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Sample records for adipokinetic hormone system

  1. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.;

    2016-01-01

    the neuropeptide systems used by proto- or deuterostomes. An exception, however, are members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor superfamily, which occur in both evolutionary lineages, where GnRHs are the ligands in Deuterostomia and GnRH-like peptides, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin...

  2. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina

    2010-01-01

    aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera), the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera), and the bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). However, the ACP system is not present in 12 Drosophila species (Diptera...

  3. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staubli, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Cazzamali, Giuseppe;

    2002-01-01

    The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion, but that also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis. Here, we have...... identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori. These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinology, because it will lead to the cloning of all AKH receptors from all model insects used in AKH research, and......, therefore, to a better understanding of AKH heterogeneity and actions. Interestingly, the insect AKH receptors are structurally and evolutionarily related to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors from vertebrates....

  4. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Cockroaches have long been used as insect models to investigate the actions of biologically active neuropeptides. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) G protein-coupled receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta...

  5. Localization and functional characterization of a novel adipokinetic hormone in the mollusk, Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua I Johnson

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, corazonin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and red pigment-concentrating hormone all share common ancestry to form a GnRH superfamily. Despite the wide presence of these peptides in protostomes, their biological effects remain poorly characterized in many taxa. This study had three goals. First, we cloned the full-length sequence of a novel AKH, termed Aplysia-AKH, and examined its distribution in an opisthobranch mollusk, Aplysia californica. Second, we investigated in vivo biological effects of Aplysia-AKH. Lastly, we compared the effects of Aplysia-AKH to a related A. californica peptide, Aplysia-GnRH. Results suggest that Aplysia-AKH mRNA and peptide are localized exclusively in central tissues, with abdominal, cerebral, and pleural ganglia being the primary sites of Aplysia-AKH production. However, Aplysia-AKH-positive fibers were found in all central ganglia, suggesting diverse neuromodulatory roles. Injections of A. californica with Aplysia-AKH significantly inhibited feeding, reduced body mass, increased excretion of feces, and reduced gonadal mass and oocyte diameter. The in vivo effects of Aplysia-AKH differed substantially from Aplysia-GnRH. Overall, the distribution and biological effects of Aplysia-AKH suggest it has diverged functionally from Aplysia-GnRH over the course of evolution. Further, that both Aplysia-AKH and Aplysia-GnRH failed to activate reproduction suggest the critical role of GnRH as a reproductive activator may be a phenomenon unique to vertebrates.

  6. Localization and Functional Characterization of a Novel Adipokinetic Hormone in the Mollusk, Aplysia californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua I.; Kavanaugh, Scott I.; Nguyen, Cindy; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), corazonin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and red pigment-concentrating hormone all share common ancestry to form a GnRH superfamily. Despite the wide presence of these peptides in protostomes, their biological effects remain poorly characterized in many taxa. This study had three goals. First, we cloned the full-length sequence of a novel AKH, termed Aplysia-AKH, and examined its distribution in an opisthobranch mollusk, Aplysia californica. Second, we investigated in vivo biological effects of Aplysia-AKH. Lastly, we compared the effects of Aplysia-AKH to a related A. californica peptide, Aplysia-GnRH. Results suggest that Aplysia-AKH mRNA and peptide are localized exclusively in central tissues, with abdominal, cerebral, and pleural ganglia being the primary sites of Aplysia-AKH production. However, Aplysia-AKH-positive fibers were found in all central ganglia, suggesting diverse neuromodulatory roles. Injections of A. californica with Aplysia-AKH significantly inhibited feeding, reduced body mass, increased excretion of feces, and reduced gonadal mass and oocyte diameter. The in vivo effects of Aplysia-AKH differed substantially from Aplysia-GnRH. Overall, the distribution and biological effects of Aplysia-AKH suggest it has diverged functionally from Aplysia-GnRH over the course of evolution. Further, that both Aplysia-AKH and Aplysia-GnRH failed to activate reproduction suggest the critical role of GnRH as a reproductive activator may be a phenomenon unique to vertebrates. PMID:25162698

  7. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS(2) spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  8. In vitro studies on hormone-stimulated lipid mobilization from fat body and interconversion of haemolymph lipoproteins of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Heusden, M.C. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Both adipokinetic hormone and octopamine have a stimulating effect on lipid release from locust fat body in vitro, when incubated in diluted haemolymph. The presence of adipokinetic hormone results in the formation of the flight-specific haemolymph lipoprotein A⁺ accepting the increased amount of li

  9. Coherence between biosynthesis, storage, and release of adipokinetic hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, Leunis Forrinus

    2002-01-01

    In insects, specific parts of the retrocerebral complex are essential for homeostatic control in response to changes in both internal and external environments. Neuroendocrine cells in the glandular part of the coprus cardiacum of Locusta migratoria represent the site of synthesis and release of thr

  10. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  11. The influence of hormones on the lipid profile in the fat body of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cerkowniak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones play a special role in the neuroendocrine systems of insects and affect a number of physiological processes related to their development, reproduction and behavior. The lipid content in the fat body of insects is closely correlated with the work of the endocrine glands. The lipid profile of the fat body of the Zophobas atratus beetle reveals a predominant proportion of triacylglycerols when compared to free fatty acids and other lipid compounds, such as fatty acid esters, fatty alcohols and sterols. Although it may depend on the stage of the insects’ development, the disparate impacts of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH on the lipid content in the fat bodies of the feeding larvae and the non-feeding pupae of Z. atratus, may signify the different roles this hormone plays in the indirect control of the insects’ metabolism.

  12. Panbo-Red Pigment Concentration Hormone u \\kur{Porcellio scaber} (stínka obecná)

    OpenAIRE

    ZRALÁ, Jana

    2007-01-01

    The Panbo-RPCH, one member of the AKH/RPCH (Adipokinetic Hormone/Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone) family, has been isolated from the rought woodlouse, Porcellio scaber CNS. The HPLC, ELISA and LC/MS analyses were used for characterization of the molecule. The peptide enhances lipid mobilization when injected into the red bug Pyrrhocoris apterus body with maximum response of 10 pmol.

  13. Structure determination of adipokinetic hormones using fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry; An unknown adipokinetic hormone (AKH-III) from Locusta migratoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerma, W.; Versluis, C.; Lankhof, H. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Molecular Spectrometry); Oudejans, R.C.H.M.; Kooiman, F.P.; Beenakkers, A.M.T. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Department of Experimental Zoology)

    1991-08-01

    Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry combined with various tandem mass spectrometric techniques and accurate mass measurement were used to elucidate the structure of an unknown biologically active peptide isolated from Locusa migratoria. (author). 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 schemes.

  14. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  15. Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of Daphnia pulex neuropeptides and protein hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircksen, Heinrich; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    We report 43 novel genes in the water flea Daphnia pulex encoding 73 predicted neuropeptide and protein hormones as partly confirmed by RT-PCR. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified 40 neuropeptides by mass matches and 30 neuropeptides by fragmentation sequencing. Single genes encode adipokinetic...

  16. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.;

    2016-01-01

    and in Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, we have cloned and deorphanized two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) that are activated by low nanomolar concentrations of oyster AKH (pQVSFSTNWGSamide). Our discovery of functional AKH receptors in molluscs is especially significant...

  17. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  18. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  19. Mouse hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin responses to probes of signal transduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1993-01-01

    Signal transduction mechanisms involved in mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin (SRIH) release were investigated using an in vitro perifusion system. Hypothalamic fragments were exposed to depolarizing agents, protein kinase A and C activators, and a calcium ionophore. The depolarizing agents, KCl (60 mM) and veratridine (50 microM), induced similar patterns of GRH and SRIH release. Somatostatin release in response to both agents was twofold greater than that of GRH. Forskolin (10 microM and 100 microM), an adenylate cyclase activator, stimulated both GRH and SRIH release, though with different secretory profiles. The SRIH response was prolonged and persisted beyond removal of the drug from the system, while the GRH response was brief, ending even prior to forskolin removal. Neither GRH nor SRIH were stimulated by 1,9-dideoxy-forskolin (100 microM), a forskolin analog with cAMP-independent actions. A23187 (5 microM), a calcium ionophore, stimulated the release of SRIH to a much greater extent than that of GRH. The GRH and SRIH secretory responses to PMA (1 microM), a protein kinase C activator, were similar, though delayed. The results suggest that 1) GRH and SRIH secretion are regulated by both protein kinase A and C pathways, and 2) depolarizing agents are important for the release of both hormones.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862.1545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) resulting from disorders of calcium metabolism. (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  2. Funkce adipokinetických hormonů v metabolismu hmyzích lipidů

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This PhD. thesis summarizes the effect of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) on a spectrum of mobilized lipids in model insect species the locust Locusta migratoria and the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus. The results revealed that mobilization of diacylglycerols and fatty acids from the fat body into the haemolymph is not uniform and suggested there is partial specificity of individual AKHs. This could contribute to the answer of the question why some insect species have more than one AKH. The results...

  3. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  4. Contraceptive efficacy of the personal hormone monitoring system Persona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a commentary on the contraceptive effectiveness of the personal hormone-monitoring system Persona; it points out the various errors committed in computing method pregnancy rates. The modifications presented by Bonnar et al. on the incorrect procedure for computing method pregnancy rates are criticized as erroneous because the denominator includes cycles in which there is no risk of a method pregnancy according to the authors' algorithm for classifying pregnancy in an imperfect-use cycle. It is also claimed that the new exercise is a more complicated and less accurate way of computing for pregnancy rates by comparison with the simpler alternative. Since this new algorithm, used in the Persona system, is based on flawed logic, the annual risk of pregnancy is actually higher than the estimated 6% among women using Persona and having intercourse in each cycle except on red days.

  5. The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Di Somma, C; Grasso, L F S; Savanelli, M C; Colao, A; Pivonello, R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical conditions associated with GH excess and GH deficiency (GHD) are known to be associated with an increased risk for the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that either an excess or a deficiency in GH and/or IGF-I is deleterious for cardiovascular system. In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by a concentric cardiac hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and, in later stages, with systolic dysfunction ending in heart failure if GH/IGF-I excess is not controlled. Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and anomalies of cardiac valves can also occur. Moreover, the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, as well as dyslipidemia, confer an increased risk for vascular atherosclerosis. Successful control of the disease is accompanied by a decrease of the cardiac mass and improvement of cardiac function and an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with hypopituitarism, GHD has been considered the under- lying factor of the increased mortality when appropriate standard replacement of the pituitary hormones deficiencies is given. Either childhood-onset or adulthood-onset GHD are characterized by a cluster of abnormalities associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, including altered body composition, unfavorable lipid profile, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular atherosclerosis, a decrease in cardiac mass together with an impairment of systolic function mainly after exercise. Treatment with recombinant GH in patients with GHD is followed by an improvement of the cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in cardiac mass together with an improvement in cardiac performance. In conclusion, acromegaly and GHD are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the control of GH/IGF-I secretion reverses cardiovascular

  6. Semaphorin Signaling in the Development and Function of the Gonadotropin Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GnRH System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The semaphorin proteins are among the best-studied families of guidance cues, contributing to morphogenesis and homeostasis in a wide range of tissue types. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors are capable to mediate signaling by semaphorins. These guidance proteins were originally identified as growth cone collapsing factors or as inhibitory signals, crucial for nervous system development. Since those seminal discoveries, the list of functions of semaphorins has rapidly grown. Over the past few years, a growing body of data indicates that semaphorins are involved in the regulation of the immune and vascular systems, in tumor growth/cancer cell metastasis and in neural circuit formation. Recently there has been increasing emphasis on research to determine the potential influence of semaphorins on the development and homeostasis of hormone systems and how circulating reproductive hormones regulate their expression and functions. Here, we focus on the emerging role of semaphorins in the development, differentiation and plasticity of unique neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, which are essential for the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive competence in all vertebrates. Genetic evidence is also provided showing that insufficient semaphorin signaling contributes to some forms of reproductive disorders in humans, characterized by the reduction or failure of sexual competence.Finally, we will review some studies with the goal of highlighting how the expression of semaphorins and their receptors might be regulated by gonadal hormones in physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielhuis Gerhard A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but the hormonal function may be disrupted in many more ways through pesticide exposure. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function of the female reproductive system and in particular the ovarian cycle. Disruption can occur in all stages of hormonal regulation: 1. hormone synthesis; 2. hormone release and storage; 3. hormone transport and clearance; 4. hormone receptor recognition and binding; 5. hormone postreceptor activation; 6. the thyroid function; and 7. the central nervous system. These mechanisms are described for effects of pesticide exposure in vitro and on experimental animals in vivo. For the latter, potential effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides on the female reproductive system, i.e. modulation of hormone concentrations, ovarian cycle irregularities, and impaired fertility, are also reviewed. In epidemiological studies, exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects, which may or may not be due to disruption of the female hormonal function. Because pesticides comprise a large number of distinct substances with dissimilar structures and diverse toxicity, it is most likely that several of the above-mentioned mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological pathways explaining the role of pesticide exposure in ovarian cycle disturbances, ultimately leading to fertility problems and other reproductive effects. In future research, information on the ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function as

  8. Hormone Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  9. Hormones in the immune system and their possible role. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2014-09-01

    Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  10. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  11. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-07-12

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  12. Evaluation of an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) using automated system for determination of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E; Mason, M; Galván, R E; Pascoe, D; Ochoa, R; Hernández, M; Zárate, A

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that automated systems for immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) may substitute traditional radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in blood due to the advantage of being more rapid, higher sensitivity, lower cost and not requiring radioactive reagents. The study was designed to evaluate both systems using serum samples to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. The automatic system (ES-300) for IEMA utilized two monoclonal antibodies, one of them on the solid phase was the specific extractant for the antigen, and the other was a peroxidase labeled antibody which recognizes a different epitope in the antigen molecule, specifically bound in linear proportion to the antigen concentration. Blood samples were obtained from patients who were treated at the hospital for various clinical problems ("problem group") as well as blood samples from patients in whom FSH and LH concentrations were already known ("high", "medium" and "low" levels) by previous RIA ("control group"). IEMA showed a higher sensitivity, 0.42 and 0.96 mIU/ml for FSH and LH, respectively, whereas RIA was 1.95 mIU/ml for both hormones. Intra- and interassay coefficient of variation were below 10% within the range of 15-150 mIU/ml for FSH and 5-100 mIU/ml for LH; however, the coefficient of variation was 15-25% at lower concentrations of FSH and LH. Accuracy of IEMA was evaluated by recovery percentage, thus when high and medium concentrations of FSH and LH were analyzed the recovery was between 99-104%. On the other hand, the recovery was 110% when low levels of FSH and LH were used. In conclusion, IEMA resulted reliable when FSH and LH concentrations are in the middle and high range; likewise, the detection limit of IEMA was lower than RIA, particularly for FSH. On the bases of these results, IEMA showed several advantages over RIA, but its reliability diminishes when serum

  13. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become

  14. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  15. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects.

  16. [The role of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems in etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    The role of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems of brain and peripheral tissues in etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) of the types 1 and 2 is discussed. Available data confirming the hypothesis of central genesis of some forms of DM caused by disturbances in the brain neurotransmitter systems are presented. It is concluded that the study of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems is a promising approach for development of new strategies of DM treatment, based on correction of these disturbances in the CNS and the periphery.

  17. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The effe

  18. Hormonal regulation in insects: facts, gaps, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Hoffmann, K H; Spring, J H

    1997-10-01

    There are two main classes of hormones in insects: 1) the true hormones produced by epithelial glands and belonging to the ecdysteroids or juvenile hormones and 2) the neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Members of these classes regulate physiological, developmental, and behavioral events in insects. Detailed accounts are given on isolation, identification, structure-activity relationships, mode of action, biological function, biosynthesis, inactivation, metabolism, and feedback for hormones involved in 1) metabolic regulation such as the adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic peptides and the diuretic and antidiuretic peptides; 2) stimulation or inhibition of muscle activity such as the myotropic peptides; 3) control of reproduction, growth, and development such as allatotropins, allatostatins, juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, folliculostimulins and folliculostatins, ecdysis-triggering and eclosion hormones, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, and diapause hormones; and 4) regulation of tanning and of color change. Because of the improvements in techniques for isolation and structure elucidation, there has been rapid progress in our knowledge of the chemistry of certain neuropeptide families. With the employment of molecular biological techniques, the genes of some neuropeptides have been successfully characterized. There are, however, areas that are still quite underdeveloped. These are, for example, 1) receptor studies, which are still in their infancy; 2) the hormonal status of certain sequenced peptides is not clarified; and 3) functional studies are lacking even for established hormones. The authors plead for a concerted effort to continue research in this field, which will also advance our knowledge into the use of insect hormones as safer and species-specific molecules for insect pest management.

  19. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J; Jung, Sabine C; Pascual, Jose A; Pozo, María J

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development.

  20. Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor β isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E. Dale; Boers, Mary-Ellen; Pazos-Moura, Carmen; Moura, Egberto; Kaulbach, Helen; Zakaria, Marjorie; Lowell, Bradford; Radovick, Sally; Liberman, M. Charles; Wondisford, Fredric

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) modulate various physiological functions in many organ systems. The TRα and TRβ isoforms are products of 2 distinct genes, and the β1 and β2 isoforms are splice variants of the same gene. Whereas TRα1 and TRβ1 are widely expressed, expression of the TRβ2 isoform is mainly limited to the pituitary, triiodothyronine-responsive TRH neurons, the developing inner ear, and the retina. Mice with targeted disruption of the entire TRβ locus (TRβ-null) exhibit elevated thyroid hormone levels as a result of abnormal central regulation of thyrotropin, and also develop profound hearing loss. To clarify the contribution of the TRβ2 isoform to the function of the endocrine and auditory systems in vivo, we have generated mice with targeted disruption of the TRβ2 isoform. TRβ2-null mice have preserved expression of the TRα and TRβ1 isoforms. They develop a similar degree of central resistance to thyroid hormone as TRβ-null mice, indicating the important role of TRβ2 in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Growth hormone gene expression is marginally reduced. In contrast, TRβ2-null mice exhibit no evidence of hearing impairment, indicating that TRβ1 and TRβ2 subserve divergent roles in the regulation of auditory function. PMID:10430610

  1. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  2. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  3. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  4. The Functional State of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling System in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Shpakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM induces a large number of diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular, and some other systems of the organism. One of the main causes of the diseases is the changes in the functional activity of hormonal signaling systems which lead to the alterations and abnormalities of the cellular processes and contribute to triggering and developing many DM complications. The key role in the control of physiological and biochemical processes belongs to the adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system, sensitive to biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. The review is devoted to the changes in the GPCR-G protein-AC system in the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, and the adipose tissue in experimental and human DM of the types 1 and 2 and also to the role of the changes in AC signaling in the pathogenesis and etiology of DM and its complications. It is shown that the changes of the functional state of hormone-sensitive AC system are dependent to a large extent on the type and duration of DM and in experimental DM on the model of the disease. The degree of alterations and abnormalities of AC signaling pathways correlates very well with the severity of DM and its complications.

  5. The flowering hormone florigen functions as a general systemic regulator of growth and termination

    OpenAIRE

    Shalit, Akiva; Rozman, Alexander; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Alvarez, John P.; Bowman, John L.; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    The florigen paradigm implies a universal flowering-inducing hormone that is common to all flowering plants. Recent work identified FT orthologues as originators of florigen and their polypeptides as the likely systemic agent. However, the developmental processes targeted by florigen remained unknown. Here we identify local balances between SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), the tomato precursor of florigen, and SELF-PRUNING (SP), a potent SFT-dependent SFT inhibitor as prime targets of mobile florig...

  6. Noise helped manifestation of intrinsic frequency: A case study in the mesoscopic hormone signaling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ji; Yuanyuan Zhang; Xiufeng Lang; Wenxiang Hu; Qianshu Li

    2009-01-01

    The selective sustainment of nonlinear systems to signals is of great significance to signal transduction in living systems. We take hormone signaling as an example, and investigate the sustainment of internal and external signals. Simulation results prove that signals with "intrinsic frequency", no matter if it is noise induced or external injected, can be selectively sustained by exploiting internal and/or external noise. Both the internal and external noise can optimize the noise-induced signals, and the optimization is rather robust to the disturbance of external signals with other frequencies. These results are of significance for weak signal detection and trausduction in the presence of external signals.

  7. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  8. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovensky, Jozef; Raffayova, Helena; Imrich, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Penesova, Adela; Macho, Ladislav; Lukac, Jozef; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Vigas, Milan

    2006-06-01

    This study compared prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with those in matched healthy controls. No differences were found in glucose and GH responses to hypoglycemia in both groups of patients compared to controls. SSc patients had lower PRL response (P < 0.05) to hypoglycemia compared to controls. PRL response tended to be lower also in PsA patients, however the difference did not reach level of statistical significance (P = 0.11). The present study showed decreased PRL response to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with SSc.

  9. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue. An analysis of morphology and hormone secretion in an in vitro model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniko, M. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology); Arndt, J. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiophysics, Radiumhemmet); Raehn, T. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Werner, S. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (/sup 60/Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance.

  10. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Pankratova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively. The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396 exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205, exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  11. [The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2015-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.

  12. Hormonal Interference with Pheromone Systems in Parasitic Acarines, Especially Ixodid Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Genital Pheromone(s); Precocene-2; Hyalomma dromedarii; Dermacentor variabilis; Radioimmunoassay; juvenile hormone; Dermanyssus gallinae 19. KEY...dromedarii; Dermacentor variabilis; Radioimmunoassay; juvenile hormone; Dermanyssus gallinae . 20. A STRACT (Continue on reverse side I nfecessry and...allatotropin Precocene-2 and the juvenile hormone, JH3, on reporduction in the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is described. These studies are part of

  13. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-05-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  14. Neurohypophyseal hormone-responsive renal adenylate cyclase. IV. A random-hit matrix model for coupline in a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R N; Hechter, O

    1978-05-10

    (A), uniformly observed in different membrane preparations: 2) variable hormone concentration-dependent trajectories of approach to the final steady state A:O value (A:Oss) which may be either monophasic or biphasic; 3) the loss of intrinsic adenylate cyclase activity observed in bovine membranes for a series of NHH analogs with progressively diminishing affinity for receptors. The model represents an explicit theory of coupling where a successive series of temporal events are quantitatively related to each other and privide major constraints to any interpretation of the molecular organization of receptors and adenylate cyclase units in membranes. The model excludes a number of mechanistic proposals and suggests a new hypothesis for membrane coupling with features which may be generally applicable to other hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems.

  15. Olanzapine-induced changes in glucose metabolism are independent of the melanin-concentrating hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Elodie M; Toonen, Pim W; Eggels, Leslie; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-11-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side-effects are currently unknown. Chagnon et al. showed that the common allele rs7973796 of the prepro-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH) gene is associated with a greater body mass index in Ola-treated schizophrenic patients. As PMCH encodes for the orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), it was hypothesized that MCH is involved in Ola-induced metabolic changes. We have recently reported that the intragastric infusion of Ola results in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in male rats. In order to test in vivo the possible involvement of the PMCH gene in the pathogenesis of Ola side-effects, we administered Ola intragastrically in wild-type (WT) and PMCH knock-out (KO) rats. Our results show that glucose and corticosterone levels, as well as endogenous glucose production, are elevated by the infusion of Ola in both WT and KO animals. Thus, the lack of MCH does not seem to affect the acute effects of Ola on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, these effects might be obliterated by compensatory changes in other hypothalamic systems. In addition, possible modulatory effects of the MCH KO on the long term effects of Ola, i.e. increased adiposity, body weight gain, have not been investigated yet.

  16. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  17. The flowering hormone florigen functions as a general systemic regulator of growth and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Akiva; Rozman, Alexander; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Alvarez, John P; Bowman, John L; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2009-05-19

    The florigen paradigm implies a universal flowering-inducing hormone that is common to all flowering plants. Recent work identified FT orthologues as originators of florigen and their polypeptides as the likely systemic agent. However, the developmental processes targeted by florigen remained unknown. Here we identify local balances between SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), the tomato precursor of florigen, and SELF-PRUNING (SP), a potent SFT-dependent SFT inhibitor as prime targets of mobile florigen. The graft-transmissible impacts of florigen on organ-specific traits in perennial tomato show that in addition to import by shoot apical meristems, florigen is imported by organs in which SFT is already expressed. By modulating local SFT/SP balances, florigen confers differential flowering responses of primary and secondary apical meristems, regulates the reiterative growth and termination cycles typical of perennial plants, accelerates leaf maturation, and influences the complexity of compound leaves, the growth of stems and the formation of abscission zones. Florigen is thus established as a plant protein functioning as a general growth hormone. Developmental interactions and a phylogenetic analysis suggest that the SFT/SP regulatory hierarchy is a recent evolutionary innovation unique to flowering plants.

  18. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed "Kindchenschema" or "baby schema," and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes.

  19. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  20. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Clovis A; Deen, Maria E J; Febrônio, Marilia V; Oliveira, Sheila K; Terreri, Maria T; Sacchetti, Silvana B; Sztajnbok, Flavio R; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V; Bica, Blanca E; Pereira, Rosa M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P; Robazzi, Teresa C; Magalhães, Claudia S; Hilário, Maria O

    2011-08-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers. Pituitary gonadotrophins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estradiol were evaluated in 32/35 patients, and prolactin and total testosterone in 29/35 patients. Patient's medical records were carefully reviewed according to demographic, clinical and therapeutic findings. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 7.2 ± 3.6 months. Low FSH or LH was observed in 7/32 (22%) JSLE patients and normal FSH or LH in 25 (78%). Remarkably, low levels of FSH or LH were associated with higher frequency of current amenorrhea (57% vs. 0%, P = 0.001), higher median disease activity (SLEDAI) and damage (SLICC/ACR-DI) (18 vs. 4, P = 0.011; 2 vs. 0, P = 0.037, respectively) and higher median current dose of prednisone (60 vs. 10 mg/day, P = 0.0001) compared to normal FSH or LH JSLE patients. None of them had decreased ovarian reserve and premature ovarian failure. Six of 29 (21%) patients had high levels of prolactin, and none had current amenorrhea. No correlations were observed between levels of prolactin and SLEDAI, and levels of prolactin and SLICC/ACR-DI scores (Spearman's coefficient). We have identified that amenorrhea in JSLE is associated with high dose of corticosteroids indicated for active disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis suppression.

  1. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Herwig; D. Wilson; T.J. Logie; A. Boelen; P.J. Morgan; J.G. Mercer; P. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    Herwig A, Wilson D, Logie TJ, Boelen A, Morgan PJ, Mercer JG, Barrett P. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296: R1307-R1315, 2009. First published March

  2. A system biology approach highlights a hormonal enhancer effect on regulation of genes in a nitrate responsive "biomodule"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nero Damion

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrate-induced reprogramming of the transcriptome has recently been shown to be highly context dependent. Herein, a systems biology approach was developed to identify the components and role of cross-talk between nitrate and hormone signals, likely to be involved in the conditional response of NO3- signaling. Results Biclustering was used to identify a set of genes that are N-responsive across a range of Nitrogen (N-treatment backgrounds (i.e. nitrogen treatments under different growth conditions using a meta-dataset of 76 Affymetrix ATH1 chips from 5 different laboratories. Twenty-one biclusters were found to be N-responsive across subsets of this meta-dataset. N-bicluster 9 (126 genes was selected for further analysis, as it was shown to be reproducibly responsive to NO3- as a signal, across a wide-variety of background conditions and datasets. N-bicluster 9 genes were then used as "seed" to identify putative cross-talk mechanisms between nitrate and hormone signaling. For this, the 126 nitrate-regulated genes in N-bicluster 9 were biclustered over a meta-dataset of 278 ATH1 chips spanning a variety of hormone treatments. This analysis divided the bicluster 9 genes into two classes: i genes controlled by NO3- only vs. ii genes controlled by both NO3- and hormones. The genes in the latter group showed a NO3- response that is significantly enhanced, compared to the former. In silico analysis identified two Cis-Regulatory Elements candidates (CRE (E2F, HSE potentially involved the interplay between NO3- and hormonal signals. Conclusion This systems analysis enabled us to derive a hypothesis in which hormone signals are proposed to enhance the nitrate response, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the link between nitrate signaling and the control of plant development.

  3. Development of a bioassay system for human growth hormone determination with close correlation to immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, M; Tanahashi, Y; Mohri, Z; Fujieda, K

    2012-09-01

    Serum growth hormone (GH) level is measured largely through immunoassays in clinical practice. However, a few cases with bioinactive and immunoreactive GH have also been reported. We describe here a new bioassay system for GH determination using the BaF/GM cell line, which proliferates in a dose-dependent manner on hGH addition; cell proliferation was blocked by anti-hGH antibody. This bioassay had the lowest detection limit (∼0.02 ng/ml) reported thus far and the highest specificity for GH. The bioassay results were compared with those of an immunoradiometric assay across 163 patient samples in various endocrine states. A close correlation (the ratio of bioactivity/immunoreactivity was 1.04 ± 0.33, mean ± SD) was observed between bioactivity and immunoreactivity in these samples. The newly developed system is a specific, sensitive, easy, and fast bioassay system for GH determination; we consider it useful for evaluating GH bioactivity in various endocrine states.

  4. Twin arginine translocation system in secretory expression of recombinant human growth hormone

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    Mohammad Reza Bagherinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant protein production in E. coli has several advantages over other expression systems. Misfolding, inclusion body formation, and lack of eukaryotic post translational modification are the most disadvantages of this system. Exporting of correctly folded proteins to the outside of reductive cytoplasmic environment through twin-arginine system could help to pass these limiting steps. Two signal sequences, TorA and SufI are used at N-terminal of human growth hormone (hGH bearing DsbA gene sequence at C-terminal to enhance folding. The synthetic cassettes including the signal sequence, hGH and DsbA were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3 to study the effect of signal sequence and DsbA chaperone on translocation and folding of the protein. The results confirmed using signal sequence at N-terminal of targeted protein and coexpression with DsbA could transport proteins to the periplasmic space and culture media compared to control groups. Although there is no protein band of somatropin in SDS-Page of culture media samples when using SufI as signaling sequence, the study demonstrated TorA signal sequence could transport the target protein to the culture media. However, there was a considerable amount of hGH in periplasmic space when using SufI compared to control.

  5. Apoptosis and hormonal milieu in ductal system of normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie XIA; Chun-Xiao XU; Xiao-Da TANG; Wan-Zhong WANG; De-Li DU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study theapoptotic rate (AR) and the androgen and estrogen milieu in the proximal and distal ductal sys tems of prostate, in order to help exploring the effects of these factors on prostatic growth and the pathogenesis of be nign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: The proximal and distal ends of the ductal system were incised from 20 normal prostate as well as the hypertrophic prostate tissue from 20 patients with BPH. The AR was determined by the DNA end-labeling method and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estrodiol (E2), by radioimmunoassay. Results:There was no significant difference in DHT and E2 density between the proximal and distal ends of the ductal systems in normal prostate. E2 appeared to be higher in BPH than in normal prostatic tissues, but the difference was statistically in significant. In normal prostatic tissue, the AR was significantly higher in the distal than in the proximal ends of the ductal system ( P < 0.05), while the AR of the proximal ends was significantly higher ( P < 0.01) than that in the BPH tissue. No significant correlation was noted between the DHT and E2 density and the AR both in the normal prostate and BPH tissues. Conclusion: The paper is the first time describing a difference in AR in different regions of the ductal system of normal prostate, while the hormonal milieu is similar, indicating a functional inhomogeneity of these regions. A low AR in the proximal duct, where BPH originates, and an even lower AR in the BPH tissue, sug gesting the participation of apoptosis in the BPH pathogenesis.

  6. The effects of hypokalaemia on the hormone exocytosis in adenohypophysis and prolactinoma cell culture model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Z; Pálföldi, R; László, A; Radács, M; László, M; Hausinger, P; Tiszlavicz, L; Rázga, Z; Valkusz, Z; Gálfi, M

    2014-11-01

    The extracellular ion milieu determines the exocytosis mechanism that is coupled to spontaneous electrical activity. The K(+) ion plays crucial role in this mechanism: as the potassium current is associated with membrane hyperpolarization and hormone release through protein cascade activation. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of normal adenohypophysis and adenohypophyseal prolactinoma cell populations at different extracellular K(+) levels with an otherwise isoionic milieu of all other essential ions. We focused on prolactin (PRL) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) release.In our experimental study, female Wistar rats (n=20) were treated with estrone-acetate (150 μg/kg b.w./week) for 6 months to induce prolactinomas in the adenohypophysis. Primary, monolayer cell cultures were prepared by enzymatic and mechanical digestion. PRL and ACTH hormone presence was measured by radioimmunoassay or immuno-chemiluminescence assay. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess the apoptotic cells.Differences between the effects of hypokalaemia on normal adenohypophysis cultures and prolactinoma cell populations were investigated. Significant alteration (pprolactinoma cell cultures compared to untreated groups. Immunocyto-chemistry showed that Bcl-2 expression was reduced under hypokalaemic conditions.The decrease in hormone exocytosis was tightly correlated to the extracellular K(+) in both cell types, leading to the conclusion that external K(+) may be the major factor for the inhibition of hormone release. The significant increase in hormone content in supernatant media suggests that hypokalaemia may play important role in apoptosis.

  7. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-05-15

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-β-S. A specific H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal.

  8. Systemic but no local effects of combined zoledronate and parathyroid hormone treatment in experimental autoimmune arthritis.

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    Kresten Krarup Keller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. RESULTS: Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. CONCLUSIONS: No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated.

  9. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Annika; Wilson, Dana; Logie, Tracy J; Boelen, Anita; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G; Barrett, Perry

    2009-05-01

    In the Siberian hamster, seasonal weight loss occurs gradually over many weeks during autumn and winter. This is driven by a regulatory mechanism that is able to integrate duration of exposure to short days (SDs) with the size of body energy reserves. After food restriction in SDs, followed by ad libitum refeeding, body weight of the hamster does not return to its former level; rather, it increases to a level defined by the length of time spent in SDs. In this report, we show that components of the thyroid hormone system that are involved in seasonal weight loss change expression in response to 48 h of starvation. Eight weeks in an SD photoperiod induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster. In the hypothalamus of these hamsters, type II deiodinase expression was decreased and type III deiodinase expression was induced, but there was no change in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y or thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. For the first time, we show that the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 is expressed in tanycytes and is increased in response to an SD photoperiod. Food restriction (48 h of starvation) reversed the direction of gene expression change for type II and III deiodinase and monocarboxylate transporter 8 induced by SD photoperiods. Furthermore, fasting increased neuropeptide Y expression and decreased thyrotropin-releasing hormone expression. VGF, a gene upregulated in SDs in the dorsal region of the medial posterior area of the arcuate nucleus, was not changed by starvation. These data point to a mechanism whereby energy deprivation can interact with an SD photoperiod on hypothalamic tanycytes to regulate components of the thyroid hormone system involved in photoperiodic regulation of seasonal physiology.

  10. Multiple system atrophy with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: clinical analysis on three cases

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    Man-qing XIE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor (either extrapyramidal or cerebellar and autonomic nervous systems. The main clinical manifestations of MSA are parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. It may also affect the hypothalamus and related fibers, resulting in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and hyponatremia. This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics of MSA with SIADH, so as to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and imaging features, diagnosis and treatment of 3 MSA patients with SIADH in our hospital from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among 3 MSA patients, 2 cases were parkinsonism-predominant (MSA-P and the other one was cerebellar-predominant (MSA-C. All of them presented severe hyponatremia. The lowest serum sodium concentration was 123, 118 and 121 mmol/L, respectively. The level of urinary sodium concentration was 91, 114 and 129 mmol/L, respectively. One was diagnosed as definite SIADH, and the other 2 cases were possible SIADH. Two cases were complicated with infection (one Legionella pneumophila and one pulmonary infection, which was greatly improved after anti-infection treatment and sodium supplement. The other case died of refractory hyponatremia in the end. Conclusions MSA patients with autogenous or concurrent infection may be susceptible to SIADH, therefore water-sodium balance management is important for MSA patients. MSA with SIADH is rare, and refractory hyponatremia may indicate a poor prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.02.009

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-01-0008 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 4e-46 34% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0026 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 5e-71 44% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-1475 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-1475 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 2e-29 32% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0058 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 1e-112 60% ...

  15. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  16. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (Pgrowth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly.

  17. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  18. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes

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    S.E. Arranz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected

  19. Hormones and the Autonomic Nervous System are Involved in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.; Buijs, R.M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, ch

  20. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects-An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-10-27

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH's role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers-disturbed by the stressors-after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca(2+) stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed.

  1. Peripheral regulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system in fish and other vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Katie M; Sheridan, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a major role in coordinating the growth of vertebrates including fish. Considerable research on the regulation of growth has focused on the production and secretion of GH from the pituitary. This review will synthesize recent work on regulating extrapituitary aspects of the GH-IGF system, which includes GH binding proteins (GHBP), GH receptors (GHR), IGF binding protein (IGFBP), and IGF receptors (IGFR). These components are widely distributed and they interact to coordinate growth as well as a host of other biological processes such as metabolism, osmoregulation, reproduction, behavior, and immunity. The GH-IGF system of fish is particularly interesting and complex because it consists of multiple subtypes of GHRs, IGFRs, and IGFBPs that arose through gene duplication events associated with the evolution of the teleost lineage. Peripheral regulation of the GH-IGF system results from adjusting peripheral sensitivity to GH and IGFs as well as from modulating the bioavailability and actions of GH and IGFs in target cells. Numerous chemicals, including hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, somatostatin, and sex steroids as well as a variety of transcription factors, proteases, and phosphatases, regulate the synthesis and activity of GHRs, GHBPs, IGFRs, and IGFBPs as well as the synthesis, secretion, and bioavailability of IGFs. In addition, numerous environmental factors such as nutritional state, photoperiod, stress, and temperature have dramatic effects on the expression and activity of peripheral components of the GH/IGF system. The complex regulation of these system components appears to be both organism- and tissue-specific.

  2. Dose-response effects of a new growth hormone receptor antagonist (B2036-PEG) on circulating, hepatic and renal expression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Neck (Han); N.F. Dits (Natasja); V. Cingel-Ristic; I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); A. Flyvbjerg (Allan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of growth hormone (GH) in regulating the expression of the hepatic and renal GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were studied by administering a novel GH receptor antagonist (GHRA) (B2036-PEG) at different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10

  3. Series "Cardiovascular System" (4) : Endothelium-derived Vasoactive Hormones and Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 結喜緒; HIRATA, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelium synthesize and secrete a variety of bioactive substances. Among them, endothelium-derived vasoactive hormones function to regulate not only tonus of the neighboring vascular smooth muscle, but vascular remodeling as well. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction eventually leads to blood pressure abnormality as well as vascular lesions. By focusing on several novel endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors (endothelin, urotensin II) and vasodilators (nitric oxide, adrenomedullin), t...

  4. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender.

  5. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  6. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  7. [Vitamin D hormone system and diabetes mellitus: lessons from selective activators of vitamin D receptor and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    The vitamin D hormone system has significant skeletal and extra-skeletal effects. Vitamin D receptor occurs in different tissues, and several cells other than renal cells are able to locally produce active vitamin D, which is responsible for transcriptional control of hundreds of genes related to its pleiotropic effects. There is increasing evidence relating vitamin D to development and course of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Specifically, influence of vitamin D on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammatory response, and urinary albumin excretion could explain the relevant impact of vitamin D status on diabetic nephropathy. Selective vitamin D receptor activators are molecules able to reproduce agonistic or antagonistic effects of active vitamin D depending on the tissue or even on the cell type. Specifically, paricalcitol has a beneficial profile because of its potency to reduce parathyroid hormone, with lower effects on serum calcium or phosphate levels. Moreover, in patients with diabetes and renal disease, paricalcitol decreases microalbuminuria, hospitalization rates, and cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, these molecules represent an attractive new option to improve prognosis of renal disease in patients with diabetes.

  8. Influences of the environment on the endocrine and paracrine fish growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M

    2010-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key component of the complex system that regulates differentiation, development, growth and reproduction of fishes. The IGF-I gene is mainly expressed in the liver that represents the principal source of endocrine IGF-I but also in numerous other organs where the hormone most probably acts in an autocrine-paracrine manner. The primary stimulus for synthesis and release of IGF-I is growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary. Thus, in analogy to mammals, it is usual to speak of a fish 'GH-IGF-I axis'. The GH-IGF-I system is affected by changes in the environment and probably represents a target of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) that impair many physiological processes in fishes. Thus, the review deals with the influences of changes in different environmental factors, such as food availability, temperature, photoperiod, season, salinity and EDCs, on GH gene expression in pituitary, IGF-I gene expression in liver and extrahepatic sites and the physiological effects resulting from the evoked alterations in endocrine and local IGF-I. Environmental influences certainly interact with each other but for convenience of the reader they will be dealt with in separate sections. Current trends in GH-IGF-I research are analysed and future focuses are suggested at the end of the sections.

  9. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated.

  10. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system of the white seabream Diplodus sargus: immunocytochemical identification of arginine-vasotocin, isotocin, melanin-concentrating hormone and corticotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, G; Segura-Noguera, M M; Martín del Río, M P; Mancera, J M

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the neurosecretory hormones vasotocin, isotocin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the hypophysiotropic hormone corticotropin-releasing factor was studied in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus) using immunocytochemical techniques. Magnocellular and parvocellular perikarya immunoreactive for arginine-vasotocin and isotocin were present in the nucleus preopticus. Perikarya immunoreactive for arginine-vasotocin extended more caudally with respect to isotocin-immunoreactive perikarya. Parvocellular perikarya were located at rostroventral levels and magnocellular perikarya in the dorsocaudal portion of the nucleus. Arginine-vasotocin and isotocin did not coexist in the same neuron. Fibres immunoreactive for arginine-vasotocin and isotocin innervated all areas of neurohypophysis and terminate close to corticotropic and melanotropic cells. Perikarya immunoreactive for melanin-concentrating hormone and corticotropin-releasing factor were observed in the nucleus lateralis tuberis, with a few neurons in the nucleus periventricularis posterior. In addition, melanin-concentrating hormone immunoreactive perikarya were detected in the nucleus recessus lateralis. The preoptic nucleus did not show immunoreactivity for these antisera. Fibres showing melanin-concentrating hormone and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity ended close to the melanotropic and somatolactotrophic cells of the pars intermedia, and close to the corticotrophic cells of the rostral pars distalis.

  11. Steroid hormone regulation of the voltage-gated, calcium-activated potassium channel expression in developing muscular and neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Sheldon L; Witten, Jane L

    2010-11-01

    A precise organization of gene expression is required for developing neural and muscular systems. Steroid hormones can control the expression of genes that are critical for development. In this study we test the hypothesis that the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates gene expression of the voltage-gated calcium-activated potassium ion channel, Slowpoke or KCNMA1. Late in adult development of the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, slowpoke (msslo) levels increased contributing to the maturation of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) and CNS. We show that critical components of ecdysteroid gene regulation were present during upreglation of msslo in late adult DLM and CNS development. Ecdysteroid receptor complex heterodimeric partner proteins, the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), and the ecdysone-induced early gene, msE75B, were expressed at key developmental time points, suggesting that ecdysteroids direct aspects of gene expression in the DLMs during these late developmental stages. We provide evidence that ecdysteroids suppress msslo transcription in the DLMs; when titers decline msslo transcript levels increase. These results are consistent with msslo being a downstream gene in an ecdysteroid-mediated gene cascade during DLM development. We also show that the ecdysteroids regulate msslo transcript levels in the developing CNS. These results will contribute to our understanding of how the spatiotemporal regulation of slowpoke transcription contributes to tailoring cell excitability to the differing physiological and behavioral demands during development.

  12. Distribution of growth hormone-like immunoreactive cells and somatostatin receptors in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical method and double staining technique, the localization of growth hormone (GH) and somatostatin receptors in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit of amphioxus has been investigated. The results showed that the growth hormone-like nerve cells and endocrine cells as well as three subtypes-of somatostatin receptors exist in the nervous system and Hatschek's pit, and GH-like nerve cells and endocrine cells co-exist with three subtypes of somatostatin receptors in the brain vesicle and Hatschek's pit. It is suggested that a primitive control system of inhibitory growth hormone secretion in Hatschek's pit could have been developed in amphioxus, as in vertebrates. The present study provides new evidence for the endocrinology and the evolution of Hatschek's pit.

  13. A novel function of red pigment-concentrating hormone in crustaceans: Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zralá, Jana; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zahradnícková, Helena; Zemek, Rostislav; Socha, Radomír

    2010-04-01

    The RP HPLC and LC/MS QTOF analyses of the methanolic CNS extract from isopod crustacean the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber revealed a presence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) in this species. It has been shown that this neuropeptide plays a role in mobilization of energy stores: topical treatments of P. scaber individuals by Panbo-RPCH in a concentration 20 pmol/microl increased the level of glucose in haemolymph about 4 times, while the level of trehalose was only doubled. The results demonstrated that glucose was the main carbohydrate mobilized by the Panbo-RPCH treatment: glucose was responsible for about 97% of total carbohydrate increasing. Despite the demonstration of hyperglycaemic activity of Panbo-RPCH, no stimulatory effect of this hormone on the locomotory activity of P. scaber was observed. The present study is the first discovery of an occurrence of Panbo-RPCH and its hyperglycaemic activity in the representative of the isopod crustaceans. The relationship of the function of Panbo-RPCH in P. scaber to the role of this neuropeptide and adipokinetic hormones in insects is discussed.

  14. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  15. A review on distribution and monitoring of hormones in the environment and their removal in wastewater treatment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Kafaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones of the Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC are steroid hormones, which cause negative effects on human health, animals and ecosystems balance, have become a major concern in modern societies. In recent years numerous studies have performed on hormone distribution in the environment, especially in aquatic environments and the ways that they have been removed. Hormones entrance into the environment primarily is through wastewater, municipal wastewater treatment sludge, hospital wastewater and livestock activity. Measured values in the wastewater treatment influent, livestock lagoons, surface water and groundwater, showed different concentrations of hormones in the range of ng/L. But it is important to know even in trace concentration of ng/L, hormones can have adverse effects on environment. By biodegradation, biosorption and biotransformation, hormones will be degraded and their activities will be decreased. Wastewater treatment processes includes preliminary, primary, secondary and advanced treatment, that are the most important ways to prevent the entrance of hormonal compounds to the environment. Sludge should be cleaned by available technology before entering the environment. Wastewater processes in both liquid and sludge phase, under various operating conditions, show different range of hormones removal. In this paper authors try to discuss about the problem and different environmental aspects of hormones.

  16. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  17. Variable estimates of serum growth hormone concentrations by different radioassay systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.O.; Morris, A.H.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Weber, D.

    1988-01-01

    Many different assays are being used to measure serum GH concentrations in children with disorders of growth. We assessed four readily available methods to determine the comparability of the immunopotency estimates: standard double antibody RIA with pituitary standards from the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (assay 1) and from a commercial source (assay 2), a double antibody RIA with serum standards (assay 4), and a commercial immunoradiometric assay (assay 3). There was a high degree of relative correlation between assays (r = 0.95-0.98), but absolute potency estimates differed. Assays 1 and 2 were almost identical. Assay 3 yielded serum GH levels about 65% those of assay 1 or 2 and 80% those of assay 4. Assay 4 gave intermediate values between the low readings in assay 3 and higher values in assay 1 and 2. We conclude that substantial variation occurs in potency estimates in different GH assays. Such differences can affect the interpretation of many GH provocative and sampling studies.

  18. Aberrant Monoaminergic System in Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β Deficient Mice as a Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ookubo, Masanori; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; SUZUKI, Satoru; Kato, Nobumasa; Kojima, Hideto; Yamada, Naoto; Kanai, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone receptors are divided into 2 functional types: TRα and TRβ. Thyroid hormone receptors play pivotal roles in the developing brain, and disruption of thyroid hormone receptors can produce permanent behavioral abnormality in animal models and humans. Methods: Here we examined behavioralchanges, regional monoamine metabolism, and expression of epigenetic modulatory proteins, including acetylated histone H3 and histone deacetylase, in the developing brain of TRα-disrupt...

  19. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. PMID:24285747

  20. Safety of hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rojas-Villarraga

    Full Text Available There is conflicting data regarding exogenous sex hormones [oral contraceptives (OC and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT] exposure and different outcomes on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. The aim of this work is to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis the risks associated with estrogen use for women with SLE as well as the association of estrogen with developing SLE.MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciElo, BIREME and the Cochrane library (1982 to July 2012, were databases from which were selected and reviewed (PRISMA guidelines randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional, case-control and prospective or retrospective nonrandomized, comparative studies without language restrictions. Those were evaluated by two investigators who extracted information on study characteristics, outcomes of interest, risk of bias and summarized strength of evidence. A total of 6,879 articles were identified; 20 full-text articles were included. Thirty-two meta-analyses were developed. A significant association between HRT exposure (Random model and an increased risk of developing SLE was found (Rate Ratio: 1.96; 95%-CI: 1.51-2.56; P-value<0.001. One of eleven meta-analyses evaluating the risk for SLE associated with OC exposure had a marginally significant result. There were no associations between HRT or OC exposure and specific outcomes of SLE. It was not always possible to Meta-analyze all the available data. There was a wide heterogeneity of SLE outcome measurements and estrogen therapy administration.An association between HRT exposure and SLE causality was observed. No association was found when analyzing the risk for SLE among OC users, however since women with high disease activity/Thromboses or antiphospholipid-antibodies were excluded from most of the studies, caution should be exercised in interpreting the present results. To identify risk factors that predispose healthy individuals to the development of SLE who are planning to start HRT or OC

  1. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M.J. Lengyel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  2. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  3. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  4. [Dynamic changes in the reactivity of the hormonal system regulation with the impact by LBNP sessions in long-term space mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Noskov, V B; Poliakov, V V; Vorob'ev, D V; Nichiporuk, I A; Hinghofer-Szalkay, G; Rossler, A; Kvetnianski, R; Macho, L

    1998-01-01

    Experiment INTERSTITIUM was performed on days 3, 170, 287, and 430 of the long-term MIR mission of the Russian cosmonaut-physician in order to evaluate reactivity of the system of hormonal regulation of homeostasis during LBNP sessions. Data of the experiment displayed different types of reaction of the volume controls to LBNP at the onset (F-3), in the course of and soon after recovery (R-4) from the extended mission which are signs of specific phases of adaptive shifts in the organism of cosmonaut. Exaggerated reactivity of the hormonal systems during LBNP in flight suggests more significant consequences of the test for the cardiovascular system of human in microgravity. The most expressed hormonal reaction to LBNP was documented at the very beginning of the postflight period. Plasma cGMP was materially reduced in the process of the mission and remained quite low on R-4; return of nucleotides to the norm was observed no earlier than on R-90. Complete recovery from the space mission took three months when the hormonal reaction to LBNP was same as prior to launch.

  5. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  6. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotte Sébastien

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone

  7. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

  8. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed.

  9. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marta; Adamantidis, Antoine; Facchin, Laura; Bassetti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i) SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii) IS: ischemia; (iii) SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv) Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR. Results A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group. Conclusions Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke. PMID:28061506

  10. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality.

  11. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  12. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Clovis A.; Deen, Maria E. J.; Febronio, Marilia V.; Oliveira, Sheila K.; Terreri, Maria T.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V.; Bica, Blanca E.; Pereira, Rosa M.; Bonfa, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P.; Robazzi, Teresa C.; Magalhaes, Claudia S.; Hilario, Maria O.

    2011-01-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers.

  13. Osteocalcin induces growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 system by promoting testosterone synthesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Li, K

    2014-10-01

    Osteocalcin has been shown to enhance testosterone production in men. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osteocalcin on testosterone and on induction of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Osteocalcin injection stimulated growth, which could be inhibited by castration. In addition, osteocalcin induced testosterone secretion in testes both in vivo and in vitro. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, we showed that growth hormone expression was significantly increased in the pituitary after osteocalcin injection (pGrowth hormone expression in CLU401 mouse pituitary cells was also significantly stimulated (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in NCTC1469 cells. These results suggest that the growth-stimulating activities of osteocalcin are mediated by testicular testosterone secretion, and thus provide valuable information regarding the regulatory effects of osteocalcin expression on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis via reproductive activities.

  14. Heterogeneity in the growth hormone pituitary gland system of rats and humans: Implications to microgravity based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Hayes, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Cleveland, C.; Todd, P.; Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    The cell separation techniques of velocity sedimentation, flow cytometry and continuous flow electrophoresis were used to obtain enriched populations of growth hormone (GH) cells. The goal was to isolate a GH cell subpopulation which releases GH molecules which are very high in biological activity, it was important to use a method which was effective in processing large numbers of cells over a short time span. The techniques based on sedimentation are limited by cell density overlaps and streaming. While flow cytometry is useful in the analytical mode for objectively establishing cell purity, the numbers of cells which can be processed in the sort mode are so small as to make this approach ineffective in terms of the long term goals. It was shown that continuous flow electrophoresis systems (CFES) can separate GH cells from other cell types on the basis of differences in surface charge. The bioreactive producers appear to be more electrophoretically mobile than the low producers. Current ground based CFES efforts are hampered by cell clumping in low ionic strength buffers and poor cell recoveries from the CFES device.

  15. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ameri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC. Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  16. Stress hormone epinephrine enhances adipogenesis in murine embryonic stem cells by up-regulating the neuropeptide Y system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Han

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress, psychologically and metabolically, increases the risk of obesity and diabetes in the progeny. However, the mechanisms of the pathogenesis remain unknown. In adult mice, stress activates NPY and its Y2R in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner in the abdominal fat. This increased adipogenesis and angiogenesis, leading to abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome which were inhibited by intra-fat Y2R inactivation. To determine whether stress elevates NPY system and accelerates adipogenic potential of embryo, here we "stressed" murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs in vitro with epinephrine (EPI during their adipogenic differentiation. EPI was added during the commitment stage together with insulin, and followed by dexamethasone in the standard adipogenic differentiation medium. Undifferentiated embryonic bodies (EBs showed no detectable expression of NPY. EPI markedly up-regulated the expression NPY and the Y1R at the commitment stage, followed by increased Y2R mRNA at the late of the commitment stage and the differentiation stage. EPI significantly increased EB cells proliferation and expression of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1 at the commitment stage. EPI also accelerated and amplified adipogenic differentiation detected by increasing the adipocyte markers FABP4 and PPARγ mRNAs and Oil-red O-staining at the end of the differentiation stage. EPI-induced adipogenesis was completely prevented by antagonists of the NPY receptors (Y1R+Y2R+Y5R, indicating that it was mediated by the NPY system in mESC's. Taken together, these data suggest that stress may play an important role in programming ESCs for accelerated adipogenesis by altering the stress induced hormonal regulation of the NPY system.

  17. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:28045929

  18. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretory system in the hypothalamus of the Siberian hamster in long and short photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, F J P; Wilson, D; Wood, J; Hughes, D; Mercer, J G; Morgan, P J; Barrett, P

    2008-05-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is not only essential for the regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, but also exerts complementary effects on energy metabolism within the brain. We hypothesised that increased activity of the TRH secretory system may contribute to seasonal adaptations in the Siberian hamster whereby food intake is decreased in winter, and catabolism of fat stores is increased to support thermogenesis. We determined the distribution of TRH producing neurones and TRH-R1 receptor expressing cells in the hypothalamus, and investigated whether photoperiod regulated this system. TRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell somata and preproTRH mRNA expression were found to be widely distributed throughout the medial hypothalamus, with particular clusters in the paraventricular nucleus, the medial preoptic area and periventricular nucleus, and in the dorsomedial hypothalamus extending into the lateral hypothalamic area. A partial sequence encoding TRH-R1 was cloned from hamster hypothalamic cDNA and used to generate a riboprobe for in situ hybridisation studies. TRH-R1 mRNA expressing cells were abundant throughout the hypothalamus, corresponding to the widespread presence of TRH-ir fibres. Photoperiod did not affect the expression of preproTRH mRNA in any region, and the only significant change in TRH-R1 expression was in the dorsomedial posterior arcuate region. This wide distribution of TRH-producing and receptive cells in the hypothalamus is consistent with its hypothesised neuromodulatory roles in the short-term homeostatic control of appetite, thermoregulation and energy expenditure, but the lack of photoperiodic change in TRH mRNA expression does not support the hypothesis that changes in this system underlie long-term seasonal changes in body weight.

  19. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  20. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  1. Hormonal programming across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, B M; Tobet, S A; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Wilson, M E; Recabarren, S E; Paredes, A H

    2012-07-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across an animal's lifespan. Many hormone-mediated events occur within developmental sensitive periods, during which hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous selective critical periods in development with different targets being affected during different periods. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of critical hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be an important mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. Brain targets of hormonal programming, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, may be critical in influencing the development of peripheral targets, such as the ovary. Exposure to excess hormones can cause abnormalities in the ovary during development leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased activity of the sympathetic nerve and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function.

  2. The characterization of new hormonal systems in arthropods with a focus on neuropeptide GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth

    Neuropeptides and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) occupy a high hierarchical position in the physiology of animals, because they steer important processes such as reproduction, development, and behaviour. Within the last nine years, several genomes have been sequenced providing the basis...... the genome of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum was sequenced and released, I found a peptide closely related to the oxytocin and vasopressin peptide that I called inotocin (for insect oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide). Additionally, I could also find a receptor structurally highly related...... to the receptors from the oxytocin/vasopressin family, that I therefore called inotocin receptor. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and related peptides are often correlated with reproduction. Using RNAi, it could be excluded that this system is responsible for any function involved in oviposition. I could also annotate...

  3. Environmental estrogens inhibit growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by modulating the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea M; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Martin, Lincoln E; Sheridan, Mark A

    2014-01-15

    Although environmental estrogens (EE) have been found to disrupt a wide variety of developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates, there is a paucity of information concerning their effects on organismal growth, particularly postembryonic growth. In this study, we exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol (E2) β-sitosterol (βS), or 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) to assess the effects of EE on overall organismal growth and on the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth factor (GH-IGF) system. EE treatment significantly reduced food conversion, body condition, and body growth. EE-inhibited growth resulted from alterations in peripheral elements of the GH-IGF system, which includes multiple GH receptors (GHRs), IGFs, and IGF receptors (IGFRs). In general, E2, βS, and NP reduced the expression of GHRs, IGFs, and IGFRs; however, the effects varied in an EE-, tissue-, element type-specific manner. For example, in liver, E2 was more efficacious than either βS, and NP in reducing GHR expression, and the effect of E2 was greater on GHR 1 than GHR2 mRNA. By contrast, in gill, all EEs affected GHR expression in a similar manner and there was no difference in the effect on GHR1 and GHR 2 mRNA. With regard to IGF expression, all EEs reduced hepatic IGF1 and IGF2 mRNA levels, whereas as in gill, only E2 and NP significantly reduced IGF1 and IGF2 expression. Lastly, E2 and NP reduced the expression of IGFR1A and IGFR1B mRNA expression similarly in gill and red and white muscle, whereas βS had no effect on expression of IGFR mRNAs. These findings indicate that EEs disrupt post-embryonic growth by reducing GH sensitivity, IGF production, and IGF sensitivity.

  4. Mutual regulation of growth hormone and bone morphogenetic protein system in steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Otsuka, Fumio; Inagaki, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Ogura, Kanako; Tsukamoto, Naoko; Takeda, Masaya; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    GH induces preantral follicle growth and differentiation with oocyte maturation. However, the effects of GH on ovarian steroidogenesis and the mechanisms underlying its effects have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the actions of GH on steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells isolated from early antral follicles by focusing on the ovarian bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. We found that GH suppressed FSH-induced estradiol production with reduction in aromatase expression and, in contrast, GH increased FSH-induced progesterone level with induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, side chain cleavage cytochrome P450, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The effects of GH on steroidogenesis by granulosa cells were enhanced in the presence of the BMP antagonist noggin. Coculture of GH with oocytes did not alter GH regulation of steroidogenesis. Steroid production induced by cAMP donors was not affected by GH treatment and the GH effects on FSH-induced steroid production were not accompanied by changes in cAMP synthesis, suggesting that GH actions were not directly mediated by the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway. GH exerted synergistic effects on MAPK activation elicited by FSH, which regulated FSH-induced steroidogenesis. In addition, GH-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription phosphorylation was involved in the induction of IGF-I expression. GH increased IGF-I, IGF-I receptor, and FSH receptor expression in granulosa cells, and inhibition of IGF-I signaling restored GH stimulation of FSH-induced progesterone production, suggesting that endogenous IGF-I is functionally involved in GH effects on progesterone induction. BMP inhibited IGF-I effects that increased FSH-induced estradiol production with suppression of expression of the GH/IGF-I system, whereas GH/IGF-I actions impaired BMP-Sma and Mad related protein 1/5/8 signaling through down-regulation of the expression of BMP receptors. Thus, GH acts to modulate estrogen

  5. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  6. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  7. A Detailed Physiologically Based Model to Simulate the Pharmacokinetics and Hormonal Pharmacodynamics of Enalapril on the Circulating Endocrine Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Karina; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Preusser, Tobias; Block, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and is one of the most important targets for drugs. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (wb PBPK) model integrating this hormone circulation system and its inhibition can be used to explore the influence of drugs that interfere with this system, and thus to improve the understanding of interactions between drugs and the target system. In this study, we describe the development of a mechanistic RAAS model and exemplify drug action by a simulation of enalapril administration. Enalapril and its metabolite enalaprilat are potent inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). To this end, a coupled dynamic parent-metabolite PBPK model was developed and linked with the RAAS model that consists of seven coupled PBPK models for aldosterone, ACE, angiotensin 1, angiotensin 2, angiotensin 2 receptor type 1, renin, and prorenin. The results indicate that the model represents the interactions in the RAAS in response to the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enalapril and enalaprilat in an accurate manner. The full set of RAAS-hormone profiles and interactions are consistently described at pre- and post-administration steady state as well as during their dynamic transition and show a good agreement with literature data. The model allows a simultaneous representation of the parent-metabolite conversion to the active form as well as the effect of the drug on the hormone levels, offering a detailed mechanistic insight into the hormone cascade and its inhibition. This model constitutes a first major step to establish a PBPK-PD-model including the PK and the mode of action (MoA) of a drug acting on a dynamic RAAS that can be further used to link to clinical endpoints such as blood pressure. PMID:23404365

  8. The wound hormone jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic...

  9. Responsiveness to PI3K and MEK inhibitors in breast cancer. Use of a 3D culture system to study pathways related to hormone independence in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Polo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of breast cancer patients face failure of endocrine therapy due to the acquisition of endocrine resistance. We have explored mechanisms involved in such disease progression by using a mouse breast cancer model that is induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA. These tumors transit through different stages of hormone sensitivity. However, when cells from tumor variants were seeded on plastic, all were stimulated by progestins and inhibited by antiprogestins such as RU486. Furthermore, cells from a RU486-resistant tumor variant recovered antiprogestin sensitivity. HYPOTHESIS: A three-dimensional (3D culture system, by maintaining differential cellular organization that is typical of each tumor variant, may allow for the maintenance of particular hormone responses and thus be appropriate for the study of the effects of specific inhibitors of signaling pathways associated with disease progression. METHOD: We compared the behavior of tumors growing in vivo and cancer cells ex vivo (in 3D Matrigel. In this system, we evaluated the effects of kinase inhibitors and hormone antagonists on tumor growth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LY294002, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, decreased both tumor growth in vivo and cell survival in Matrigel in MPA-independent tumors with higher AKT activity. Induction of cell death by anti-hormones such as ICI182780 and ZK230211 was more effective in MPA-dependent tumors with lower AKT activity. Inhibition of MEK with PD98059 did not affect tumor growth in any tested variant. Finally, while Matrigel reproduced differential responsiveness of MPA-dependent and -independent breast cancer cells, it was not sufficient to preserve antiprogestin resistance of RU486-resistant tumors. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway is relevant for MPA-independent tumor growth. Three-dimensional cultures were useful to test the effects of kinase inhibitors on breast cancer growth and highlight the

  10. Small and remarkable: The Micro-Tom model system as a tool to discover novel hormonal functions and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Hormones are molecules involved in virtually every step of plant development and studies in this field have been shaping plant physiology for more than a century. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, long used as a tool to study plant hormones, lacks significant important developmental traits, such as fleshy climacteric fruit, compound leaf and multicellular trichomes, suggesting the necessity for alternative plant models. An attractive option often used is tomato, a species also of major economic importance, being ideal to bring together basic and applied plant sciences. The tomato Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar makes it possible to combine the direct benefits of studying a crop species with the fast life cycle and small size required for a suitable biological model. However, few obscure questions are constantly addressed to MT, creating a process herein called "MT mystification". In this work we present evidence clarifying these questions and show the potential of MT, aiming to demystify it. To corroborate our ideas we showed that, by making use of MT, our laboratory demonstrated straightforwardly new hormonal functions and also characterized a novel antagonistic hormonal interaction between jasmonates and brassinosteroids in the formation of anti-herbivory traits in tomato.

  11. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  12. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  13. The influence of ovarian factors on the somatostatin-growth hormone system during the postnatal growth and sexual development in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.

  14. Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERalpha, ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhRbeta was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant

  15. Steroid hormones and sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Pérez, G; Arana-Lechuga, Y; Esqueda-León, E; Santana-Miranda, R; Rojas-Zamorano, J Á; Velázquez Moctezuma, J

    2012-10-01

    In the search of the sleep substance, many studies have been addressed for different hormones, responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. In this article we mentioned the participation of steroid hormones, besides its role regulating sexual behavior, they influence importantly in the sleep process. One of the clearest relationships are that estrogen and progesterone have, that causing changes in sleep patterns associated with the hormonal cycles of women throughout life, from puberty to menopause and specific periods such as pregnancy and the menstrual cycle, including being responsible for some sleep disorders such as hypersomnia and insomnia. Another studied hormone is cortisol, a hormone released in stressful situations, when an individual must react to an extraordinary demand that threatens their survival, but also known as the hormone of awakening because the release peak occurs in the morning, although this may be altered in some sleep disorders like insomnia and mood disorders. Furthermore neurosteroids such as pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone are involved in the generation of slow wave sleep, the effect has been demonstrated in experimental animal studies. Thus we see that the sleep and the endocrine system saved a bidirectional relationship in which depends on each other to regulate different physiological processes including sleep.

  16. Developmental programming: contribution of prenatal androgen and estrogen to estradiol feedback systems and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Astapova, Olga I; Aizenberg, Esther F; Lee, James S; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine and periovulatory disruptions in the offspring culminating in progressive loss of cyclicity. It is unknown whether the mediary of these disruptions is androgen or estrogen, because testosterone can be aromatized to estrogen. Taking a reproductive life span approach of studying control, prenatal testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone-treated offspring, this study tested the hypothesis that disruptions in estradiol-negative but not -positive feedback effects are programmed by androgenic actions of testosterone and that these disruptions in turn will have an impact on the periovulatory hormonal dynamics. The approach was to test estradiol-negative and -positive feedback responses of all three groups of ovary-intact females during prepubertal age and then compare the periovulatory dynamics of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during the first breeding season. The findings show that estradiol-negative but not estradiol-positive feedback disruptions in prenatal testosterone-treated females are programmed by androgenic actions of prenatal testosterone excess and that follicular phase estradiol and gonadotropins surge disruptions during reproductive life are consistent with estrogenic programming. Additional studies carried out testing estradiol-positive feedback response over time found progressive deterioration of estradiol-positive feedback in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep until the time of puberty. Together, these findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which prenatal testosterone disrupts the reproductive axis. The findings may be of translational relevance since daughters of mothers with hyperandrogenism are at risk of increased exposure to androgens.

  17. Hormonal status of male reproductive system: androgens and estrogens in the testis and epididymis. In vivo and in vitro approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilińska, Barbara; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Kazimierz; Kotula-Balak, Małgorzata; Gancarczyk, Monika; Hejmej, Anna; Sadowska, Jolanta; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Wenda-Rózewicka, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to summarize our results on the role of androgens and estrogens in human, rodent and equine testes and epididymides, in both, physiological and patological conditions, obtained in the space of the Solicited Project (084/PO6/2002) financially supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research during the last three years. Testosterone produced by Leydig cells of the testes is clearly the major androgen in the circulation of men and adult males of most mammalian species. However, androgen metabolites make up a significant fraction of total circulating steroids. Moreover, androgen metabolism may proceed to amplify the action of testosterone through its conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or its aromatization to estradiol. The distribution of androgen and estrogen receptors (ARs and ERs) within male reproductive tissues is important because of their crucial role in mediating androgen and/or estrogen action. Attempts were undertaken to discuss not only the role of aromatase and ERs in mediating the action of estrogens in the male, but also the importance of DHT in hormonal regulation of the epididymis. In the latter, alterations caused by finasteride treatment and lead-induced oxidative stress are described. Male reproductive function of the testis and epididymis reflected by the alterations in enzymatic activity, distribution of steroid hormone receptors, differences in steroid hormone levels and altered gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are also discussed.

  18. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  19. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  20. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  1. Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH.

  2. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  3. Effects of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Anne S. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ER{alpha}, ER{beta}) and androgen receptor-{beta} (AR{beta}). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-{alpha} (AhR{alpha}) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhR{beta} was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO

  4. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  5. Growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  6. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  7. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  8. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.;

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  9. PANCREATIC AND EXTRA-PANCREATIC EFFECTS OF INCRETINS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR STUDYING ENTEROINSULIN HORMONAL SYSTEM DURING GESTATIONAL DISORDER OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.

  10. Modulation of xenobiotic biotransformation system and hormonal responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne Skjetne; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-04-01

    Multiple biological effects of tributyltin (TBT) on juvenile salmon have been investigated. Fish were exposed for 7 days to waterborne TBT at nominal concentrations of 50 and 250 microg/L dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Hepatic samples were analyzed for gene expression patterns in the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways using validated real-time PCR method. Immunochemical and several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin: EROD, benzyloxyresorufin: BROD, methoxyresorufin: MROD and pentoxyresorufin: PROD) assays were analyzed. Our data show that TBT produced concentration-specific decrease of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) and increase of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) in the hormonal pathway. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced apparent increase and decrease at respective low and high concentration, on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha), AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA. The expression of CYP1A1 and GST showed a TBT concentration-dependent decrease. The AhRbeta, CYP3A and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) mRNA expressions were significantly induced after exposure to TBT. Immunochemical analysis of CYP3A and CYP1A1 protein levels confirmed the TBT effects observed at the transcriptional levels. The effect of TBT on the biotransformation enzyme gene expressions partially co-related but did not directly parallel enzyme activity levels for EROD, BROD, MROD and PROD. In general, these findings confirm previous reports on the endocrine effects of TBT, in addition to effects on hepatic CYP1A isoenzyme at the transcriptional level that transcends to protein and enzymatic levels. The induced expression patterns of CYP3A and UGT mRNA after TBT exposure, suggest the involvement of CYP3A and UGT in TBT metabolism in fish. The effect of TBT on CYP3A is proposed to

  11. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivo

  12. [Role of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1-insulin system signaling in aging and longevity: evolutional aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V N

    2008-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH)/ insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/ insulin signaling molecules linked to longevity include DAF-2 and insulin-receptor and their homologues in mammals, and to inactivation of corresponding genes followed by increased life span in nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. It is possible that the life-prolonging effect of calorie restriction is due to decreasing IGF-1 levels. A search of pharmacological modulators of life-span-extending mutations in the GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling pathway and mimetic effects of caloric restriction is a priority directions in the regulation of longevity. Some literature and our own observations suggest that antidiabetic drugs could be promising candidates for both life span extension and prevention of cancer.

  13. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  14. Neuroanatomical investigation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 system in the seasonally breeding Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leanne; Bennett, Nigel C; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Jarvis, Jennifer U M; O'Riain, M Justin; Coen, Clive W

    2008-10-22

    The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) system has been investigated immunohistochemically in Cape dune mole-rats (Bathyergus suillus), subterranean rodents that normally display severe aggression towards conspecifics. These animals breed seasonally and show a reduced mean plasma level of luteinising hormone during the non-breeding season. GnRH1-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies and processes are found in the septal/preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus; the cell bodies are found in equal measure in these two regions. Dense aggregations of GnRH1-ir fibres are present in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the external zone of the median eminence. The total number of detectable GnRH1-ir cell bodies does not differ between the sexes or within the sexes between breeding and non-breeding seasons. Similarly there is no difference in the distribution of detectable GnRH1-ir cell bodies in male and female mole-rats in and out of the breeding season. Although the average size of GnRH1-ir cell bodies does not differ between the seasons in males, their size in females is significantly smaller in the non-breeding season. Whether this reduced size reflects reduced GnRH1 synthesis remains to be determined.

  15. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  16. [Hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilepskaia, V N

    1991-12-01

    Effective contraceptives contribute to the regulation of births, protect the health of women, reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and gynecological diseases, and prevent abortion-related complications. Complications after abortion average 30%, and among primigravidas the rate reaches 45%. Abortion can result in sterility and in the inability to carry out the pregnancy. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by 150 million globally. In new preparations ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are the most common components. In the 2-phase and 3-phase preparations Sequilar, Anteovin, and lipid profile safe Triquilar the gestagen component was reduced 40%. Continuin and Famulen are minipills, and Postinor is a postcoital contraceptive. Absolute contraindications of OCs include thromboembolytic diseases, severe cardiovascular system diseases, liver disorders, cirrhosis, cerebral vascular diseases, grave diabetes, jaundice, and malignant tumors of the mammae and sexual organs. Rigevidon, Triquilar, and Trisiston have high steroid content with minimal side effects. The protective effect of OCs are: 2-3 times lower risk of inflammation of the small pelvis, lower risk of malignant and benign ovarian tumors that lasts even after discontinuation, uterine cancer prevention (antiproliferation effect on the endometrium and inhibition of mitotic activity of the myometrium), and reduced risk of benign breast neoplasms. The finding that estrogen-induced risk of breast cancer increases with longterm contraceptive use in young nulliparas has not been persuasively proven. The optimal duration of uninterrupted OC use is 1-1.5 years. Monophasic estrogen-gestagen preparations include Bisecurin, Non-Ovlon, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Minisiston, and Demulen with low dosages of EE, LNG, norethisterone acetate, and diacetate ethonodiol. Norplant is a subdermal silastic capsule with effectiveness for up to 5 years.

  17. The mechanism of regulation of ovarian maturation by red pigment concentrating hormone in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Bao, Chenchang; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui; Li, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    In this study a full-length cDNA (Sp-RPCH) was cloned from the eyestalk ganglia of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Sp-RPCH is 660 base pairs in length and its open reading frame encodes a precursor that is predicted to be processed into a 25-residue signal peptide, a mature red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH, an octapeptide), and a 75-residue precursor-related peptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it clusters with other crustacean RPCHs and belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/RPCH peptide superfamily. Sp-RPCH gene expression was detected, using an end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only in the eyestalk ganglia but also in the brain and thoracic ganglia. Quantified using a real-time PCR, Sp-RPCH gene expression levels in the three tissues fluctuated along a cycle of ovarian maturation, with the levels progressively increased from stages I to IV, after which the expression levels decreased (although they remained significantly higher than stage I levels) when the ovary reached the mature stage (stage V). It was demonstrated using a patch clamp analysis that synthetic RPCH was able to evoke a Ca(2+) current in dissociated brain neurons and synthetic RPCH significantly increased the mean oocyte diameter of the ovarian tissues co-cultured with the eyestalk ganglia, brain, or thoracic ganglia; the stimulatory effect of RPCH was absent when the nervous tissues were not included in the ovarian incubation. Animals administrated with RPCH had significantly higher levels of gonad-somatic index, hepatopancreas-somatic index, and vitellogenin gene expression, when compared to control animals receiving a saline injection. The combined results clearly show that RPCH is involved in ovarian maturation in the mud crab; the stimulatory effects of RPCH are likely mediated by its actions on the release from the nervous tissues of factor(s) that directly regulate vitellogenesis in the ovary and hepatopancreas.

  18. Endocrine determinants of haemostasis and thrombosis risk: Focus on thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, L.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores endocrine determinants of the haemostatic system and thrombosis risk with main focus on thyroid hormone. It describes, in three parts, the effects of thyroid hormone on the haemostatic system, the effects of thyroid hormone (mimetics) on lipids and the effects of other hormones

  19. Hormonal status modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases and vasopressin-degrading activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Jesús; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Mayas, María Dolores; Carrera, María Pilar; De la Chica, Susana; Cortés, Pedro; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2008-07-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in the maintenance of cardiovascular functions and in the control of blood pressure. By other hand, it is known that blood pressure regulation and HPA activity are affected by sex hormones. The aim of the present work is to analyze the influence of estradiol and progesterone on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-regulating aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B and aminopeptidase N activities and vasopressin-degrading activity in the HPA axis of ovariectomized mice and ovariectomized mice treated subscutaneously with different doses of estradiol and progesterone. Our data suggest that in female mice, estradiol and progesterone influence RAS-regulating and vasopressin-degrading activities at different levels of the HPA axis.

  20. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system: a long-term randomized controlled study in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Bladbjerg, E M;

    2003-01-01

    be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n......BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may influence risk of cardiovascular disease are still unclear. Impaired fibrinolytic function is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease and therefore the effect of HRT on fibrinolysis may...... of smoking and without influence from the two common polymorphisms PAI-1 -675(4G/5G) and t-PA intron8ins311. Furthermore, no difference between opposed estrogen (with norethisterone acetate as the gestagen component) and unopposed estrogen therapy was found. Both an intention-to-treat and a per...

  1. Daily patterns and adaptation of the ghrelin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 system under daytime food synchronisation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellanes-Licea, E del C; Báez-Ruiz, A; Carranza, M E; Arámburo, C; Luna, M; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    2014-05-01

    Daytime restricted feeding promotes the re-alignment of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Endocrine cues which secretion is regulated by the transition of fasting and feeding cycles converge in the FEO. The present study aimed to investigate the ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 system because their release depends on rhythmic and nutritional factors, and the output from the system influences feeding and biochemical status. In a daily sampling approach, rats that were fed ad lib. were compared with rats on a reversed (daytime) and restricted feeding schedule by 3 weeks (dRF; food access for 2 h), also assessing the effect of acute fasting and refeeding. We undertook measurements of clock protein BMAL1 and performed somatometry of peripheral organs and determined the concentration of total, acylated and unacylated ghrelin, GH and IGF-1 in both serum and in its main synthesising organs. During dRF, BMAL1 expression was synchronised to mealtime in hypophysis and liver; rats exhibited acute hyperphagia, stomach distension with a slow emptying, a phase shift in liver mass towards the dark period and decrease in mass perigonadal white adipose tissue. Total ghrelin secretion during the 24-h period increased in the dRF group as a result of elevation of the unacylated form. By contrast, GH and IGF-1 serum concentration fell, with a modification of GH daily pattern after mealtime. In the dRF group, ghrelin content in the stomach and pituitary GH content decreased, whereas hepatic IGF-1 remained equal. The daily patterns and synthesis of these hormones had a rheostatic adaptation. The endocrine adaptive response elicited suggests that it may be associated with the regulation of metabolic, behavioural and physiological processes during the paradigm of daytime restricted feeding and associated FEO activity.

  2. Usability and Tolerability of the Norditropin NordiFlex® Injection Device in Children Never Previously Treated With Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Growth Hormone Disorder; Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children; Genetic Disorder; Turner Syndrome; Foetal Growth Problem; Small for Gestational Age; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Delivery Systems

  3. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients. [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s being treated. Results: The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16. Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day. All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8; four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity.

  5. A new pathway mediating social effects on the endocrine system: female presence acting via norepinephrine release stimulates gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in the paraventricular nucleus and suppresses luteinizing hormone in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobari, Yasuko; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-07-16

    Rapid effects of social interactions on transient changes in hormonal levels are known in a wide variety of vertebrate taxa, ranging from fish to humans. Although these responses are mediated by the brain, neurochemical pathways that translate social signals into reproductive physiological changes are unclear. In this study, we analyzed how a female presence modifies synthesis and/or release of various neurochemicals, such as monoamines and neuropeptides, in the brain and downstream reproductive hormones in sexually active male Japanese quail. By viewing a female bird, sexually active males rapidly increased norepinephrine (NE) release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, in which gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neuronal cell bodies exist, increased GnIH precursor mRNA expression in the PVN, and decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration in the plasma. GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. It was further shown that GnIH can rapidly suppress LH release after intravenous administration in this study. Centrally administered NE decreased plasma LH concentration in vivo. It was also shown that NE stimulated the release of GnIH from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. Fluorescence double-label immunohistochemistry indicated that GnIH neurons received noradrenergic innervations, and immunohistochemistry combined with in situ hybridization have further shown that GnIH neurons expressed α2A-adrenergic receptor mRNA. These results indicate that a female presence increases NE release in the PVN and stimulates GnIH release, resulting in the suppression of LH release in sexually active male quail.

  6. Effect of a hormone-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and Cox-2 expression in patients with adenomyosis submitted or not, to endometrial resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1, Julio Casoy1, Rebeca Maia1, Nathanael Pinheiro3, Elsimar M Coutinho11Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3IMAGEPAT, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate the effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression in the endometrium of patients with adenomyosis who were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of insertion, compared to a group not submitted to endometrial resection and a group of controls with adenomyosis not submitted to any previous hormonal treatment.Patients and methods: Patients with adenomyosis (n = 89 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients had been using Mirena® for 5 years but had not been submitted to endometrial resection prior to insertion of the device. Twenty-four patients were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of Mirena® insertion. The remaining 43 patients with adenomyosis had undergone no previous hormonal treatment and served as a control group. Cox-2 and aromatase expression were determined in the endometrium by immunohistochemistry.Results: Use of Mirena® for 5 years reduced aromatase expression in the endometrium; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the uteri previously submitted to endometrial resection. The reduction in Cox-2 expression was significant only in the uteri submitted to endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena®.Conclusion: Endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena® was associated with greater rates of amenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis, which in turn were associated with a more effective inhibition of aromatase and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: aromatase, Mirena®, adenomyosis, Cox-2, endometrium, levonorgestrel

  7. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegener Christian

    2008-09-01

    local neuromodulator/co-transmitter in various CNS circuits, including olfactory circuits both at the level of the first synapse and at the mushroom body output level. Some of the sNPF immunoreactive axons terminate in close proximity to neurosecretory cells producing ILPs and adipokinetic hormone, indicating that sNPF also might regulate hormone production or release.

  8. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  9. Thyroid hormones and growth in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarım, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate growth by several mechanisms. In addition to their negative feedback effect on the stimulatory hormones thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones also regulate their receptors in various physiological and pathological conditions. Up-regulation and down-regulation of the thyroid receptors fine-tune the biological effects exerted by the thyroid hormones. Interestingly, the deiodinase enzyme system is another intrinsic regulator of thyroid physiology that adjusts the availability of thyroid hormones to the tissues, which is essential for normal growth and development. Almost all chronic diseases of childhood impair growth and development. Every disease may have a unique mechanism to halt linear growth, but reduced serum concentration or diminished local availability of thyroid hormones seems to be a common pathway. Therefore, the effects of systemic diseases on thyroid physiology must be taken into consideration in the evaluation of growth retardation in affected children.

  10. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  11. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  12. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  13. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  14. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  15. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  16. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Ninoslav J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the

  17. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  18. Hormone (ACTH, T3) content of immunophenotyped lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pállinger, Éva; Kiss, Gergely Attila; Csaba, György

    2016-12-01

    Cells of the immune system synthesize, store, and secrete polypeptide and amino acid type hormones, which also influence their functions, having receptors for different hormones. In the present experiment immunophenotyped immune cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus, and peritoneal fluid of mice were used for demonstrating the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone production of differentiating immune cells. Both hormones were found in each cell type, and in each maturation state, which means that all cells are participating in the hormonal function of the immune system. The lineage-independent presence of ACTH and T3 in differentiating hematopoietic cells denotes that their expression ubiquitous during lymphocyte development. Higher ACTH and T3 content of B cells shows that these cells are the most hormonally active and suggests that the hormones may have an autocrine regulatory role in B cell development. Developing T cells showed heterogeneous hormone production which was associated with their maturation state. Differences in the hormone contents of immune cells isolated from different organs indicate that their hormone production is defined by their differentiation or maturation state, however, possibly also by the local microenvironment.

  19. Dual ionic interaction system based on polyelectrolyte complex and ionic, injectable, and thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained release of human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Ran; Seo, Bo-Bae; Song, Soo-Chang

    2013-01-01

    A dual ionic interaction system composed of a positively charged polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) containing human growth hormone (hGH) and anionic thermosensitive hydrogel has been suggested for sustained delivery of bioactive hGH. The PEC was prepared by ionic interaction between negatively charged hGH and positively charged protamine sulfate (PS) to suppress diffusion of hGH. Moreover, we loaded the positively charged PEC into an anionic, injectable, and thermosensitive poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel to enhance sustained release of hGH by dual ionic interactions. PS formed a spherical complex with hGH, and their ionic interaction grew stronger with increasing amounts of PS. From a weight ratio of 0.5, the PS/hGH complex had a size and zeta-potential that were constantly maintained around 500 nm and +8 mV, respectively, in 0.9% NaCl. The PEC-loaded hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period in vitro and in vivo. In a pharmacokinetic study in rats, the PEC-loaded anionic hydrogel extended half-life 13-fold with similar area under the curve (AUC) compared to hGH solution. Furthermore, single injection of PEC-loaded anionic hydrogel showed a more increased growth rate than daily injection of hGH solution for 7 days in hypophysectomized rats, demonstrating its potential as an injectable, sustained delivery system that can release bioactive hGH.

  20. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  1. Migraine and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, Ann

    2016-02-01

    This article discusses the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches, which are very common in adolescent girls, in particular, migraine. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. This article reviews the following topics: management of menstrually related headaches, changes in ovarian hormones and their relationship to migraine, and oral contraceptives and pregnancy effects on migraine.

  2. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  3. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  4. Stress and Female Reproductive System: Disruption of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/Opiate Balance by Sympathetic Nerve Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays stress is an integral part of everyday living and the physiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to stressful situations have been extensively studied for decades. The stress response is a necessary mechanism but disrupts homeostatic process and it is sub served by a complex system located in both the central nervous system (CNS and the periphery. Stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Normal activation of the HPA axis is essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and responses to stress and they are critical for adapting to changes in the external environment. The regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classical feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The present overview focuses on the neuroendocrine infrastructure of the adaptive response to stress and its effects on the female reproductive system

  5. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk for endometrial cancer. Taking progestin with estrogen seems to protect against this cancer. So if you have a ... menopause without taking hormones. They can also help protect your bones, improve your heart health , and help you stay ...

  6. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop gonads (gonadal agenesis) Chromosomal abnormality, such as Klinefelter syndrome Testicular failure: Viral infection ( mumps ) Trauma Exposure to ... the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back ...

  7. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special test is done to confirm this diagnosis.) Hypopituitarism (low function of the pituitary gland.) Risks Veins ... Read More Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone deficiency - children Hypopituitarism Pituitary tumor Review Date 2/3/2016 Updated ...

  8. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  9. Knockdown of ecdysis-triggering hormone gene with a binary UAS/GAL4 RNA interference system leads to lethal ecdysis deficiency in silkworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjiu Dai; Li Ma; Jue Wang; Rongjing Jiang; Zhugang Wang; Jian Fei

    2008-01-01

    Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is an integration factor in the ecdysis process of most insects, including Bombyx mori (silkworm). To understand the function of the ETH gene in silkworm, we developed an effective approach to knockdown the expression of ETH in vivo based on RNA interference (RNAi) and a binary UAS/GAL4 expression system that has been successfully used in other insect species. Two kinds of transgenic silkworm were established with this method: the effector strain with the ETH RNAi sequence under the control of UAS and the activator strain with the GAL4 coding sequence under the control of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic actin3. By crossing the two strains, double-positive transgenic silkworm was obtained, and their ETH expression was found to be dramatically lower than that of each single positive transgenic parent. Severe ecdysis deficiency proved lethal to the double-positive transgenic silkworm at the stage of pharate second instar larvae, while the single positive transgenic or wild-type silkworm had normal ecdysis. This UAS/GAL4 RNAi approach provides a way to study the function of endogenous silkworm genes at different development stages.

  10. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  11. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  12. Thyroid hormone, neural tissue and mood modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Whybrow, P C

    2001-04-01

    The successful treatment of affective disorders with thyroid hormone exemplifies the suggested inter-relationship between endocrine and neuronal systems in these disorders. Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on behaviour and appear to be capable of modulating the phenotypic expression of major affective illness. Specifically, there is good evidence that triiodothyronine (T3) may accelerate the antidepressant response to tricylic antidepressants, and some studies suggest that T3 may augment the therapeutic response to antidepressants in refractory depressed patients. Open studies have also indicated that adjunctive supraphysiological doses of thyroxine (T4) can ameliorate depressive symptomatology and help stabilize the long-term course of illness in bipolar and unipolar patients, especially women refractory to standard medications. Despite acceptance of the essential role of thyroid hormone on brain maturation and differentiation, and the clinical and therapeutic observations in association with mood disorders, the molecular action that may underlie the mood-modulating properties of thyroid hormone in the adult brain has only recently become the focus of research. The identification of nuclear T3 receptors, the region-specific expression of deiodinase isoenzymes and the molecular analyses of thyroid-responsive genes in the adult brain have provided the biological bases for a better understanding of thyroid hormone action in mature neurons. Also the influence of thyroid hormones on the putative neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood and behaviour, serotonin and norepinephrine, may be helpful in explaining their mood-modulating effects.

  13. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Growth Hormone: Use Abuse What is huma n gr owth hormone? Human growth hormone (GH) is a substance that controls your body’s ... too little GH, they may have health problems. Growth hormone deficiency (too little GH) and some other health ...

  14. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  15. Bravo capsule system optimizes intragastric pH monitoring over prolonged time: Effects of ghrelin on gastric acid and hormone secretion in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tobias Rudholm; Per Mikael Hellstrom; Elvar Theodorsson; Colin Allan Campbell; Peter Geoffrey McLean; Erik Naslund

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate measurements of intragastric pH with the Bravo capsule system over a prolonged time. METHODS: A Bravo capsule was placed inside the rat gastric body and pH was studied for periods up to five consecutive days. For comparison, a gastric fistula model was used. Effects of ghrelin and esomeprazole, with or without pentagastrin, on gastric pH were studied. In addition, effects of esomeprazole on plasma ghrelin, gastrin and somatostatin were analyzed. RESULTS: All rats recovered after surgery. The average 24-h pH during free feeding was 2.3±0.1 (η = 20) with a variation of 18%±6% over 5 d. Ghrelin, 2400 pmol/kg, t.i.d, increased pH from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.1±0.3 (P<0.01) as recorded with the Bravo system. After esomeprazole (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) there was a dose-dependent pH increase of maximally 3.4±0.1, with day-to-day variation over the entire period of 8%±3%. The fistula and pH studies generated similar results. Acid inhibition with esomeprazole increased plasma ghrelin from 10±2 pmol/L to 65±26 pmol/L (P<0.001), and somatostatin from 10±2 pmol/L to 67±18 pmol/L (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: pH measurements with the Bravo capsule are reliable, and comparable to those of the gastric fistula model. The Bravo system optimizes accurate intragastric pH monitoring over prolonged periods and allows both short- and long-term evaluation of effects of drugs and hormones.

  16. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  17. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian; Cardinale, Marco; Weatherby, Robert P; Lowe, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight two emerging concepts for the elite athlete using the resistance-training model: (i) the short-term effects of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the neuromuscular system; and (ii) the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones. Exogenous evidence confirms that T and C can regulate long-term changes in muscle growth and performance, especially with resistance training. This evidence also confirms that changes in T or C concentrations can moderate or support neuromuscular performance through various short-term mechanisms (e.g. second messengers, lipid/protein pathways, neuronal activity, behaviour, cognition, motor-system function, muscle properties and energy metabolism). The possibility of dual T and C effects on the neuromuscular system offers a new paradigm for understanding resistance-training performance and adaptations. Endogenous evidence supports the short-term T and C effects on human performance. Several factors (e.g. workout design, nutrition, genetics, training status and type) can acutely modify T and/or C concentrations and thereby potentially influence resistance-training performance and the adaptive outcomes. This novel short-term pathway appears to be more prominent in athletes (vs non-athletes), possibly due to the training of the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. However, the exact contribution of these endogenous hormones to the training process is still unclear. Research also confirms a dose-response training role for basal changes in endogenous T and C, again, especially for elite athletes. Although full proof within the physiological range is lacking, this athlete model reconciles a proposed permissive role for endogenous hormones in untrained individuals. It is also clear that the steroid receptors (cell bound) mediate target tissue effects by adapting to exercise and training, but the response patterns of the membrane-bound receptors remain highly speculative. This information

  18. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  19. A silica-based pH-sensitive nanomatrix system improves the oral absorption and efficacy of incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Li, Yong; Hovgaard, Lars; Li, Song; Dai, Wenbin; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7–36) is a peptide incretin hormone released from the endocrine L-cells of the intestinal mucosa with unique antidiabetic potential. Due to low absorption efficiency and instability in the gastrointestinal tract, the introduction of orally active GLP-1 is a large challenge. Here we developed a novel silica-based pH-sensitive nanomatrix of GLP-1 (SPN-GLP-1) in order to provide a strategy for oral peptide delivery. Methods SPN-GLP-1 composed of silica nanoparticles and pH-sensitive Eudragit® was prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, high-performance liquid chromatography, surface analysis, drug release, and so on. Its permeability across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and intestinal mucosa, proteolytic stability against the intestinal enzymes, pharmacokinetics, hypoglycemic effect in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and primary toxicity were then evaluated. Results It was indicated that the nanomatrix system obtained had a unique nanoscale structure and pH-sensitivity in drug release. It displayed a five-fold intestinal mucosa permeability and significantly higher proteolytic stability compared to native GLP-1 (P < 0.001). A longer half-life was observed after oral administration of SPN-GLP-1, and its relative bioavailability was 35.67% in comparison to intraperitoneal GLP-1. Oral delivery of SPN-GLP-1 significantly reduced the blood glucose level and its hypoglycemic effect over intraperitoneal GLP-1 reached 77%. There was no evident toxicity of SPN-GLP-1 found from both animal status and histochemical analysis of gastrointestinal tissues. Conclusion The silica-based pH-sensitive nanomatrix designed and prepared here might be considered as a potential oral delivery system not only for GLP-1, but also for other peptide or macromolecular drugs. PMID:23028226

  20. Postmenopausal hormone therapy-also use of estradiol plus levonorgestrel-intrauterine system is associated with an increased risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela-Niska, Virpi; Pukkala, Eero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Dyba, Tadeusz

    2015-10-15

    Data on the possible impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on the incidence of rare primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide case-control study analyzing the association between the use of different HTs and PFTC. All women aged 50 years or older with an incident PFTC (n = 360) during 1995-2007 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. For each case of PFTC, ten age- and place of residence-matched controls were selected from the Finnish National Population Register, which also provided information on parity. Data on HT purchases were received from the Prescription Register, and data on hysterectomies and sterilizations from the National Care Register. Controls with a salpingectomy before the PFTC diagnosis of the respective case were excluded. The PFTC risk in relation to different HTs was estimated with a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for parity, age at last delivery, hysterectomy and sterilization. The use for five years or more of estradiol combined with levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine system (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.10-7.38) and sequential estradiol-progestin therapy (EPT; 3.37; 2.23-5.08) were both linked with increases in the risk of PFTC, while the risk with use of estradiol-only therapy or continuous EPT was not statistically significantly increased. The OR for the use of tibolone for one year or more was 1.56 (0.55-4.41). The use of HT is related to an increased risk of PFTC, particularly when a progestin component is intrauterine or systemic progestin is given in sequential manner.

  1. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  2. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI, CIBELE N.; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; LONGUINI, VIVIANE C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo,Sergio P. A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those ...

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates cAMP release in superfused rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, J E; Groot, K. de; Schally, A V

    1995-01-01

    The release of growth hormone (GH) and cAMP was studied in superfused rat pituitary cells by infusing growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) at different doses or a combination of GHRH and somatostatin 14 (SS-14). Three-minute pulses of GHRH caused a dose-dependent GH and cAMP release (effective concentration of 50% of the maximal biological effect is 0.21 nM and 52.5 nM, respectively). The lowest effective doses of GHRH in the superfusion system were 0.03 nM for GH release and 0.3 nM for cA...

  4. Neurotensin. Immunohistochemical localization in central and peripheral nervous system and in endocrine cells and its functional role as neurotransmitter and endocrine hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M

    1985-01-01

    The present study attempts to compile information on the possible physiologic role of the endogenous peptide neurotensin (NT) as a hormone and/or neurotransmitter. The methodological approach is immunohistochemical localization of NT in the entero-endocrine system as well as in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The results found in the three systems are first related to the pharmalogical and physiological findings in the literature. Subsequently their significance is discussed for each organ separately before attempting a final overall interpretation. Briefly, the present study reveals the following essential findings: The occurrence and distribution of NT-IR entero-endocrine cells (N-cells) in different mammals including man, as well as in representative members of all classes of vertebrates and higher invertebrates, are analyzed and evaluated morphometrically. The NT-IR cells in all investigated species are demonstrated to be of the open type. The innervation of paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia by NT-IR fibers is described; at least a portion of these fibers is thought to originate in NT-IR perikarya of the substantia intermedia of the spinal cord. The involvement of these NT-IR fibers in the regulation of systemic blood flow (hypertension) is suggested. The existence of NT-IR innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract is considered to be a general phenomenon. This notion is reaffirmed by phylogenetic investigation of the NT-IR enteric nerves. The pharmacological effects of NT in different portions of the gastro-intestinal tract, reported in the literature are related to the immunohistochemical localization of NT. In light of the present results, some of the effects of NT which were previously considered to be of an endocrine or paracrine nature - such as contraction of the guinea-pig ileum - are interpreted as effects of NT of neuronal origin. The specific NT-IR innervation of target cells in the exocrine pancreas (vascular smooth muscle, acinar

  5. Hormone replacement therapy in Denmark, 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Møller, Lisbeth Nørgaard;

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (NRM) was opened for research purposes, and therefore, on an individual basis, can merge with other national registers. The aim of this study was to analyse the use of hormones based on the individual data of the entire Danish...... female population, with the focus on a detailed evaluation of specific hormone regimens and factors associated with systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT)....

  6. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women a...

  7. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  8. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  9. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and anti-thyroglobulin antibody are independently associated with lesions in spinal cord in central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    Full Text Available Transverse myelitis (TM is associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO and multiple sclerosis (MS. Early recognition of useful parameters may be helpful to distinguish their difference. This retrospective study analyzed thyroid parameters from 243 serum samples (relapse = 128; remission = 115 of 178 patients with demyelinating diseases (NMO, n = 25; TM, n = 48; MS, n = 105. The relationship between thyroid and clinical parameters was analyzed. Patients with NMO and TM had a higher frequency of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab than MS patients (p<0.05. The level of TSH and TG-Ab returned to normal levels after administration of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (p<0.05. In 96 patients (NMO, n = 19; TM, n = 25; MS, n = 52 without treatment, serum levels of TSH, TG-Ab and TPO-Ab were significantly different between patients with and without myelitis (p<0.01. Patients positive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 antibodies showed higher abnormalities of TSH (p = 0.001, TG-Ab (p = 0.004 and TPO-Ab (p<0.0001 levels than AQP4 antibodies negative patients. Logistic regression analyses revealed independent relationships between TSH (odds ratio [OR]  = 33.994; p<0.0001, TG-Ab (OR = 7.703; p = 0.017 and myelitis occurrence in 96 patients at the active stage. In 52 MS patients experiencing their first attack, MS patients with myelitis were associated with TSH abnormalities (OR = 42.778; p<0.0001. This study showed increased abnormalities of thyroid parameters in patients with NMO and TM than in MS patients. MS patients with myelitis also had greater TSH abnormality than in MS patients without myelitis. Abnormal TSH and TG-Ab were independently associated with myelitis occurrence in central nervous system demyelinating disorders.

  10. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations.

  11. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  12. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  14. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mass and strength Mild bone loss Thinning skin Sleep problems Decreased exercise performance Decreased energy Decreased well-being, mild depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) ...

  15. A silica-based pH-sensitive nanomatrix system improves the oral absorption and efficacy of incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Qu,1,2 Yong Li,2,* Lars Hovgaard,3 Song Li,1 Wenbin Dai,1 Jiancheng Wang,1 Xuan Zhang,1 Qiang Zhang1,*1State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, PR China; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, PR China; 3Oral Formulation Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Maalov, Denmark*Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7–36 is a peptide incretin hormone released from the endocrine L-cells of the intestinal mucosa with unique antidiabetic potential. Due to low absorption efficiency and instability in the gastrointestinal tract, the introduction of orally active GLP-1 is a large challenge. Here we developed a novel silica-based pH-sensitive nanomatrix of GLP-1 (SPN-GLP-1 in order to provide a strategy for oral peptide delivery.Methods: SPN-GLP-1 composed of silica nanoparticles and pH-sensitive Eudragit® was prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, high-performance liquid chromatography, surface analysis, drug release, and so on. Its permeability across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and intestinal mucosa, proteolytic stability against the intestinal enzymes, pharmacokinetics, hypoglycemic effect in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT, and primary toxicity were then evaluated.Results: It was indicated that the nanomatrix system obtained had a unique nanoscale structure and pH-sensitivity in drug release. It displayed a five-fold intestinal mucosa permeability and significantly higher proteolytic stability compared to native GLP-1 (P < 0.001. A longer half-life was observed after oral administration of SPN-GLP-1, and its relative bioavailability was 35.67% in comparison to intraperitoneal GLP-1. Oral delivery of SPN-GLP-1 significantly reduced the blood glucose level and its

  16. Hormonal influences on osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M J; Frame, B

    1987-01-26

    Osteoporosis has recently received increased attention in both the medical and lay literature. It is estimated that there are more than one million osteoporosis-related fractures yearly in the United States, which are responsible for between three and four billion dollars in health care expenditures. A discussion of osteoporosis requires consideration of both the physiology and pathophysiology of bone tissue. In a structural sense, bone exists in two forms, the outer compact cortex accounting for 80 percent of total bone volume, and the more porous inner trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are responsible for the ongoing, life-long process of formation and resorption of bone. Sex hormone deficiency, as well as chronic illness, malnutrition, and childhood immobilization, has deleterious effects on growth and modeling, ultimately reducing peak bone mass and setting the stage for osteoporosis in later life. Estrogen is known to have a protective effect on the female skeleton. The mechanisms of this effect are unknown, although estrogen may protect against parathyroid hormone-mediated bone loss. There may be a particular subset of postmenopausal women who are particularly susceptible to estrogen deficiency. Calcitonin levels, which decrease postmenopausally, return to normal with estrogen; other hormones may also play important roles. Osteoporosis is not the result of a single hormonal deficiency or excess; it must be considered in relation to other pathogenetic and risk factors.

  17. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of

  18. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  19. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  20. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  1. Hormonal actions in the Protozoan stress: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2015-12-01

    In the higher ranked animals the alteration of the environment can provoke a uniform reaction named general adaptation system (GAS), which is a manifestation of stress, caused by different stressors. During GAS certain organs show typical reactions and two members of the hormonal system are activated: epinephine and glucocorticoids. As the unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena also synthesize most of the mammalian-like hormones (except steroids), it can respond to stress by a hormonal reaction. The main differences, related to the mammalian GAS hormonal reaction are, that 1) in Tetrahymena the level of all of the hormones studied significantly elevates under the effect of heat, osmotic or chemical stress and 2) the single stress effect is durable. It is manifested at least to the 100th generations, which means that it is inherited epigenetically. Not only hormone synthesis but the receptorial hormone binding is also elevated, which means that the whole hormonal system is activated. The stress reaction (GAS) phylogenetically can be deduced to a unicellular (Protozoan) level however, prokaryotes - which are also stress-reactive - are using another mechanisms.

  2. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  3. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  4. Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones in Energy Balance Regulatory System and Weight-losing through Exercise%胃肠激素在能量平衡调节系统及运动减肥中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋雨

    2016-01-01

    食物摄入的调节是多方面的,涵盖多种复杂机制,其中基于负反馈机制的内环境稳态调节系统是其中不可缺少的一部分。在内环境稳态调节系统中,由胃肠道分泌的外周激素发挥了重要作用,我们统称其为胃肠激素。胃肠激素是营养和能量摄入情况反馈到内分泌细胞后分泌的肽类物质,直接或通过迷走神经与脑联系。胃肠激素对于调节营养摄入和能量消耗过程的平衡、维持体重的相对稳定具有重要意义。本文概述了胃肠激素在调节食欲和摄食行为以及运动减肥中发挥的作用。%Regulation of food intake is multifaceted and covers a variety of complex mechanisms.Among them, system of homeostasis which based on negative feedback mechanisms is an indispensible part.In the regulation system of homeostasis,peripheral hormones which secreted from the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role and are called gastrointestinal hormones.Gastrointestinal hormones are peptide materials secreted from enteroendocrine cells after the feedback of nutrient and energy intake,and will communicate with the brain directly or via the vagus nerve.These hormones are crucial for balancing the process of food intake and energy expenditure and maintaining a relatively stable body weight.The paper provides an overview of the role of gastrointestinal hormone in regulating appetite,food intake and weight -losing through exercise.

  5. MicroRNA: sex steroids, hormonal carcinogenesis, hormonal sensitivity of tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, regulating normal physiological processes of most tissues and organs, are considered to be one of the key factors in the development and progression of the reproductive system cancer. Recently, the importance of the system for post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by short single-stranded RNA molecules (microRNA became evident. This system is involved in regulation of normal physiological processes and in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In review we discuss the relationship between the two regulatory systems – sex hormones and microRNAs. The relationship of these systems is considered in the context of two tumors – breast and prostate cancer. In particular, the history of research on the role of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and prostate cancer is briefly covered. Additionally, modern scientific data on the biogenesis and biological role of microRNAs are presented in more detail. In the cells of the hormone-sensitive tissues, sex hormones regulate the microRNA-mediated machinery of gene expression control by two known ways: specifically, affecting the activity of individual microRNA molecules and non-specifically by altering the efficiency of microRNA biogenesis and activity of RNA-induced silencing complex. This downstream regulatory network substantially enhances biological effects of sex hormones at physiological conditions. Malignant transformation leads to a distortion of the regulatory effects of sex hormones that crucially influence the system of microRNA-regulated post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The most established and clinically significant example of such phenomenon is the loss of sensitivity of cells to the regulatory action of these hormones. As a consequence, cancer cells acquire the ability to active proliferation without stimulation with sex hormones. This effect is partly mediated by microRNAs. Also, relevant experimental data

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  7. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  8. Biosimilar growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009.

  9. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  10. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  11. Blunted ACTH and cortisol responses to systemic injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in fibromyalgia: role of somatostatin and CRH-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Walter; Schlapp, Ulrike; Leck, Stefanie; Netter, Petra; Neeck, Gunther

    2002-06-01

    Thirteen female patients suffering from fibromyalgia (FM) and thirteen female age-matched controls were intravenously injected with a bolus dose of 100 microg corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and the evoked secretion pattern of ACTH, cortisol, somatostatin, and growth hormone (GH) was followed up for two hours, together with the plasma levels of CRH. The increases of ACTH and cortisol following CRH were not significantly different between controls and FM patients. The increase of plasma CRH following its injection was significantly higher in FM patients and lasted about 45 min, paralleled by an increase of somatostatin with a similar time course. Basal GH levels were significantly lower in FM patients. GH increased in FM patients 90 min after injection of CRH, coincident with decreasing CRH and somatostatin levels, while GH levels in controls rather decreased with the lowest values occurring 90 min after CRH. The results support the concept that the hormonal secretion pattern frequently observed in FM patients is primarily caused by CRH, possibly as a response to chronic pain and stress. The elevated levels of CRH in the circulation of FM patients suggest elevated levels of CRH-binding protein, which could explain why the levels of ACTH and cortisol between controls and FM following CRH do not differ.

  12. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  13. [Acne and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  15. The Fate and Transport of Reproductive Hormones and Their Conjugates in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive steroid hormones can disrupt the endocrine system of some species at ng/L concentrations. Sources of steroid hormones to the environment include human waste water effluents or manure produced at animal feeding operations (AFOs). Steroid hormones, such as 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estrone (...

  16. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Werner, S; Eggertsen, G

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone therapy after myocardial infarction improves cardiac function and survival in animals. Beneficial effects in humans are reported from studies where patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were treated with growth hormone. We have studied the role of the endogenous growth...... hormone system in myocardial infarction....

  17. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the population is a good system from which to determine baseline hormonal variations. Signficant differences in thyroid hormones by season and year...dolphins (Tursiops truncatus),” J. Zoo Wild. Med. 42: 565-571. Tomasi, T. E. Utilization rates of thyroid hormones in mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol

  18. [Method and evaluation of hormone assays in practical obstetrics and gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, O

    1988-08-01

    Hormone assays are very important in obstetrics and gynecology. Today, I want to talk about how to measure hormones and how to evaluate the data obtained for therapeutic purposes. In humans, there are two mechanisms of control, neural control and endocrine control. Generally speaking, the neural system controls organs directly via various neurotransmitters, while the endocrine system controls organs by hormones transported in the blood. In fact, recent progress in hormone research has shown that this concept should be modified, because some hormones act as neurotransmitters or regulate other cells or even endocrine cells themselves in the same organ. But I shall not go into this. Today's lecture is focused on hormones that are closely related to clinical obstetrics and gynecology. The hormones that are important are those in females, reproduction, and pregnancy, and tumors. First, and most important, is that patients acquire femininity in the physiological and psychological sense by hormones. The hormones closely related to this are estrogens and pituitary hormones. For reproduction, cyclic hormonal change is important. In the reproductive period, women have menstruation and ovulation along with cyclic changes of ovarian and pituitary hormones. After conception, various kinds of hormones, including hCG, HPL and estriol, are secreted from the feto-placental system. These hormones are used clinically as a markers of placental function. Hormones also have important roles in oncology. hCG is an excellent marker of trophoblastic diseases. Endometrial cancer is expected respond to large doses of progestins if they have progesterone receptors. There are three types of hormone assays, biological assays, immunological assays and chemical assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  20. Sensitive periods for hormonal programming of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Geert J; Fields, Christopher T; Peters, Nicole V; Whylings, Jack; Paul, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    During sensitive periods, information from the external and internal environment that occurs during particular phases of development is relayed to the brain to program neural development. Hormones play a central role in this process. In this review, we first discuss sexual differentiation of the brain as an example of hormonal programming. Using sexual differentiation, we define sensitive periods, review cellular and molecular processes that can explain their restricted temporal window, and discuss challenges in determining the precise timing of the temporal window. We then briefly review programming effects of other hormonal systems and discuss how programming of these systems interact with sexual differentiation.

  1. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  2. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xi; Zhang; Yan-Hong; Pan; Yan-Mei; Huang; Hai-Lu; Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and cosecreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20 G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  3. The role of thyroid hormone in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep.

  4. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  5. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  6. Growth hormone does not stimulate early healing in rat tendons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Growth Hormone stimulates bone growth and fracture repair. It acts mainly by increasing the systemic levels of IGF-1. Local treatment with IGF-1 appears to stimulate tendon healing. We therefore hypothesized that systemic treatment with Growth Hormone would also stimulate tendon healing. Rat Achilles tendons were transected and left to heal. 4 groups were studied. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (Botox) were used to reduce loading in 2 groups. The animals were randomized to twic...

  7. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  8. The menace of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormone physiology and their impact on intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastorakos, George; Karoutsou, Eftychia I; Mizamtsidi, Maria; Creatsas, George

    2007-06-01

    The delivery of the appropriate thyroid hormones quantity to target tissues in euthyroidism is the result of unopposed synthesis, transport, metabolism, and excretion of these hormones. Thyroid hormones homeostasis depends on the maintenance of the circulating 'free' thyroid hormone reserves and on the development of a dynamic balance between the 'free' hormones reserves and those of the 'bound' hormones with the transport proteins. Disturbance of this hormone system, which is in constant interaction with other hormone systems, leads to an adaptational counter-response targeting to re-establish a new homeostatic equilibrium. An excessive disturbance is likely to result, however, in hypo- or hyper- thyroid clinical states. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances forming part of 'natural' contaminating agents found in most ecosystems. There is abundant evidence that several key components of the thyroid hormones homeostasis are susceptible to the action of endocrine disruptors. These chemicals include some chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, herbicides, and pharmaceutical agents. Intrauterine exposure to endocrine disruptors that either mimic or antagonize thyroid hormones can produce permanent developmental disorders in the structure and functioning of the brain, leading to behavioral changes. Steroid receptors are important determinants of the consequences of endocrine disruptors. Their interaction with thyroid hormones complicates the effect of endocrine disruptors. The aim of this review is to present the effect of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormones physiology and their potential impact on intrauterine development.

  9. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  10. Researches on Regulation Mechanism of Connexin 43 Expression in Reproductive System by Sexual Hormones%性激素对生殖系统Cx43表达调控机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙馥箐; 段华; 汪沙

    2015-01-01

    由连接蛋白43 (connexin 43,Cx43)构成的细胞间间隙连接(gap junction,GJ)是介导细胞间直接的物质、能量交换及电、化学信号耦合的重要通路,其可保证细胞间功能活动的协调一致,在生殖系统细胞发育、分化及成熟等生理过程及功能活动中发挥非常重要的调控作用.性激素可在转录及翻译等层面调节生殖系统细胞Cx43的结构及表达,一方面通过核受体基因组机制调节Cx43基因的转录,另一方面通过非基因组快速信号传导通路机制调节Cx43的磷酸化水平,共同影响细胞间隙连接通讯(gapjunction intracellular communication,GJIC),进一步干预生殖系统细胞的病理、生理过程及功能活动.近年来,性激素在心血管系统病生理状态下对连接蛋白调节的变化及机制研究较为成熟,而在子宫、卵巢等生殖器官中,对性激素通过调节连接蛋白及间隙连接进而影响细胞间信息流通的研究较少,其作用机制并不清晰.故本文结合近年来文献,综述性激素对生殖系统细胞Cx43表达及GJIC的调控机制的研究进展,旨在为今后深入地研究提供可行的思路.%Gap junction (G J) composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) is a kind of cell-cell junction which significantly mediates the direct interchange of metabolites,energy and electrochemical signals from one cell to another.GJ ensures the coordination of intercellular activities and plays a vital role in the regulation of cell development,differentiation,maturation and functional activities in the reproductive system.Sexual hormones can influence the pathophysiological processes and functional activities of the reproductive cells by regulating gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC),which depends on the expression of Cx43.On one hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 gene transcription via the nuclear receptor mechanism,on the other hand,sexual hormones regulate Cx43 phosphorylation level through the signal

  11. Hormonal and non-hormonal bases of maternal behavior: The role of experience and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Though hormonal changes occurring throughout pregnancy and at the time of parturition have been demonstrated to prime the maternal brain and trigger the onset of mother-infant interactions, extended experience with neonates can induce similar behavioral interactions. Sensitization, a phenomenon in which rodents engage in parental responses to young following constant cohabitation with donor pups, was elegantly demonstrated by Rosenblatt (1967) to occur in females and males, independent of hormonal status. Study of the non-hormonal basis of maternal behavior has contributed significantly to our understanding of hormonal influences on the maternal brain and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate maternal behavior. Here, we highlight our current understanding regarding both hormone-induced and experience-induced maternal responsivity and the mechanisms that may serve as a common pathway through which increases in maternal behavior are achieved. In particular, we describe the epigenetic changes that contribute to chromatin remodeling and how these molecular mechanisms may influence the neural substrates of the maternal brain. We also consider how individual differences in these systems emerge during development in response to maternal care. This research has broad implications for our understanding of the parental brain and the role of experience in the induction of neurobiological and behavior changes.

  12. Growth hormone action in rat insulinoma cells expressing truncated growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Allevato, G; Dyrberg, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Transfection of the insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line RIN-5AH with a full length cDNA of the rat hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor (GH-R1-638) augments the GH-responsive insulin synthesis in these cells. Using this functional system we analyzed the effect of COOH-terminal truncation...

  13. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  14. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  17. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  18. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  19. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  20. Leptin: a multifunctional hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese (ob)gene. It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue. ob/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese, infertile, hyperphagic, hypothermic,and diabetic. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994, our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially. We now know that leptin signals through its receptor, OB-R, which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also plays important roles in angiogenesis, immune function, fertility, and bone formation. Humans with mutations in the gene encoding leptin are also morbidly obese and respond to leptin treatment,demonstrating that enhancing or inhibiting leptin's activities in vivo may have potential therapeutic benefits.

  1. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year...

  3. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  4. Hormonal regulation of total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.

  5. Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain.Keywords: growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone secretagogues, aging, sarcopenia, frailty

  6. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  7. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.

  8. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    the warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (−JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  9. N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle as a novel delivery system for parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-hao; Wu, Xiao-ting; Guo, Wei-chun; Du, Yu-min; Yu, Ling; Tang, Jin

    2010-06-30

    Chitosan (CS) and epoxy propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC) were used to prepare the water-soluble N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC). HTCC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were mixed to form HTCC nanoparticles based on ionic gelation. Parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34 (PTHrP1-34) was incorporated into the HTCC nanoparticles. The particle size and morphology of nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles were 100-180 nm in size and their encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were related to HTCC concentration, TPP concentration and initial concentration of PTHrP1-34. Relatively optimum encapsulation efficiency (78.4%) and loading capacity (13.7%) of PTHrP1-34 is achieved, and the in vitro release profile of PTHrP1-34 from nanoparticles has an initial burst, which is followed up by a slow release phase. These studies showed that HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles are suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, because of their slow-continuous-release properties, and the relevant in vivo experiments and clinical trials should be further studied.

  10. Evolution of systemic treatment for hormone-sensitive breast cancer: from sequential use of single agents to the upfront administration of drug combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Imyanitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current standards of treatment of endocrine-dependent cancers (breast cancer (BC, prostate cancer imply sequential use of endocrine therapy and cytotoxic agents: it is believed, that steroid hormone antagonists cease the division of transformed cells and therefore make them resistant to other therapeutic modalities. It is important to recognize that conceptual investigations in this field were carried out dozens of years ago, and often involved relatively non-efficient drugs, imperfect laboratory tests, etc. There are several recent examples of combined use of endocrine therapy and other compounds. The addition of docetaxel (6 cycles to androgen deprivation resulted in significant improvement of overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Clinical trial involving the combined use of exemestane and everolimus demonstrated promising results. There are ongoing studies on inhibitors of cycline-dependent kinases. Use of these drugs in the beginning of endocrine therapy may significantly delay resistance to the antagonists of estrogen signaling.

  11. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  12. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  13. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  14. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  15. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  16. Does growth hormone cause cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, P.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Shalet, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;Acromegaly;Adult;Animals;cancer epidemiology;complications;Child;Child Development;Colorectal Neoplasms;deficiency;epidemiology;etiology;Evaluation;Growth Hormone;Human Growth Hormone;Humans;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Neoplasm Recurrence,Local;Neoplasms;Neoplasms,Multiple Primary;physiology;physiopathology;Risk Factors;secretion;therapy. The ability of GH, via its mediator peptide IGF-1, to influence regulation of ce...

  17. Organizational Actions of Metabolic Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain development is a complex and dynamic process, and many environmental factors have been found to influence the normal development of neural pathways. Cumulative evidence suggests that metabolic hormones that regulate the hypothalamic circuits that control energy homeostasis function in much the same way that sex steroids act on sexually dimorphic circuits. For example, although the effects of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin were originally thought to be limited to the neural control...

  18. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  20. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  1. Effects on development, growth responses and thyroid-hormone systems in eyed-eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) continuously exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Olufsen, Marianne; Cicero, Nicola; Hansen, Marianne D

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3; and thyroxine, T4) play significant roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism, homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation, for which the effects are mediated through thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ). Similarly, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is involved in growth and development through regulation of somatic growth. This study was designed to examine the effects of the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) on responses related to growth and thyroid hormone system in eyed eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon. Salmon eggs were continuously exposed to two waterborne concentrations of PCB-77 (1 or 10 ng/L) over a period of 50 d covering hatching and through yolk-sac absorption stages. Sampling was performed regularly throughout the exposure period and at different time intervals. Gene expression patterns were performed on whole-body homogenate at age 500, 548, 632, 674, and 716 dd (dd: day degrees) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data showed that 10 ng PCB-77 increased dioiodinase 2 (Dio2) at 500 dd and both PCB-77 concentrations decreased dio2 expression at 548 dd. PCB-77 elevated cellular TT3 at 500 dd and was lowered at 548 dd only at 10 ng. Otherwise, time-related reduction was not affected by PCB-77 exposure as observed for the rest of the exposure period. For TT4, 1 ng PCB-77 produced a rise at 500 dd, and an apparent concentration decrease at 548 dd, before a total inhibition at 632 dd. The IGF-1 and IGF-1R were variably affected by PCB-77. For IGF-2, PCB-77 produced a concentration-dependent increase at 548 dd, and thereafter an elevation (1 ng) and fall (10 ng) at 632 dd. TRβ mRNA demonstrated PCB-77 related increases during the exposure period, and this effect returned to control levels at 716 dd. For TRα, a rise was noted only after exposure to 10 ng PCB-77 at 500 dd

  2. Unsulfated cholecystokinin: An overlooked hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-10

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact α-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  3. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  4. [Cutaneous effects in hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Dalle, E; Revillon, B; Delecour, M; Devarenne-nicolle, M F; Pagniez, I

    1985-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can affect the skin through their hormonal effects or through iatrogenic effects associated with their toxicity in certain individuals. They may also be beneficial in certain androgen-dependent dermatoses. Toxic effects of OCs are rare but potentially serious; they should be diagnosed early and require permanent termination of OC use. The clinical manifestations are variable and not specific to the medication. The most frequently reported manifestations are allergic vascularities which may lead to serious renal complications, fixed pigmented erythema, urticaria, which may have other etiologic factors, and lichenoid eruptions. Combined OCs, because of their estrogen content, may cause sensitivity to light in susceptible women. Other dermatoses can be initiated or aggravated by OCs without direct relation to their hormonal effects. OCs are therefore contraindicated if there is a personal or family history of porphyries or a personal history of systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema nouex, herpes gestationis, or malignant melanoma. Hormonal-related dermatological effects caused by either progestins or estrogens have become less frequent as dose levels have declined. Chloasma, either melasma or a poorly defined spotty pigmentation, accounts for 2/3 of cases of OC-related dermatoses. It is more common in women of Mediterranean background. 80% of affected OC users have a history of "mask of pregnancy", but the condition is also found in nulliparas. Exposure to sunlight is a factor. Women with a history of chloasma of pregnancy and dark coloring should not use OCs. Seborrhea is directly related to the androgen effect of OCs and is less likely to occur with 17 OH progesterone derivatives than with 19 norsteroid derivatives. The role of androgens in acne is well known, but 2 other factors are necessary: an anomaly in keratinization and proliferation of corynebacterium acnes, a saprophyte of the follicles. OCs do not necessarily need to be suspended

  5. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  6. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Wirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  7. Hormones as epigenetic signals in developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2009-06-01

    In mammals, including man, epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that a range of environmental factors acting during critical periods of early development can alter adult phenotype. Hormones have an important role in these epigenetic modifications and can signal the type, severity and duration of the environmental cue to the developing feto-placental tissues. They affect development of these tissues both directly and indirectly by changes in placental phenotype. They act to alter gene expression, hence the protein abundance in a wide range of different tissues, which has functional consequences for many physiological systems both before and after birth. By producing an epigenome specific to the prevailing condition in utero, hormones act as epigenetic signals in developmental programming, with important implications for adult health and disease. This review examines the role of hormones as epigenetic signals by considering their responses to environmental cues, their effects on phenotypical development and the molecular mechanisms by which they programme feto-placental development, with particular emphasis on the glucocorticoids.

  8. [Stimulation test of the adenohypophysis with arginine, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 45, XO patients with Turner's syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, K; Kyank, H; Göretzlehner, G; Kunkel, S

    1980-01-01

    Pituitary stimulation tests with arginine, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were performed in five 45, XO patients with Turner's syndrome. Their ages ranged from 12--17 years. Serum levels of LH, FSH, PRL, HGH, and TSH were measured by RIA. The hypothalamo-pituitary system appeared normal in the patients with Turner's syndrome.

  9. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  10. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  11. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

  12. A brief review on microfluidic platforms for hormones detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-chip technology is attracting great interest due to its potential as miniaturized devices that can automate and integrate many sample-handling steps, minimize consumption of reagent and samples, have short processing time and enable multiplexed analysis. Microfluidic devices have demonstrated their potential for a broad range of applications in life sciences, including point-of-care diagnostics and personalized medicine, based on the routine diagnosis of levels of hormones, cancer markers, and various metabolic products in blood, serum, etc. Microfluidics offers an adaptable platform that can facilitate cell culture as well as monitor their activity and control the cellular environment. Signaling molecules released from cells such as neurotransmitters and hormones are important in assessing the health of cells and the effect of drugs on their functions. In this review, we provide an insight into the state-of-art applications of microfluidics for monitoring of hormones released by cells. In our works, we have demonstrated efficient detection methods for bovine growth hormones using nano and microphotonics integrated microfluidics devices. The bovine growth hormone can be used as a growth promoter in dairy farming to enhance the milk and meat production. In the recent years, a few attempts have been reported on developing very sensitive, fast and low-cost methods of detection of bovine growth hormone using micro devices. This paper reviews the current state-of-art of detection and analysis of hormone using integrated optical micro and nanofluidics systems. In addition, the paper also focuses on various lab-on-a-chip technologies reported recently, and their benefits for screening growth hormones in milk.

  13. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  14. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-02-15

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction.

  15. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...... under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational...

  16. The effect of thyroid hormone on haemostasis and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debeij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the relation between thyroid hormones and the coagulation system will be examined. As an introduction, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the coagulation system and their interactions will be discussed. A short overview of the literature preceding the research reported in this t

  17. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed.

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  19. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  20. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  1. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  2. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The maintainance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro was studied. The primary approach was the testing of agents which may be expected to increase the release of the human growth hormone (hGH). A procedure for tissue procurement is described along with the methodologies used to dissociate human pituitary tissue (obtained either at autopsy or surgery) into single cell suspensions. The validity of the Biogel cell column perfusion system for studying the dynamics of GH release was developed and documented using a rat pituitary cell system.

  3. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased......: First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome...

  4. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  5. 利用Bac-to-Bac杆状病毒表达系统在家蚕中表达人生长素%Expression of Human Growth Hormone in Bombyx mori Using Bacto-Bac Baculovirus Expression System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付凡; 陈蔚; 唐顺明; 汪生鹏; 黄金山; 赵巧玲; 沈兴家

    2011-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) secreted by adenohypophysis plays an important role in human growth, development and metabolism, showing extensive physiological functions. Using Bac-to-Bac expression system of Bombyx mori nuclepolyhedrovirus ( BmNPV), a hgh gene was cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector pFastBacHTb which was used to transform BmDH10Bac to prepare recombinant shuttle vector Bacmid-hgh through bacterial transposition. The recombinant plasmid Bacmid-hgh was used to transfect BmN cells to obtain the recombinant baculovirus containing human growth gene hgh. The recombinant baculovirus was used to infect BmN cells and the recombinant virus was collected and used to inoculate newly exuviated Bombyx mori larvae of the 5th instar. After 3 d, the larvae showed symptom of infection by baculovirus. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting detected target protein with molecular weight of approximately 20 kD in hemolymph of the larvae, indicating that human growth hormone had been successfully expressed in Bombyx mori larvae through Bac-to-Bac system.%人生长素是由腺垂体分泌的一种在人体生长、发育及代谢中发挥重要作用的激素,具有广泛的生理作用.利用家蚕核型多角体病毒(BmNPV)Bac-to-Bac表达系统,将人生长素基因(hgh)克隆到杆状病毒转移载体pFastBacHTb,通过细菌转座子原理,转化BmDH10Bac细胞,获得重组穿梭载体质粒Baemid-hgh,并将其转染家蚕BmN细胞,获得含有hgh的重组杆状病毒.将此重组病毒感染家蚕BmN细胞,收集重组病毒液并穿刺接种家蚕5龄起蚕,3d后观察到家蚕感染了杆状病毒的症状,并通过SDS-PAGE和Western blotting方法在家蚕血液中检测到分子质量约20kD的目的蛋白,袁明人生长素通过Bac-to-Bac 系统在家蚕体内获得了表达.

  6. Hormones as "difference makers" in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A; MacDonald, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems-cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin-as "difference makers" in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  7. Cloning and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone Subunits in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Soleimanifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH was secreted by the stimulating cells of the testes and ovaries in the anterior pituitary gland. The application of this hormone is in the treatment of men and women with infertility and amenorrhea respectively.Materials and Methods: In the present study the alpha and beta subunits of human LH gene were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 expression vector and produced the recombinant LH hormone in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO eukaryotic system.Results: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were cloned between NheI and BamHI cut sites of pEGFP_N1 expression plasmid and confirmed by PCR.  Hormone expression was evaluated in CHO cell line by Western blotting using the specific antibody.Conclusion: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were expressed in CHO cell line perfectly.

  8. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions.

  9. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  10. Conserved steroid hormone homology converges on nuclear factor κB to modulate inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Asha S; Freishtat, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease comprising multiple different subtypes, rather than a single disease entity, yet it has a consistent clinical phenotype: recurring episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, and difficulty breathing (Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl. 1997;15:9-12). Despite the complex pathogenesis of asthma, steroid hormones (eg, glucocorticoids) are ubiquitous in the short-term and long-term management of all types of asthma. Overall, steroid hormones are a class of widely relevant, biologically active compounds originating from cholesterol and altered in a stepwise fashion, but maintain a basic 17-carbon, 4-ring structure. Steroids are lipophilic molecules that diffuse readily through cell membranes to directly and/or indirectly affect gene transcription. In addition, they use rapid, nongenomic actions to affect cellular products. Steroid hormones comprise several groups (including glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids) with critical divergent biological and physiological functions relevant to health and disease. However, the conserved homology of steroid hormone molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways suggests that each of these is part of a dynamic system of hormone interaction, likely involving an overlap of downstream signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we will review the similarities and differences of these 3 groups of steroid hormones (ie, glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids), identifying nuclear factor κB as a common inflammatory mediator. Despite our understanding of the impact of individual steroids (eg, glucocorticoids, sex steroids and secosteroids) on asthma, research has yet to explain the interplay of the dynamic system in which these hormones function. To do so, there needs to be a better understanding of the interplay of classic, nonclassic, and nongenomic steroid hormone functions. However, clues from the conserved homology steroid hormone structure and function and signaling pathways offer

  11. The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161110.html The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus Small, preliminary study suggests oxytocin ... tinnitus -- may find some relief by spraying the hormone oxytocin in their nose, a small initial study ...

  12. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular...

  13. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  14. The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...

  15. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  16. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thromb

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  18. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone in Osteoporosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Özkul

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation, prevents or reverses bone loss, increases bone mass, bone strength and provides protection against fractures. PTH treatment for postmenopausal, male and glucocorticoid- induced osteoporosis proved to be effective in a number of RCTs.

  1. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  2. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  3. Response of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in prepubertal and pubertal chidren, as measured by a highly sensitive immunradiometric assay

    OpenAIRE

    樋口,譲二

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the age-related changes in the pituitary responsiveness to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), the consentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured before and after LH-RH administra-tion using the highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in 283 normal children (161 males and 77 females) between 4 and 14 years old and in 22 patients (18 males and 4 females) with pituitary dwarfism. Then, the area of response ...

  4. Music increase altruism through regulating the secretion of steroid hormones and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-12-01

    Music is well known for its effect on human behavior especially of their bonding and empathy towards others. Music provokes one's emotion and activates mirror neurons and reward system. It also regulates social hormones such as steroid hormones or peptides, and increases empathy, pro-sociality and altruism. As a result, it improves one's reproductive success.

  5. Osteopontin negatively regulates parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Rittling, Susan R; Schipani, Ernestina; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Soma, Kunimichi; Denhardt, David T; Kronenberg, Henry M; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki

    2008-07-11

    Systemic hormonal control exerts its effect through the regulation of local target tissues, which in turn regulate upstream signals in a feedback loop. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) axis is a well defined hormonal signaling system that regulates calcium levels and bone metabolism. To understand the interplay between systemic and local signaling in bone, we examined the effects of deficiency of the bone matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) on the systemic effects of PTH specifically within osteoblastic cell lineages. Parathyroid hormone receptor (PPR) transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of the receptor (caPPR) specifically in cells of the osteoblast lineage have a high bone mass phenotype. In these mice, OPN deficiency further increased bone mass. This increase was associated with conversion of the major intertrabecular cell population from hematopoietic cells to stromal/osteoblastic cells and parallel elevations in histomorphometric and biochemical parameters of bone formation and resorption. Treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for osteopontin enhanced H223R mutant caPPR-induced cAMP-response element (CRE) activity levels by about 10-fold. Thus, in addition to the well known calcemic feedback system for PTH, local feedback regulation by the bone matrix protein OPN also plays a significant role in the regulation of PTH actions.

  6. Development of a Transnasal Delivery System for Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH): Effects of the Concentration and Molecular Weight of Poly-L-arginine on the Nasal Absorption of rhGH in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Ryo; Uchida, Masaki; Yamaki, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Kazuo; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel system for delivering recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) that is noninvasive and has a simple method of administration is strongly desired to improve the compliance of children. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for the intranasal (i.n.) co-administration of rhGH with poly-L-arginine (PLA) as a novel delivery system by evaluating the effects of the concentration and molecular weight of PLA on the nasal absorption of rhGH. The influence of the formation of insoluble aggregates and a soluble complex in the dosage formulation on nasal rhGH absorption was also evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration. PLA enhanced the nasal absorption of rhGH at each concentration and molecular weight examined. Nasal rhGH absorption increased dramatically when the PLA concentration was 1.0 % (w/v) due to the improved solubility of rhGH in the formulation. A delay in rhGH absorption was observed when the molecular weight of PLA was increased. This appeared to be because the increase in molecular weight caused the formation of a soluble complex. It seems that the PLA concentration affects the absorption-enhancing effect on rhGH, while the molecular weight of PLA affects the time when the maximum plasma rhGH concentration was reached (Tmax) of rhGH after i.n. administration, mainly because of the interactions among rhGH, PLA, and additives. Therefore, the transnasal rhGH delivery system using PLA is considered to be a promising alternative to subcutaneous (s.c.) injection if these interactions are sufficiently controlled.

  7. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  8. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken int

  9. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  10. Thyroid hormone action: Astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase, expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by type 2 deiodinase. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local thyroid hormone action during development.

  11. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for RORγ/γt. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, RORγ/γt shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that RORγ/γt is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by RORγ/γt and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system.

  12. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant

  13. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  14. In the nose of the beholder: are olfactory influences on human mate choice driven by variation in immune system genes or sex hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2010-11-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the most polymorphic region of the genome, coding for proteins that mediate human immune response. This polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection and certain populations show deviations from expected gene frequencies. Supporting this hypothesis, studies into olfactory preferences have suggested that females prefer the scent of males with dissimilar HLA to their own. However, it has also been proposed that androstenones play a role in female mate choice, and as these molecules inhibit the immune system, this has implications for the theory of HLA-driven mate preference. This review will critically analyze the findings of studies investigating olfactory preference in humans, and their implications for these two contrasting theories of mate choice.

  15. Low dose hormone therapy in reproductive endocrinology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秦生; 肖碧莲; 乌毓明; 李晓红

    2003-01-01

    @@ The human endocrine system normally functions in a balanced physiological state. Any excess or deficiency will cause an endocrine imbalance and result in hyper-or hypo-function, requiring readjustment by hormone suppression or supplementation in order to reestablish a normal physiological balance.

  16. Sex Steroid Hormones and Reproductive Disorders : Impact on Women's Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Moley, Kelle H.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Taylor, Robert N.; Berga, Sarah L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.; Devroey, Paul; Gianaroli, Luca; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vercellini, Paolo; Hummelshoj, Lone; Rubin, Susan; Goverde, Angelique J.; De Leo, Vincenzo; Petraglia, Felice

    2011-01-01

    The role of sex steroid hormones in reproductive function in women is well established. However, in the last two decades it has been shown that receptors for estrogens, progesterone and androgens are expressed in non reproductive tissue /organs (bone, brain, cardiovascular system) playing a role in

  17. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  18. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  19. Thyroid Hormone and the Neuroglia: Both Source and Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Mohácsik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. In order to bind to its nuclear receptor and regulate gene transcription thyroxine needs to be activated in the brain. This activation occurs via conversion of thyroxine to T3, which is catalyzed by the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2 in glial cells, in astrocytes, and tanycytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus. We discuss how thyroid hormone affects glial cell function followed by an overview on the fine-tuned regulation of T3 generation by D2 in different glial subtypes. Recent evidence on the direct paracrine impact of glial D2 on neuronal gene expression underlines the importance of glial-neuronal interaction in thyroid hormone regulation as a major regulatory pathway in the brain in health and disease.

  20. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  1. Relations between social status and the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone system in females of two cooperatively breeding species of African mole-rats, Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus and Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae: neuroanatomical and neuroendocrinological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Lydia; Bennett, Nigel C; Katz, Arieh A; Kalló, Imre; Coen, Clive W

    2006-01-10

    In common (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) and highveld (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) mole-rats, reproduction is subject to two forms of regulation in addition to incest avoidance. These are the only social bathyergids known to restrict breeding to a particular season; furthermore, subordinate members of their colonies show suppressed reproduction throughout the year. Females from both species were assessed and compared for social and seasonal effects on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system. GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) structures were visualized immunohistochemically; GnRH content was determined by radioimmunoassay. In both species, GnRH-ir cell bodies and processes are loosely distributed along the septopreopticoinfundibular continuum, with dense fiber aggregations in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence. The two species differ in the rostrocaudal distribution of their GnRH-ir cell bodies. In highveld mole-rats, most of these cells are in the septal/preoptic area; in common mole-rats, more than half of them are in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Compared with common mole-rats, highveld mole-rats have a greater total number of GnRH-ir cell bodies, higher GnRH content, and more intense GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence. Within highveld colonies, the nonreproductive females have larger GnRH-ir cell bodies, more intense GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence, and higher GnRH content than the reproductive females; these findings suggest inhibited release of GnRH in the nonreproductive, subordinate females. In contrast, in common mole-rat females, neither status nor season appears to affect the investigated parameters of the GnRH system; this suggests a predominantly behavioral basis to their suppressed reproduction.

  2. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-04-01

    Estrogen (E2 )-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2 -based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2 , T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59-64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80-83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging.

  3. Is human hepatocellular carcinoma a hormone-responsive tumor?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo Di Maio; Bruno Daniele; Sandra Pignata; Ciro Gallo; Ermelinda De Maio; Alessandro Morabito; Maria Carmela Piccirillo; Francesco Perrone

    2008-01-01

    Before the positive results recently obtained with multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, there was no standard systemic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sex hormones receptors are expressed in a significant proportion of HCC samples. Following preclinical and epidemiological studies supporting a relationship between sex hormones and HCC tumorigenesis, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) tested the efficacy of the anti-estrogen tamoxifen as systemic treatment. Largest among these trials showed no survival advantage from the administration of tamoxifen, and the recent Cochrane systematic review produced a completely negative result. This questions the relevance of estrogen receptor-mediated pathways in HCC. However, a possible explanation for these disappointing results is the lack of proper patients selection according to sex hormones receptors expression, but unfortunately the interaction between this expression and efficacy of tamoxifen has not been studied adequately. It has been also proposed that negative results might be explained if tamoxifen acts in HCC via an estrogen receptor-independent pathway, that requires higher doses than those usually administered, but an Asian RCT conducted to assess dose-response effect was completely negative. Interesting, preliminaryresults have been obtained when hormonal treatment (tamoxifen or megestrol) has been selected according to the presence of wild-type or variant estrogen receptors respectively, but no large RCTs are available to support this strategy. Negative results have been obtained also with anti-androgen therapy. In conclusion, there is no robust evidence to consider HCC a hormone-responsive tumor. Hormonal treatments should not be part of the current management of HCC.

  4. The effects of antidiuretic hormone and state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system in rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Maldonado, M M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1982-02-01

    1. The influence of ADH and the state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system was studied in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI rats). 2. Plasma renin concentration in DI rats was higher than in control Long-Evans rats. 3. Spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia normally found in DI rats did not reduce plasma renin concentration (p.r.c.), suggesting that potassium deficiency does not contribute significantly to the elevation of p.r.c. in DI rats. Similarly, a low potassium diet failed to further increase p.r.c. in DI rats. 4. In contrast, the p.r.c. of DI rats was significantly diminished by a high potassium intake both in the presence and absence of ADH. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between p.r.c. and urinary potassium excretion in both ADH-treated and untreated DI rats on low, normal and high potassium diets. 5. Plasma renin concentration was significantly lower in ADH-treated than in untreated DI rats on a high potassium intake, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of ADH and potassium are additive. 6. ADH consistently reduced p.r.c. in DI rats independent of the state of potassium balance. 7. ADH and potassium may inhibit renin secretion via different mechanisms of action.

  5. Total synthesis of the α-subunit of human glycoprotein hormones: toward fully synthetic homogeneous human follicle-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussedat, Baptiste; Fasching, Bernhard; Johnston, Eric; Sane, Neeraj; Nagorny, Pavel; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2012-02-22

    Described herein is the first total chemical synthesis of the unique α-subunit of the human glycoprotein hormone (α-hGPH). Unlike the biologically derived glycoprotein hormones, which are isolated as highly complex mixtures of glycoforms, α-hGPH obtained by chemical synthesis contains discrete homogeneous glycoforms. Two such systems have been prepared. One contains the disaccharide chitobiose at the natural N-glycosylation sites. The other contains dodecamer oligosaccharides at these same sites. The dodecamer sugar is a consensus sequence incorporating the key features associated with human glycoproteins.

  6. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  7. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bińkowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  8. Role of thyroid hormones in ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Gerdes, A Martin

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac remodeling includes alterations in molecular, cellular, and interstitial systems contributing to changes in size, shape, and function of the heart. This may be the result of injury, alterations in hemodynamic load, neurohormonal effects, electrical abnormalities, metabolic changes, etc. Thyroid hormones (THs) serve as master regulators for diverse remodeling processes of the cardiovascular system-from the prenatal period to death. THs promote a beneficial cardiomyocyte shape and improve contractility, relaxation, and survival via reversal of molecular remodeling. THs reduce fibrosis by decreasing interstitial collagen and reduce the incidence and duration of arrhythmias via remodeling ion channel expression and function. THs restore metabolic function and also improve blood flow both by direct effects on the vessel architecture and decreasing atherosclerosis. Optimal levels of THs both in the circulation and in cardiac tissues are critical for normal homeostasis. This review highlights TH-based remodeling and clinically translatable strategies for diverse cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  11. Temporomandibular disorders and hormones in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Fried, J L

    2001-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are loosely defined as an assorted set of clinical conditions, characterized by pain and dysfunction of the masticatory system. Pain in the masticatory muscles, in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and in associated hard and soft tissues, limitation in jaw function, and sounds in the TMJ are common symptoms. That women make up the majority of patients treated for TMD is extensively hypothesized and documented in numerous epidemiological studies. Certain contradictory studies exist which propose that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the actual incidence of changes in joint morphology. Nonetheless, extensive literature suggests the disorder is 1.5-2 times more prevalent in women than in men, and that 80% of patients treated for TMD are women. The severity of symptoms is also related to the age of the patients. Pain onset tends to occur after puberty, and peaks in the reproductive years, with the highest prevalence occurring in women aged 20-40, and the lowest among children, adolescents, and the elderly. The gender and age distribution of TMD suggests a possible link between its pathogenesis and the female hormonal axis. In this review, we will use the hypothesis that the overwhelming majority of patients treated for temporomandibular disorders are women and use the available literature to examine the role of hormones in TMD.

  12. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Eva K; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating TH uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT) like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  13. Hormonal regulation of apoptosis an ovarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S Y; Hsueh, A J

    1997-07-01

    Using the ovary as a model system for studying the hormonal regulation of apoptosis, recent studies have revealed that the survival of growing follicles is under the regulation of a complex array of hormones through endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, or juxtacrine mechanism in a development-dependent manner. More effort is needed, however, to identify tissue-specific factors required for the survival of ovarian somatic and germ cells at specific stage of development. New insights based on characterization of conserved apoptotic effectors, both extracellular and intracellular, have suggested that apoptosis in ovarian cells may be mediated by apoptotic programs common to other cells but using specific members of the death domain proteins as well as ced-9/Bcl-2 and ced-3/ICE caspase families of genes. Future studies may provide new therapeutic modalities for different ovarian diseases caused by aberrant regulation of apoptosis in ovarian cells, including premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovarian syndrome. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:207-213). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  14. Liuweidihuangwan combined with hormone for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus%六味地黄丸联合激素治疗系统性红斑狼疮疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵露; 杨淑珍

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨六味地黄丸联合激素治疗系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)的疗效.方法 60例患者按信封法随机分为2组,30例给予醋酸泼尼松足量(1 ms/kg)治疗(单纯激素治疗组).30例(激素联合中药治疗组)给予醋酸泼尼松足量1 mg/(kg·d)的同时,口服六味地黄丸6 g/次,2次/d.直至激素减量至每日15 mg、患者无明显肾阴虚症状时,逐渐减少六味地黄丸的剂量,改为6 g/次,每日1次13服.分别在患者入院当时及用药后2,4、8周检测血清TC、TG、HDL-C和载脂蛋白A_1、B浓度.观察患者是否出现向心性肥胖,满月脸、紫纹、水牛背等症状.结果 激素联合中药治疗组患者用药后2,4、8周血清TC、TG、载脂蛋白B浓度较前不同程度降低(F=22.88、4.84、90.66,均P<0.05),HDL-C、载脂蛋白A1较前有所升高(F=10.02、4.50,均P<0.05)).30例单纯激素治疗组患者血清TC、TG、载脂蛋白B浓度逐渐升高(F=21.14、5.01、68.73,均P<0.05),HDL-C、载脂蛋白A1较前有所下降(F=9.98、5.69,均P<0.05).激素联合中药治疗组TC、TG、载脂蛋白B、载脂蛋白A1及HDL-C均较单纯激素组改善明显(均P<0.05).单纯激素治疗组向心性肥胖、满月脸、紫纹、水牛背等症状一直持续到激素停用2个月之后.结论 六味地黄丸联合激素治疗SLE简便易行,安全有效.%Objective To study the effeet of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan combined with hormone for systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).Methods Sixty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups:30 were treated with prednisolone acetate in sufficient quantifies(1 ms/kg)treatment(hormone therapy alone group,group A)and 30 cases(Hormones and traditional Chinese medicine treatment group,Group B)were given the full amount of prednisone acetate(1 ms/ks)treatment and oral Liuweidihuangwan 6 g/times,2 times/d at the same time.The serum cholesterol,triglyceride,hish-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1,B concentration at the time of hospitalization and 2

  15. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  16. Galanin: a hypothalamic-hypophysiotropic hormone modulating reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F J; Merchenthaler, I; Ching, M; Wisniewski, M G; Negro-Vilar, A

    1991-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is widely distributed in the peripheral and the central nervous systems. In the brain, the highest GAL concentrations are observed within the hypothalamus and, particularly, in nerve terminals of the median eminence. This location, as well as GAL actions on prolactin, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion, suggest the possibility that GAL may act as a putative hypothalamic-hypophysiotropic hormone. To establish this, GAL and LHRH levels were measured in hypophyseal portal plasma samples using specific radioimmunoassays. Rat galanin (rGAL) concentrations in portal blood were approximately 7-fold higher than those observed in peripheral plasma in male and female (estrus, diestrus) rats, indicating an active secretory process of rGAL into the portal vasculature. Frequent (10 min) sampling revealed that rGAL and LHRH were secreted into the portal circulation in a pulsatile manner with a pulse frequency of one pulse per hour. Interestingly, both hormone series depicted a high degree of coincident episodes. In fact, the probability of random coincidence, calculated by the algorithm HYPERGEO, was less than 0.01. Moreover, the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold, when given systemically, was taken up by GAL neurons in the hypothalamus, including a subset of neurons expressing rGAL and LHRH, strengthening the notion of the existence of a GAL neuronal system connected to the hypophyseal portal circulation. These observations reinforce the concept that GAL regulates pituitary hormone secretion. To analyze this in further detail, the effects of rGAL on LH secretion were evaluated under basal and stimulated conditions. rGAL induced a small but dose-dependent increase in LH secretion from cultured, dispersed pituitary cells. Interestingly, rGAL enhanced the ability of LHRH to stimulate LH release. The tight link between GAL and LHRH neuronal systems is strengthened by the observation that during the estrous cycle of the rat

  17. Foetal immune programming: hormones, cytokines, microbes and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental cues play important roles in shaping the immune system. The first environment that the developing foetal immune system encounters is the uterus. Although physically the mother and the foetus are separated by the placental membranes, various factors such as hormones and cytokines may provide "environmental cues" to the foetal immune system. Additionally, increasing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal environmental factors, particularly microbial exposure, might significantly influence the foetal immune system, affecting long-term outcomes, a concept termed foetal immune programming. Here we discuss the potential mediators of foetal immune programming, focusing on the role of pregnancy-related hormones, cytokines and regulatory T cells, which play a critical role in immune tolerance.

  18. 激素敏感性脂肪酶 HSL 对生殖系统的整合调控%The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威仪; 徐国恒

    2015-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1 960s.HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine,inclu-ding adrenalin.Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides,glycerol esters and cho-lesterol esters,which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride.The scientists have gener-ated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system,which in-dicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system.Here,we will focus on the features of the HSL gene,mRNA and its protein,and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.%激素敏感性脂肪酶被认为是经典的脂肪分解限速酶,可特异水解甘油三酯,受儿茶酚胺等激素调控。近年来研究表明:HSL 作用底物不仅有甘油三酯,还包括甘油二酯、甘油一酯、胆固醇酯等。然而,脂肪酶在生殖系统的功能并不清楚,基因敲除小鼠为证实 HSL 广泛存在于生殖系统提供良好模型,提示其可能在生殖系统生理及病理生理过程发挥重要调节作用,本文将着重介绍生殖系统中 HSL 基因与蛋白质结构并总结其在生殖系统的功能。

  19. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer.

  20. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  1. Role of thyroid hormone deiodination in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechan, Ronald M; Fekete, Csaba

    2005-08-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) comprise a family of selenoproteins that are involved in the conversion of thyroxine (T(4)) to active triiodothyronine (T(3)), and also the inactivation of both thyroid hormones. The deiodinase enzymes are of critical importance for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. D1 is absent from the human brain, suggesting that D2 and D3 are the two main enzymes involved in the maintenance of thyroid hormone homeostasis in the central nervous system, D2 as the primary T(3)-producing enzyme, and D3 as the primary inactivating enzyme. While the coordinated action of D2 and D3 maintain constant T(3) levels in the cortex independently from the circulating thyroid hormone levels, the role of deiodinases in the hypothalamus may be more complex, as suggested by the regulation of D2 activity in the hypothalamus by infection, fasting and changes in photoperiod. Tanycytes, the primary source of D2 activity in the hypothalamus, integrate hormonal and probably neuronal signals, and under specific conditions, may influence neuroendocrine functions by altering local T(3) tissue concentrations. This function may be of particular importance in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during fasting and infection, and in the regulation of appetite and reproductive function. Transient expression of D3 in the preoptic region during a critical time of development suggests a special role for this deiodinase in sexual differentiation of the brain.

  2. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  3. Activation of GABA B receptors in the anterior pituitary inhibits prolactin and luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux-Lantos, V; Rey, E; Libertun, C

    1992-11-01

    Previous work from our laboratory showed that baclofen could lower serum prolactin (PRL) levels acting at the central nervous system. The present experiments were designed to evaluate whether the gamma-aminobutyric acid B agonist was also effective in inhibiting hormone release at the pituitary level. In monolayer cultures of adenohypophyseal dispersed cells, baclofen inhibited basal PRL secretion after 1 or 2 h of incubation. This inhibition was significantly abolished by three antagonists: phaclofen, 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid. Furthermore, baclofen inhibited the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced PRL release in a concentration-dependent manner. With regard to gonadotropin secretion, baclofen was unable to modify basal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, but significantly inhibited the LH-releasing hormone-induced LH release. These results show that baclofen, in addition to its central neuroendocrine effects, inhibits pituitary hormone secretion, under basal and/or stimulated conditions, by direct action at the pituitary level.

  4. In vivo effect of insulin on the hormone production of immune cells in mice - gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pállinger, Éva; Csaba, György

    2014-12-01

    The immune cells of rat and man synthesize, store and secrete hormones, characteristic to the endocrine glands. In the present experiments female and male CD1 mice were treated with 10 IU/kg insulin sc. (the controls with normal saline) and after 30 min peritoneal fluid was gained. The cells of the peritoneal fluid (lymphocytes and the monocyte-granulocyte group) were studied by immunocytochemical flow-cytometry to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), triiodothyronine (T3), histamine and serotonin content. In the female mice each hormone level was significantly lower in the insulin-treated animals, except histamine in the monocyte-granulocyte group. In the insulin-treated male animals, the hormone levels were similar to the control. The results 1) support the previously hypothesized hormonal network in the immune system, 2) justify that the insulin effect is not species dependent and 3) call attention to the sex, species and organ differences in the response.

  5. Interactions between hormonal and environmental signals on hypothalamic neurons molecular mechanisms signaling environmental events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y S; Dellovade, T L; Pfaff, D W

    1997-04-01

    It is axiomatic that the central nervous system must manage the integration of several environmental factors with steroid hormonal influences for the biologically adaptive performance of reproductive behavior. Launching from established behavioral investigations and from hormonal influences on gene function in the brain, we review here studies on how synaptic inputs and sex hormone influences codetermine hypothalamic gene expression. A particularly exciting implication of results on the ability of thyroid hormone receptors to interfere with estrogen receptor-dependent neuroendocrine function is that environmentally stimulated changes in thyroid hormone levels could influence hypothalamic transcriptional mechanisms important for behavior. If so, this would unite naturalistic environmental thinking with molecular neurobiological thinking important for the hypothalamic control of reproduction. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:111-115). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.

  7. How to explore the effects of sex hormone on blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Mei-li; Nie Min; Liu Bing; Du Zhi-jun; Ge Qin-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease increases along with aging. There are increasing interests in researches on the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)on cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women. In this article we will review how we have explored the evidence of different sex hormones on blood vessels since 1996. The results showed that low-dose HRT significantly protected cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.However, the high-dose 17β-estradiol (E2), with or without progesterone (P) or testosterone (T), or any hormone alone, as their concentrations increase, may even inhibit the protective effects of low-dose HRT on blood vessels.

  8. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  9. Psychoneuromedulator role of corticotrophin releasing hormone in PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh; Masoumeh Masoumi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common complex condition in women associated with reproductive and metabolic systems and also psychological disorders. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in PCO and metabolic syndromes. Noradrenalin (NA), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are the strong stimulants for two axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) ...

  10. [Impact of microsporidia on hormonal balance in insect hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issi, I V; Tokarev, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    Microsporidia (M) is a phylum of protists parasitizing obligatory in animal cells. Long way of adaptation of M to intracellular parasitism resulted in establishment of quite close relationships between the parasite and its host. Different species of M induce in their hosts symptoms similar to those caused by misbalance of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. M infection leads to pathology of different hormone-dependent functions such as cell differentiation and specialization, molting, metamorphosis, diapause and reproduction of insects. The signs of hormonal dysfunction evidence for elevated titer of JH in M-infected insects. Two possible explanation of this could be offered: JH secretion by M or specific influence of the parasites on the insect endocrine systems. Impact on insect endogenous JH titer by M could be mediated by affection of secretory activity of corpora allata or by suppression of enzymatic degradation of JH. According to different hypotheses, insect hormonal status during microsporidiosis could be modified by a) insect host stress-reaction, b) exhaustion of insect host reserves, characteristic for acute phase of the disease, c) destruction of infected insect cells and tissues during mass sporogenesis of M. Data found in literature and provided by our experiments evidence for presence of JH analogues or juvenilizing substance in the extracts of M spores. From detailed examination of pathological process it is also seen that juvenilizing effect of M infection is usually restricted to the invaded regions of tissues (i.e. expressed locally) but not a systemic one. Ability of M to modify morpho-functional features of infected tissues at the level of hormonal regulation is undoubtfully a prominent adaptation for stabilizing "microsporidia-insect" parasite-host systems.

  11. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  12. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  13. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  14. Growth hormone deficiency in treated acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Marzullo, Paolo; Doga, Mauro; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Giustina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of the adult is characterized by reduced quality of life (QoL) and physical fitness, skeletal fragility, and increased weight and cardiovascular risk. Hypopituitarism may develop in patients after definitive treatment of acromegaly, but an exact prevalence of GHD in this population is still uncertain owing to limited awareness and the scarce and conflicting data available on this topic. Because acromegaly and GHD may yield adverse consequences on similar target systems, the final outcomes of some complications of acromegaly may be further affected by the occurrence of GHD. However, it is still largely unknown whether patients with post-acromegaly GHD may benefit from GH replacement. We review the diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of GHD in adult patients treated for acromegaly.

  15. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  16. A comparison of methods for analyzing time series of pulsatile hormone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N E; Horton, K W; Grunwald, G K

    2013-11-20

    Many endocrine systems are regulated by pulsatile hormones - hormones that are secreted intermittently in boluses rather than continuously over time. To study pulsatile secretion, blood is drawn every few minutes for an extended period. The result is a time series of hormone concentrations for each individual. The goal is to estimate pulsatile hormone secretion features such as frequency, location, duration, and amount of pulsatile and non-pulsatile secretion and compare these features between groups. Various statistical approaches to analyzing these data have been proposed, but validation has generally focused on one hormone. Thus, we lack a broad understanding of each method's performance. By using simulated data with features seen in reproductive and stress hormones, we investigated the performance of three recently developed statistical approaches for analyzing pulsatile hormone data and compared them to a frequently used deconvolution approach. We found that methods incorporating a changing baseline modeled both constant and changing baseline shapes well; however, the added model flexibility resulted in a slight increase in bias in other model parameters. When pulses were well defined and baseline constant, Bayesian approaches performed similar to the existing deconvolution method. The increase in computation time of Bayesian approaches offered improved estimation and more accurate quantification of estimation variation in situations where pulse locations were not clearly identifiable. Within the class of deconvolution models for fitting pulsatile hormone data, the Bayesian approach with a changing baseline offered adequate results over the widest range of data.

  17. Development of gonadotropes may involve cyclic transdifferentiation of growth hormone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G V

    2002-04-01

    The cyclic rise in expression of anterior pituitary gonadotropins coincides with the appearance of cells sharing gonadotropic and somatotropic phenotypes. To learn more about possible factors that regulate the origin of this cell type, we studied the time of appearance of cells that co-expressed growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropins and estrogen receptors during the estrous cycle and compared this timing with known changes in regulatory hormones or their receptors. The first event in this cell population is an increase in expression of estrogen receptor (ER)beta by GH cells from estrus to metestrus suggesting that estrogen may mediate this early change. Expression of GH mRNA rises rapidly from metestrus to mid-cycle. The rise is seen first in GH cells and then in cells with luteinizing hormone (LH) antigens. These data suggest that, early in the cycle, cells bearing GH and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors begin to produce LH and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. Early in proestrus, there is an increase in cells with GH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) suggesting that this set of multipotential cells develops later than GH-LH cells. This fits with earlier studies showing the later rise in expression of FSH mRNA. Collectively these data suggest that the anterior pituitary contains a subset of GH cells that have the capacity to respond to multiple releasing hormones and support more than one system.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  19. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  20. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K

    2011-01-01

    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  1. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD res...

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  3. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. We found less than 2-fold difference in these transcripts in tumor versus normal Schwann cells (in those that changed...neurofibromin-negative) to steroid hormones, focusing on estrogen and progesterone. The hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and MPNST , malignant...to determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NF1 neurofibroma, and NF1 MPNST Schwann cells, pre- and post-hormone treatment by

  4. Plant Hormones: Metabolism, Signaling and Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jia Qu; Yunde Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Plants synthesize various hormones in response to environmental cues and developmental signals to ensure their proper growth and development.Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which plant hormones control growth and development contributes to our understanding of fundamental plant biology and provides tools to improve crops.Because of their critical roles in plant growth and development, plant hormones have been studied extensively since the early days of plant biology.

  5. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...

  6. Intravaginal hormonal contraception for women of reproductive age with excessive body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Gridina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of disadvantages inherent in all oral hormonal contraceptives: need for daily administration, fluctuations of hormone levels throughout the day, metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, the effect of the first passage through the liver. All this became a prerequisite to the creation of prolonged oral hormonal methods of contraception, which would be devoid of these shortcomings. One of such method of hormonal contraception is intravaginal hormonal system. The aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of its use in women of reproductive age with overweight. 43 women were included. State of lipid metabolism, changes of the hemostatic system, blood pressure and weight fluctuations in the past 6 months of using intravaginal hormonal contraceptive system were studied. Results. It is established that hormonal intravaginal contraceptive ring gives minimal metabolic effects. Conclusion. This suggests that this ring can be used successfully in patients with excessive body mass, because there is no effect of the ring on hemostasis, lipid metabolism and body weight.

  7. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  8. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  9. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...

  10. Thyroid hormone function in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eGao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors. These testicular cells also express deiodinases which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific thyroid hormone receptors to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., PTU (propylthiouracil have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function and blood-testis barrier (BTB assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein.

  11. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Amir Ashkan Mahjoor; Siyamak Fallahi; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Maryam Abedini; Mohammad Ali Poor Danesh; Zahra Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor ...

  12. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  13. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  14. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  15. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments.

  16. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the ‘critical window hypothesis’, which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as cerebrovascular disease or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. PMID:25935728

  17. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  18. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; E. Fliers

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysacchar

  19. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor antagonist may reduce postmenopausal flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, P. van; Zanden, M. van der; Telting, D.; Filius, M.; Bancsi, L.; Boer, H. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hormone therapy (HT) is the most effective treatment of postmenopausal (PMP) flushing; however, its use is often contraindicated. As an alternative option, we explored the efficacy of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor antagonist cetrorelix in women with severe PMP

  20. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  1. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  2. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  3. Nanostructured sensors containing immobilized nuclear receptors for thyroid hormone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendo, Luana; Casanova, Monise; Figueira, Ana Carolina M; Polikarpov, Igor; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptors (NRs) superfamily, being encoded by two genes: TRa and TRbeta. In this paper, the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the TRbeta1 isoform was immobilized on the surface of nanostructured electrodes for TR detection. The platforms containing TRbeta1-LBD were applied to the detection of specific ligand agonists, including the natural hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine), and the synthetic agonists TRIAC (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid) and GC-1 [3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylbenzyl phenoxy) acetic acid]. Detection was performed via impedance spectroscopy. The biosensors were capable of distinguishing between the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and/or the analogues TRIAC and GC-1 at concentrations as low as 50 nM. The detection and separation of thyroid hormones and analogue ligands by impedance techniques represents an innovative tool in the field of nanomedicine because it allows the design of inexpensive devices for the rapid and real-time detection of distinct ligand/receptor systems.

  4. Metabolic function of the CTRP family of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Marcus M; Tan, Stefanie Y; Wong, G William

    2014-06-01

    Maintaining proper energy balance in mammals entails intimate crosstalk between various tissues and organs. These inter-organ communications are mediated, to a great extent, by secreted hormones that circulate in blood. Regulation of the complex metabolic networks by secreted hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, FGF21) constitutes an important mechanism governing the integrated control of whole-body metabolism. Disruption of hormone-mediated metabolic circuits frequently results in dysregulated energy metabolism and pathology. As part of an effort to identify novel metabolic hormones, we recently characterized a highly conserved family of 15 secreted proteins, the C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRP1-15). While related to adiponectin in sequence and structural organization, each CTRP has its own unique tissue expression profile and non-redundant function in regulating sugar and/or fat metabolism. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the physiological functions of CTRPs, emphasizing their metabolic roles. Future studies using gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models will provide greater mechanistic insights into the critical role CTRPs play in regulating systemic energy homeostasis.

  5. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  6. Heat stress and its influence on hormonal physiology of small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycon Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the years with changes in both production and marketing aspects of the operation of goats and sheep has been highlighted and is widespread throughout the world. The sheep and goat production systems are affected by several restrictive elements that can compromise their development, among which stands out the adverse weather conditions that contribute to the reduction of the herd productivity. In conditions of thermal stress, the animals begin a series of mechanisms regulated by hormones and coordinated by the nervous system and the endocrine system. In this context, the objective was to make a literature review on hormone physiology in control of heat stress in sheep and goats. Hormonal changes detected in animals under heat stress affects both their productive performance as the reproductive, predisposing the onset of diseases, stunted growth or reproductive harm. Changes in behavior are the first visible signs triggered by hormonal changes due to thermal stress.

  7. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  8. Characterization of growth hormone and prolactin produced by human pituitary in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyler, J S; Rogol, A D; Lovenberg, W; Knazek, R A

    1977-02-01

    Fragments of a pituitary tumor from a patient with acromegaly were grown in tissue culture. The tumor secreted both growth hormone and prolactin,which were recovered in high concentrations. The nonpurified hormones were characterized and compared to their respective counterparts obtained by extraction from normal pituitaries obtained at autopsy. The tissue culture and pituitary extracted hormones were eluted from Sephadex G-100 with the same partition coefficients. Growth hormone from both sources showed parallel dose-response displacement curves, by logit-log transformation, in both specific immunoassay and in a specific lymphocyte binding assay. Prolactin from both sources was compared in specific immunoassay using three different antisera. Parallel logit-log displacement curves were seen with one antiserum, while the other two antisera yielded non-parallel curves, indicating structural differences between prolactin from the two sources. Quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed using multiphasic buffer systems previously developed for characterization of each hormone. By the criteria of joint 95% confidence envelopes of retardation co-efficient and relative free mobility, tissue culture growth hormone and prolactin were indistinguishable from their pituitary-extracted counterparts. This study demonstrates that, prior to purification, tissue culture derived hormone can be characterized by multiple criteria and compared to a standard preparation. Structural differences can be detected, as in the case of prolactin. When the hormones are indistinguishable, as in the case of growth hormone, it becomes worthwhile to increase the scale of tissue cultured production, with the prospect that tissue culture may serve as a source of hormone for both experimental and therapeutic use.

  9. Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis, Thyroid Axis, Prolactin, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Davis, Hope C; Lane, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses what is known about the endocrine system components growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, thyroid axis, and prolactin relative to exercise and exercise training. Each one of these hormone axes contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis in the body through impact on a multitude of physiological systems. The homeostatic disruption of exercise causes differing responses in each hormone axis. GH levels increase with sufficient stimulation, and IGFs are released in response to GH from the anterior pituitary providing multiple roles including anabolic properties. Changes in the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 vary greatly with exercise, from increases/decreases to no change in levels across different exercise types, intensities and durations. These ambiguous findings could be due to numerous confounding factors (e.g. nutrition status) within the research. Prolactin increases proportionally to the intensity of the exercise. The magnitude may be augmented with extended durations; conflicting findings have been reported with resistance training. While the responses to exercise vary, it appears there may be overall adaptive and regenerative impacts on the body into recovery by these hormones through immune and tissue inflammatory responses/mediations. Nonetheless, well-designed exercise research studies are still needed on each of these hormones, especially thyroid hormones and prolactin.

  10. Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. Methods We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels. Results Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age. Conclusions These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences.

  11. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioral changes as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger1,2. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odors. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odors. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormone, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odors without affecting a fear behavior. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising olfactory cortex, plays a key role in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  12. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents.

  13. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  14. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  15. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  16. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K;

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  17. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  18. Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone upt

  19. Hormones and absence epilepsy in genetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are known to have a tremendous impact on seizures and might play a prominent role in epileptogenesis. However, little is known about the role of steroid hormones in absence epilepsy. Here we review recently combined electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioural studies in a

  20. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  1. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  2. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therap...

  3. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...

  4. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  5. Effect of Ubiquinol on Serum Reproductive Hormones of Amenorrhic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A S; Littaru, G P; Funahashi, I; Painkara, U S; Dange, N S; Chauhan, P

    2016-07-01

    In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Anovulation is directly linked to the neurohormonal and hormonal background of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Impairment of pulsatile Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone secretion causes the impairment of pulsatile Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion. The importance of oxidative stress in various pituitary disorders suggesting a possible clinical usefulness of antioxidant molecules like the lipophilic antioxidant Ubiquinol. Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinol is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system of mitochondria. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant, protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes from autooxidation. Due to these unique actions Ubiquinol is used in clinical practice as an antioxidants for neurodegenerative diseases. So to identify the role of Ubiquinol on reproductive hormones FSH and LH, we have included 50 infertile patients of age group of 20-40, which are mostly amenorrhic. Out of 50 only 30 patients were in continuous follow up after supplementing them with 150 mg of Ubiquinol every day for 4 months. The hormonal levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique at follicular phase. The result suggests that FSH concentration is increased up to three times (from 3.10 ± 2.70 to 10.09 ± 6.93) but remains within the normal limit (P  0.05). The supplementation of 150 mg of Ubiquinol may reduce the oxidative stress in neuroendocrine system which

  6. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  7. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated with pituitary human growth hormone (hGH)? From 1963 to 1985, the National Hormone ...

  8. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  9. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  10. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  11. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    , including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers...

  12. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin....... Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke...... suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular...

  13. Hormonal contraception for human males: prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.R.K.Reddy

    2000-01-01

    Development of an ideal hormonal contraceptive for man has been the goal of several research workers during the past few decades. Suppression of pituitary gonadotropic hormones, which in turn would inhibit spermatogenesis while maintaining normal libido and potentia has been the approach for a contraceptive agent. Intramuscularly administered and orally active testosterone or testosterone in combination with progesterone have been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia in normal men. Similarly testosterone has been used in combination with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists and agonists to inhibit pituitary gonadotropic hormone release. Immunological approach to neutralize the circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone has also been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis. The available literature shows that testosterone causes reversible azoospermia without any significant side effects in Asian population effectively and appears to be a promising chemical for control of fertility in man.( Asian J Androl 2000 ; 2 : 46 - 50 )

  14. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    1997-03-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  15. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  16. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  17. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed.

  18. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  19. Hormone level and dopamine tells the value of food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo-ren WANG

    2012-01-01

    Ideal food should be delicious and nutritious.But sometimes,the food you eat is delicious but not nutritious,or nutritious but not delicious.To let animals know which to be delicious or nutritious is an important or valuable question.In a recent article published in Nature Neuroscience[1],Friedman JM et al addressed this question and showed that the level of hormone leptin and dopamine system co-regulated the reward value of food in mice.

  20. Sozzy: a hormone-driven autonomous vacuum cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaki

    1994-02-01

    Domestic robots are promising examples of the application of robotics to personal life. There have been many approaches in this field, but no successful results exist. The problem is that domestic environments are more difficult for robots than other environments, such as factory floors or office floors. Consequently, conventional approaches using a model of human intelligence to design robots have not been successful. In this paper, we report on a prototyped domestic vacuum-cleaning robot that is designed to be able to handle complex environments. The control software is composed of two layers, both of which are generally inspired by behaviors of living creatures. The first layer corresponds to a dynamically reconfigurable system of behaviors implemented in the subsumption architecture. The ability of the robot to support alternate configurations of its behaviors provides the robot with increased robustness. We have conveniently labeled particular configurations as specific `emotions' according to the interpretation of observers of the robot's behavior. The second layer simulates the hormone system. The hormone system is modeled using state variables, increased or decreased by stimuli from the environment. The hormone condition selects the robot's most suitable emotion, according to the changing environments. The robot hardware is built of off-the-shelf parts, such as an embedded CPU, inexpensive home-appliance sensors, and small motors. These parts keep the total building cost to a minimum. The robot also has a vacuum cleaning function to demonstrate its capability to perform useful tasks. We tested the robot in our laboratory, and successfully videotaped its robust behaviors. We also confirmed the hormone system to enhance the robot's plasticity and lifelike quality.

  1. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Kucuk, Nurten; Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase i...

  2. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  3. Leptin hormone in obese and non-obese stable and exacerbated cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Elsayed Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin hormone level (ng/ml was significantly higher in obese COPD cases than in controls and non-obese cases and during exacerbation than in stability which indicates that leptin plays a role in the systemic inflammatory process. Serum leptin hormone level positively correlated with BMI (kg/m2.

  4. Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status : a large prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Dossus, Laure; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fournier, Agnes; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sund, Malin; Lenner, Per; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement

  5. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  6. Pituitary hormone circadian rhythm alterations in cirrhosis patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze pituitary hormone and melatonin cir- cadian rhythms, and to correlate hormonal alterations with clinical performance, hepatic disease severity and diagnostic tests used for the detection of hepatic en- cephalopathy in cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients hospitalized for systemic diseases not affecting the liver were included as controls. Liver disease severity was assessed by the Child-Pugh score. All patients underwent detailed neurological assessment, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assays of pi- tuitary hormone, cortisol and melatonin, and complete blood chemistry evaluation. RESULTS: Pituitary hormone and melatonin circadian patterns were altered in cirrhosis patients without clinical encephalopathy. Circadian hormone alterations were different in cirrhosis patients compared with con- trois. Although cortisol secretion was not altered in any patient with cirrhosis, the basal cortisol levels were low and correlated with EEG and brain MRI abnormalities. Melatonin was the only hormone associated with the severity of liver insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Abnormal pituitary hormone and mel- atonin circadian patterns are present in cirrhosis before the development of hepatic encephalopathy. These abnormalities may be early indicators of impending hepatic encephalopathy. Factors affecting the human biologic clock at the early stages of liver insufficiency require further study.

  7. Psychological functioning after growth hormone therapy in adult growth hormone deficient patients: endocrine and body composition correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Lašaitė, Lina; Bunevičius, Robertas; Lašienė, Danutė Teresė; Lašas, Liudvikas

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone replacement in adult growth hormone deficient patients improves psychological well-being and the quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between changes in mood, cognitive functioning, quality of life, changes in body composition and hormone concentration at baseline and six months after treatment with human recombinant growth hormone. Eighteen adult patients with growth hormone deficiency syndrome were recruited to the study. Growth hormone was a...

  8. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth C Hersch; Merriam, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH) is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disea...

  9. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  10. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos; João Victor eCabral-Costa; Caio Henrique Mazucanti; Cristoforo eScavone; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role...

  11. Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PV mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominantnegative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). ThrbPV/PV mice exh...

  12. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckles, Sue P; Miller, Virginia M

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women.

  13. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  14. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed.

  16. Epiphyseal growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling is decreased in chronic kidney disease-related growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Landau, Daniel; Kachko, Leonid; Rabkin, Ralph; Segev, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Linear growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been ascribed to insensitivity to growth hormone. This resistance state has been attributed to impaired growth hormone signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in liver and skeletal muscle leading to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Here we determine whether systemic and growth plate alterations in growth hormone signaling contribute to CKD-induced linear growth retardation using partially nephrectomized and pair-fed control 20-day-old rats. Serum growth hormone did not change in rats with CKD, yet serum IGF-I levels were decreased and growth retarded. The tibial growth plate hypertrophic zone was wider and vascularization at the primary ossification center was reduced in CKD. This was associated with a decrease in growth plate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and immunostainable VEGF and IGF-I levels. Growth plate growth hormone receptor and STAT5 protein levels were unchanged, while JAK2 was reduced. Despite comparable growth hormone and growth hormone receptor levels in CKD and control rats, relative STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CKD. Of note, the mRNA of SOCS2, an inhibitor of growth hormone signaling, was increased. Thus, linear growth impairment in CKD can in part be explained by impaired long bone growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, an abnormality that may be caused by an increase in SOCS2 expression.

  17. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  18. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  19. Hot stuff: thyroid hormones and AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Grahame Hardie

    2010-01-01

    @@ Every high school biology student is taught that thyroid hormones increase the metabolic rate. This conclusion mainly arose from the effects of hyperthyroidism, the clinical condition characterized by excessive production of the hormones. Symptoms include weight loss despite increased appetite, tremors,cardiac palpitations, irritability, intolerance to heat and increased perspiration.Although understanding of how thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate at the molecular level has been elusive,a recent paper by Antonio Vidal-Puig and colleagues in Nature Medicine [ 1 ]provides important new insights.

  20. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Sze; René L. Bernays; Cornelia Zwimpfer; Peter Wiesli; Michael Brändle; Christoph Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphe...

  1. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Lisa; René L. Bernays; Zwimpfer, Cornelia; Wiesli, Peter; Brändle, Michael; Schmid, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transs...

  2. Pituitary and placental hormone levels in pseudocyesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A; Adejuwon, C A; Otolorin, E O

    1981-10-01

    Twelve patients with clinical features of pseudocyesis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of galactorrhea. The mean serum prolactin level of patients with galactorrhea was significantly higher than the normal values of the patients without galactorrhea. The mean serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were markedly elevated in patients without galactorrhea. This was especially true of luteinizing hormone. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin were undetectable in all patients. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  3. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: unusual oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Siqueira, Carlos Rodrigo Barros; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Children with significant growth retardation and normal levels of growth hormone are diagnosed with growth hormone insensitivity. The main oral findings observed in patients with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) are underdeveloped jaws, crowded teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. This manuscript describes a 9-year-old child diagnosed with GHIS, who had delayed eruption of permanent teeth and 14 unerupted supernumerary teeth. All supernumerary teeth were extracted except for two maxillary and one mandibular teeth which were difficult to identify and access. Multiple supernumerary teeth have never been reported before in patients with GHIS.

  4. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  5. THE ROLE OF HORMONES ON Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De La Luz Galván-Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world’s population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: a congenital transmission, b parasite reproduction, c strain virulence, d levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection and e participation of hormone receptors in Toxoplasma gondii infection.Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection?A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley and Google Scholar dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: 30 studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin and 17-ß estradiol. Type I (RH and BK and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49,T45, P78 and T38 were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate Toxoplasma gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the Toxoplasma gondii infectious process.

  6. The use of electronic sensor in hormone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, N E; Abu Bakar, M A; Majlis, B Y

    1999-07-01

    The development of antibody-based biosensor has grown steadily during recent years, and their use as a routine instrument in clinical application is not far from reality. This study has demonstrated the capability of conductometric sensor to quantitate human Follicle Stimulating Hormone (hFSH) from urine samples. The principles are adopted from Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Self fabricated gold coated electrode was dipped in the microtiter well containing antibody-antigen complex. Substrate was added to the system to initiate a secondary reaction, which produced electroactive species and change the conductivity of the solution. The changes were proportional with the concentration of the hormone present. The results obtained correlate well with the conventional ELISA technique. Inter and intra assay variation (%CV) were under 6% and the lowest detection limit is 0.75 mIU/ml which was well under the physiological range of the hormone. This system offered advantages such as simplicity, reliability, minimal addition of reagents, freedom from turbidity and color problem, probability of miniaturizing the electrode thus minimizing the sample volume and the ability of on line data analysis. This study proved that Antigen-Antibody reaction via EIA could be detected electronically and it has a potential to be used as one of the measuring mode in clinical analysis.

  7. [Changes of plasma endocrine hormone in pilots under Coriolis acceleration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y; Ji, G; Huang, Y; Sun, X; Dai, F

    1998-04-01

    Plasma endocrine hormones were studied in both 24 motion sickness (orthostatic intolerance) and healthy pilots. Coriolis acceleration of 3.75, 5.00 and 6.25 pi 2 cm/s2 were given with intervals of 3-4 min AT-II, insulin, cortisol, Aldosterone and gastrin were determined by radioimmunoassay. It was found that aldosterone, AT-II, gastrin increased with increase of coriolis acceleration in all pilots. (P < 0.05), but cortisol and insulin only increased in healthy pilots (P < 0.05). It suggests excitation of the autonomic nervous system might be insufficient in orthostatic intolerant pilots and that determination of endocrine hormones may be useful in the evaluation of autonomic nervous activities.

  8. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...

  9. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  10. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  11. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  12. Leptin:a multifunctional hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGLU; CAILI

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese(ob) gene.It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue.ob/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese,infertile,hyperphagic,hypothermic,and diabetic.Since the cloning of leptin in 1994,our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially.We now know that leptin signals through its receptor,OB-R,which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily.Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure.Leptin also plays important roles in angiogenesis,immune function,fertility,and bone formation.Humans with mutations in the gene encoding leptin are also morbidly obese and respond to leptin treatment,demonstrating that enhancing or inhibiting leptin's activities in vivo may have potential therapeutic benefits.

  13. Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, S.; Bax, C M R; Chatzaki, E; Chard, Tim; Iles, Ray K.

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used to treat recurrent endometrial cancer. However, the mode of action is uncertain. Our previous studies showed no direct effect of GnRHa on endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro. We have now examined the effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on endometrial cancer cell growth. The aim was to determine whether suppression of pituitary LH and FSH by GnRHa could explain the tumour regression seen ...

  14. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic m......-transgenic mice, 16 to 24 months of age, develop pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas. These findings provide conclusive evidence that protracted stimulation of secretory activity can cause proliferation, hyperplasia and adenoma of adenohypophysial cells....

  15. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnezi R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racheli Magnezi,1 Asaf Hemi,1 Rina Hemi2 1Department of Management, Public Health and Health Systems Management Program, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 2Endocrine Service Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Background: Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources.Methods: A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures.Results: A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN. For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1.Conclusion: This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed. Keywords: failure mode

  16. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-27

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets.

  17. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders.

  18. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  19. Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of glioma among younger women a nationwide case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Oral contraceptive use influences the risk for certain cancers; however, few studies have examined any link with risk of central nervous system tumors. We investigated the association between hormonal contraceptive use and glioma risk among premenopausal women in a population-based setting...... risk set sampling. Based on prescription data, exposure until 2 years prior to the index date was categorized according to hormonal contraceptive type, i.e., combined estrogen-progestagen or progestagen-only, and duration of use (... to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma associated with hormonal contraceptive use, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 317 cases and 2,126 controls. Ever use of hormonal contraceptive was associated with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI: 1...

  20. Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Ceovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman’s lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.

  1. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2009-11-01

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  2. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  3. Optimized FPGA Implementation of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism Using CAD Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Jaafar M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to implement the secretion mechanism of the Thyroid Hormone (TH) based on bio-mathematical differential eqs. (DE) on an FPGA chip. Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) is used to develop a behavioral model of the mechanism derived from the DE. The Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism is simulated with the interaction of the related stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Synthesis of the simulation is done with the aid of CAD tools and downloaded on a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) Chip. The chip output shows identical behavior to that of the designed algorithm through simulation. It is concluded that the chip mimics the Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism. The chip, operating in real-time, is computer-independent stand-alone system.

  4. Hormonal therapy for acne: why not as first line therapy? facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsambas, Andreas D; Dessinioti, Clio

    2010-01-01

    Standard systemic therapeutic agents used in acne include oral antimicrobials, isotretinoin, and hormonal agents. Appropriate patient selection is the key to decide when to use hormonal agents as first-line therapy as well as to achieve optimal results. Indications of hormonal therapy in acne in girls and women include proven ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, recalcitrant acne, acne not responding to repeated courses of oral isotretinoin, acne tarda, polycystic ovary syndrome, or the presence of clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as androgenic alopecia or the presence of the seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia syndrome. We describe the hormonal agents currently available for acne treatment, discuss their indications and contraindications, and address the question of whether they may be used as a first-line therapy in acne.

  5. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...

  6. Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2014-12-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment.

  7. [Hormonal stimulation of reproductive function in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladkova, A I

    1993-01-01

    Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.

  8. Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Streuli, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of long-term medical management of endometriosis.

  9. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  10. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses curr

  11. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram (

  12. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli eStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  13. Optimization of production of recombinant human growth hormone in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human growth hormone (hGH is a single-chain polypeptide that participates in a wide range of biological functions such as metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids as well as in growth, development and immunity. Growth hormone deficiency in human occurs both in children and adults. The routine treatment for this condition is administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH made by prokaryotes. Since nonglycosylated human growth hormone is a biologically active protein, prokaryotic expression systems are preferred for its production. Materials and Methods: Different strains of E.coli were transformed by plasmid containing human growth hormone gene and cultured in different conditions. After induction by IPTG, recombinant human growth hormone production was assessed using ELISA, dot blotting and western blotting techniques. Results: High levels of rhGH were produced using E.coli prokaryotic protein production system. Conclusion: This simple and cost effective production process could be recruited for large scale production of rhGH.

  14. GROWTH HORMONE LEVEL EVOLUTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEPATOBILIARY DISEASES, UNDERGOING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available End stage liver disease is often associated with growth retardation in children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. The aim was to investigate the serum growth hormone level before and after liver transplantation in 52 children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. Data of our research work revealed increased serum level of growth hormone in children with liver cirrhosis (3,32 ± 7,7 ng/ml vs. 1,16 ± 1,46 ng/ml in healthy children, p = 0,01, which correlates with PELD score (r = 0,62, p < 0,001. In a month after liver transplantation growth hormone concentration decreases (p < 0,001 and in a year after transplantation it doesn’t differ from healthy children. There wasn’t revealed any interaction between serum growth hormone level and anthropometric parameters before liver transplantation, but in a year after there was significant correlation between growth hormone concentration and height (r = 0,79, p = 0,01. Investigation of growth hormone level in children with liver cirrhosis and its evolution after liver transplantation is of interest as objective criterion of recovery of physical development regulation and as an additional parameter, which cor- relates with severity of end-stage liver disease. 

  15. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  16. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  17. Expression of Thyroid Hormone Transporters in the Human Hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alkemade; E.C.H. Friesema; A. Kalsbeek; D.F. Swaab; T.J. Visser; E. Fliers

    2011-01-01

    Context: Transport of thyroid hormone across the plasma membrane is required for proper thyroid hormone action and metabolism. Several specific thyroid hormone transporters have been identified capable of facilitating uptake and/or efflux of thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-8, MCT

  18. Familial growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, H F; Barr, D G; Kelnar, C J

    1991-01-01

    A mother with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and her short son showed poor spontaneous growth hormone secretion, and provocation tests suggested a deficiency of growth hormone releasing factor. This is the first report of growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. The boy has responded well to growth hormone treatment over a period of three years.

  19. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippone EJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Filippone,1 Shirley J Dopson,2 Denise M Rivers,3 Rebeca D Monk,4 Suneel M Udani,5 Golriz Jafari,6 Solomon C Huang,6 Arafat Melhem,7 Bassim Assioun,7 Paul G Schmitz7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, 2Division of Medicine, Washington Health System, Southwestern Nephrology, Inc, Washington, PA, 3Department of Medicine, University Nephrology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 5Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 6Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Olive View–University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USABackground: Adrenocorticotropic hormone is being increasingly studied for treatment of various glomerulopathies, most notably membranous nephropathy. Less data are available regarding its use in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS secondary to minimal change disease (MCD or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. We report here our experience with H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with INS.Methods: Data were taken from three patients with MCD and ten patients with FSGS from around the US, who were treated with Acthar Gel as initial or subsequent therapy. Treatment was solely at the discretion of the primary nephrologist without a specific protocol. A complete response (CR was defined as final urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <500 mg/g and a partial response (PR as 50% decrease without rise of serum creatinine. Side effects and tolerability were noted.Results: All three patients with MCD received Acthar Gel as second-line or later immunosuppressive (IS therapy and all responded (one CR and two PRs. Two of

  20. Update on the male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Melanie; Anderson, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    There remains a need for new acceptable and effective male contraceptives to increase the choice for couples throughout the world. There have been no recent advances in available male contraceptive methods although a number of promising approaches have been identified, of which the hormonal approach is currently undergoing clinical investigation. In recent years the pace of research in this area has quickened significantly with increasing interest and now investment by the pharmaceutical industry. This is vital if the work undertaken so far by the public sector is to be transformed into a commercial reality. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of pituitary gonadotropin secretion resulting in a reversible reduction in spermatogenesis with azoospermia in all men being the ultimate aim. Without stimulation by luteinising hormone from the pituitary, testicular testosterone production also ceases. Therefore, androgen administration to restore physiological levels is an essential component of all male hormonal contraceptive regimes. Male hormonal contraceptives can consist of testosterone alone, or either a progestogen or gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with 'add-back' testosterone. This article reviews the current state of progress in this field.