larger samples and to evaluate the relative improvement in model prediction from the incorporation of gene expression data.

  19. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms.

  20. Adiponectin level in psoriasis and its association with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Bilgili Tutkun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which pathogenesis has not been completely understood yet. Adiponectin(AN produced by adipocytes has antidiabetic, antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies demonstrated that metabolic syndrome is related with low levels of AN. In literature, a few studies have been found that investigate AN levels in psoriasis. In this study, we purposed to investigate the levels of AN in psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Forty six patients with psoriasis and age and sex matched 40 healthy individuals as a control group were included in our study. Dermatological examinations were performed and psoriasis area severity index (PASI was calculated. In both groups, demographic features were questioned and body mass index were defined. Serum AN and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were determined in both groups and were compared statistically. Results: The mean serum AN levels were numerically lower in patients than in control group, but no significant statistical difference was detected between groups. Serum levels of AN were not found to be associated with age, age at onset of disease and disease duration. It was demonstrated that as levels of CRP increased, levels of AN decreased in psoriasis group. As PASI increased, a significant statistically difference was observed in levels of serum AN levels. No statistical difference was detected between PASI and body mass index. Conclusion Serum levels of AN in psoriasis may be an indicator of comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Also it can be used for assessing the severity of disease in psoriasis. But, for assessing the role of AN in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and to clarify this association, studies in different clinical models are needed.

  1. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Volberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. RESULTS: Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to

  2. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patient...

  3. Effects of pioglitazone on serum leptin and adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of pioglitazone on serum leptin and adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)patients with insulin resistance(IR).Methods Thirty-five PCOS patients with IR were treated with pioglitazone 15mg/d for 12 weeks.The results of ovulation induction were observed.The changes of fasting plasma glucose(FPG),fasting serum insulin(FINS),serum levels of leptin,adiponectin,follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH),luteinizing hormone(LH),testosterone(T)and blood fat were examined at the ...

  4. Hypertension in Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol......Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...

  5. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  6. Valproate Induced Hypertensive Urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauran Sivananthan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is a medication used in the treatment of seizures, bipolar disorder, migraines, and behavioral problems. Here we present a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypertensive urgency after initiation of valproate. Primary treatment of his hypertension was ineffective. Blood pressure stabilization was achieved following discontinuation of valproate. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of developing hypertensive urgency with administration of valproate.

  7. Hypertension og hyperlipidaemi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Steen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Analyses of cardiovascular morbidity in relationship to changes in blood pressure and in serum cholesterol levels have shown that combined reduction of both risk factors...... are important to achieve a reduction in morbidity. Statins have been shown to be effective in preventing both coronary and cerebrovascular events in both hypertensive and normotensive cases. Consequently, most recent guidelines recommend that statin treatment be considered in hypertensive patients aged less...

  8. TCM Dietotherapy for Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zi; DUAN Shu-min

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hypertension is a common cardiovascular disease with a group of symptoms and signs, mainly the increased blood pressure of the arteries.It may be primary or secondary.The former, accounting for90%, refers to an independent disease mainly manifested by increased blood pressure with the cause unknown.Primary hypertension is related to nervousness, emotional fluctuation, heredity, obesity and high-salt diet.Secondary hypertension is one of the manifestations in certain disorders.

  9. Obesity-Related Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...

  10. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  11. Performance of targeted screening for the identification of hypertension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloetzer, Clemens; Bovet, Pascal; Paccaud, Fred; Burnier, Michel; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Targeted screening of hypertension in childhood might be more efficient than universal screening. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of combined parental history of hypertension and overweight/obesity for the diagnosis of hypertension in 5207 children aged 10-14 years. Children had hypertension if they had sustained elevated blood pressure over three separate visits. The prevalence of hypertension was 2.2%. 14% of children were overweight or obese, 20% had a positive history of hypertension in at least one parent and 30% had either or both conditions. Targeted screening of hypertension to children with either overweight/obesity or with hypertensive parents limits the proportion of children (30%) to screen and identifies up to 65% of all hypertensive cases.

  12. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  13. Dopamine receptor and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chunyu; Eisner, Gilbert M; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport and reactive oxygen and by interacting with vasopressin, renin-angiotensin, and the sympathetic nervous system. Decreased renal dopamine production and/or impaired dopamine receptor function have been reported in hypertension. Disruption of any of the dopamine receptors (D(1), D(2), D(3), D(4), and D(5)) results in hypertension. In this paper, we review the mechanisms by which hypertension develops when dopamine receptor function is perturbed.

  14. Hypertension og hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a major and modifiable risk factor of stroke and dementia. Hypertension causes remodelling of the cerebral resistance vessels, impairing their tolerance to very low blood pressure. In primary prevention of stroke, the effect of beta-blockers is inferior to other classes of antihyp......Hypertension is a major and modifiable risk factor of stroke and dementia. Hypertension causes remodelling of the cerebral resistance vessels, impairing their tolerance to very low blood pressure. In primary prevention of stroke, the effect of beta-blockers is inferior to other classes...

  15. 42. Hypertension: Morbidity review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, eye abnormalities and end stage renal disease, which require proper counseling and management of patients.

  16. Which increases depressive symptoms in obese patients, hypertension or diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Özgür Keskek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression and obesity are common disorders. Obesity is also predictive of several chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare depression frequency of obese patients with hypertension or diabetes. Methods: Weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured. The definition of obesity was a body mass index (weight (kg/height (m2 ≥30 kg/m2. Obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were documented. All participants had a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI evaluation. Results: A total of 389 subjects were included, of whom 100, 101, 92, 96 participants were healthy, obese, obese with hypertension, obese with diabetes, respectively. Beck Depression Inventory scores of obese patients, obese patients with hypertension or diabetes were higher compared to the control group. BDI scores of obese patients with diabetes were higher compared to obese and obese with hypertension subjects.

  17. Expression of adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in normal colon epithelium and colon cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kyoko; Tomimoto, Ayako; Endo, Hiroki; Iida, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Michiko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Mawatari, Hironori; Nozaki, Yuichi; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Noriko; Wada, Koichiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Uozaki, Hitoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2008-09-01

    Adiponectin is secreted by adipocytes and is a key hormone responsible for insulin sensitization. Recent studies have shown that plasma adiponectin is decreased in patients with breast, endometrial and gastric cancer. However, the effect of adiponectin on colorectal carcinogenesis is controversial. It is now well known that the adiponectin receptor exists in two isoforms, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). We examined the expression of the adiponectin receptors on normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissues in a human study using real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1/AdipoR2, were expressed in normal colon epithelial and colon cancer cells. Furthermore, laser microdissection was performed to confirm our results. These results suggest that adiponectin may exert some effects on normal colon epithelium or colon cancer cells directly through adiponectin receptors. Further studies are required to elucidate the function of the AdipoRs activated by adiponectin and the downstream mechanisms of AdipoRs in colon cancer cells.

  18. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  19. Obesity-related hypertension: possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Maletínská, Lenka; Behuliak, Michal; Nagelová, Veronika; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, but despite a century of clinical and basic research, the discrete etiology of this disease is still not fully understood. The same is true for obesity, which is recognized as a major global epidemic health problem nowadays. Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Epidemiological studies have shown that excess weight gain predicts future development of hypertension, and the relationship between BMI and blood pressure (BP) appears to be almost linear in different populations. There is no doubt that obesity-related hypertension is a multifactorial and polygenic trait, and multiple potential pathogenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the development of higher BP in obese humans. These include hyperinsulinemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, abnormal levels of certain adipokines such as leptin, or cytokines acting at the vascular endothelial level. Moreover, some genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are also in play. Although the full manifestation of both hypertension and obesity occurs predominantly in adulthood, their roots can be traced back to early ontogeny. The detailed knowledge of alterations occurring in the organism of experimental animals during particular critical periods (developmental windows) could help to solve this phenomenon in humans and might facilitate the age-specific prevention of human obesity-related hypertension. In addition, better understanding of particular pathophysiological mechanisms might be useful in so-called personalized medicine.

  20. ASH position paper: hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Hypertension is publishing a series of Position Papers in their official journals throughout the 2008-2009 years. The following Position Paper originally appeared: JASH. 2008;2(6):484-494. Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension, Inc (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous magnesium sulfate is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  1. Perfusion lung scan as a method to predict response to long-term treatment of beraprost in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Lee, S. D.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S. [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether perfusion lung scan predicts the effect of long term use of beraprost, in patients with PPH. The study population included 18 patient with PPH, who were enrolled in multicenter prospective study, and were under the trial of beraprost over 3 months. Perfusion lung scans were classified as normal peripheral distribution (NPD), and diffuse pachy abnormalities (DPA) according to the extent of small perfusion defects. Beraprost was considered to be effective when more than two of the following conditions were met: improvement in symptoms of dyspnea graded by NYHA classification, more than 10% decrease in velocity of tricuspid valve regurgitation by echocardiography or more than 10% increase in 6 minute walk test. The mean age of patients is 27{+-}11 (male; female = 4 : 14). Lung scan showed 7 with NPD and 11 with DPA. There were no dfferences of baseline symptoms, hemodynamic parameters, and 6-min wal test between patients with NPD and DPA. The long term use of beraprost was effective in 8 cases out of 11 case with NPD, and only 1 out of 7 cases with DPA (p<0.05). Perfusion lung scan may predict beraprost response in patients with PPH.

  2. Hypertension and Obesity in Dakar, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Gueye, Lamine; Duboz, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem in many sub-Saharan African countries, but data on the main cardiovascular risk factors–hypertension and obesity–are almost nonexistent in Senegal. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to report the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in Dakar, (ii) to assess the prevalence of general and central obesity, and (iii) to analyze the association between hypertension and general and central obesity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 1000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 20–90. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.7%. Among hypertensive respondents, 28.4% were aware of their condition; 16.0% were on antihypertensive medication; 4.9% had controlled blood pressure. The frequency of doctor visits was a significant predictor of awareness (OR = 2.16; p<0.05) and treatment (OR = 2.57; p<0.05) of hypertension. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and general obesity were 12.6%, 19.2% and 9.7% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was 26% by WC and 39.8% by WHtR. General obesity and central obesity by WHtR significantly predicted HTN among men and women, but not central obesity by WC. Conclusions This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension in Dakar and a high prevalence of obesity among women–particularly among older women. The awareness, treatment, and effective control of hypertension are unacceptably low. The blood pressure of women with general obesity, and men with central obesity, in the community should be monitored regularly to limit the burden of cardiovascular disease in Senegal. PMID:27622534

  3. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N=121 were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%, insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%, HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%, and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%. The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r=0.221, P<0.05, insulin (r=0.184, P<0.05, and HOMA-IR (r=0.237, P<0.01 and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038.

  4. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  5. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulidou, Anastasia; Roumeliotis, Athanasios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Giannakopoulou, Efstathia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Passadakis, Ploumis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Vargemezis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.002), on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P < 0.001). cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P = 0.022). Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (β = −5.45, P = 0.023), independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought. PMID:26064982

  6. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tavridou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT. Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P=0.002, on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P<0.001. cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P=0.022. Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (β=-5.45, P=0.023, independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought.

  7. Effects of Simvastatin on adiponectin and endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Liu; Donghua Yin; Ming Gui; Kejiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    0bjective:To investigate the effects of simvastatin,a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor,on adiponectin and markers of endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice at an early stage of atherosclerosis.Methods:Twenty-four 6-week old male apoE-deficient mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group(normal saline) and treatment group[simvastatin(5 mg/(kg·d)].Simvastatin was administered to treatment group mice by gavage and the same volume of normal saline was administered to control group mice by the same method for 4 weeks.Total cholesterol(TC),superoxide dismutase(SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),and nitric oxide(NO) were measured by biochemical analysis,and adiponectin was measured by an ABC-ELISA method.Results:There was no significant difference in serum TC between control and treatment groups.Compared with the control animals,simvastafin-treated animals exhibited a significant increase in serurn levels of adponectin,SOD and NO,and decrease in serum MDA(P <0.01).Conclusion:Simvastatin protects endothelial function by increasing serum adiponectin,which may increase serum SOD and NO,and decrease serum MDA.This study suggests that sirnvastatin has therapeutic advantages,unrelated to its cholesterol-lowering effect,that are mediated by adiponectin.

  8. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  9. Total Adiponectin and Risk of Symptomatic Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Joshipura, Kaumudi J.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-Lower concentrations of adiponectin have been linked to subsequent risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals. Whether similar relationships exist for the development of systemic atherosclerosis, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is uncertain. We investigated the associat

  10. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Nigro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”, on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  11. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  12. Adiponectin deficiency enhances colorectal carcinogenesis and liver tumor formation induced by azoxymethane in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamao Nishihara; Shinji Tamura; Norio Hayashi; Hiroyasu Iishi; Iichiro Shimornura; Miyako Baba; Morihiro Matsuda; Masahiro Inoue; Yasuko Nishizawa; Atsunori Fukuhara; Hiroshi Arald; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the causal relationship between hypoadiponectinemia and colorectal carcinogenesis in in vivo experimental model, and to determine the con-tribution of adiponectin deficiency to colorectal cancer development and proliferation. METHODS: We examined the influence of adiponectin deficiency on colorectal carcinogenesis induced by the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) (7.5 mg/kg, in-traperitoneal injection once a week for 8 wk), by using adiponectin-knockout (KO) mice. RESULTS: At 53 wk after the first AOM treatment, KOmice developed larger and histologically more progres-sive colorectal tumors with greater frequency com-pared with wild-type (WT) mice, although the tumor incidence was not different between WT and KO mice. KO mice showed increased cell proliferation of colorec-tal tumor cells, which correlated with the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal tumors. In addition, KO mice showed higher incidence and frequency of liver tumors after AOI treatment. Thirteen percent of WT mice developed liver tumors, and these WT mice had only a single tumor. In contrast, 50% of K.O mice developed liver tumors, and 58% of these KO mice had multiple tumors. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin deficiency enhances colorectal carcinogenesis and liver tumor formation induced by AOM in mice. This study strongly suggests that hypoadiponectinemia could be involved in the pathogenesis for colorectal cancer and liver tumor in human subjects.

  13. Serum resistin and adiponectin concentrations in patients with overweight and obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong; LI Xiao-ping; ZHAO Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the serum levels of resistin and adiponectin in patients with overweight and obesity. Methods: Fifty-eight cases with normal weight and 24 patients with overweight and obesity have taken fasting blood samples for measurements of plasma glucose, plasma lipids, insulin, C-peptide,thyroid hormones, C-response protein, interleukin-6, TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Results:The concentrations of resistin in cases with overweight and obesity were significant higher than those in the normal weight cases (16.01± 8. 60 vs 11. 63+ 9. 05 ng/ml, P = 0. 047). Pearson relation analysis showed that serum resistin concentrations were positively correlated with age (r= 0. 476, P= 0. 019), but negatively correlated with C-peptide (r=- 0.45, P = 0. 024), and adiponectin concentrations were positively correlated with HDL-c (r=0. 463, P=0. 023) and systolic blood pressure (r=0. 409, P=0. 047) in overweight and obesity cases. Conclusion: The concentrations of resistin in cases with over-weight and obesity are higher, and there is no correlation between resistin and blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin,while the serum adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with HDL-c and systolic blood pressure.

  14. Characterization of the Expression of CTRP9, a Paralog of Adiponectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ziwen; CUI Ting; LIU Jing; ZHUANG Yuan; MENG Qinghang; TAO Litao; LI Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the hormones secreted exclusively by the adipose tissue with anti-diabetic,anti-inflammatory,anti-atherogenic,anti-atherosclerotic,and insulin-sensitizing effects.Adiponectin has structural features including a signal peptide at the N terminus,a short variable region,a collagenous domain,and a C-terminal globular domain homologous to Clq.The family of proteins containing this globular domain is called the Clq/tumor necrosis factor-α-related proteins (CTRP).Among all the CTRPs characterized so far,the CTRP9 protein has the highest homology to adiponectin.However,little is known about the functions of CTRP9.This study examines the tissue expression of CTRP9 as well as the ex-pression of CTRP9 during mouse development and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.The effects of LPS,TNFα,and starvation on the expression of CTRP9 were also investigated.CTRP9 mRNA is shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the adipose tissues.The expression profile of CTRP9 dif-fers from that of adiponectin,implying that they are functionally diverse although structurally homologous.

  15. Adiponectin: a biomarker of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Ying; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chang, Lin-Chau; Huang, Ying-Shing; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Su, Ta-Chan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2008-09-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most thoroughly studied adipocytokines. Low plasma levels of adiponectin are found to associate with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and many other human diseases. From animal experiments and human studies, adiponectin has been shown to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity. In this article, we review the evidence and propose that hypo-adiponectinemia is not a major cause of obesity. Instead, it is the result of obesity-induced insulin resistance in the adipose tissue. Hypo-adiponectinemia then mediates the metabolic effects of obesity on the other peripheral tissues, such as liver and skeletal muscle and may also exert some direct effects on end-organ damage. We propose that deciphering the molecular details governing the adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion will lead us to more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of insulin resistance in the adipose tissue and provide us new avenues for the therapeutic intervention of obesity and insulin resistance-related human disorders.

  16. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  17. Adiponectin and leptin induce VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. OBJECTIVE: Up to now, the relationship between adipokines and adhesion molecules at cartilage level was not explored. Thus, the aim of this article was to study the effect of leptin and adiponectin on the expression of VCAM-1 in human and murine chondrocytes. For completeness, intracellular signal transduction pathway was also explored. METHODS: VCAM-1 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis upon treatment with leptin, adiponectin and other pertinent reagents in cultured human primary chondrocytes. Signal transduction pathways have been explored by using specific pharmacological inhibitors in the adipokine-stimulated human primary chondrocytes and ATDC5 murine chondrocyte cell line. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that leptin and adiponectin increase VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. In addition, both adipokines have additive effect with IL-1β. Finally, we demonstrate that several kinases, including JAK2, PI3K and AMPK are at a play in the intracellular signalling of VCAM-1 induction. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that leptin and adiponectin could perpetuate cartilage-degrading processes by inducing also factors responsible of leukocyte and monocyte infiltration at inflamed joints.

  18. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European an...

  19. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin sens

  20. Adiponectin Potentially Contributes to the Antidepressive Effects of Baduanjin Qigong Exercise in Women With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Li, Ang; Ng, Siu-Man; Ho, Rainbow T H; Xu, Aimin; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Wang, Xiao-Min; So, Kwok-Fai; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-03-13

    Our recent study demonstrates that adiponectin signaling plays a significant role in mediating physical exercise-exerted effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepression in mice. Whether the findings can be translated to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on adiponectin and to evaluate whether adiponectin is involved in the antidepressive effects of Qigong exercise on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like illness. This is a randomized, waitlist-controlled trial. One hundred eight female participants were randomly assigned to either Qigong exercise or waitlist groups. Sixteen 1.5-h Qigong lessons were conducted. Outcome measures were taken at three time points. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively associated with body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist/hip ratio in women with CFS-like illness. Compared with the waitlist control, Qigong exercise significantly reduced anxiety and depression symptoms and significantly raised plasma adiponectin levels (median = 0.8 vs. -0.1, p Qigong exercise were associated with decreases in depression scores for the Qigong group (r = -0.38, p = 0.04). Moreover, adjusted linear regression analysis further identified Qigong exercise and change in adiponectin levels as the significant factors accounting for reduction of depression symptoms. Baduanjin Qigong significantly increased adiponectin levels in females with CFS-like illness. Decreases in depression symptoms were associated with increases in adiponectin levels following Qigong exercise, indicating that the potential contribution of adiponectin to Qigong exercise elicited antidepressive effects in human subjects.

  1. Serum Level of Adiponectin and Its Association with Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is a protein produced exclusively by adipose tissue; the reduced level of which has been shown to be involved in a variety of obesity-related disorders, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, in different ethnic groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine adiponectin level and its association with insulin sensitivity in 20 adult overweight type-2 diabetic and 20 healthy over-weight non-diabetic Iranian men for the first time. Methods: Body fat mass (Bio-electric impedance, serum level of adiponectin (ELISA, fasting blood sugar and fasting insulin were measured. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using QUICKI. Results: As expected, the mean adiponectin concentration was lower in diabetics (7.7 ±3µg/ml than non-diabetics (8.1 ± 2µg/ml; however, the difference did not achieve statistical significance (P= 0.5. Adiponectin negatively correlated with fat mass. This correlation was stronger in diabetics with a higher fat mass (r= -0.3 in diabetics vs. r= -0.01 in non-diabetics; p: N.S.. Adiponectin positively related with insulin sensitivity in both groups, although this relation was only statistically significant in non-diabetics (r= +0.5; P= 0.04. The relation between insulin sensitivity and mean of adiponectin level was marginally significant even after adjustment for group (diabetic and non-diabetic, age and fat mass. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the studies on different ethnic groups which have indicated lower adiponectin levels in diabetics. Also our results confirm the relationship between a low adiponectin level and insulin sensitivity reported in earlier studies.

  2. Effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes cultured with high glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing; LI Mei-rong; GUO Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.This study aimed to investigate the effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes (HCM) cultured with high glucose.Methods The cells were assigned to three group: control group,high glucose group and high glucose plus adiponectin group.After culture for 24,48,72 hours,oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the supernatant of culture media.The expression of p66Shc and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Flow cytometry was designed to observe and detect cellular apoptosis.Results Our findings showed significant increase in MDA levels and decrease in SOD activity in the high glucose group compared with the control group (P <0.05).However,MDA levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity was significantly increased in the adiponectin group compared with those in the high-glucose group (P <0.05).The mRNA expression of HO-1 in the high glucose group was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin further increased the mRNA expression of HO-1 induced by high glucose in a time-dependent manner (P <0.05).The expression of p66Shc was significantly increased in high glucose group compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin significantly suppressed the upregulation of p66Shc induced by high glucose (P <0.05).The apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes was significantly increased in the high glucose group compared with that in the control group while the apoptotic rate in the adiponectin group was remarkably declined in comparison with that in the high glucose group.Conclusion Adiponectin reduces high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and plays a

  3. The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with

  4. The role of adiponectin in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR as well as standardized mean difference (SMD including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg's rank correlation test with Begg's funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773-1.053. After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744-0.943. There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936; and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256. The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614 after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with

  5. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, Petronella G.; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a pre

  6. Hypertension Briefing: Technical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force exerted on artery walls as the heart pumps blood through the body. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when blood pressure is constantly higher than the pressure needed to carry blood through the body. This document details how the IPH uses a systematic and consistent method to produce prevalence data for hypertension on the island of Ireland.

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  8. Noncirrotisk intrahepatisk portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Havelund, Troels

    2007-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of liver cirrhosis or portal vein thrombosis. The disease is common in the East and rarely seen in the West. Two cases with oesophageal varices are described. The histopathology is heterogeneous...... but includes vascular lesions and portal fibrosis. Patient management follows the current recommendations for variceal bleeding....

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest X-ray, a breathing test called a pulmonary function test and an echocardiogram (sometimes called an “echo”). Your doctor may also need to do other tests to find out whether another medical condition is causing your pulmonary hypertension. TreatmentHow is pulmonary hypertension treated?If the ...

  10. Hypertension after clonidine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; deCarvalho, J G; Batson, H M; Frohlich, E D

    1978-05-01

    Rebound hypertension occurred in two patients upon clonidine withdrawal. Treatment of the hypertensive crisis consists of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, reserpine, or the reintroduction of clonidine. With effective control of pressure during the crisis, long-term antihypertensive therapy must be resumed.

  11. NGAL和血清胱抑素C在预测妊高征肾脏损伤中的诊断价值%Diagnostic Value of NGAL and Serum Cystatin C in Predicting Hypertensive Disease of Pregnancy Renal Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小英; 贾海红; 李晓丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of NGAL and serum cystatin C in predicting hypertensive disease of pregnancy renal injury. Method 100 patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy as the experimental group,select the same period admitted in our hospital and pregnancy outcome of normal pregnant women 50 cases as the control group. Detection of two serum NGAL and serum cystatin C levels within 24 h after admission and pregnancy after 72 h. Results Within 24 hours after admission,the experimental group in patients with serum NGAL levels,which was significantly higher than that in the control group,the two groups compared with statistical significance. Patients in the experimental group serum Cys-C levels was significantly higher than that in the control group, the two groups compared with statistical significance ( t=2. 256,P0. 05). Using the diagnostic value of ROC curve in the evaluation of NGAL and Cys-C. Among them,the area under the ROC curve of NGAL value is 0. 841,showed that NGAL is high diagnostic accuracy rate,Cys-C under the ROC curve area of 0. 810,showed that Cys-C diagnosis accurate medium,NGAL diagnosis accurate rate is higher than that of Cys-C. Conclusion NGAL and cystatin C may be as a predictor of pregnancy hypertension disease early renal damage index,in the disease early detection of pregnancy women with stage renal function, early detection of early treatment,can effectively reduce the maternal and perinatal mortality,improve maternal and child quality,worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:研究NGAL和血清胱抑素C在预测妊娠高血压疾病肾脏损伤中的诊断价值.方法选取妊娠高血压疾病患者100例作为实验组,另选取同期住院且妊娠结局正常的孕妇50例作为对照组.入院24 h内及产后72 h后检测两组血清NGAL和血清胱抑素C水平,并进行比较.结果入院24 h内,实验组患者血NGAL水平、血Cys-C水平显著高于对照组,两组比较

  12. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  13. [Hypertension and arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a known risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and causes both atherosclero= sis of medium-large arteries and arteriolosclerosis of the arterioles. Elevated blood pressure causes damage to the endothelium and vascular wall through both mechanical and humoral factors. We and others have shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system at a 'critical period' during the development of hypertension results in a permanent suppression of hypertension in animal models. We have also reported that high-dose renin-angiotensin inhibition results in regression of hypertension, possibly by regression of renal arteriolar hypertrophy. These results suggest that understanding the process of arterial remodeling may play a key role in the development of new strategies for prevention and regression of hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

  14. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Amanda R; Cho, Leslie S

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy represent the second commonest cause of direct maternal death and complicate an estimated 5-10 % of pregnancies. Classification systems aim to separate hypertension similar to that seen outside pregnancy (chronic and gestational hypertension) from the potentially fatal pregnancy-specific conditions. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia represent increasing severities of this disease spectrum. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 2013 guidelines no longer require proteinuria as a diagnostic criterion, because of its variable appearance in the disease spectrum. The cause involves inadequate cytotrophoblastic invasion of the myometrium, resulting in placental hypoperfusion and diffuse maternal endothelial dysfunction. Changes in angiogenic and antiangiogentic peptide profiles precede the onset of clinical preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia should be closely monitored and receive magnesium sulfate intravenously if severe features, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia occur. Definitive therapy is delivery of the fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy increases future maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Hypertension in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Gil-Extremera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of hypertension in the Western countries is continuously increasing in the elderly population and remains the leading cause of cardiovascular and morbidity. Methods. we analysed some significant clinical trials in order to present the relevant findings on those hypertensive population. Results. Several studies (SYST-EUR, HYVET, CONVINCE, VALUE, etc. have demonstrated the benefits of treatment (nitrendipine, hydrochrotiazyde, perindopril, indapamide, verapamil, or valsartan in aged hypertensive patients not only concerning blood pressure values but also the other important risk factors. Conclusion. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the Western countries, and the relevance of receiving pharmacological treatment of hypertension in aged patients is crucial; in addition, the results suggest that combination therapy—nitrendipine plus enalapril—could have more benefits than those observed with the use of nitrendipine alone.

  16. 脂联素及脂联素受体与肿瘤关系的研究进展%Progress in understanding the relationship between adiponectin receptors R1&R2 and carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅婕; 宋敏

    2012-01-01

    脂联素是一种由脂肪细胞特异分泌的内源性生物活性分子,与冠心病、糖尿病、高血压及肿瘤等多种疾病密切相关.具有调节糖脂代谢、改善胰岛素抵抗、抗炎、抗动脉粥样硬化及抗肿瘤的作用.近几年关于脂联素与结直肠癌、乳腺癌、子宫内膜癌、食管癌、胃癌、前列腺癌及肾细胞癌等几种恶性肿瘤的关系及其作用机制的研究取得了较大的进展.现就该领域的最新研究成果作一综述.%Adiponectin is a key hormone secreted by adi-pocytes. It is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-arteriosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. Many studies have found that adiponectin is related to coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cancer. Recently, adiponectin receptors Rl and R2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer and nephrocyte cancer.

  17. Adiponectin is protective against oxidative stress induced cytotoxicity in amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ neurotoxicity is important in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Aβ neurotoxicity causes oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage resulting in neuronal degeneration and death. Oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial failure are also pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T(2DM which is characterized by insulin resistance. Interestingly, T(2DM increases risk to develop AD which is associated with reduced neuronal insulin sensitivity (central insulin resistance. We studied the potential protective effect of adiponectin (an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties against Aβ neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y transfected with the Swedish amyloid precursor protein (Sw-APP mutant, which overproduced Aβ with abnormal intracellular Aβ accumulation. Cytotoxicity was measured by assay for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released upon cell death and lysis. Our results revealed that Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells expressed both adiponectin receptor 1 and 2, and had increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation compared to control empty-vector transfected SH-SY5Y cells. Importantly, adiponectin at physiological concentration of 10 µg/ml protected Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells against cytotoxicity under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. This neuroprotective action of adiponectin against Aβ neurotoxicity-induced cytotoxicity under oxidative stress involved 1 AMPK activation mediated via the endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 (adaptor protein with phosphotyrosine binding, pleckstrin homology domains and leucine zipper motif and possibly 2 suppression of NF-κB activation. This raises the possibility of novel therapies for AD such as adiponectin receptor agonists.

  18. Role of adiponectin and leptin on body development in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparoni Antonella

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of growth and nutritional status in the foetus and neonate is a complex mechanism, in which also hormones produced by adipose tissue, such as adiponectin and leptin are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in appropriate (AGA and small for gestational age (SGA children during the 1st year of life and to correlate these with auxological parameters. Methods In 33 AGA and 29 SGA infants, weight, length, head circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated at the second day of life, and at one, six and twelve months, during which a portion of SGA could show catch-up growth (rapid growth in infants born small for their gestational age. Results Both total and isoform adiponectin levels were comparable between AGA and SGA infants at birth and until age one year. These levels significantly increased from birth to the first month of life and then decreased to lower values at 1 year of age in all subjects. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher in AGA (2.1 ± 4.1 ng/ml than in SGA neonates (0.88 ± 1.03 ng/ml, p st and the 6th month of age, but they increased in SGA from six months to one year, when they showed catch-up growth. Circulating insulin levels were not statistically different in AGA and SGA neonates at any study time point. Insulin levels in both AGA and SGA infants increased over the study period, and were significantly lower at birth compared to one, six and 12 months of age. Conclusions During the first year of life, in both AGA and SGA infants a progressive decrease in adiponectin levels was observed, while a difference in leptin values was correlated with the nutritional status.

  19. Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity as a Predictor of Hypertension in Women

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    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there is insufficient evidence to state that cardiovascular hyperreactivity is a predictive risk factor for hypertension in women.Objective: to determine the predictive value of cardiovascular hyperreactivity for hypertension in women.Methods: a prospective cohort study was conducted in 212 women: 120 normoreactive and 92 hyperreactive. Two measurements were performed, one in 2004 to identify the presence or absence of cardiovascular reactivity, and another in 2009 to detect high blood pressure through the hand-held weight test. The variables studied included cardiovascular hyperreactivity, obesity, age, family history of hypertension, and smoking. The relative risk of developing high blood pressure in hyperreactive women was determined by using a logistic regression model.Results: the incidence of hypertension after five years was three times higher in hyperreactive women than in the normoreactive. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity was the most significant variable for predicting hypertension.Conclusion: women with cardiovascular hyperreactivity carry a higher risk of developing hypertension than normoreactive ones. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is the risk factor that showed the highest predictive value for hypertension.

  20. Association between reduction of plasma adiponectin levels and risk of bacterial infection after gastric cancer surgery.

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    Hiroshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infections are important causes of postoperative morbidity after gastric surgery; currently, no factors have been identified that can predict postoperative infection. Adiponectin (ADN mediates energy metabolism and functions as an immunomodulator. Perioperative ADN levels and perioperative immune functioning could be mutually related. Here we evaluated a potential biological marker to reliably predict the incidence of postoperative infections to prevent such comorbidities. METHODS: We analyzed 150 consecutive patients who underwent elective gastric cancer surgery at the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital (Shiga, Japan from 1997 to 2009; of these, most surgeries (n = 100 were performed 2008 onwards. The patient characteristics and surgery-related factors between two groups (with and without infection were compared by the paired t-test and χ(2 test, including preoperative ADN levels, postoperative day 1 ADN levels, and ADN ratio (postoperative ADN levels/preoperative ADN levels as baseline factors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to access the independent association between ADN ratio and postoperative infection. Finally, receiver operating curves (ROCs were constructed to examine its clinical utility. RESULTS: Sixty patients (40% experienced postoperative infections. The baseline values of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, total operating time, blood loss, surgical procedure, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, preoperative ADN levels, and ADN ratio were significantly different between groups. Logistic regression analysis using these factors indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and ADN ratio were significantly independent variables (*p<0.05, ** p<0.01, respectively. ROC analysis revealed that the useful cutoff values (sensitivity/specificity for preoperative ADN levels, ADN ratio, blood loss, operating time, and CRP levels were 8.81(0.567/0.568, 0.76 (0

  1. Mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiologic process characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure, which is a common complication of many diseases. Pulmonary hypertension with no apparent causes (unknown etiology) is termed primary pulmonary hypertension or, more recently, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).

  2. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  3. Study of changes in adiponectin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of berberis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hemmati

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous extract of barberry is effective in reducing triglyceride and FBS. An increased level of adiponectin due to using barberry extract can play a role in the regulation of lipid profile in diabetes.

  4. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  5. Study of Adiponectin Level in Diabetic Adolescent Girls in Relation to Glycemic Control and Complication of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Serum adiponectin level is high in adolescent type 1 diabetic girls. It can be used as a predictor of diabetes complications rather than a sensitive biochemical marker for glycemic control.

  6. Anesthesia and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Dana; Ivascu, Natalia; Heerdt, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia and surgery are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension due mainly to right ventricular failure, arrhythmias, postoperative hypoxemia, and myocardial ischemia. Preoperative risk assessment and successful management of patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac surgery involve an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, screening of patients at-risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension, analysis of preoperative and operative risk factors, thorough multidisciplinary planning, careful intraoperative management, and early recognition and treatment of postoperative complications. This article will cover each of these aspects with particular focus on the anesthetic approach for non-cardiothoracic surgeries.

  7. Application of decision tree and logistic regression on the health literacy prediction of hypertension patients%决策树与Logistic回归在高血压患者健康素养预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现文; 李春玉; Miyong Kim; 李贞姬; 黄德镐; 朱琴淑; 金今姬

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨和评价决策树与Logistic回归用于预测高血压患者健康素养中的可行性与准确性.方法 利用Logistic回归分析和Answer Tree软件分别建立高血压患者健康素养预测模型,利用受试者工作曲线(ROC)评价两个预测模型的优劣.结果 Logistic回归预测模型的灵敏度(82.5%)、Youden指数(50.9%)高于决策树模型(77.9%,48.0%),决策树模型的特异性(70.1%)高于Logistic回归预测模型(68.4%),误判率(29.9%)低于Logistic回归预测模型(31.6%);决策树模型ROC曲线下面积与Logistic回归预测模型ROC曲线下面积相当(0.813 vs 0.847).结论 利用决策树预测高血压患者健康素养效果与Logistic回归模型相当,根据决策树模型可以确定高血压患者健康素养筛选策略,数据挖掘技术可以用于慢性病患者健康素养预测中.%Objective To study and evaluate the feasibility and accuracy for the application of decision tree methods and logistic regression on the health literacy prediction of hypertension patients. Method Two health literacy prediction models were generated with decision tree methods and logistic regression respectively. The receiver operating curve ( ROC) was used to evaluate the results of the two prediction models. Result The sensitivity(82. 5%) , Youden index (50. 9%)by logistic regression model was higher than decision tree model(77. 9% ,48. 0%) , the Spe-cificity(70. 1%)by decision tree model was higher than that of logistic regression model(68. 4%), The error rate (29.9%) was lower than that of logistic regression model(31. 6%). The ROC for both models were 0. 813 and 0. 847. Conclusion The effect of decision tree prediction model was similar to logistic regression prediction model. Health literacy screening strategy could be obtained by decision tree prediction model, implying the data mining methods is feasible in the chronic disease management of community health service.

  8. Pharmacogenomics of hypertension and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arwood, Meghan J; Cavallari, Larisa H; Duarte, Julio D

    2015-09-01

    Heart disease is a leading cause of death in the United States, and hypertension is a predominant risk factor. Thus, effective blood pressure control is important to prevent adverse sequelae of hypertension, including heart failure, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic stroke. Over half of Americans have uncontrolled blood pressure, which may in part be explained by interpatient variability in drug response secondary to genetic polymorphism. As such, pharmacogenetic testing may be a supplementary tool to guide treatment. This review highlights the pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive response and response to drugs that treat adverse hypertension-related sequelae, particularly coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. While pharmacogenetic evidence may be more robust for the latter with respect to clinical implementation, there is increasing evidence of genetic variants that may help predict antihypertensive response. However, additional research and validation are needed before clinical implementation guidelines for antihypertensive therapy can become a reality.

  9. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Tavridou; Anastasia Georgoulidou; Athanasios Roumeliotis; Stefanos Roumeliotis; Efstathia Giannakopoulou; Nikolaos Papanas; Ploumis Passadakis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Vassilis Vargemezis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponecti...

  10. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

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    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  11. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A. Rothan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  12. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis.

  13. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Adiponectin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Da Chen

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been suggested to be associated with low levels of adiponectin. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, previous studies assessing the effect of CPAP on adiponectin in patients with OSA yielded conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine whether CPAP therapy could increase adiponectin levels.Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science before February 2015. Information on characteristics of subjects, study design and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of serum adiponectin was extracted for analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD was used to analyze the summary estimates for CPAP therapy.Eleven studies involving 240 patients were included in this meta-analysis, including ten observational studies and one randomized controlled study. The meta-analysis showed that there was no change of adiponectin levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = 0.059, 95% confidence interval (CI = -0.250 to 0.368, z = 0.37, p = 0.710. Subgroup analyses indicated that the results were not affected by age, baseline body mass index, severity of OSA, CPAP therapy duration, sample size and racial differences.This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy has no impact on adiponectin in OSA patients, without significant changes in body weight. Further large-scale, well-designed long-term interventional investigations are needed to clarify this issue.

  14. A meta-analysis of adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility

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    Xiuju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the correlation between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were not conclusive with each other. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, we performed this meta-analysis to further explicate the adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility. Case-control or cohort studies focused on adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk were electronic searched in the databases of Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica database(EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. All the potentially relevant studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke was expressed by odds ratio with its confidence interval. Publication bias has been assessed by begg’s funnel plot. All the analyses have been performed by Revman 5.1 statistical software. Finally, a total of six studies with 1,345 cases and 1,421 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (p<0.05. People with G single nucleotide of adiponectin gene have the increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared to T single nucleotide.

  15. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  16. Obesity indices and metabolic markers are related to hs-CRP and adiponectin levels in overweight and obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanip, Zulkefli; Ariffin, Farah Diana; Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammed; Sulaiman, Wan Azman Wan; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Obese subjects had increased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), decreased adiponectin levels, and impaired microvascular endothelial function compared to lean subjects. We investigated the relationships of serum hs-CRP, adiponectin and microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers in overweight and obese female subjects. Anthropometric profile, body fat composition, biochemical analysis, serum hs-CRP and adiponectin levels, and microvascular endothelial function were measured in 91 female subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was determined using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were 34.88 (7.87) years and 32.93 (4.82) kg/m(2). hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and visceral fat. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-%S), and inversely correlated with waist hip ratio, triglyceride, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). No relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function and obesity indices, and metabolic markers. In overweight and obese female subjects, hs-CRP levels were correlated with obesity indices while adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity indices and metabolic markers. No significant relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers including hs-CRP and adiponectin in female overweight and obese subjects.

  17. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Obese and Nonobese Asthmatic School Children in relation to Asthma Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atqah Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a positive correlation between asthma and obesity in children and adults. Leptin and adiponectin regulate several metabolic and inflammatory functions. This study aims to evaluate serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in asthmatic school children to investigate their association with obesity and the degree of asthma control. Obese asthmatic (OA and nonobese asthmatic (NOA children, aged 7 to 14, were randomly enrolled in this prospective study. Data on demographic, anthropometric, serum lipids, and spirometric measures and allergy status were collected and analyzed. Serum leptin was significantly higher (25.8±11.1 versus 8.7±11.1; P<0.0001 and adiponectin levels were lower (2.5±1.2 versus 5.4±2.9; P<0.0001 in OA compared to NOA children. The uncontrolled group had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to well and partially controlled asthma. BMI was positively correlated with leptin (r=0.79; P<0.001 and negatively with adiponectin (r=-0.73; P<0.001. Mean BMI and leptin levels were observed to be higher in girls compared to boys. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher BMI and female gender had significant effect on serum leptin levels. Among asthmatic children higher serum leptin and lower adiponectin levels were significantly associated with obesity and showed no significant association with degree of asthma controls.

  18. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

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    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  19. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

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    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  20. Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Linda; Raschenberger, Julia; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Codd, Veryan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Gieger, Christian; Haun, Margot; Henneman, Peter; Herder, Christian; Hovatta, Iiris; Laser, Annika; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kollerits, Barbara; Moilanen, Eeva; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Quaye, Lydia; Rissanen, Aila; Roden, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Valdes, Ana M; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Thorand, Barbara; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Kaprio, Jaakko; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.

  1. Adiponectin and Leptin Synovial Fluid Concentration as a Marker for the Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mart Salim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic degenerative joint disorder of the synovial joint characterized by loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, and alterations of subchondral bone. An increase of weight bearing affect on knee joint biomechanically and alter concentration of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin. Herein we reported a correlation between adiponectin and leptin synovial fluid concentration with the severity of knee OA in obese patients. Material and Methods: Totally 45 patients were included in this research. ELISA was used to determine adiponectin and leptin concentrations of synovial fluid. The severity of knee OA was classified by Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS for windows. Results: Based on the leptin measurement, it was shown that leptin concentrations were correlated positively with the severity of knee OA. Vice versa, adiponectin concentrations were correlated negative. Conclusion: Our study was support the biomarker function of adiponectin and leptin concentration on synovial fluids, in which those concentrations were related with the severity of OA. Those results also suggested the function of leptin and adiponectin on OA. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 746-756

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  3. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  5. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic......, neuropituitary release of vasopressin), and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through nitric oxide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and other vasodilators, and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area. This constitutes an effective (although relative) counterbalance...... to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin...

  6. Allegheny County Hypertension Hospitalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Hypertension Hospitalization data for 2013-2015, by age group, for Allegheny County. The information provided shows the number of individuals who were diagnosed...

  7. Hypertension and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Teresa M; Moskovitz, Joshua B

    2012-11-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is increasing in prevalence and incidence and its treatment becoming more commonplace. Associated complications of pregnancy, including end-organ damage, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia, are leading sources of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, requiring an emergency physician to become proficient with their identification and treatment. This article reviews hypertension in pregnancy as it relates to outcomes, with special emphasis on preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia.

  8. Apelin and pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Uggerhøj; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin...... vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting...

  9. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin......Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...

  10. Resistant Hypertension and Chronotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkacin, Ingrid; Balenovic, Diana; Djermanovic-Dobrota, Vesna; Lukac, Iva; Drazic, Petra; Pranjic, Iva-Klara

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above 140/90 mmHg in spite of the continuous use of three antihypertensive agents in optimal dose, including diuretic, and lifestyle changes. According to data from United States of America and Europe, the prevalence ranges from 10 up to 30% in patients with hypertension. Numerous biological and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of resistant hypertension: medications, volume overload, obesity, diabetes mellitus, older age, renal parenchymal and renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochormocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, thyroid diseases, aortic coarctation. For diagnosing patient’s history is important, assessing compliance, regular blood pressure measurement, physical examination, biochemical evaluation and noninvasive imaging. The evaluation including 24h ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure (ABPM) in the identification of “non-dipper” hypertension. Non-dipper has particular importance and the prevalence of abnormally high sleep blood pressure is very often in chronic kidney patients. Therapeutic restoration of normal physiologic blood pressure reduction during night-time sleep (circadial variation) is the most significant independent predictor of decreased risk and the basis for the chronotherapy. The resistant hypertension treatment is achieved with nonpharmacological and pharmacological approach, treating secondary hypertension causes and invasive procedures. PMID:26005390

  11. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alshawsh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride, CHOL (Total cholesterol, LDL (Low density lipoprotein and HDL (High density lipoprotein levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic

  12. Serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin as a marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Seino-Yoshihara, Yoshie; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo

    2010-12-26

    In 1996, adiponectin was reported to be the most abundant transcript in adipose tissue. Animal studies revealed that administering adiponectin improves insulin resistance and blood glucose levels and inhibits atherosclerosis. In the present article, we review the significance of measuring serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels in human subjects. Our cross-sectional studies revealed that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration was 1.9 times higher in healthy Japanese females than males and had a strong positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol but a negative correlation with BMI and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). They also indicated that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration had a stronger association with HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome than the total adiponectin concentration. Our longitudinal study, a 6-year follow-up of Japanese men, suggested that a decreased level of HMW adiponectin is a predictor of progression to metabolic syndrome. In another intervention study, lifestyle modification for 3 months induced a decrease in BMI and waist circumference and an increase in serum HMW adiponectin but not the total adiponectin level in 16 Japanese males with metabolic syndrome. Administering thiazolidinediones to diabetic patients increased the serum HMW adiponectin concentration 3 fold and improved glucose and lipid profiles and blood pressure. Some people may inherit a lower serum concentration of adiponectin, and have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.It is suggested that HMW adiponectin is a useful marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

  13. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR-gamma independent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wein, Silvia; Behm, Norma; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed;

    2010-01-01

    To study possible insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the flavonol quercetin, rats were fed a high-fat diet (19%, w/w) with (HFQ) or without (HF) 0.03% quercetin or a flavonoid-poor low-fat (5%, w/w) maintenance diet (LF) over 4 weeks. Body weight was measured...... and WAT mRNA levels of adiponectin were elevated compared with the HF group, however, PPAR-gamma mRNA concentration in WAT was decreased (HFQ vs. HF). Compared to both other groups quercetin feeding significantly reduced oxidative stress, measured by plasma 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), while body weight gain, body...... composition and plasma leptin levels were not affected. Neither quercetin nor its metabolites induced PPAR-gamma-mediated transactivation in vitro. Adiponectin stimulating effects of quercetin are PPAR-gamma-independent and prevent impairment of insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight...

  14. Six new chalcones from Angelica keiskei inducing adiponectin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnogi, Hiromu; Kudo, Yoko; Tahara, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Enoki, Tatsuji; Hayami, Shoko; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Kato, Ikunoshin; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba in Japanese), a traditional herb in Japan, contains abundant prenylated chalcones. It has been reported that the chalcones from A. keiskei showed such bioactivities as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Xanthoangelol, 4-hydroxyderricin and six new chalcones were isolated in this study from an ethanol extract of A. keiskei by octadecyl silyl (ODS) and silica gel chromatography, and identified by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. The chalcones from A. keiskei markedly increased the expression of the adiponectin gene and the production of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the chalcones from A. keiskei might be useful for preventing the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish...... and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95......leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively...

  16. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    with either a low-glycemic index diet (∼40 U) plus exercise (LoGIX) or a high-glycemic index diet (∼80 U) diet plus exercise (HiGIX) on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]) in 27 older obese adults (age = 65 ± 0.5 yr, body mass index = 34.5 ± 0.7 kg·m). METHODS: Insulin...... = 0.003) after the 12-wk intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions. Visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, whereas subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary glycemic index...

  17. The role of peptide hormones (adiponectin, leptin, insulin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Smetnev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain the main problem in the world and in Russia in particular. The study of the causes and progression of atherosclerosis is a critical moment in the fight against CVD. Adipose tissue and processes that occur in it attracts attention in recent years. The important role of adipose tissue as an endocrine and immune organ is revealed as well as its participation in the development of the inflammatory process. This leads to the development of initial manifestations of atherosclerosis a precursor of many metabolic disorders and CVD. Particular attention causes adipokines regulatory peptide hormones in the adipose tissue, as well as insulin, due to its close relationship with the adipose tissue and especially with adiponectin and leptin. Recent data on the role of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in order to identify new potential targets among peptide hormones for the treatment of atherosclerosis are presented. 

  18. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling through nitric oxide and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wared eNour-Eldine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin (APN, an adipocytokine, exerts protective effects on cardiac remodeling, while angiotensin II (Ang II induces hypertension and vascular remodeling. The potential protective role of APN on the vasculature during hypertension has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of APN in the physiological response of the vascular wall to Ang II.METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat aortic tissues were used to investigate the effect of APN on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertrophy. We investigated whether nitric oxide (NO, the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN. Ang II-induced protein synthesis was attenuated by pre-treatment with APN, NO donor (SNAP, or cGMP. The hypertrophic response to Ang II was associated with a significant increase in RhoA activation and vascular force production, which were prevented by APN and SNAP. NO was also associated with inhibition of Ang II-induced phosphorylation of cofilin. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that 24 hr Ang II treatment increased the F- to G-actin ratio, an effect that was inhibited by SNAP. Ang II-induced ROS formation and upregulation of p22phox mRNA expression were inhibited by APN and NO. Both compounds failed to inhibit Nox1 and p47phox expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-hypertrophic effects of APN are due, in part, to NO-dependent inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and ROS formation.

  19. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  20. Association between nutritional status, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and HOMA-AD in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In children, the presence of obesity is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases on the adulthood. Objective: To evaluate the association of anthropometry, body composition, clinical variables and biochemical profile with C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels, and insulin resistance in children in the municipality of Nova Era, Brazil. Methods: Nested case-control study following a crosssectional study. We evaluated 178 children, 57 of them classified as obese and 121 as normal-weight from a population of 1024 schoolchildren 6 to 10 years old: Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fast to obtain serum and plasma. We collected anthropometric and body composition measures, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data. Sexual maturation was assessed according to the stage of sexual development. We performed Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's test and multiple linear regression analysis. Independent variables with p < 0.05 were included in the multiple regression model. Residual analysis was performed to assess model validity. Results: Among obese children, C-reactive protein levels were associated with triacylglycerol levels and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 27.6%, p < 0.001. Adiponectin was associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-AD and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 75.5%, p < 0.001. HOMA-AD index was associated with HOMA-IR, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and weight (R²adjusted = 90.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Significant associations were found between body composition, anthropometry, clinical variables, biochemical profile and adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels and insulin resistance in obese and normal-weight children.

  1. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and acute respiratory distress syndrome susceptibility and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Ahasic

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2 have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS risk and mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3' untranslated region. These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. RESULTS: After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.36-5.00, p = 0.0039 after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further

  2. Increased Hs-CRP/adiponectin ratio is associated with increase carotid intima-media thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Huocheng; Li, Zhiming; Zheng, Dongdan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Background High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and adiponectin (APN) are two critical cytokines and exert inverse effects on atherosclerosis initiation and progression. The purpose of our study was to investigate the value of Hs-CRP and ANP ratio (Hs-CRP/APN ratio) on evaluating atherosclerosis progression. Method One hundred sixty consecutive participants underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasound were enrolled and drawn fasting blood samples for plasma l...

  3. Effect of strength training on serum levels of adiponectin, testosterone, and cortisol in sedentary lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatah Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Performing a period of strength training can improve body weight, body mass index, and cardio respiratory function of sedentary lean men, while it results in no significant change in body fat percent. Also, since testosterone has anti-diabetic role, strength training can be useful through increasing testosterone levels in sedentary lean men. It doesn’t appear that twelve weeks strength training has effect on circulating levels of adiponectin and cortisol in sedentary lean men.

  4. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, RB; M. Jones; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, EM; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, ML; Rymarcsyk, B; Salagean, EM; van Drunen, CM; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, User

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. Objective We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with ast...

  5. Decreased levels of plasma adiponectin associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayaka; Otake; Hiroaki; Takeda; Shoichiro; Fujishima; Tadahisa; Fukui; Tomohiko; Orii; Takeshi; Sato; Yu; Sasaki; Shoichi; Nishise; Sumio; Kawata

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer (early and advanced).METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a cohort of hospital-based patients was conducted between January 2004 and March 2006 at Yamagata University Hospital. Male subjects, who had colorectal tumors detected by endoscopic examination, were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Based on the T factor of the TNM system, intraepithelial carcinoma and submucosally invasive c...

  6. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on insulin resistance and adiponectin in male monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janice D; Zhang, Li; Shadoan, Melanie K; Kavanagh, Kylie; Chen, Haiying; Tresnasari, Kristianti; Kaplan, Jay R; Adams, Michael R

    2008-07-01

    Isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. However, isoflavones also bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) that are strongly associated with insulin action. Soy protein with its isoflavones has previously been shown to improve glycemic control in diabetic postmenopausal women and to improve insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized monkeys. The purpose of the current report was to extend our studies of dietary soy protein to male monkeys and determine effects of the soy isoflavones on insulin resistance. Two studies are reported here. Study one involved 91 male monkeys consuming 3 diets differing only by the source of protein (casein-lactalbumin, soy protein with a low isoflavone concentration, or soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were done, and plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein concentrations were determined after 25 months of study. Samples of visceral fat were obtained at 31 months for assessment of adiponectin and PPARgamma expression. The second study involved 8 monkeys in a Latin-square design that compared the effects of diets with casein/lactalbumin, soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration, or soy protein that was alcohol-washed to deplete the isoflavones. After 8 weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins were assessed. At 10 weeks, a biopsy of the skeletal muscle was performed for determination of insulin receptor, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma content. The major findings were that consumption of isoflavone-containing soy protein dose-dependently increased insulin responses to the glucose challenge and decreased plasma adiponectin, whereas isoflavone-depleted soy protein decreased body weight and had no effect on plasma adiponectin concentrations. Muscle PPARalpha and gamma expression was also increased with the isoflavone-depleted soy relative to either casein or soy protein containing the

  7. [Sodium and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  8. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  9. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  10. Plasma insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and melatonin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients treated with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Bielański, Wladyslaw; Partyka, Robert; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Piotr C; Eszyk, Jerzy; Celiński, Krzysztof; Reiter, Russel J; Konturek, Stanislaw J

    2013-03-01

    Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and an abnormal production of adipokines and cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently, we reported a significant improvement in plasma liver enzymes among patients with NASH treated with melatonin. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin, administered at a dose of 10 mg/day for 28 days to 16 patients with histologically proven NASH on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), on the plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and resistin. Additionally, plasma levels of aminotransferases and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase as well as plasma concentrations of melatonin were evaluated. Median baseline values of HOMA-IR, leptin (ng/mL), and resistin (pg/mL) in patients with NASH were significantly higher in comparison with controls: 4.90 versus 1.60, 10.70 versus 4.30, and 152 versus 91, respectively. Median adiponectin level (μg/mL) was decreased in patients compared to controls: 6.40 versus 16.25; no significant difference in ghrelin levels between patients and controls was found. After melatonin treatment, the median value of HOMA-IR was significantly reduced by 60% as compared to baseline values, whereas adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin plasma levels rose significantly by 119%, 33%, and 20%, respectively; the difference between pre-/posttreatment in plasma resistin levels was not significant. These findings make melatonin a suitable candidate for testing in patients with NASH in the large controlled clinical trials.

  11. Gender-Specific Differences in the Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Amoli, Mahsa M.; Heshmat, Ramin; Sajadi, Mohammadali; Derakhshan, Reza; Amiri, Parvin; Namakchian, Mahsa; Rezazadeh, Ebrahim; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Larijani, Bagher

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study evaluated possible associations of +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic Iranians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved two groups of subjects: 243 diabetic patients and 173 non-diabetic subjects recruited from Rafsanjan city in the south-east of Iran. RESULTS: No significant association was found between +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, male carriers of the TT genotype of +45T/G had a significantly higher mean BMI than male GG homozygotes (p = 0.018). Also, male carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean BMI than male GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.041). Female carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean WC than female GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher BMI in women, and GA or AA carriers of -11391G/A polymorphism. Also, there was a significantly lower WC in females and GG carriers of +45T/G. These results point to a gender-specific impact of the studied genotypes on BMI and WC. PMID:21409316

  12. Polymorphism of adiponectin (45T/G) and adiponectin receptor-2 (795G/A) in an Iranian population: relation with insulin resistance and response to treatment with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvaran, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Azarpira, Negar; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-05-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose-derived plasma protein, is reduced in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones can increase adiponectin levels and improve insulin sensitivity. This study investigated the associations between type 2 diabetes and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the adiponectin (45T/G) and adiponectin receptor-2 gene (795G/A), and investigated whether these genetic variants affect the response to pioglitazone in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. We genotyped 128 non-diabetic participants and 101 patients with type 2 diabetes for 45T/G and 795G/A with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. Patients were treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks, after which we compared laboratory parameters in these two groups. Fasting blood sugar differed significantly in individuals with different 795G/A genotypes after pioglitazone treatment (P = 0.009). The mean decrease in insulin/glucose ratio after treatment also differed significantly in individuals with different 45T/G genotypes (P = 0.035). The T allele frequency for 45T/G was 87.11% in controls versus 81.68% in patients (P = 0.071). The TG and GG genotypes were more frequent in patients (P = 0.032). The G allele frequency for 795G/A was 76.17% in controls versus 80.20% in patients (P = 0.179). 795G/A variants were not significantly different between patient and control group. The adiponectin gene 45T/G mutation may be an important determinant of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population. However, adiponectin 45T/G and adiponectin receptor-2 795G/A polymorphisms were not significantly associated with the response to pioglitazone in our sample.

  13. Endocrine hypertension in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Claudia E; Schellenberg, Stefan; Wenger, Monique

    2010-03-01

    Hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary. In animals with idiopathic hypertension, persistently elevated blood pressure is not caused by an identifiable underlying or predisposing disease. Until recently, more than 95% of cases of hypertension in humans were diagnosed as idiopathic. New studies have shown, however, a much higher prevalence of secondary causes, such as primary hyperaldosteronism. In dogs and cats, secondary hypertension is the most prevalent form and is subclassified into renal and endocrine hypertension. This review focuses on the most common causes of endocrine hypertension in dogs and cats.

  14. [Hypertensive crisis in kidney patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Jacopo; Giuliani, Anna; Pettorini, Laura; Punzo, Giorgio; Mene', Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The classification and management of hypertensive crisis have been recently reviewed in the context of both European and American guidelines. The key points for proper blood pressure control in severe arterial hypertension are: 1 - Distinction between urgent intervention and emergencies 2 - Choice of the best drug(s) 3 - Choice of the correct route of administration. In patients with renal disease, beside the common causes of hypertension/ hypertensive crises, kidney-specific causes should be taken into account such as renal parenchymal hypertension, renovascular hypertension, sclerodermic crises, and preeclampsia.

  15. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Običan, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving.

  16. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  17. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Mika

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Results Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1 mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR, in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.01–0.5 mM in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.01–1.0 μg/ml also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively. Conclusion Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions.

  18. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Lawrence; Dresang, Lee T; Fontaine, Patricia

    2016-01-15

    Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks' gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks' gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. Preeclampsia is defined as hypertension and either proteinuria or thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, impaired liver function, pulmonary edema, or cerebral or visual symptoms. Proteinuria is not essential for the diagnosis and does not correlate with outcomes. Severe features of preeclampsia include a systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of at least 110 mm Hg, platelet count less than 100 × 103 per µL, liver transaminase levels two times the upper limit of normal, a doubling of the serum creatinine level or level greater than 1.1 mg per dL, severe persistent right upper-quadrant pain, pulmonary edema, or new-onset cerebral or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia without severe features can be managed with twice-weekly blood pressure monitoring, antenatal testing for fetal well-being and disease progression, and delivery by 37 weeks' gestation. Preeclampsia with any severe feature requires immediate stabilization and inpatient treatment with magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive drugs, corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity if less than 34 weeks' gestation, and delivery plans. Preeclampsia can worsen or initially present after delivery. Women with hypertensive disorders should be monitored as inpatients or closely at home for 72 hours postpartum.

  19. Dopamine receptors and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2008-08-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in regulating renal function and blood pressure. Dopamine synthesis and dopamine receptor subtypes have been shown in the kidney. Dopamine acts via cell surface receptors coupled to G proteins; the receptors are classified via pharmacologic and molecular cloning studies into two families, D1-like and D2-like. Two D1-like receptors cloned in mammals, the D1 and D5 receptors (D1A and D1B in rodents), are linked to adenylyl cyclase stimulation. Three D2-like receptors (D2, D3, and D4) have been cloned and are linked mainly to adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Activation of D1-like receptors on the proximal tubules inhibits tubular sodium reabsorption by inhibiting Na/H-exchanger and Na/K-adenosine triphosphatase activity. Reports exist of defective renal dopamine production and/or dopamine receptor function in human primary hypertension and in genetic models of animal hypertension. In humans with essential hypertension, renal dopamine production in response to sodium loading is often impaired and may contribute to hypertension. A primary defect in D1-like receptors and an altered signaling system in proximal tubules may reduce dopamine-mediated effects on renal sodium excretion. The molecular basis for dopamine receptor dysfunction in hypertension is being investigated, and may involve an abnormal posttranslational modification of the dopamine receptor.

  20. Nonnarcotic analgesics and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2006-05-01

    In 2004, individuals in the United States spent >$2.5 billion on over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and filled >100 million NSAID prescriptions. The most commonly used OTC analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonaspirin NSAIDs. Nonnarcotic analgesics are generally considered safe when used as directed but do have the potential to increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension treated with antihypertensives. This is important because hypertension alone has been correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Small increases in blood pressure in patients with hypertension also have been shown to increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, when nonnarcotic analgesics are taken by patients with hypertension, there may be important implications. This review explores the potential connection among analgesic agents, blood pressure, and hypertension, and discusses possible mechanisms by which analgesics might cause increases in blood pressure. This is followed by a summary of data on the relation between analgesics and blood pressure from both observational and randomized trials.

  1. On the transition from a nurse-led hypertension clinic to hypertension control in primary care: identifying barriers to and factors acting against continuous hypertension control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard Andersen, Ulla; Ibsen, Hans; Tobiassen, Minja

    2016-08-01

    Many hypertensive patients are not treated to target and hence do not benefit fully from the blood pressure-related improvements in cardiovascular health. Hypertensive patients who had primarily been treated to a target goal in a nurse-led hypertension clinic were re-examined to evaluate whether their target goal blood pressure was maintained after their discharge from the hypertension clinic for further control in primary care, and to evaluate potential barriers to and factors acting against continuous hypertension control. The median observation time was 3.6 years (range 3 months to 7.9 years). Only 45.2% of the patients were well controlled at the time of re-examination. No patient-related factors (age, body mass index, gender, attitudes towards medication) predicted the outcome. Two factors were significant in the reduction in continuous hypertension control: the cooperation between the patient and health personnel and the shared commitment towards the target goal were discontinued; and many patients did not make control visits to the general practitioner's office. In conclusion, maintained strict control of hypertension requires both continued close collaboration between the patient and health personnel, with an emphasis on treatment goals, and systematic control visits.

  2. 妊娠期糖尿病瘦素与脂联素水平及干预变化%Levels of leptin and adiponectin and changes of intervention in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚小倩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and levels of leptin and adiponectin and changes of intervention in patients with GDM in Shaoguan.Methods Using stratified cluster random sampling method,analyzed the serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in 262 patients with GDM and 1508 healthy pregnant women in Shaoguan from January,2006 to December,2010.Changes of leptin,adiponectin,and glycosylated hemoglobin in 193 GDM patients accepting diet therapy and 59 ones treated with diet therapy and insulin were compared before and after the treatment.Results Serum level of leptin was markedly higher in GDM group than in healthy group (P< 0.05),while adiponectin level was significantly lower (P< 0.05).Glycosylated hemoglobin and leptin levels became lower,but adiponectin level higher,in 193 GDM patients taking diet therapy; glycosylated level got obviously lower,but levels of leptin and adiponectin higher,in 59 ones treated with diet therapy and insulin.Conclusions Serum leptin and adiponectin closely correlate with the incidence of GDM.Combination detection of these two indicators can predict the occurrence of GDM.Diet therapy in combination with insulin can improve the prognosis of GDM patients.%目的 探讨韶关市妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)的发病率、瘦素及脂联素水平及干预变化.方法 采取分层整群随机抽样方法对韶关地区2006年1月至2010年12月确诊GDM患者262例及1508例正常孕妇的血清瘦素、脂联素水平进行分析,并比较193例单纯饮食控制及59例应用饮食控制加胰岛素治疗的GDM患者治疗前后瘦素、脂联素及糖化血红蛋白变化情况.结果 GDM组患者的血清瘦素水平明显高于正常组(P<0.05),而脂联素水平却明显低于正常组(P<0.05).193例单纯饮食控制的GDM患者治疗后糖化血红蛋白降低,血清瘦素水平降低,血清脂联素水平升高.59例应用饮食控制加胰岛素治疗的GDM患者治疗后糖化血红蛋

  3. Regression of ECG-LVH is associated with lower risk of new-onset heart failure and mortality in patients with isolated systolic hypertension; The LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larstorp, Anne Cecilie K; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) are strong predictors of heart failure (HF). It is unclear whether regression of ECG-LVH during treatment predicts less new-onset HF in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH)....

  4. Lung Transplantation for Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the page. Answers about Lung Transplantation for PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Part One: Overview From the development of epoprostenol ... decades, expansion of medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has improved survival and quality of life ...

  5. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...

  6. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  7. Knowing hypertension and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology for diagnos......In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology...... for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy...

  8. Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzeshka, Mikhail S.; Shahid, Farhan; Shantsila, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF o...... of complications as the first clinical manifestation of the disease. Antithrombotic prevention in AF combined with strict blood pressure control is of primary importance, since stroke risk and bleeding risk are both greater with underlying hypertension....... onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both...... in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity. The presence of hypertension also stimulates oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic activation, which further drives the remodeling...

  9. Snakes and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    Inhibition of Angiotensin Conversion in Experimental Renovascular Hypertension. By Miller ED Jr, Samuels A, Haber E, and Barger AC. Science 1972; 177:1108-9. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.Constriction of the renal artery and controlled reduction of renal perfusion pressure is followed by a prompt increase in systemic renin activity and a concomitant rise in blood pressure in trained, unanesthetized dogs. The elevated blood pressure induced by the renal artery stenosis can be prevented by prior treatment with the nonapeptide Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro, which blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Further, the nonapeptide can restore systemic pressure to normal in the early phase of renovascular hypertension. These results offer strong evidence that the renin- angiotensin system is responsible for the initiation of hypertension in the unilaterally nephrectomized dog with renal artery constriction.

  10. [Obesity and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.

  11. Adiponectin promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-27b through a CaMKII/AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Chang, An-Chen; Chen, Hsien-Te; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yuan-Shun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-09-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy characterized by distant metastatic propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the major lymphangiogenic factor, and makes crucial contributions to tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes. In recent years, adiponectin has also been indicated as facilitating tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the effect of adiponectin on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma has remained largely a mystery. In the present study, we have shown a clinical correlation between adiponectin and VEGF-C, as well as tumour stage, in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that adiponectin promoted VEGF-C expression and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium from adiponectin-treated cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells. In addition, adiponectin knock down inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo We also found that adiponectin-induced VEGF-C is mediated by the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of miR-27b was negatively regulated by adiponectin via the CaMKII, AMPK and p38 cascade. The present study is the first to describe the mechanism of adiponectin-promoted lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcomas. Thus, adiponectin could serve as a therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis and lymphangiogenesis.

  12. Oxidative stress and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David G; Gongora, Maria Carolina

    2009-05-01

    This review has summarized some of the data supporting a role of ROS and oxidant stress in the genesis of hypertension. There is evidence that hypertensive stimuli, such as high salt and angiotensin II, promote the production of ROS in the brain, the kidney, and the vasculature and that each of these sites contributes either to hypertension or to the untoward sequelae of this disease. Although the NADPH oxidase in these various organs is a predominant source, other enzymes likely contribute to ROS production and signaling in these tissues. A major clinical challenge is that the routinely used antioxidants are ineffective in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This is likely because these drugs are either ineffective or act in a non-targeted fashion, such that they remove not only injurious ROS Fig. 5. Proposed role of T cells in the genesis of hypertension and the role of the NADPH oxidase in multiple cells/organs in modulating this effect. In this scenario, angiotensin II stimulates an NADPH oxidase in the CVOs of the brain, increasing sympathetic outflow. Sympathetic nerve terminals in lymph nodes activate T cells, and angiotensin II also directly activates T cells. These stimuli also activate expression of homing signals in the vessel and likely the kidney, which attract T cells to these organs. T cells release cytokines that stimulate the vessel and kidney NADPH oxidases, promoting vasoconstriction and sodium retention. SFO, subfornical organ. 630 Harrison & Gongora but also those involved in normal cell signaling. A potentially important and relatively new direction is the concept that inflammatory cells such as T cells contribute to hypertension. Future studies are needed to understand the interaction of T cells with the CNS, the kidney, and the vasculature and how this might be interrupted to provide therapeutic benefit.

  13. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica

    2013-08-16

    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.

  14. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  15. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but u...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  16. Correlation Between Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Insulin Resistance and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Non Diabetic Central Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Ninghayu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity raises the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD through many risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is characterized by high levels of triglyceride, increased small dense low density lipoprotein particles, and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The exact mechanisms of central obesity and this atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP is not clearly understood. Central obesity is characterized by a state of systemic low grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Adipose tissue has recently been shown to secrete a variety of bioactive peptides, called adipocytokines, that can potentially affect glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to observe the role of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and insulin resistance in atherogenic dyslipidemia in nondiabetic central obese males. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 75 non-diabetic central obese male subjects (waist circumferences >90 cm. Adiponectin and TNF-α testing were performed by ELISA; insulin resistance was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA index, triglyceride was assessed by GPO-PAP, HDL cholesterol and small dense LDL were measured by homogenous method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for Windows v. 11.5 with a significance level at p<0.05. The Pearson and Spearman’s Rho correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between various anthropometric and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: There were 75 patients aged 38.0±6.3 years, Adiponectin concentration was 3.55±1.38 μg/ml, HOMA index was 2.28±1.63, TNF-α was 12.42±11.25 pg/ml, triglyceride was 185.17±109.00, HDL-cholesterol was 44.15±9.23 mg/dL, small dense LDL 23.22±12.26 mg/dL. This study revealed that there were correlations between adiponectin and triglyceride (r=-0.236, p=0.042, adiponectin and HDL cholesterol (r=0.300, p=0.009, adiponectin and atherogenic

  17. Filter paper blood spot enzyme linked immunoassay for adiponectin and application in the evaluation of determinants of child insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a marker of insulin sensitivity. Bloodspot sampling by fingerstick onto filter paper may increase the feasibility of large-scale studies of the determinants of insulin sensitivity. We first describe the validation of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA for quantifying adiponectin from dried blood spots and then demonstrate its application in a large trial (PROBIT. METHODS: We quantified adiponectin from 3-mm diameter discs (≈3 µL of blood punched from dried blood spots obtained from: i whole blood standards (validation; and ii PROBIT trial samples (application in which