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Sample records for adipokinetic hormone system

  1. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.

    2016-01-01

    the neuropeptide systems used by proto- or deuterostomes. An exception, however, are members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor superfamily, which occur in both evolutionary lineages, where GnRHs are the ligands in Deuterostomia and GnRH-like peptides, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin...

  2. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina

    2010-01-01

    receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes...

  3. Adipokinetic hormone-induced antioxidant response in Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Josef; Krishnan, N.; Mithöfer, A.; Vogel, H.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 2 (2012), s. 389-395 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant response * antioxidant enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2012

  4. Adipokinetic hormone functions that are not associated with insect flight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2008), s. 171-180 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788; GA ČR GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * anabolic processes * diel changes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2008

  5. The effect of insecticide treatment on adipokinetic hormone titre in insect body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 1077-1082 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007202; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/0016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insecticide * adipokinetic hormone * stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2005

  6. A quantitative study of adipokinetic hormone of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldsworthy, G. J.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Comley, R.; Lightfoot, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 1103-1109 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Adipokinetic hormone * ELISA * Pyrrhocoris apterus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2002

  7. Lipid mobilization and locomotor stimulation in Gryllus bimaculatus by topically applied adipokinetic hormone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, M. W.; Zemek, Rostislav; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2004), s. 146-151 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Adipokinetic hormone * cricket * Grybi-AKH Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  8. The adipokinetic hormones of Heteroptera: a comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Socha, Radomír; Štys, P.; Gäde, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2010), s. 117-127 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) FA20070213000002; National Research Foundation(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic peptide * Heteroptera * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2010

  9. Functional characterization of the adipokinetic hormone in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jedlička, Pavel; Steinbauerová, V.; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2012), s. 51-58 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/09/P382 Grant - others:European Union FP7(CZ) MOBITAG, GA 229518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Acyrthosiphon pisum * neuropeptide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1095643312000256

  10. The effect of adipokinetic hormone on midgut characteristics in Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Tomčala, Aleš; Socha, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2012), s. 194-204 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215; GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Grant - others: project MOBITAG(CZ) GA 229518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * AKH * digestion Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012

  11. The effect of adipokinetic hormones on the activity of digestive enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodláková, Karolína; Beňová, Michaela; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 140-148 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03253S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * AKH * amylase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2016 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/phen.12238

  12. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) of sphingid Lepidoptera, including the identification of a second M. sexta AKH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weaver, R. J.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Audsley, N.; Clark, K. D.; Gäde, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2012), s. 44-50 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/2401 Grant - others:NRF - Royal Society UK(GB) NRF GUN 63515; National Research Foundation(ZA) FA2007021300002; National Research Foundation(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insect * Sphingidae * adipokinetic hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.522, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978112000307

  13. Adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of Pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, J.; Krishnan, Natraj; Alquicer, Glenda; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 146, - (2007), s. 336-342 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant activity * oxidative stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.345, year: 2007

  14. Stimulatory effects of bioamines norepinephrine and dopamine on locomotion of Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.): Is the adipokinetic hormone involved?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zemek, Rostislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 3 (2008), s. 305-310 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * biogenic amine * CNS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2008

  15. Adipokinetic hormone (Pyrap-AKH) enhances the effect of a pyrethroid insecticide against the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bártů, Iva; Socha, Radomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2010), s. 425-431 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insecticide * adipokinetic hormone * stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2010

  16. Preparation of a specifically tritiated locust adipokinetic hormone analog with full biological potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, K; Ramachandran, J; Moshitzky, P; Applebaum, S W [Hormone Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA and Department of Entomology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic peptide related to locus adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and shrimp red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) containing a tyrosine residue in place of phenylalanine was iodinated and the 3,5-diiodotyrosyl derivative was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. Catalytic dehalogenation of the diiodo derivative in the presence of tritium yielded the tritiated AKH analog which was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase HPLC. The tritiated peptide was formed to be identical to AKH in its ability to stimulate lipid release into the hemolymph of locusts in vivo where the diiodotryrosyl derivative was inactive. The specific radioactivity of the tritiated peptide was 57.2 Ci/mmol, or 99% of the theoretical value.

  17. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Cockroaches have long been used as insect models to investigate the actions of biologically active neuropeptides. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) G protein-coupled receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta...... americana. This receptor is only activated by various insect AKHs (we tested eight) and not by a library of 29 other insect or invertebrate neuropeptides and nine biogenic amines. Periplaneta has two intrinsic AKHs, Pea-AKH-1, and Pea-AKH-2. The Periplaneta AKH receptor is activated by low concentrations...... of both Pea-AKH-1 (EC50, 5 x 10(-9)M), and Pea-AKH-2 (EC50, 2 x 10(-9)M). Insects can be subdivided into two evolutionary lineages, holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis during development) and hemimetabola (incomplete metamorphosis). This paper describes the first AKH receptor from...

  18. Knockdown of adipokinetic hormone synthesis increases susceptibility to oxidative stress in Drosophila – A role for dFoxO?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 171, May 01 (2015), s. 8-14 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14047 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 140/2014/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Drosophila * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1532045615000265

  19. Adipokinetic hormone counteracts oxidative stress elicited in insects by hydrogen peroxide: in vivo and in vitro study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, N.; Cheng, I. C.; Večeřa, Josef; Lee, H.-J.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2013), s. 54-62 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:NSF, EPSCOR(US) MSU 012156-014; National Science Council of Taiwan(TW) NSC 95-2313-B-002-084 MY3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * catalase * ELISA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.434, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/phen.12008/pdf

  20. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive. Conversely, the Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant was more sensitive to PQ toxicity than either of the single mutants. Administration of PQ significantly increased the Drome-AKH level in w(1118) and AdoR(1) larvae; however, this was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in Akh gene expression. In contrast, PQ significantly increased the expression of the glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1) gene. The presence of both a functional adenosine receptor and AKH seem to be important for the proper control of GstD1 gene expression under oxidative stress, however, the latter appears to play more dominant role. On the other hand, differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among the strains, and between untreated and PQ-treated groups were minimal. In addition, the glutathione level was significantly lower in all untreated AKH- or AdoR-deficient mutant flies as compared with the untreated control w(1118) flies and further declined following treatment with PQ. All oxidative stress characteristics modified by mutations in Akh gene were restored or even improved by 'rescue' mutation in flies which ectopically express Akh. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the important roles of AKH and adenosine in the anti-stress response elicited by PQ in a D. melanogaster model, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of adenosine in the anti-oxidative stress response in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adipokinetic hormone exerts its anti-oxidative effects using a conserved signal-transduction mechanism involving both PKC and cAMP by mobilizing extra- and intracellular Ca2+ stores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 3 (2013), s. 142-149 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:Mississippi State Univeristy(US) 062/2011/P; NSF, EPSCOR(US) MSU No. 269110-151250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * calcium channel * cell signaling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.829, year: 2013

  2. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  3. Predicted versus expressed adipokinetic hormones, and other small peptides from the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum: A case study with beetles and moths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Audsley, N.; Clark, K. D.; Weaver, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2008), s. 1124-1139 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) 2053806; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insects * neuropeptides * adipokinetic peptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  4. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and ultrastructural localization of adipokinetic hormones in the CNS of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Stašková, Tereza; Jedličková, V.; Weyda, F.; Závodská, Radka; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 210, Jan 1 (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 0016-6480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * pre-pro-hormone * insect brain Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016648014004158

  5. Identification, characterisation, and function of adipokinetic hormones and receptor in the African malaria mosquito, "Anopheles Gambiae" (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Betschart, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    En utilisant la bioinformatique et la biologie moléculaire, nous avons pu identifier chez le principal vecteur africain de la malaria, le moustique, Anopheles gambiae deux hormones adipokinétiques (AKHs): l'octapeptide, Anoga-AKH-I (pQLTFTPAWa) et le décapeptide, Anoga-AKH-II, (pQVTFSRDWNAa). La fonction principale des AKHs est d’induire une hyperlipémie (effet d’adipokinétique), ainsi qu’une hypertrehalosémie et une hyperprolinémie. En tant que membres de la famille des AKH, les deux neurope...

  6. Oxidative stress elicited by insecticides: A role for the adipokinetic hormnone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velki, M.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Večeřa, Josef; Hackenberger, B. K.; Socha, Radomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-84 ISSN 0016-6480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insect * adipokinetic hormone * oxidative stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.267, year: 2011

  7. Primary structure of an adipokinetic neuropeptide from the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L (Coleoptera: Dynastidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Kumar, A P; Gokuldas, M

    2011-07-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in cellular communication in vertebrates. This is also true for insects in which many physiological, developmental and behavioral processes are affected by neuropeptides produced in neurosecretory cells of the retrocerebral complex. Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH) are one of the important groups of peptides that regulate physiological homeostasis. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the primary structure of adipokinetic neuropeptides in the rhinoceros beetle, O. rhinoceros. In the present investigation, an adipokinetic neuropeptide from the coconut pest, Oryctes rhinoceros was isolated from corpora cardiaca by HPLC; the chromatographic fractions were tested for adipokinetic activity in the plant bug, Iphita limbata in vivo. Two UV absorbance peaks were found to be significantly active in elevating haemolymph lipid levels. MALDI-MS analysis of the extract indicated that the molecular mass, 1003.70 Da is similar to the already known AKH from another beetle, Melolontha melolontha. MALDI-MS/MS analysis confirmed that its primary structure is exactly similar to the structure reported for the Melme-AKH (pE-L-N-Y-S-P-D-W-NH2). The findings suggest that the distribution of AKH peptides has shown that there exists a taxonomic order or family specificity. This data can be used as additional information to aid in the construction of phylogenetic trees by means of computer programme and protein parsimony algorithms.

  8. Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5, (2007), s. 974-980 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0151; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * oxidative stress * GMO Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  9. Locust adipokinetic hormone mobilizes diacylglycerols selectively

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomčala, Aleš; Bártů, Iva; Šimek, Petr; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 1 (2010), s. 26-32 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788; GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:University of South Bohemia(CZ) 58/2006/P-BF; University of South Bohemia(CZ) 56/2006/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : AKH * lipid * diacylglycerol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2010

  10. Intracisternal granules in the adipokinetic cells of locusts are not degraded and apparently function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J

    2000-01-01

    The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

  11. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  12. Adipokinetic hormone activities in insect body infected by entomopathogenic nematode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrahim, Emad; Hejníková, Markéta; Shaik, Haq Abdul; Doležel, David; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, April 01 (2017), s. 347-355 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03253S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mortality * Akh gene expression * AKH receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191017300082

  13. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staubli, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori. These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinology, because it will lead to the cloning of all AKH receptors from all model insects used in AKH research, and...

  14. Adipokinetic hormones provide inference for the phylogeny of Odonata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Fescemyer, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 174-178 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Grant - others:University of Cape Town for a Block grant(ZA) IFR 2008071500048; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA 2007021300002; USDA, ARS Specific Cooperative Agreement(US) 58-6402-5-066; US National Science Foundation(US) EF-0412651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : phylogeny of Odonata * Libellulidae * Corduliidae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2011

  15. A novel adipokinetic peptide from the corpus cardiacum of the primitive caeliferan pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Caelifera, Tetrigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2015-06-01

    The basal caeliferan family Tetrigidae is investigated to identify neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family. The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata contains in its corpus cardiacum two octapeptides as revealed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The less abundant peptide is the well-known Schgr-AKH-II (pELNFSTGW amide) which is suggested to be the ancestral AKH of Caelifera and Ensifera. The second peptide, Tetsu-AKH (pEFNFTPGW amide), is novel and quite unusual with its third aromatic residue at position 2. It is thought to be autapomorphic for Caelifera. Tetsu-AKH has hyperlipemic activity in T. subulata and in Schistocerca gregaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  17. Growth Hormone (GH) and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Oscar; Devesa, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues. We include some preliminary data from a trial in which GH or placebo is given to elderly people suffering from critical limb ischemia, showing some of the benefits of the hormone on plasma markers of inflammation, and the safety of GH administration during short periods of time, even in diabetic patients. We also analyze how Klotho is strongly related to GH, inducing, after being released from the damaged vascular endothelium, the pituitary secretion of GH, most likely to repair the injury in the ischemic tissues. We also show how GH can help during wound healing by increasing the blood flow and some neurotrophic and growth factors. In summary, we postulate that short-term GH administration could be useful to treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29346331

  18. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: Oxidative stress and metabolic aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, B. K.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 170, APR 07 (2015), s. 19-27 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * insecticide * RNA interference Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S153204561500006X

  19. Histological organization of the central nervous system and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Jirawat; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Chavadej, Jittipan; Hanna, Peter J; Parhar, Ishwar; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed histological description of the central nervous system (CNS: brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia) of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Because the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in crustaceans has been disputed, we examine the presence and localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the blue crab by using antibodies against lamprey GnRH (lGnRH)-III, octopus GnRH (octGnRH) and tunicate GnRH (tGnRH)-I. These antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with red-pigment-concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone, or corazonin. In the brain, strong lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in small (7-17 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 8, 9 and 10, in medium-sized (21-36 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 6, 7 and 11 and in the anterior and posterior median protocerebral neuropils, olfactory neuropil, median and lateral antenna I neuropils, tegumentary neuropil and antenna II neuropil. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized neurons and in the subesophageal neuropil. In the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized and small neurons and in the neuropils. OctGnRH-ir was observed in neurons of the same clusters with moderate staining, particularly in the deutocerebrum, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was only detected in medium-sized neurons of cluster 11 in the brain. Thus, anti-lGnRH-III shows greater immunoreactivity in the crab CNS than anti-octGnRH and anti-tGnRH-I. Moreover, our functional bioassay demonstrates that only lGnRH-III has significant stimulatory effects on ovarian growth and maturation. We therefore conclude that, although the true identity of the crab GnRH eludes us, crabs possess a putative GnRH hormone similar to lGnRH-III. The identification and characterization of this molecule is part of our ongoing research.

  20. Secretory granule formation and membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria in relation to flight and rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, J H; Vullings, H G

    1995-03-01

    The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods. The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules. The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells. Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network.

  1. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  2. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  3. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  4. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    91-92, AUG 01 (2016), s. 39-47 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : stress * AKH * adenosine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191016301937

  5. Beneficial effect of adipokinetic hormone on neuromuscular paralysis in insect body elicited by braconid wasp venom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 196, JUN 01 (2017), s. 11-18 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03253S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * Akh gene expression * Habrobracon hebetor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1532045617300510

  6. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2016), s. 2785-2798 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insects * beetles * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.173, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-016-2314-0

  7. Targated mutagenesis and functional analysis of adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajwan, Suresh; Sidorov, Roman; Stašková, Tereza; Žaloudíková, Anna; Takasu, Y.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Žurovec, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, JUN 01 (2015), s. 79-86 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S; GA ČR GA14-27816S; GA ČR GAP305/10/2406 EU Projects: European Commission(CZ) FP7/2007-2013 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : neuropeptide * carbohydrate metabolism * drome-Akh Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174815000181

  8. Novel adipokinetic hormones in the kissing bugs Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma infestans, Dipetalogaster maxima and Panstrongylus megistrus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Gäde, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, MAR 10 (2013), s. 21-30 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) IFR 2008071500048; National Research Foundation(ZA) FA 2007021300002 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insects * kissing bugs * reduviidae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.614, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978112004433

  9. Adipokinetic hormones control amylase activity in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) gut

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodláková, K.; Jedlička, Pavel; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 259-269 ISSN 1672-9609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * AKH receptor * amylase * enzyme * gene expression * midgut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology; Biochemistry and molecular biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2016

  10. Crustacean red pigment-concentrating hormone Panbo-RPCH affects lipid mobilization and walking activity in a flightless bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera) similarly to its own AKH-peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zemek, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2007), s. 685-691 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Panbo-RPCH * Peram-CAH-II Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2007

  11. Modulation of hepatic reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis by pancreatic hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, R P; McClellan, C C

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin on reticuloendothelial system (RES) phagocytosis both in vivo and in the isolated perfused livers of rats. Chronic pancreatic hormonal treatment consisted of twice daily injections SC of NPH insulin with doses ranging from 0.75 U on day 1 to 9.0 U on day 13 and unchanged doses of glucagon (200 micrograms) and somatostatin (50 micrograms). Chronic treatment with insulin significantly depressed by 48% intravascular phagocytosis of colloidal carbon administered IV at a dose of 8 mg/100 g, while glucagon and somatostatin stimulated macrophage endocytic function by 32% and 26%, respectively, compared to the control value. Acute treatment with the three pancreatic hormones at 30 min prior to carbon administration similarly produced insulin depression as well as glucagon and somatostatin stimulation of RES phagocytosis. Addition of the three hormones at near physiologic concentrations (20 ng/ml for insulin, 10 ng/ml for glucagon, and 5 ng/ml for somatostatin) to the recirculating perfusate of isolated perfused rat livers simultaneous with 24 mg of colloidal carbon likewise resulted in phagocytic reduction after insulin and enhancement after glucagon and somatostatin. Experiments involving insulin in vitro with isolated perfused livers as well as glucose replacement therapy concomitant with insulin in vivo demonstrated that hypoglycemia is not necessary for phagocytic depression by insulin while severe hypoglycemia in the perfusion medium is sufficient to depress carbon uptake by isolated perfused livers independent of insulin. Both pancreatic hormones and the level of glycemia seem to be important in modulating hepatic reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis.

  12. Hormonal regulation of response to oxidative stress in insects - an update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 10 (2015), s. 25788-25816 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones (AKH) * AKH gene * anti-oxidative mechanisms Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/10/25788

  13. The neuropeptides and protein hormones of the agricultural pest fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis: What do we learn from the genome sequencing and tissue-specific transcriptomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are very important signaling molecules, and are involved in the regulation and coordination of various physiological processes in invertebrates and vertebrates. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome and six tissue-specific transcriptome databases (central nervous system, fat body, ovary, testes, male accessory glands, antennae) of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit. Thirty-nine candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or protein hormones. These include most of the known insect neuropeptides and protein hormones, with the exception of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-related peptide, allatropin, diuretic hormone 34, diuretic hormone 45, IMFamide, inotocin, and sex peptide. Our results showed the neuropeptides and protein hormones of Diptera insects appear to have a reduced repertoire compared to some other insects. Moreover, there are also differences between B. dorsalis and the super-model of Drosophila melanogaster. Interesting features of the oriental fruit fly are the absence of genes coding for sex peptide and the presence of neuroparsin and two genes coding neuropeptide F. The majority of the identified neuropeptides and protein hormones is present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of these in the other tissues. Moreover, we predicted their physiological functions via comparing with data of FlyBase and FlyAtlas. Taken together, owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference about structure, tissue distribution and physiological functions for comparative studies in other model and important pest insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid hormones and the central nervous system of mammals (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liegro, Italia

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3) have a profound influence on the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, both before and after birth. Any impairment in the supply of THs to the developing nervous system leads to severe and irreversible changes in both the overall architecture and functions of the brain and causes, in humans, neurological and motor deficits known as cretinism. Pronounced neurological symptoms are also commonly observed in adult patients suffering from both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and it has recently emerged that certain symptoms might result from the reduced brain uptake, rather than the insufficient production, of THs. Most of the effects of THs are mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors (α and β isoforms), which belong to the c-erbA superfamily of transcriptional regulators and are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Interestingly, the nuclear TH receptors (nTRs) act as both ligand-independent gene repressors and ligand-dependent gene activators. On the other hand, negatively-regulated genes, which can be stimulated in the absence of THs and repressed by THs, have also been observed. Due to this complex pattern of regulation, the effects of receptor dysfunction do not exactly overlap the effects of hormone deficiency or excess. Moreover, non-genomic mechanisms of TH action have been described in many tissues, including the brain, some of which seem to be mediated by integrins and to be calcium-dependent. Intracellular receptors, distinct from nTRs, are present in the mitochondria, where a matrix-associated, T3-dependent transcriptional regulator of approximately 43 kDa has been described. Finally, complex patterns of pituitary and/or peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by elevated plasma levels of THs and non-suppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), have been identified. This review summarizes the major advances

  15. Contraceptive efficacy of the personal hormone monitoring system Persona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a commentary on the contraceptive effectiveness of the personal hormone-monitoring system Persona; it points out the various errors committed in computing method pregnancy rates. The modifications presented by Bonnar et al. on the incorrect procedure for computing method pregnancy rates are criticized as erroneous because the denominator includes cycles in which there is no risk of a method pregnancy according to the authors' algorithm for classifying pregnancy in an imperfect-use cycle. It is also claimed that the new exercise is a more complicated and less accurate way of computing for pregnancy rates by comparison with the simpler alternative. Since this new algorithm, used in the Persona system, is based on flawed logic, the annual risk of pregnancy is actually higher than the estimated 6% among women using Persona and having intercourse in each cycle except on red days.

  16. Hormones in the immune system and their possible role. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2014-09-01

    Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  17. Thyroid hormone actions on male reproductive system of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo-Neto, Aldo; da Silva Rodrigues, Maira; Habibi, Hamid R; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique

    2018-04-17

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In general a positive correlation has been shown between THs and fish reproductive status; where THs are associated with testicular development, growth and maturation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THs in spermatogenesis have been unraveled in zebrafish testis. THs promote germ cell proliferation and differentiation by increasing a stimulatory growth factor of spermatogenesis produced by Sertoli cells. In addition, THs enhanced the gonadotropin-induced androgen release in zebrafish testis. Next to their functions in the adult testis, THs are involved in the gonadal sex differentiation through modulating sex-related gene expression, and testicular development via regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation. In conclusion, this mini-review showed that THs modulate the male reproductive system during the different life stages of fish. The physiological and molecular mechanisms showed a link between the thyroid and reproduction, suggesting a possibly co-evolution and interdependence of these two systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become

  19. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  20. The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia C. M. Simmen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin αVβ3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin αVβ3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals.

  1. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and acroosteolysis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Furst, Daniel E; Markovits, Doron; Rozin, Alexander; Clements, Philip J; Nahir, Abraham Menahem; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2008-11-01

    .Sclerodactyly with acroosteolysis (AO) and calcinosis are prominent features of systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the pathogenesis of these findings is poorly understood. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) have a crucial role in bone metabolism and resorption and may affect AO and calcinosis. We assessed vitamin D and PTH in patients with SSc. Medical records of 134 consecutive patients with SSc (American College of Rheumatology criteria) followed at the rheumatology department during the years 2003-2006 were reviewed for clinical assessment, laboratory evaluation [including 25(OH) vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, PTH, creatinine, and albumin]; imaging data confirming AO and/or calcinosis. Patients followed routinely at least once a year were included (81 patients). Of these, 60 patients' medical records were found to have complete, relevant clinical, laboratory, and radiographic imaging. Thirteen patients had diffuse disease and 47 limited disease - 51 women and 9 men, 44 Jews and 16 Arabs; mean age 55 +/- 14 years; disease duration 8 +/- 6 years. AO with or without calcinosis was observed in 42 patients (70%). Vitamin D deficiency was found in 46% of patients (16 out of 44 Jewish patients, 10 out of 16 Arab patients). PTH was elevated in 21.7% of patients. Significant correlations were observed between acroosteolysis and PTH (p = 0.015), calcinosis (p = 0.009), and disease duration (p = 0.008), and between PTH and vitamin D levels (p = 0.01). All patients had normal serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and albumin, and liver and kidney functions. In this group of Mediterranean patients with SSc, the incidence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism was surprisingly high. This finding correlated with the occurrence of AO and calcinosis. Low levels of vitamin D may reflect silent malabsorption and might be a risk factor for secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone resorption. Traditional dress habits and low

  2. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): Sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 7 (2007), s. 1359-1367 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:Natioanl Research Foundation(ZA) 2053396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Water bugs Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  3. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  4. Hormones and hibernation: possible links between hormone systems, winter energy balance and white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R; Wilcox, Alana

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Hibernation allows mammals to survive in cold climates and during times of reduced food availability. Drastic physiological changes are required to maintain the energy savings that characterize hibernation. These changes presumably enable adjustments in endocrine activity that control metabolism and body temperature, and ultimately influence expression of torpor and periodic arousals. Despite challenges that exist when examining hormonal pathways in small-bodied hibernators, bats represent a potential model taxon for comparative neuroendocrinological studies of hibernation due to their diversity of species and the reliance of many species on heterothermy. Understanding physiological mechanisms underlying hibernation in bats is also important from a conservation physiology perspective due to white-nose syndrome, an emerging infectious disease causing catastrophic mortality among hibernating bats in eastern North America. Here we review the potential influence of three key hormonal mechanisms--leptin, melatonin and glucocorticoids--on hibernation in mammals with an emphasis on bats. We propose testable hypotheses about potential effects of WNS on these systems and their evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The newly discovered insect order mantophasmatodea contains a novel member of the adipokinetic hormone family of peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Marais, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 2 (2005), s. 598-603 ISSN 0006-291X Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) 2053806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insects * mantophasmatodea * AKH/RPCH Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  6. [The adaptation reactions in hormonal systems to the internal use of mineral waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D

    1991-01-01

    A single intake of mineral water Essentuki 17 by male Wistar rats (n-130, b. w. 180-250 g) leads to stress reactions. It is evident from elevated levels of ACTH, hydrocortisone, leuenkephaline, glucagon and gastrin. Course intake of the water brings about a rise in most of the hormones levels studied. However, single doses of Essentuki 17 inhibit production of hormones in the adrenals, hypophysis, hypothalamus, the system of endogenic opiates. The enhancement of relevant levels are noted in the gastroenteropancreatic system.

  7. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  8. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith

    2016-03-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes recent data on the role of ovarian hormones and sex in inflammation-related hypertension. What advances does it highlight? The adaptive immune system has recently been implicated in the development of hypertension in males but not in females. The role of the immune system in the development of hypertension in women and its relationship to ovarian hormone production are highlighted. The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  9. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  10. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  11. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  12. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  13. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  14. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Gram, J

    2003-01-01

    be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n...... = 248) were randomized to HRT (n = 122) or no substitution (n = 126) 5 years prior to investigation. RESULTS: Significantly higher values of t-PA activity and lower values of PAI-1 activity and PAI-1 antigen were found in the HRT group compared with the control group. This effect was independent...... of smoking and without influence from the two common polymorphisms PAI-1 -675(4G/5G) and t-PA intron8ins311. Furthermore, no difference between opposed estrogen (with norethisterone acetate as the gestagen component) and unopposed estrogen therapy was found. Both an intention-to-treat and a per...

  15. Cytokinins, A classical multifaceted hormone in plant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mazid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, owing to the versatile functionality and physiological importance of the phytohormone cytokinin (Ck is a major focus of attention in contemporary wide areas of plant science. Cytokinins (Cks have implicated in diverse essential processes of plant growth and development as well as in regulation of key genes responsible for the metabolism and activities of plants. Cytokinin interact in a complex manner to control a myriad of aspects related to growth, development and differentiation and its deficiency also causes pleiotropic developmental changes such as reduced shoot and increased root growth. Cytokinin signaling involves His Kinase receptors that perceive cytokinin and transmit the signal via a multi-step phosphorelay similar to bacterial two-component signaling system. Also, this review present a scheme for homeostatic regulation of endogenous cytokinins level in terms of the described mechanism of cytokinin action including its receptors and steps involved in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and its role in whole plant as well as cell division. In addition, we also demonstrate a wide variety of biological effects including those on gene expression, inhibition of auxin action, stimulation of cell cycle etc.

  16. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, A; Brown, J M; Williams, J S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of a clinically relevant interplay between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory systems. Classically, the former is considered a key regulator of sodium and volume homeostasis, while the latter is most often associated with skeletal health. However, emerging evidence suggests an overlap in regulatory control. Hyperaldosteronism and hyperparathyroidism represent pathophysiologic conditions that may contribute to or perpetuate each other; aldosterone regulates parathyroid hormone and associates with adverse skeletal complications, and parathyroid hormone regulates aldosterone and associates with adverse cardiovascular complications. As dysregulation in both systems is linked to poor cardiovascular and skeletal health, it is increasingly important to fully characterize how they interact to more precisely understand their impact on human health and potential therapies to modulate these interactions. This review describes the known clinical interactions between these two systems including observational and interventional studies. Specifically, we review studies describing the inhibition of renin activity by calcium and vitamin D, and a potentially bidirectional and stimulatory relationship between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Deciphering these relationships might clarify variability in outcomes research, inform the design of future intervention studies and provide insight into the results of prior and ongoing intervention studies. However, before these opportunities can be addressed, more effort must be placed on shifting observational data to the proof of concept phase. This will require reallocation of resources to conduct interventional studies and secure the necessary talent.

  17. Effect of thyroid hormones on the gene expression of calcium transport systems in rat muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudecová, S.; Vadászová, Adriana; Soukup, Tomáš; Križanová, O.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 8 (2004), s. 923-931 ISSN 0024-3205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/03/0752 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/3008; NATO(XX) 979876; SAV(SK) APVT-51-013802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid hormones * calcium transport systems Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2004

  18. A study of Some Hormones and Antioxidant ‎Systems Disturbances in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abdul-Raheem Al-Saadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available      Ageing is a physiological phenomenon that manifested itself with disturbances of many homeostatic regulating mechanisms of the body . The present study was conducted and employed to investigate two major systems( hormones and antioxidant systems that can be implicated in progress of aging .The total number of subjects included in the present study was fifty (50 healthy men and classified according to their ages into two groups, the first group included 25 younger men (control group and their ages ranged between 21 to 30 years old whereas the second group included 25 older men and their ages were between 61 to 70 years old.  Data obtained from this study indicated a significant decrease(p0.05 occurring among hormones( testosterone  , T3 and glutathione peroxidase and of malondehyde .   From these results ,one can be concluded that with ageing there are many disturbances and fluctuations of hypothalamic-adrenal and thyroid axis that accompanied with drop of essential antioxidant components that may be lead to suppress of defense against free radicals and the present study concluded that the changes occurring in studied hormones have not relations and effects on the antioxidant systems.

  19. Breast cancer with Her-22 hormone receptor-positive neu: primary systemic treatment, sentinel node biopsy and hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez C, Nayara; Sanchez M, Jose Ignacio; De Santiago G, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an interesting option in the therapy of some breast cancer cases. Cases in which the timing for sentinel lymph node biopsy is controversial. Co-expression of estrogen receptors and Her2/neu (cc-erbB-2) in breast cancer may imply hormone resistance, especially to tamoxifen. We present a clinic case with co-expression of estrogen receptors and Her2/neu that was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and previous sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by breast tumorectomy with axillar lympha- denectomy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy with letrozol, geserelina and trastuzumab. A good treatment response as found

  20. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  1. Influence of growth hormone therapy on selected dental and skeletal system parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Małgorzata; Chałas, Renata; Dunin-Wilczyńska, Izabella; Drohomyretska, Myroslava; Klatka, Maria

    2018-03-14

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is one of the main indications for growth hormone therapy. One characteristic of this disease is bone age delay in relation to the chronological age. Pituitary dysfunction negatively affects the growth and development of the jaws and teeth of the child. The secretion of endocrine glands regulates growth, development, and gender differentiation. It also controls the growth of bones and teeth, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphate, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The primary role in the endocrine system is played by the pituitary gland which is responsible for the production of somatotropin [1]. Dysfunction of the pituitary gland has a negative effect on the growth and development of long bones in the body, and may have an adverse effect on the development of maxilla, mandible and dentition of a child. There is some information in the literature that dental age is delayed in short stature children; the replacement of deciduous teeth by permanent teeth is also delayed, and newly erupted permanent teeth often require orthodontic treatment. Applying hormonal therapy positively affects the process of replacement of dentition [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The aim of the study was to assess bone and dental age, as well as analyze the state of dentition in children diagnosed with GH deficiency treated with growth hormone, depending on the duration of treatment. The study material consisted of 110 children (27 males, 83 females), hospitalized for somatotropin hypopituitarism in the Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland. The mean birth age was 13 years (156 months) with a standard deviation of 2 years and 6 months (30 months). 47 children (43%) started treatment with the growth hormone (group starting treatment) and 63 children (57%) whose treatment was started 2-3 years previously (group in the course of treatment). The control group consisted of 41 generally healthy children (15males

  2. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  3. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue. An analysis of morphology and hormone secretion in an in vitro model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniko, M [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology; Arndt, J [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiophysics, Radiumhemmet; Raehn, T [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Werner, S [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (/sup 60/Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance.

  4. Brain Hypoactivation, Autonomic Nervous System Dysregulation, and Gonadal Hormones in Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Sloan, Richard P.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the 10th leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thus, understanding the co-occurrence of these disorders will have major public health significance. MDD is associated with an abnormal stress response, manifested in brain circuitry deficits, gonadal dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation. Contribution of the relationships between these systems to the pathophysiology of MDD is not well understood. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate, in parallel, relationships between HPG-axis functioning, stress response circuitry activation, and parasympathetic reactivity in healthy controls and women with MDD. Using fMRI with pulse oximetry [from which we calculated the high frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability (HF-RRV), a measure of parasympathetic modulation] and hormone data, we studied eight women with recurrent MDD in remission and six controls during a stress response paradigm. We demonstrated that hypoactivations of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and subgenual ACC were associated with lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation in MDD women. Estradiol and progesterone attenuated group differences in the effect of HF-RRV on hypoactivation in the amygdala, hippocampus, ACC, and OFC in MDD women. Findings have implications for understanding the relationship between mood, arousal, heart regulation, and gonadal hormones, and may provide insights into MDD and CVD risk comorbidity. PMID:22395084

  5. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-05-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  6. Effect of different culture systems and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine/follicle-stimulating hormone on preantral follicle development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The mechanical method to isolate preantral follicle has been reported for many years. However, the culture systems in vitro are still unstable. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the culture system of mice preantral follicles on the follicular development in vitro. The results showed that the 96-well plate system was the most effective method for mice follicle development in vitro (volume change: 51.71%; survival rate: 89%, at day 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and Thyroid hormone (TH are important for normal follicular development and dysregulation of hormones are related with impaired follicular development. To determine the effect of hormone on preantral follicular development, we cultured follicle with hormones in the 96-well plate culture system and found that FSH significantly increased preantral follicular growth on day 4. The FSH-induced growth action was markedly enhanced by T₃ although T₃ was ineffective alone. We also demonstrated by QRT-PCR that T₃ significantly enhanced FSH-induced up-regulation of Xiap mRNA level. Meanwhile, Bad, cell death inducer, was markedly down-regulated by the combination of hormones. Moreover, QRT-PCR results were also consistent with protein regulation which detected by Western Blotting analysis. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrate that 96-well plate system is an effective method for preantral follicle development in vitro. Moreover, these results provide insights on the role of thyroid hormone in increasing FSH-induced preantral follicular development, which mediated by up-regulating Xiap and down-regulating Bad.

  7. Hormonal status and the orexin system in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Viktorovna Strueva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to estimate the influence of hormone metabolism and sleep apnea on patients with obesity. 76 patients (37 males and 39 females with obesity were included in this study. After night polysomnography all patients were divided in two groups comparableby age, sex ratio and BMI. The first group consisted of 41 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, the second (controls – 35 patients without breath disorders during sleep. OSAS is accompanied by the increase in urinary cortisol during the night, high levels ofbasal insulin, disturbances of hepatic production of IGF-1, dysfunction of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results show that sleep-related breathing disorders render markedly and negatively affect on hormonal parameters of patients with obesity. As a reliable difference of basalsecretion of orexin A in obese patients with and without OSAS was not revealed (42,0 [14; 99,5] vs. 18,0 [14,5; 124,5] pg/ml; р=0,9, we were not able to show the existence that the existence of OSAS is followed by any special changes of activity of the orexin system.

  8. Absence of systemic hormonal effects in an oestradiol diether topically active on the vaginal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J P; Cachelou, R; Guéritée, N

    1982-12-01

    The women in this study were either post-menopausal or ovariectomised for at least 1 yr prior to the study. They had also been treated for cancer of the cervix (27 women), endometrium (5), ovaries (5) or breast (1). All women presented with sexual troubles, mainly genital discomfort (dyspareunia or vaginism). In a double-blind fashion, gynaecological capsules containing either an oestradiol diether (ICD: promestriene) or only the excipient were administered for 40 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, the FSH, LH, oestrone (E1) and oestradiol (E2) plasma levels were not found to be significantly different from the pre-therapeutic values. These results suggest that promestriene acts on the vaginal mucosa, therefore not being converted back into the hormone from which it was derived. Also, in its dietheroxide form, promestriene is incapable of crossing the malpighian (vaginal or epidermal) epithelium and of reaching the general blood circulation. This discrepancy between the local anti-atrophic effects and the inability to exert systemic oestrogen activities singles out promestriene and justifies its therapeutic use when hormonally active oestrogens are contra-indicated, as in patients who have an oestrogen-sensitive cancer in their medical history.

  9. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malemud Charles J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  10. Blends of synthetic and natural polymers as drug delivery systems for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, M G; Sim, B; Downes, S

    1995-05-01

    In order to overcome the biological deficiencies of synthetic polymers and to enhance the mechanical characteristics of natural polymers, two synthetic polymers, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were blended, in different ratios, with two biological polymers, collagen (C) and hyaluronic acid (HA). These blends were used to prepare films, sponges and hydrogels which were loaded with growth hormone (GH) to investigate their potential use as drug delivery systems. The GH release was monitored in vitro using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results show that GH can be released from HA/PAA sponges and from HA/PVA and C/PVA hydrogels. The initial GH concentration used for sample loading affected the total quantity of GH released but not the pattern of release. The rate and quantity of GH released was significantly dependent on the HA or C content of the polymers.

  11. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  12. Moderate perinatal thyroid hormone insufficiency alters visual system function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, William K; Degn, Laura; George, Barbara Jane; Gilbert, Mary E

    2018-04-21

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21. Treatment with PTU caused dose-related reductions of serum T4, with recovery on termination of exposure, and euthyroidism by the time of visual function testing. Tests of retinal (electroretinograms; ERGs) and visual cortex (visual evoked potentials; VEPs) function were assessed in adult offspring. Dark-adapted ERG a-waves, reflecting rod photoreceptors, were increased in amplitude by PTU. Light-adapted green flicker ERGs, reflecting M-cone photoreceptors, were reduced by PTU exposure. UV-flicker ERGs, reflecting S-cones, were not altered. Pattern-elicited VEPs were significantly reduced by 2 and 3 ppm PTU across a range of stimulus contrast values. The slope of VEP amplitude-log contrast functions was reduced by PTU, suggesting impaired visual contrast gain. Visual contrast gain primarily reflects function of visual cortex, and is responsible for adjusting sensitivity of perceptual mechanisms in response to changing visual scenes. The results indicate that moderate levels of pre-and post-natal TH insufficiency led to alterations in visual function of adult rats, including both retinal and visual cortex sites of dysfunction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  14. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  15. Inhibition of growth of experimental prostate cancer with sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, E; Bokser, L; Comaru-Schally, A M; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1991-02-01

    Inhibitory effects of the sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1, 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2, 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine3, D-citrulline6, D-alanine10]LH-RH (SB-75) on the growth of experimental prostate cancers were investigated. In the first experiment, three doses of a microcapsule preparation releasing 23.8, 47.6, and 71.4 micrograms of antagonist SB-75 per day were compared with microcapsules of agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH liberating 25 micrograms/day in rats bearing Dunning R3327H transplantable prostate carcinoma. During 8 weeks of treatment, tumor growth was decreased by [D-Trp6]LH-RH and all three doses of SB-75 as compared to untreated controls. The highest dose of SB-75 (71.4 micrograms/day) caused a greater inhibition of prostate cancer growth than [D-Trp6]LH-RH as based on measurement of tumor volume and percentage change in tumor volume. Doses of 23.8 and 47.6 micrograms of SB-75 per day induced a partial and submaximal decrease, respectively, in tumor weight and volume. Tumor doubling time was the longest (50 days) with the high dose of SB-75 vs. 15 days for controls. The body weights were unchanged. The weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate were greatly reduced in all three groups that received SB-75, and testosterone levels were decreased to nondetectable values in the case of the two higher doses of SB-75. LH levels were also diminished. Similar results were obtained in the second experiment, in which the animals were treated for a period of 8 weeks with microgranules of SB-75. Therapy with microgranules of SB-75 significantly decreased tumor growth as measured by the final tumor volume, the percentage change from the initial tumor volume, and the reduction in tumor weight. The results indicate that antagonist SB-75, released from sustained delivery systems, can produce a state of chemical castration and effectively

  16. Inhibition of systemic inflammation by central action of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte- stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Hernàndez, R; Demitri, M T; Carlin, A; Meazza, C; Villa, P; Ghezzi, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) reduces fever and acute inflammation in the skin when administered centrally. The aim of the present research was to determine whether central alpha-MSH can also reduce signs of systemic inflammation in mice with endotoxemia. Increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide, induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was increased in endotoxemic mice; the increase was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Intraperitoneal administration of the small dose of alpha-MSH that was effective centrally did not alter any of the markers of inflammation. In experiments using immunoneutralization of central alpha-MSH, we tested the idea that endogenous peptide induced within the brain during systemic inflammation modulates host responses to endotoxic challenge in peripheral tissues. The data showed that proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin in the circulation, lungs, and liver were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation.

  17. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake

  18. High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Growth Hormone In Cells of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research exists to support the idea that cells of the immune system produce growth hormone (GH). However, the structure and mechanism of action of lymphocyte-derived GH continues to remain largely unknown. Here we present the results of Western analysis of whole cell extracts showing that different molecular weight isoforms of GH of approximately 100 kDa, 65 kDa, and 48 kDa can be detected in primary mouse cells of the immune system and in the mouse EL4 cell line. The identity of the 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms of GH were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The various isoforms were detected in both enriched T and B spleen cell populations. The large molecular weight isoform appears to reside primarily in the cytoplasm whereas the lower molecular weight 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms were detected primarily in the nucleus. These results also suggest that GH isoforms are induced by oxidative stress. In EL4 cells overexpressing GH, the expression of luciferase controlled by a promoter containing the antioxidant response element is increased almost three-fold above control. The data suggest that the induction of isoforms of the GH molecule in cells of the immune system may be an important mechanism of adaptation and/or protection of lymphoid cells under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:21741628

  19. Circadian System and Melatonin Hormone: Risk Factors for Complications during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a complex and well-regulated temporal event in which several steps are finely orchestrated including implantation, decidualization, placentation, and partum and any temporary alteration has serious effects on fetal and maternal health. Interestingly, alterations of circadian rhythms (i.e., shiftwork have been correlated with increased risk of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and preeclampsia. In the last few years evidence is accumulating that the placenta may have a functional circadian system and express the clock genes Bmal1, Per1-2, and Clock. On the other hand, there is evidence that the human placenta synthesizes melatonin, hormone involved in the regulation of the circadian system in other tissues. Moreover, is unknown the role of this local production of melatonin and whether this production have a circadian pattern. Available information indicates that melatonin induces in placenta the expression of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, prevents the injury produced by oxidative stress, and inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF a gene that in other tissues is controlled by clock genes. In this review we aim to analyze available information regarding clock genes and clock genes controlled genes such as VEGF and the possible role of melatonin synthesis in the placenta.

  20. Seasonal and hormonal modulation of neurotransmitter systems in the song control circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    In the years following the discovery of the song system, it was realized that this specialized circuit controlling learned vocalizations in songbirds (a) constitutes a specific target for sex steroid hormone action and expresses androgen and (for some nuclei) estrogen receptors, (b) exhibits a chemical neuroanatomical pattern consisting in a differential expression of various neuropeptides and neurotransmitters receptors as compared to surrounding structures and (c) shows pronounced seasonal variations in volume and physiology based, at least in the case of HVC, on a seasonal change in neuron recruitment and survival. During the past 30 years numerous studies have investigated how seasonal changes, transduced largely but not exclusively through changes in sex steroid concentrations, affect singing frequency and quality by modulating the structure and activity of the song control circuit. These studies showed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, control seasonal variation in singing quality by a direct action on song control nuclei. These studies also gave rise to the hypothesis that the probability of song production in response to a given stimulus (i.e. its motivation) is controlled through effects on the medial preoptic area and on catecholaminergic cell groups that project to song control nuclei. Selective pharmacological manipulations confirmed that the noradrenergic system indeed plays a role in the control of singing behavior. More experimental work is, however, needed to identify specific genes related to neurotransmission that are regulated by steroids in functionally defined brain areas to enhance different aspects of song behavior. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A Review on the Importance of Hormones Monitoring and Their Removal in Conventional Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: According to the current study, further studies are needed to determine the entry routes of steroid hormones into aquatic environment, the detection techniques and measurements, as well as the best removal method in Iran.

  2. The first decapeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in Heteroptera: A novel AKH from a South African saucer bug, Laccocoris spurcus (Naucoridae, Laccocorinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Gäde, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2011), s. 454-460 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Laccocoris spurcus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2011

  3. Role of adipokinetic hormone in stimulation of salivary gland activities: the fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera) as a model species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinokurov, Konstantin; Bednářová, Andrea; Tomčala, Aleš; Stašková, Tereza; Krishnan, N.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, JAN 20 (2014), s. 58-67 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:NSF(US) 269110-151250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : AKH * salivary glands * digestive enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191013002321#

  4. The first identified neuropeptide in the insect order Megaloptera: A novel member of the adipokinetic hormone family in the alderfly Sialis lutaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2009), s. 477-482 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:National Research Foundation Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Arthropods * Insects * Megaloptera Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.705, year: 2009

  5. Two novel tyrosine-containing peptides (Tyr4) of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the families Coccinellidae and Silphidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2015), s. 2323-2333 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insects * beetles * Coccinellidae Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.196, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-015-2011-4

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the adult and fetal human olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Patel, L; Tobet, S A; King, J C; Rubin, B S; Stopa, E G

    1999-05-01

    Studies in fetal brain tissue of rodents, nonhuman primates and birds have demonstrated that cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) migrate from the olfactory placode across the nasal septum into the forebrain. The purpose of this study was to examine GnRH neurons in components of the adult and fetal human olfactory system. In the adult human brain (n=4), immunoreactive GnRH was evident within diffusely scattered cell bodies and processes in the olfactory bulb, olfactory nerve, olfactory cortex, and nervus terminalis located on the anterior surface of the gyrus rectus. GnRH-immunoreactive structures showed a similar distribution in 20-week human fetal brains (n=2), indicating that the migration of GnRH neurons is complete at this time. In 10-11-week fetal brains (n=2), more cells were noted in the nasal cavity than in the brain. Our data are consistent with observations made in other species, confirming olfactory derivation and migration of GnRH neurons into the brain from the olfactory placode. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of [ 3 H]-3-methyl-histidine 2 -TRH ([ 3 H]-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS

  8. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunocytochemical distribution of locustamyoinhibiting peptide (Lom-MIP) in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, L; Veelaert, D; Broeck, J V; De Loof, A

    1996-07-05

    Locustamyoinhibiting peptide (Lom-MIP) is one of the 4 identified myoinhibiting neuropeptides, isolated from brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata-suboesophageal ganglion complexes of the locust, Locusta migratoria. An antiserum was raised against Lom-MIP for use in immunohistochemistry. Locustamyoinhibiting peptide-like immunoreactivity (Lom-MIP-LI) was visualized in the nervous system and peripheral organs of Locusta migratoria by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. A total of 12 specific immunoreactive neurons was found in the brain. Processes of these neurons innervate the protocerebral bridge the central body complex and distinct neuropil areas in the proto- and tritocerebrum but not in the deuterocerebrum nor in the optic lobes. The glandular cells of the corpora cardiaca, known to produce adipokinetic hormones, are contacted by Lom-MIP-LI fibers. The corpora allata were innervated by the nervus corporis allati I containing immunoreactive fibers. Lom-MIP-LI cell bodies were also found in the subesophageal ganglion, the metathoracic ganglion and the abdominal ganglia I-IV. In peripheral muscles, Lom-MIP-LI fibers innervate the heart, the oviduct, and the hindgut. In the salivary glands, Lom-MIP-LI was detected in the intracellular ductule of the parietal cells. Possible functions of Lom-MIP are discussed.

  10. Are separable aromatase systems involved in hormonal regulation of the male brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.; Schumacher, M.; Steimer, T.; Gahr, M.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro study of testosterone (T) metabolism shows that formation of estradiol-17 beta (E2) is regionally specific within the preoptic area (POA) of the male ring dove. The POA is known to be involved in the formation of E2 required for specific components of male sexual behavior. Two sub-areas of high aromatase activity, anterior (aPOA) and posterior preoptic (pPOA) areas, have been identified. Aromatase activity is higher in aPOA than in pPOA. The aromatase activity within the aPOA is also more sensitive to the inductive effects of low circulating T, derived from subcutaneous silastic implants, than the enzyme activity in pPOA. Kinetic analysis of preoptic fractions indicates that a similar high-affinity enzyme occurs in both areas (apparent Km less than 14 nM), but the Vmax of aPOA enzyme activity is higher than pPOA. Cells containing estrogen receptors (ER) are localized in areas of high aromatase activity. There is overlap between immunostained cells in the aPOA and in samples containing inducible aromatase activity measured in vitro. Within the aPOA there is a higher density of ER cells in the nucleus preopticus medialis. The pPOA area also contains ER, notably in the nucleus interstitialis, but at a lower density. We conclude that the hormonal regulation of the male preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region, which is a target for the behavioral action of T, involves at least two inducible aromatase systems with associated estrogen receptor cells

  11. Optimal systemic therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowitz, Rachel C; McGuire, Kandace P; Davidson, Nancy E

    2013-08-01

    Although systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of therapy for premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer, there remain many unknowns regarding its optimal use. By accident of clinical trial design, much clinical investigation in premenopausal women has focused on chemotherapy. More recently the value of endocrine therapy (tamoxifen and ovarian suppression/ablation via surgery, LHRH agonists, or chemotherapy-induced menopause) has become apparent, and some form of endocrine therapy is viewed as standard for virtually all premenopausal women with early stage invasive breast cancer that expresses estrogen and/or progesterone receptor. Critical open questions include type and duration of endocrine therapy and the development of prognostic/predictive markers to help identify patients who are likely to benefit from chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy. For some years, five years of tamoxifen has been viewed as the standard endocrine therapy for premenopausal hormone-responsive breast cancer, although the ATLAS trial suggests that an additional five years of tamoxifen can be considered. The MA17 trial also suggests that an additional five years of an aromatase inhibitor can be considered for women who become postmenopausal during tamoxifen therapy. Information about the value of ovarian suppression continues to emerge, most recently with the demonstration of excellent outcome with goserelin plus tamoxifen in the ABCSG12 trial. The SOFT and TEXT trials, whose accrual is now complete, should help to define optimal endocrine therapy. In addition, use of the 21-gene recurrence score assay may help to delineate the additional value of chemotherapy for patients with node-negative breast cancer, and its utility in the setting of women with 1-3 positive lymph nodes is under study in the RxPONDER trial. Nonetheless, the need for other predictive biomarkers to select appropriate therapy remains real. Finally, attention to long term benefits and side effects

  12. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Arranz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected

  13. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  14. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Puszczewicz, Mariusz Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17β-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously) on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC), therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  15. Hormones and the Autonomic Nervous System are Involved in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.; Buijs, R.M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore,

  16. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M.; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore,

  17. Hormonal enzymatic systems in normal and cancerous human breast: control, prognostic factors, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R; Chetrite, Gérard S

    2012-04-01

    The bioformation and transformation of estrogens and other hormones in the breast tissue as a result of the activity of the various enzymes involved attract particular attention for the role they play in the development and pathogenesis of hormone-dependent breast cancer. The enzymatic process concerns the aromatase, which transforms androgens into estrogens; the sulfatase, which hydrolyzes the biologically inactive sulfates to the active hormone; the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, which are involved in the interconversion estradiol/estrone or testosterone/androstenedione; hydroxylases, which transform estrogens into mitotic and antimitotic derivatives; and sulfotransferases and glucuronidases, which, respectively convert into the biologically inactive sulfates and glucuronides. These enzymatic activities are more intense in the carcinoma than in the normal tissue. Concerning aromatase, the application of antiaromatase agents has been largely developed in the treatment of breast cancer patients, with very positive results. Various studies have shown that the activity levels of these enzymes and their mRNA can be involved as interesting prognostic factors for breast cancer. In conclusion, the application of new antienzymatic molecules can open attractive perspectives in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  18. Homologies between the amino acid sequences of some vertebrate peptide hormones and peptides isolated from invertebrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    1990-01-01

    1. The 4K-prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) or bombyxin and the melanization-reddish coloration hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori resemble insulin and insulin-like growth factors. 2. The family of adipokinetic/red pigment concentrating hormones has some similarity with glucagon. 3. Members of the FMRFamide family are found in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. 4. In Locusta, a molecule immunologically and biologically related to amphibian melanophore stimulating hormone has been partially characterized. 5. Enkephalins and enkephalin-related peptides occur in insects and other invertebrates. 6. Peptides belonging to the tachykinin family have been isolated from molluscan (Octopus) salivary glands and from insect nervous tissue (Locusta migratoria). 7. Invertebrate arginine-vasotocin homologs have been isolated from an insect (Locusta migratoria) and from a mollusc (Conus). 8. In Leucophaea, Locusta and Drosophila, peptides resembling those of the vertebrate gastrin/cholecystokinin family have been identified. 9. As the number of different neuro-/gut peptides with possible function(s) as hormone, neurotransmitter or neuromodulator is now estimated to be of the order of a few hundred, more similarities will probably show up in the near future.

  19. Verification of epigenetic inheritance in a unicellular model system: multigenerational effects of hormonal imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kőhidai, László; Lajkó, Eszter; Pállinger, Eva; Csaba, György

    2012-10-01

    The unicellular Tetrahymena has receptors for hormones of higher vertebrates, produces these hormones, and their signal pathways are similar. The first encounter with a hormone in higher dose provokes the phenomenon of hormonal imprinting, by which the reaction of the cell is quantitatively modified. This modification is transmitted to the progeny generations. The duration of the single imprinter effect of two representative signal molecules, insulin and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), in two concentrations (10(-6) and 10(-15) M) were studied. The effects of imprinting were followed in 5 physiological indices: (i) insulin binding, (ii) 5-HT synthesis, (iii) swimming behaviour, (iv) cell growth and (v) chemotaxis in progeny generations 500 and 1000. The result of each index was different from the non-imprinted control functions, growth rate, swimming behaviour and chemotactic activity to insulin being enhanced, while others, e.g. synthesis and chemotactic responsiveness of 5-HT and the binding of insulin were reduced. This means that a function-specific heritable epigenetic change during imprinting occurs, and generally a single encounter with a femtomolar hormone concentration is enough for provoking durable and heritable imprinting in Tetrahymena. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of epigenetic effects at a unicellular level and call attention to the possibility that the character of unicellular organisms has changed through to the present day due to an enormous amount of non-physiological imprinter substances in their environment. The results - together with results obtained earlier in mammals - point to the validity of epigenetic imprinting effects throughout the animal world.

  20. Immunolocalization of a tachykinin-receptor-like protein in the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria migratorioides and neobellieria bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelaert, D; Oonk, H B; Vanden Eynde, G; Torfs, H; Meloen, R H; Schoofs, L; Parmentier, M; De Loof, A; Vanden Broeck, J

    1999-05-10

    Antisera raised against two distinct peptide regions of the Drosophila neurokinin-like receptor NKD were used to immunolocalize tachykinin-receptor-like proteins in the central nervous system of two insect species: the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and the gray fleshfly, Neobellieria bullata. The resulting immunopositive staining patterns were identical for both antisera. Moreover, a very similar distribution of the immunoreactive material was observed in fleshflies and locusts. Immunoreactivity was found in nerve terminals of the retrocerebral complex, suggesting a presynaptic localization of the receptor in this part of the brain. Cell bodies were stained in the subesophageal ganglion: an anterior group of four larger cells and a posterior group of about 20 cells. These cells have axons projecting into the contralateral nervus corporis allati (NCA) II, bypassing the corpus allatum and projecting through the NCA I into the storage part of the corpus cardiacum. In the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum, the glandular adipokinetic hormone-producing cells did not show any immunopositive staining. In the locust, additional immunopositive staining was observed in internolaterally located neurons of the tritocerebrum and in important integrative parts of the neuropil such as the central body and the mushroom bodies.

  1. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  2. Octopus gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: a multifunctional peptide in the endocrine and nervous systems of the cephalopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, H; Shigeno, S; Kano, N; Haraguchi, S; Osugi, T; Tsutsui, K

    2009-03-01

    The optic gland, which is analogous to the anterior pituitary in the context of gonadal maturation, is found on the upper posterior edge of the optic tract of the octopus Octopus vulgaris. In mature octopus, the optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotrophic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the brain of octopus and was named oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH showed luteinising hormone-releasing activity in the anterior pituitary cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix. Oct-GnRH immunoreactive signals were observed in the glandular cells of the mature optic gland. Oct-GnRH stimulated the synthesis and release of sex steroids from the ovary and testis, and elicited contractions of the oviduct. Oct-GnRH receptor was expressed in the gonads and accessory organs, such as the oviduct and oviducal gland. These results suggest that oct-GnRH induces the gonadal maturation and oviposition by regulating sex steroidogenesis and a series of egg-laying behaviours via the oct-GnRH receptor. The distribution and expression of oct-GnRH in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggest that oct-GnRH acts as a multifunctional modulatory factor in feeding, memory processing, sensory, movement and autonomic functions.

  3. Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells combined with parathyroid hormone therapy synergistically regenerates multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn Yakubovich, Doron; Sheyn, Dmitriy; Bez, Maxim; Schary, Yeshai; Yalon, Eran; Sirhan, Afeef; Amira, May; Yaya, Alin; De Mel, Sandra; Da, Xiaoyu; Ben-David, Shiran; Tawackoli, Wafa; Ley, Eric J; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi

    2017-03-09

    A devastating condition that leads to trauma-related morbidity, multiple rib fractures, remain a serious unmet clinical need. Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to regenerate various tissues. We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy would enhance MSC homing and differentiation, ultimately leading to bone formation that would bridge rib fractures. The combination of human MSCs (hMSCs) and a clinically relevant PTH dose was studied using immunosuppressed rats. Segmental defects were created in animals' fifth and sixth ribs. The rats were divided into four groups: a negative control group, in which animals received vehicle alone; the PTH-only group, in which animals received daily subcutaneous injections of 4 μg/kg teriparatide, a pharmaceutical derivative of PTH; the hMSC-only group, in which each animal received five injections of 2 × 10 6 hMSCs; and the hMSC + PTH group, in which animals received both treatments. Longitudinal in vivo monitoring of bone formation was performed biweekly using micro-computed tomography (μCT), followed by histological analysis. Fluorescently-dyed hMSCs were counted using confocal microscopy imaging of histological samples harvested 8 weeks after surgery. PTH significantly augmented the number of hMSCs that homed to the fracture site. Immunofluorescence of osteogenic markers, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, showed that PTH induced cell differentiation in both exogenously administered cells and resident cells. μCT scans revealed a significant increase in bone volume only in the hMSC + PTH group, beginning by the 4 th week after surgery. Eight weeks after surgery, 35% of ribs in the hMSC + PTH group had complete bone bridging, whereas there was complete bridging in only 6.25% of ribs (one rib) in the PTH-only group and in none of the ribs in the other groups. Based on the μCT scans, biomechanical analysis using the micro-finite element method demonstrated that

  4. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dziurka, M.; Janeczko, A.; Juhasz, C.; Gullner, G.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Saja, D.; Skoczowski, A.; Tobias, I.; Barna, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, DEC (2016), s. 355-364 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tobacco-mosaic-virus * pathogenesis-related proteins * salicylic-acid * abscisic-acid * acquired- resistance * disease resistance * nicotiana-benthamiana * arabidopsis-thaliana * defense response * immune-responses * Brassinosteroids * Ethylene * Hormone * Pepper * Phenylalanine ammonia lyase * Progesterone * Salicylic acid * Tobamovirus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  5. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  6. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  7. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  8. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  9. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  10. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  11. Status of calcium regulating hormonal systems in delayed period in persons exposed to occupational exposure of low doses of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dospolova, Zh.G.; Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of study is consideration of endocrine system participation in development of calcium exchange disorders in persons exposed to action of low dose radiation . By radio- immune method in blood serum of 150 liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences the concentration the following hormones were determined: parathormone, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, cortisol, ACTH, testosteron, insulin. Content of these hormones have been studied in according to following radiation factors: value of absorbed doses of external irradiation, degree of radioactive contamination of zone and exposition duration. It was determined, that basically dishormone disorders development have been concerned with parathormone, cortisol, hormones of thyroid axis, and in some cases to ACTH and insulin. Liquidators' frequencies of normal and changed concentration of calcium regulating hormones are sited in tabular form. It was established, that examined persons in result hormone disorders have of decrease functions of pituitary glands (76.78 %), pancreas (55 %), thyroid gland (24.31 %) and sex glands (19.23 %) and simultaneously cases of increase functions of parathyroid gland (58.2 %), adrenal glands (52.32 %) and adeno-pituitary glands (17.39). It is concluded, that inter hormonal correlation disorders are accompanying with morphologic and functional futures of secretory activity changes

  12. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  13. Effects of thyroid hormone on β-adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have compared the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T 3 )-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T 3 treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T 3 treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial β-adrenergic receptor sites measured by [ 125 I]cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, β-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T 3 -treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T 3 treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the β-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T 3 treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals

  14. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  15. A Journey through the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone System of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Muñoz-Cueto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins. In addition, GnIH also appears to be involved in the regulation of feeding, growth, stress response, heart function and social behavior. These actions are mediated via G protein-coupled GnIH receptors (GnIH-Rs, of which two different subtypes, GPR147 and GPR74, have been described to date. With around 30,000 species, fish represent more than one-half of the total number of recognized living vertebrate species. In addition to this impressive biological diversity, fish are relevant because they include model species with scientific and clinical interest as well as many exploited species with economic importance. In spite of this, the study of GnIH and its physiological effects on reproduction and other physiological processes has only been approached in a few fish species, and results obtained are in some cases conflicting. In this review, we summarize the information available in the literature on GnIH sequences identified in fish, the distribution of GnIH and GnIH-Rs in central and peripheral tissues, the physiological actions of GnIH on the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as other reported effects of this neuropeptide, and existing knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of GnIH in fish.

  16. Luteinizing hormone pulsatility in females following radiation therapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasacchio, R.A.; Constine, L.S.; Woolf, P.; Raubertas, R.F.; Veldhuis, J.D.; Muhs, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Females incidentally irradiated to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (H/P-A) during radiation therapy (RT) for brain tumors may become oligoamenorrheic. We previously demonstrated that these women are hypoestrogenemic but frequently have near normal or only moderately decreased basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and maintain appropriate peak pituitary responses to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). We postulated that hypothalamic injury resulting in abnormal LH pulsatility could explain this complex of findings. This investigation intended to characterize this hypothalamic injury and test two potentially corrective pharmacologic interventions. Catecholamines (specifically dopamine) and opiates are known to suppress pituitary LH release through inhibition of the pituitary gonadotropes or of the GnRH neuronal terminals in the hypothalamus. Radiation-induced dysfunction of the catecholaminergic or opiate control mechanisms might translate into an increase in dopamine or opiate release or receptor responsiveness, which in turn would inhibit pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, leading to reduced LH pulsatility and to gonadal dysfunction. We therefore determined the pattern of LH release in normal controls and in patients, at baseline as well as after administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist metoclopramide (MCP), and the opiate-receptor antagonist naloxone (NAL). Methods: Patient eligibility criteria included RT to the H/P-A for a non-H/P-A CNS tumor, usually astrocytoma, with subsequent hypoestrogenemia and oligo-amenorrhea. Patients and normal volunteers were studied first under control conditions and then using MCP and NAL in a randomized cross-over manner at monthly intervals. Serum samples for LH determination were taken every 10 minutes for 12 hours during an overnight hospital stay. MCP (10 mg) was administered as an IV bolus every 4.5 hours, and NAL was administered as a continuous infusion (1.6 mg/hour). The following morning each

  17. Functional Characterization and Signaling Systems of Corazonin and Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone in the Green Shore Crab, Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides play a central role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and hormones in orchestrating arthropod physiology. The post-genomic surge in identified neuropeptides and their putative receptors has not been matched by functional characterization of ligand-receptor pairs. Indeed, until very recently no G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs had been functionally defined in any crustacean. Here we explore the structurally-related, functionally-diverse gonadotropin-releasing hormone paralogs, corazonin (CRZ and red-pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in the crab, Carcinus maenas. Using aequorin luminescence to measure in vitro Ca2+ mobilization we demonstrated receptor-ligand pairings of CRZ and RPCH. CRZR-activated cell signaling in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 0.75 nM and comparative studies with insect CRZ peptides suggest that the C-terminus of this peptide is important in receptor-ligand interaction. RPCH interacted with RPCHR with extremely high sensitivity (EC50 20 pM. Neither receptor bound GnRH, nor the AKH/CRZ-related peptide. Transcript distributions of both receptors indicate that CRZR expression was, unexpectedly, restricted to the Y-organs (YO. Application of CRZ peptide to YO had no effect on ecdysteroid biosynthesis, excepting a modest stimulation in early post-molt. CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a scenario that reflected the distribution of its mRNA. Apart from the well-known activity of RPCH as a chromatophorotropin, it also indirectly elicited hyperglycemia (which was eyestalk-dependent. RPCHR mRNA was also expressed in the ovary, indicating possible roles in reproduction. The anatomy of CRZ and RPCH neurons in the nervous system is described in detail by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Each peptide has extensive but non-overlapping distribution in the CNS, and neuroanatomy

  18. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  19. Growth hormone alters the glutathione S-transferase and mitochondrial thioredoxin systems in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2014-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH's actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taqi, Esmaeel; Wallace, Laurie E; de Heuvel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The signals that govern the upregulation of nutrient absorption (adaptation) after intestinal resection are not well understood. A Gastric Roux-en-Y bypass (GRYB) model was used to isolate the relative contributions of direct mucosal stimulation by nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions......, and systemic enteric hormones on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome....

  2. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  3. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  4. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  5. Radioautography of the central nervous system and pituitary after 3H steroid hormones injection into different mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system and pituitary of various mammals were examined by radioautography after injection of different tritiated steroid hormones. After injection of 3 H estradiol into ovariectomized mice, radioautograms revealed a significant labelling in cells of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the nuclei arcuatus and ventro-medialis. After injection of 3 H testosterone into castrated rats, the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary contained labelled cells. In the hypothalamus, the distribution pattern of androgen-neurons appears to be similar from the estrogen-neuron areas. After injection of 3 H progesterone into castrated estrogen-primed guinea-pigs, labelled neurons have been in the regions of nucleus arcuatus and nucleus preopticus suprachiasmaticus. After injection of 3 H corticosterone into adrenalectomized male rats, radioactivity was found to be selectively concentrated in neurons of septum, hippocampal complex indusium griseum, amygdala and in certain areas of the cortex. Most of the silver grains were localized in the nuclei of labelled cells. On the other hand, after injection of 3 H dexamethasone radioactivity concentration was high in the medial basal hypothalamus, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland. Differences appear to exist in the topographic distribution of dexamethasone and corticosterone-concentrating cells [fr

  6. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marta; Adamantidis, Antoine; Facchin, Laura; Bassetti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i) SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii) IS: ischemia; (iii) SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv) Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR. A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group. Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  7. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pace

    Full Text Available Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH and orexin/hypocretin (OX systems. This study aims to 1 assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2 test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke.Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii IS: ischemia; (iii SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR.A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group.Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  8. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Clovis A.; Deen, Maria E. J.; Febronio, Marilia V.; Oliveira, Sheila K.; Terreri, Maria T.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V.; Bica, Blanca E.; Pereira, Rosa M.; Bonfa, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P.; Robazzi, Teresa C.; Magalhaes, Claudia S.; Hilario, Maria O.

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers.

  9. The characterization of new hormonal systems in arthropods with a focus on neuropeptide GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth

    Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the silkworm Bombyx mori, T. castaneum, N. vitripennis, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus but not in all the other sequenced insect genomes. Bioassays showed that only ACP can activate the ACPR, but not AKH or corazonin, showing that this system...

  10. Evaluation of an accelerated lambing system in Syrian Awassi ewes, using hormonal treatments inside and outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was carried out on Syrian Awassi ewes to assess the accelerated lambing system (three lambings in 2 years) by synchronising and induction of oestrus and increasing ovulation rate using hormonal treatments (intravaginal sponges: FGA + equine chorionic gonadotrophin: eCG). Fifty intact cyclic Syrian Awassi ewes aged 2- 4 years with an average live weight of 51.4 kg were used for 4 years (6 lambings). Ewes were divided into 2 groups: 40 ewes in the treated (T) and 10 in the control (C). Ewes in the T group were treated with FGA for 14 days and injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU eCG. Results indicated that, throughout the 6 breeding periods, oestrus induction rate was 100%, and all ewes in the T group were mated within 1-5 days post sponge removal as compared to 10-11 days for ewes in the C group. Treated ewes had higher rates of lambing, multiple birth and fecundity. Repeated administration of eCG (6 times at 8 months interval) had no negative effect on fertility of Syrian Awassi ewes. However, anti-eCG antibodies were produced following eCG injections. (author)

  11. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ameri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC. Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  12. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mahmoud; Kadkhodayan, Miryam; Nguyen, Joe; Bravo, Joseph A; Su, Rebeca; Chan, Kenneth; Samiee, Ahmad; Daddona, Peter E

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP)-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC). Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP) using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  13. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  14. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  16. Insulin in Central Nervous System: More than Just a Peripheral Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling in central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a novel field of research since decreased brain insulin levels and/or signaling were associated to impaired learning, memory, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, besides its well-known role in longevity, insulin may constitute a promising therapy against diabetes- and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. More interestingly, insulin has been also faced as the potential missing link between diabetes and aging in CNS, with Alzheimer's disease (AD considered as the “brain-type diabetes.” In fact, brain insulin has been shown to regulate both peripheral and central glucose metabolism, neurotransmission, learning, and memory and to be neuroprotective. And a future challenge will be to unravel the complex interactions between aging and diabetes, which, we believe, will allow the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies to overcome age-related diseases and to prolong human “healthy” longevity. Herewith, we aim to integrate the metabolic, neuromodulatory, and neuroprotective roles of insulin in two age-related pathologies: diabetes and AD, both in terms of intracellular signaling and potential therapeutic approach.

  17. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  18. Thyroid hormone interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to modulate bone mass and structure in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Teixeira, Marilia B C G; Miranda-Rodrigues, Manuela; Rodrigues-Miranda, Manuela; Silva, Marcos V; Martins, Gisele M; Costa, Cristiane C; Arita, Danielle Y; Perez, Juliana D; Casarini, Dulce E; Brum, Patricia C; Gouveia, Cecilia H A

    2014-08-15

    To investigate whether thyroid hormone (TH) interacts with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to modulate bone mass and structure, we studied the effects of daily T3 treatment in a supraphysiological dose for 12 wk on the bone of young adult mice with chronic sympathetic hyperactivity owing to double-gene disruption of adrenoceptors that negatively regulate norepinephrine release, α(2A)-AR, and α(2C)-AR (α(2A/2C)-AR(-/-) mice). As expected, T3 treatment caused a generalized decrease in the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of WT mice (determined by DEXA), followed by deleterious effects on the trabecular and cortical bone microstructural parameters (determined by μCT) of the femur and vertebra and on the biomechanical properties (maximum load, ultimate load, and stiffness) of the femur. Surprisingly, α(2A/2C)-AR(-/-) mice were resistant to most of these T3-induced negative effects. Interestingly, the mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin, a protein that limits osteoclast activity, was upregulated and downregulated by T3 in the bone of α(2A/2C)-AR(-/-) and WT mice, respectively. β1-AR mRNA expression and IGF-I serum levels, which exert bone anabolic effects, were increased by T3 treatment only in α(2A/2C)-AR(-/-) mice. As expected, T3 inhibited the cell growth of calvaria-derived osteoblasts isolated from WT mice, but this effect was abolished or reverted in cells isolated from KO mice. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis of a TH-SNS interaction to control bone mass and structure of young adult mice and suggests that this interaction may involve α2-AR signaling. Finally, the present findings offer new insights into the mechanisms through which TH regulates bone mass, structure, and physiology. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  20. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  1. Effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Anne S.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα, ERβ) and androgen receptor-β (ARβ). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-α (AhRα) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhRβ was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant time

  2. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  3. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  4. Serum levels of pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: relation to other adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Daniela; Falk, Werner; Dorner, Monika; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Straub, Rainer H

    2003-02-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), low levels of adrenal steroids have been repeatedly demonstrated, but the site of alteration has not been exactly described because measurements of serum pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17OHPreg) together with other adrenal steroids have never been performed. We measured serum levels of adrenal hormones such as pregnenolone, 17OHPreg, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (ASD), and cortisol in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with RA, and 24 patients with SLE. Serum levels of pregnenolone were similar in RA and SLE patients as compared to healthy controls irrespective of prior prednisolone therapy. In all RA and SLE patients (including those with prior prednisolone treatment), serum levels of all measured hormones except pregnenolone were significantly lower as compared to controls. In RA patients without prior prednisolone treatment, serum levels of 17OHPreg, DHEA, cortisol, and ASD were similar to controls, and serum levels of P, 17OHP, and DHEAS were significantly lower as compared to controls. In SLE patients without prior prednisolone treatment, serum levels of 17OHPreg and cortisol were similar, and serum levels of P, 17OHP, ASD, DHEA, and DHEAS were significantly lower as compared to controls. The primary hormone of the adrenal steroid cascade, pregnenolone, is almost normal in RA and SLE irrespective of corticosteroid treatment. In patients with RA, we believe that there is a near normal P450scc reaction and a normal double step P450c17 reaction. In SLE patients, the P450scc reaction also seems normal but the second step of the P450c17 reaction seems to be inhibited. In both diseases, cortisol levels remain relatively stable at the expense of other adrenal hormones. This study revealed distinct changes of steroid pathways that are related to the disease entities.

  5. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Wadas, B.C.; Hartshorn, C.A.; Aurand, E.R.; Palmer, J.S.; Roselli, C.E.; Noel, M.L.; Gore, A.C.; Veeramachaneni, D.N.R.; Tobet, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orall...

  6. Levels of human and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor as determined by specific radioimmunoassay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audhya, T.; Manzione, M.M.; Nakane, T.; Kanie, N.; Passarelli, J.; Russo, M.; Hollander, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies to synthetic human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor [hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 ] and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor [rhGRF(1-43)OH] were produced in rabbits. A subsequent booster injection by the conventional intramuscular route resulted in high-titer antibodies, which at a 1:20,000 dilution were used to develop highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for these peptides. The antibody to hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 is directed against the COOH-terminal region of the molecule, as shown by its cross reactivity with various hpGRF analogues. Serial dilutions of human and rat hypothalamic extracts demonstrated parallelism with the corresponding species-specific standard and 125 I-labeled tracer. There was no cross reactivity with other neuropeptides, gastrointestinal peptides, or hypothalamic extracts of other species. Age-related changes in hypothalamic GRF content were present in rats, with a gradual increase from 2 to 16 weeks and a correlation between increasing body weight and GRF content. These radioimmunoassays will serve as important tools for understanding the regulation of growth hormone secretion in both human and rat

  7. Investigation of the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen parameters and male reproductive system hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Budak, Salih; Aksoy, Evrim Emre; Yücel, Cem; Karamazak, Serkan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Kozacıoğlu, Zafer

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) ratio on semen parameters and serum reproductive hormones. The data of 454 patients who prsented to male infertility clinics in our hospital between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Weight, height, serum hormone levels and semen analysis results of the patients were obtained. BMI values were calculated by using the weight and height values of the patients and they were classified as group 1 for BMI values ≤ 25 kg/m2, as group 2 for BMI values 25-30 kg/m2 and as group 3 for BMI values ≥ 30 kg/m2. The mean values of BMI, semen volume, concentration, total motility, progressive motility, total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC), normal morphology according to Kruger, head abnormality, neck abnormality, tail abnormality, FSH, LH, prolactin, T/E2, total testosterone and estradiol parameters of the patients were considered. Patients were divided according to BMI values in Group 1 (n = 165), Group 2 (n = 222) and Group 3 (n = 56). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of all variables between the groups. We analyzed the relationship between BMI level and semen parameters and reproductive hormones, demonstrating no relationship between BMI and semen parameters. In our study, BMI does not affect semen parameters although it shows negative correlation with prolactin and testosterone levels.

  8. Investigation of the effect of body mass index (BMI on semen parameters and male reproductive system hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI ratio on semen parameters and serum reproductive hormones. Materials and methods: The data of 454 patients who prsented to male infertility clinics in our hospital between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Weight, height, serum hormone levels and semen analysis results of the patients were obtained. BMI values were calculated by using the weight and height values of the patients and they were classified as group 1 for BMI values ≤ 25 kg/m2, as group 2 for BMI values 25-30 kg/m2 and as group 3 for BMI values ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: The mean values of BMI, semen volume, concentration, total motility, progressive motility, total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC, normal morphology according to Kruger, head abnormality, neck abnormality, tail abnormality, FSH, LH, prolactin, T/E2, total testosterone and estradiol parameters of the patients were considered. Patients were divided according to BMI values in Group 1 (n = 165, Group 2 (n = 222 and Group 3 (n = 56. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of all variables between the groups. Conclusions: We analyzed the relationship between BMI level and semen parameters and reproductive hormones, demonstrating no relationship between BMI and semen parameters. In our study, BMI does not affect semen parameters although it shows negative correlation with prolactin and testosterone levels.

  9. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  10. The effects of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine systems of elderly men: the role of cytokines and anabolic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Valéria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background a decline in immune and endocrine function occurs with aging. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine system of elderly men. The possible interaction between these systems was also analysed. Results elderly runners showed a significantly higher T cell proliferative response and IL-2 production than sedentary elderly controls. IL-2 production was similar to that in young adults. Their serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower than their sedentary peers. They also showed significantly lower IL-3 production in comparison to sedentary elderly subjects but similar to the youngs. Anabolic hormone levels did not differ between elderly groups and no clear correlation was found between hormones and cytokine levels. Conclusion highly conditioned elderly men seem to have relatively better preserved immune system than the sedentary elderly men. Long-term endurance training has the potential to decelerate the age-related decline in immune function but not the deterioration in endocrine function.

  11. Growth hormone response to GRF 1-44 in children following cranial irradiation for central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberfield, S.E.; Kirkland, J.L.; Frantz, A.; Allen, J.C.; Levine, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) responses to (A) GRF 1-44, 1 microgram/kg i.v., (B) L-dopa and either arginine, insulin, or glucagon, and (C) exercise were evaluated in 10 children (3 girls, 7 boys; ages 10 years to 15 years, 8 months), 2-10.75 years following cranial irradiation for medulloblastoma (8 patients), pineoblastoma (1 patient), and a fourth ventricular ependymoma (1 patient). Nine of the 10 children had abnormal growth rates. All children were euthyroid at the time of the study. The mean 0-60-min peak GH response to GRF (10.06 +/- 2.6 ng/ml) in the patients was less than the mean peak GH response (29 +/- 2.3 ng/ml) in the control children (n = 7). In 6 patients (5 with poor growth rates), a decreased GH response was noted to GRF and all other tests. Of the remaining patients, all with poor growth rates, two patients demonstrated an adequate response to GRF and pharmacologic testing; one patient had a normal GH response to GRF with a low GH response to pharmacologic testing; and one patient had a low response to GRF, despite a normal response to both exercise and pharmacologic testing. The decrease in mean peak GH response to GRF in the patient population confirms that radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary region produces abnormalities in growth hormone release. Furthermore, in these patients, discordant GH responses to GRF and pharmacologic or physiologic tests can be observed. The abnormality in growth hormone release may result from a hypothalamic dysfunction in GRF release and/or damage to GH secretory pituicytes

  12. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  13. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  14. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  15. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  17. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  18. Effects of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum cells in a spheroid cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, A; Keck, C; Weber, H; Kissel, C; Pietrowski, D

    2005-09-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a highly vascularized, temporarily active endocrine gland and consists mainly of granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells (TCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Its cyclic growth and development takes place under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. If pregnancy does occur, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) takes over the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) and, in contrast to LH, extends the functional life span of the CL. In this study, we investigated the effects of hCG and LH in a spheroidal cell culture model of CL development. Our data indicate that GCs secrete factors under the control of hCG that increase sprout formation of EC-spheroids. We demonstrate that the most prominent of these factors is VEGF-A. Furthermore, we found that both LH and hCG decrease sprout formation of GC-spheroids. After forming EC-GC coculture spheroids and consequently bringing GCs and ECs in close contact, sprouting increased under the influence of hCG, however not under LH. These experiments provide evidence for an hCG dependent functional switch in the GCs after coming in contact with ECs. Moreover, it demonstrates the considerably different effects of hCG and LH on GCs although their signaling is transmitted via the same receptor.

  19. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  20. Screening of multiple hormonal activities in surface water and sediment from the Pearl River system, South China, using effect-directed in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Yang, Bin; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports screening of multiple hormonal activities (estrogenic and androgenic activities, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities) for surface water and sediment from the Pearl River system (Liuxi, Zhujiang, and Shijing rivers) in South China, using in vitro recombinant yeast bioassays. The detection frequencies for estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities were both 100% in surface water and 81 and 93% in sediment, respectively. The levels of estrogenic activity were 0.23 to 324 ng 17β-estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 101 ng EEQ/g in sediment. Antiandrogenic activities were in the range of 20.4 to 935 × 10(3) ng flutamide equivalent concentration (FEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 154 × 10(3) ng FEQ/g in sediment. Moreover, estrogenic activity and antiandrogenic activity in sediment showed good correlation (R(2) = 0.7187), suggesting that the agonists of estrogen receptor and the antagonists of androgen receptor co-occurred in sediment. The detection frequencies for androgenic and antiestrogenic activities were 41 and 29% in surface water and 61 and 4% in sediment, respectively. The levels of androgenic activities were 0 to 45.4 ng dihydrotestosterone equivalent concentration (DEQ)/L in surface water, and the potency was very weak in the only detected sediment site. The levels of antiestrogenic activity were 0 to 1,296 × 10(3) ng tamoxifen equivalent concentration (TEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 89.5 × 10(3) ng TEQ/g in sediment. The Shijing River displayed higher levels of hormonal activities than the Zhujiang and Liuxi rivers, indicating that the Shijing River had been suffering from heavy contamination with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The equivalent concentrations of hormonal activities in some sites were greater than the lowest-observed-effect concentrations reported in the literature, suggesting potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. The gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Lpxrfa) system's regulation of reproduction in the brain-pituitary axis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Zmora, Nilli; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Gothilf, Yoav; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-05-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (LPXRFamide (Lpxrfa) peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary. In the preoptic area, Lpxrfa fibers interact with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3) soma. In pituitary explants, zebrafish peptide Lpxrfa-3 downregulated luteinizing hormone beta subunit and common alpha subunit expression. In addition, Lpxrfa-3 reduced gnrh3 expression in brain slices, offering another pathway for Lpxrfa to exert its effects on reproduction. Receptor activation studies, in a heterologous cell-based system, revealed that all three zebrafish Lpxrfa peptides activate Lpxrf-R2 and Lpxrf-R3 via the PKA/cAMP pathway. Receptor activation studies demonstrated that, in addition to activating Lpxrf receptors, zebrafish Lpxrfa-2 and Lpxrfa-3 antagonize Kisspeptin-2 (Kiss2) activation of Kisspeptin receptor-1a (Kiss1ra). The fact that kiss1ra-expressing neurons in the preoptic area are innervated by Lpxrfa-ir fibers suggests an additional pathway for Lpxrfa action. Therefore, our results suggest that Lpxrfa may act as a reproductive inhibitory neuropeptide in the zebrafish that interacts with Gnrh3 neurons in the brain and with gonadotropes in the pituitary, while also potentially utilizing the Kiss2/Kiss1ra pathway. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. PANCREATIC AND EXTRA-PANCREATIC EFFECTS OF INCRETINS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR STUDYING ENTEROINSULIN HORMONAL SYSTEM DURING GESTATIONAL DISORDER OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.

  3. The African froghopper Ptyelus flavescens (suborder: Cicadomorpha) contains two novel and one known peptides of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family: structure, function and comparison with aphid AKH (suborder: Sternorrhyncha)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2017), s. 1679-1690 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-22276S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ´green´ insecticide * receptor-ligand interaction * insects Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.173, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-017-2461-y

  4. Modulation of xenobiotic biotransformation system and hormonal responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne Skjetne; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-04-01

    Multiple biological effects of tributyltin (TBT) on juvenile salmon have been investigated. Fish were exposed for 7 days to waterborne TBT at nominal concentrations of 50 and 250 microg/L dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Hepatic samples were analyzed for gene expression patterns in the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways using validated real-time PCR method. Immunochemical and several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin: EROD, benzyloxyresorufin: BROD, methoxyresorufin: MROD and pentoxyresorufin: PROD) assays were analyzed. Our data show that TBT produced concentration-specific decrease of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) and increase of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) in the hormonal pathway. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced apparent increase and decrease at respective low and high concentration, on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha), AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA. The expression of CYP1A1 and GST showed a TBT concentration-dependent decrease. The AhRbeta, CYP3A and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) mRNA expressions were significantly induced after exposure to TBT. Immunochemical analysis of CYP3A and CYP1A1 protein levels confirmed the TBT effects observed at the transcriptional levels. The effect of TBT on the biotransformation enzyme gene expressions partially co-related but did not directly parallel enzyme activity levels for EROD, BROD, MROD and PROD. In general, these findings confirm previous reports on the endocrine effects of TBT, in addition to effects on hepatic CYP1A isoenzyme at the transcriptional level that transcends to protein and enzymatic levels. The induced expression patterns of CYP3A and UGT mRNA after TBT exposure, suggest the involvement of CYP3A and UGT in TBT metabolism in fish. The effect of TBT on CYP3A is proposed to

  5. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  6. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  7. An accurate determination of human grawth hormone content in different pituitary extracts, using a radioimmunoassay with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a bound-free separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoline, P.; Assis, L.M. de; Scwarz, I.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Human growth hormone was extracted and purified according to the method of Roos et al. A first control of its purification and integrity was performed through molecular weight determination by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and on plyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Its biological activity was confirmed by the growth promoted in non-hypophysectomized rats at plateau. The main object, however, was the setting up of an accurate, reproducible method that could furnish the more absolute and comparable value of rafioimmunoassayable HGH content in perfect agreement with the results obtained by other laboratories. This was accomplished through a radioimmunoassay system that uses HGH labelled with 125 I, where the separation of the bound from the free antigen is achieved on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, by a modification introduced in the original method of Davis. The resulting values, extremely close to that stated by the KABI-Laboratories (Stockolm), through obtained in quite different conditions of incubation, antibody concentration and with no use of second antibody, represent a confident approach to a comparable measure of this hormone in extract, which can also be applied to plasma determinations [pt

  8. Curcumin and Quercetin Ameliorated Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin-Induced Reproductive System Impairment in Male Wistar Rats by Upregulating The Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp and deltamethrin (Del and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw, group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw, group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each, group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw, group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxi- dant glutathione (GSH and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO. The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly

  9. CriticalSorb: a novel efficient nasal delivery system for human growth hormone based on Solutol HS15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illum, Lisbeth; Jordan, Faron; Lewis, Andrew L

    2012-08-20

    The absorption enhancing efficiency of CriticalSorb for human growth hormone (MW 22 kDa) was investigated in the conscious rat model. The principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb, Solutol HS15, comprises polyglycol mono- and di-esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid combined with free polyethylene glycol. When administering hGH nasally in rats with increasing concentrations of Solutol HS15, it was found that for a 10%w/v solution formulation a bioavailability of 49% was obtained in the first 2h after administration. Furthermore it was shown that the most effective ratio of Solutol HS15 to hGH was 4:1 on a mg to mg basis. Histopathology studies in rats after 5 days repeated nasal administration showed that Solutol HS15 had no toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. These results have been confirmed in a 6 month repeat nasal toxicity study in rats. It can be concluded that the principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb - Solutol HS15 - is a potent and non- toxic nasal absorption enhancer that warrants further development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endocrine determinants of haemostasis and thrombosis risk: Focus on thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, L.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores endocrine determinants of the haemostatic system and thrombosis risk with main focus on thyroid hormone. It describes, in three parts, the effects of thyroid hormone on the haemostatic system, the effects of thyroid hormone (mimetics) on lipids and the effects of other hormones

  11. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients. [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s being treated. Results: The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16. Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day. All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8; four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity.

  13. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  14. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, B.C.; Hartshorn, C.A.; Aurand, E.R.; Palmer, J.S.; Roselli, C.E.; Noel, M.L.; Gore, A.C.; Veeramachaneni, D.N.R.; Tobet, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orally with vinclozolin, flutamide, or carrot paste vehicle for the last two weeks of gestation. Offspring were euthanized at birth (males and females), PNW6 (females), PNW26 (adult males), or PNW30 (adult females) of age. At birth and in adults, brains were sectioned and processed for immunoreactive GnRH. The numbers of immunoreactive GnRH neuronal perikarya were significantly decreased in vinclozolin-treated rabbits at birth and in adult littermates. By contrast, there was an increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the terminals in the region of the median eminence. Analysis of PNW6 female brains by radioimmunoassay (RIA) revealed a two-fold increase in GnRH peptide content in the mediobasal hypothalamus in vinclozolin-treated rabbits. This finding was complemented by immunofluorescence analyses that showed a 2.8-fold increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence of vinclozolin compared to vehicle-treated females at PNW30. However, there was no difference between treatment groups in the measures of reproduction that were evaluated: ejaculation latency, conception rates or litter size. These results indicate that subacute, prenatal vinclozolin treatment is sufficient to create perdurable alterations in the GnRH neuronal network that forms an important input into the reproductive axis. Finally, the effect of vinclozolin on the GnRH neuronal network was not comparable to that of flutamide, suggesting that vinclozolin was not acting through anti-androgenic mechanisms. PMID

  15. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, B C; Hartshorn, C A; Aurand, E R; Palmer, J S; Roselli, C E; Noel, M L; Gore, A C; Veeramachaneni, D N R; Tobet, S A

    2010-06-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and rostral preoptic area by postnatal week (PNW) 6. In the present study, in an aim to further examine the disruption of GnRH neurones by foetal vinclozolin exposure, pregnant rabbits were dosed orally with vinclozolin, flutamide or carrot paste vehicle for the last 2 weeks of gestation. Offspring were euthanised at birth (males and females), PNW 6 (females), PNW 26 (adult males) or PNW 30 (adult females) of age. At birth and in adults, brains were sectioned and processed for immunoreactive GnRH. The numbers of immunoreactive GnRH neuronal perikarya were significantly decreased in vinclozolin-treated rabbits at birth and in adult littermates. By contrast, there was an increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the terminals in the region of the median eminence. Analysis of PNW 6 female brains by radioimmunoassay revealed a two-fold increase in GnRH peptide content in the mediobasal hypothalamus in vinclozolin-treated rabbits. This finding was complemented by immunofluorescence analyses, which revealed a 2.8-fold increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence of vinclozolin compared to vehicle-treated females at PNW 30. However, there was no difference between treatment groups in the measures of reproduction that were evaluated: ejaculation latency, conception rates or litter size. These results indicate that sub-acute, prenatal vinclozolin treatment is sufficient to create perdurable alterations in the GnRH neuronal network that forms an important input into the reproductive axis. Finally, the effect of vinclozolin on the GnRH neuronal network was not comparable to that of flutamide, suggesting that vinclozolin was not acting through anti-androgenic mechanisms.

  16. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.; Awh, O.D.; Park, K.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), various experiments such as 125 I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  17. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  18. Effect of a hormone-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and Cox-2 expression in patients with adenomyosis submitted or not, to endometrial resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1, Julio Casoy1, Rebeca Maia1, Nathanael Pinheiro3, Elsimar M Coutinho11Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3IMAGEPAT, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate the effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression in the endometrium of patients with adenomyosis who were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of insertion, compared to a group not submitted to endometrial resection and a group of controls with adenomyosis not submitted to any previous hormonal treatment.Patients and methods: Patients with adenomyosis (n = 89 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients had been using Mirena® for 5 years but had not been submitted to endometrial resection prior to insertion of the device. Twenty-four patients were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of Mirena® insertion. The remaining 43 patients with adenomyosis had undergone no previous hormonal treatment and served as a control group. Cox-2 and aromatase expression were determined in the endometrium by immunohistochemistry.Results: Use of Mirena® for 5 years reduced aromatase expression in the endometrium; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the uteri previously submitted to endometrial resection. The reduction in Cox-2 expression was significant only in the uteri submitted to endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena®.Conclusion: Endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena® was associated with greater rates of amenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis, which in turn were associated with a more effective inhibition of aromatase and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: aromatase, Mirena®, adenomyosis, Cox-2, endometrium, levonorgestrel

  19. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  20. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  1. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  2. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  3. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, J.I.; Lewin, N.; Burgett, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

  4. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  5. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  6. Agatoxin-like peptides in the neuroendocrine system of the honey bee and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Ramesh, Divya; Brockmann, Axel; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2016-01-30

    We investigated the peptide inventory of the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, by direct tissue profiling using MALDI-TOF MS combined with proteomic approaches focusing on cysteine-containing peptides. An agatoxin-like peptide (ALP) was identified as a component of the glandular part of the CC and was associated with the presence of the adipokinetic hormone in mass spectra. Although abundant in the CC, ALP does not belong to the toxins observed in the venom gland of A. mellifera. Homologs of ALP are highly conserved in major groups of arthropods and in line with this we detected ALP in the CC of non-venomous insects such as cockroaches and silverfish. In the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, ALP was also identified in the CNS and stomatogastric nervous system. This is the first report that establishes the presence of ALPs in the neuroendocrine tissues of insects and further studies are necessary to reveal common functions of these peptides, e.g. as antimicrobial agents, ion channel modulators or classical neuropeptides. Among the messenger molecules of the nervous system, neuropeptides represent the structurally most diverse class and basically participate in the regulation of all physiological processes. The set of neuropeptides, their functions and spatial distribution are particularly well-studied in insects. Until now, however, several potential neuropeptide receptors remained orphan, which indicates the existence of so far unknown ligands. In our study, we used proteomic methods such as cysteine modification, enzymatic digestion and peptide derivatization, combined with direct tissue profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, for the discovery of novel putative messenger molecules in the neuroendocrine system. The described presence of agatoxin-like peptides in the nervous system of the honey bee and other insects was overseen so far and is thus a remarkable addition to the very well studied neuropeptidome of insects. It is not

  7. Altered activity of the sympathetic nervous system and changes in the balance of hypophyseal, pituitary and adrenal hormones in patients with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, M; Hamann, G F; Grauer, M; Fischer, C; Blaes, F; Hoffmann, K H; Schimrigk, K

    1996-05-17

    Twelve patients (age 43.4 +/- 6.3 years) with episodic cluster headache (CH) were examined during the cluster period. Plasma norepinephrine levels in patients suffering from CH were significantly decreased compared with the control group (p < 0.01). There were also statistically significant correlations between norepinephrine levels and clinical features of the pain attacks including duration (r = 0.75, p < 0.05), intensity (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) and frequency (r = 0.68, p < 0.06), thereby suggesting a pathophysiological involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in CH. Increased plasma levels of plasmacortisol and ACTH in patients with CH, especially in the morning and in the evening, suggest an alteration of the feedback circuit involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal gland, an imbalance in the hormones related to these structures, as well as an alteration of the circadian rhythm. In addition, CH patients demonstrated significantly decreased levels of norepinephrine (p < 0.05), HVA (p < 0.01) and 5-HIAA (p < 0.01) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) consistent with a central genesis of CH. These significant relationships between neurochemical parameters and the clinical patterns suggest a complex interplay between the hypothalamus, neuroendocrinological parameters, activity of the autonomic nervous system and the pain of CH.

  8. The neuroimmune-endocrine axis: pathophysiological implications for the central nervous system cytokines and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormone dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Licinio

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are molecules that were initially discovered in the immune system as mediators of communication between various types of immune cells. However, it soon became evident that cytokines exert profound effects on key functions of the central nervous system, such as food intake, fever, neuroendocrine regulation, long-term potentiation, and behavior. In the 80's and 90's our group and others discovered that the genes encoding various cytokines and their receptors are expressed in vascular, glial, and neuronal structures of the adult brain. Most cytokines act through cell surface receptors that have one transmembrane domain and which transduce a signal through the JAK/STAT pathway. Of particular physiological and pathophysiological relevance is the fact that cytokines are potent regulators of hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems that maintain neuroendocrine homeostasis and which regulate the body's response to stress. The mechanisms by which cytokine signaling affects the function of stress-related neuroendocrine systems are reviewed in this article.

  9. Association between asthma and female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Raquel Prudente de Carvalho; Silva, Ivaldo

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sex hormones and asthma has been evaluated in several studies. The aim of this review article was to investigate the association between asthma and female sex hormones, under different conditions (premenstrual asthma, use of oral contraceptives, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy). Narrative review of the medical literature, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). We searched the CAPES journal portal, a Brazilian platform that provides access to articles in the MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used based on Medical Subject Headings: asthma, sex hormones, women and use of oral contraceptives. The associations between sex hormones and asthma remain obscure. In adults, asthma is more common in women than in men. In addition, mortality due to asthma is significantly higher among females. The immune system is influenced by sex hormones: either because progesterone stimulates progesterone-induced blocking factor and Th2 cytokines or because contraceptives derived from progesterone and estrogen stimulate the transcription factor GATA-3. The associations between asthma and female sex hormones remain obscure. We speculate that estrogen fluctuations are responsible for asthma exacerbations that occur in women. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of estrogen, it decreases TNF-α production, interferon-γ expression and NK cell activity. We suggest that further studies that highlight the underlying physiopathological mechanisms contributing towards these interactions should be conducted.

  10. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  11. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  12. Hormone regulation system and cyclic nucleotids in the Chernobyl accident liquidators with doses absorbed less then 1 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    During 6 years after the accident (1987-1992) a functional state of endocrine system that regulate the adaptation, reproduction, metabolism, vessels tonicity and water-electrolyte balance were investigated in 249 liquidators with doses absorbed less then 1 Gy. The changes of these systems activity in state of basal secretion and peculiarities of their reactions under influence of perturbation (adrenaline, insulin) were revealed. Post-irradiation endocrinopathy was characterized and its role in decrease of the organism's adaptation and in mechanism of sanogenesis and pathogenesis was found. (author)

  13. Utility of the CPS+EG staging system in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmé, Frederik; Lederer, Bianca; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban Dan; Denkert, Carsten; Eidtmann, Holger; Gerber, Bernd; Hanusch, Claus; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Jackisch, Christian; Kümmel, Sherko; Loibl, Sibylle; Paepke, Stefan; Untch, Michael; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Schneeweiss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) correlates with overall survival (OS) in primary breast cancer. A recently described staging system based on pre-treatment clinical stage (CS), final pathological stage (PS), estrogen receptor (ER) status and nuclear grade (NG) leads to a refined estimation of prognosis in unselected patients. Its performance in luminal type breast cancers has not been determined. This study investigates the clinical utility of this CPS+EG score when restricted to hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) patients and compares the results to a cohort of unselected patients. The CPS+EG score was calculated for 6637 unselected patients and 2454 patients with HR+/HER2- tumours who received anthracycline/taxane-based NACT within 8 prospective German trials. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and OS were 75.6% and 84.1% for the unselected cohort and 80.6% and 87.8% for the HR+/HER2- subgroup, respectively. The CPS+EG system distinguished different prognostic groups with 5-year DFS ranging from 0% to 91%. The CPS+EG system leads to an improved categorisation of patients by outcome compared to CS, PS, ER or NG alone. When applying the CPS+EG score to the HR+/HER2- subgroup, a shift to lower scores was observed compared to the overall population, but 5-year DFS and OS for the individual scores were identical to that observed in the overall population. In HR+/HER2- patients, the CPS+EG staging system retains its ability to facilitate a refined stratification of patients according to outcome. It can help to select candidates for post-neoadjuvant clinical trials in luminal breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress and Female Reproductive System: Disruption of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/Opiate Balance by Sympathetic Nerve Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays stress is an integral part of everyday living and the physiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to stressful situations have been extensively studied for decades. The stress response is a necessary mechanism but disrupts homeostatic process and it is sub served by a complex system located in both the central nervous system (CNS and the periphery. Stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Normal activation of the HPA axis is essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and responses to stress and they are critical for adapting to changes in the external environment. The regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classical feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The present overview focuses on the neuroendocrine infrastructure of the adaptive response to stress and its effects on the female reproductive system

  15. Thyroid hormone and the central control of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that thyroid hormone has profound direct effects on metabolism and cardiovascular function. More recently, it was shown that the hormone also modulates these systems by actions on the central autonomic control. Recent studies that either manipulated thyroid hormone signalling in anatomical areas of the brain or analysed seasonal models with an endogenous fluctuation in hypothalamic thyroid hormone levels revealed that the hormone controls energy turnover. However, most of these studies did not progress beyond the level of anatomical nuclei; thus, the neuronal substrates as well as the molecular mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. This review summarises the evidence for a role of thyroid hormone in the central autonomic control of peripheral homeostasis and advocates novel strategies to address thyroid hormone action in the brain on a cellular level.

  16. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  17. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  18. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  19. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  20. Anti-Mullerian hormone trend evaluation after laparoscopic surgery of monolateral endometrioma using a new dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) for hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Luigi; Angioni, Stefano; Sorrentino, Felice; Cinnella, Gilda; Lombardi, Michela; Greco, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Operative laparoscopy is the gold standard in the treatment of endometriotic ovarian cysts. Excisional surgery is the best technique to prevent recurrences and improve symptoms but it may result in ovarian reserve damage due to the removal of healthy ovarian cortex. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on ovarian reserve of the use of dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) hemostasis after stripping technique of monolateral endometrioma, by dosing the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). This prospective study was conducted at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, from December 2013 to January 2015. Forty-five women underwent excision of monolateral endometriotic ovarian cyst by stripping without using a bipolar coagulation and performing hemostasis with a DWLS. The AMH serum levels were estimated before the surgery (T0), 4-6 weeks (T1) and 6-9 months (T2) after surgery. Our results suggest that an appropriate surgical technique with the use of laser hemostasis does not determine a significant reduction of ovarian reserve. Laser hemostasis could prevent follicular reserve loss after ovarian endometrioma surgery.

  1. Uptake of 14C-labelled chloroquine and an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in some polypeptide hormone producing cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Tjaelve, H.

    1976-01-01

    After the injection of 14 C-labelled chloroquine and the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3 1 -dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline [ 125 I]DAPQ into mice, rats and a monkey the distribution of the radioactivity was studied by autoradiographical methods. A high and persistent uptake occurred in some endocrine cell systems, such as the pancreatic islets, the hypophysis, the adrenal medulla and the thyroid (in cells that were probably identical with the parafollicular cells). The melanin-containing tissues were the only ones which showed a higher uptake and retention of radioactivity. The above mentioned endocrine cells and the melanocytes have a common embryological origin and common morphological and cytochemical characteristics. They have been called the APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation)-cell series. It is proposed that the polypeptide hormone producing cells and the melanocytes may use a similar mechanism for accumulating chloroquine and (as shown earlier) also some other drugs such as nicotine, alprenolol, local anesthetics and atropine. These drugs however, accumulate stronger within the melanocytes and become bound to the melanin for a long time. The ability to accumulate these drugs may be considered another characteristic of the APUD-cell series. (author)

  2. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  3. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Changes in hormonal balance and meristematic activity in primary root tips on the slowly rotating clinostat and their effect on the development of the rapeseed root system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrouf, J; Schoevaert, D; Maldiney, R; Perbal, G

    1999-04-01

    The morphometry of the root system, the meristematic activity and the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin in the primary root tips of rapeseed seedlings were analyzed as functions of time on a slowly rotating clinostat (1 rpm) or in the vertical controls (1 rpm). The fresh weight of the root system was 30% higher throughout the growth period (25 days) in clinorotated seedlings. Morphometric analysis showed that the increase in biomass on the clinostat was due to greater primary root growth, earlier initiation and greater elongation of the secondary roots, which could be observed even in 5-day-old seedlings. However, after 15 days, the growth of the primary root slowed on the clinostat, whereas secondary roots still grew faster in clinorotated plants than in the controls. At this time, the secondary roots began to be initiated closer to the root tip on the clinostat than in the control. Analysis of the meristematic activity and determination of the levels in IAA, ABA and zeatin in the primary root tips demonstrated that after 5 days on the clinostat, the increased length of the primary root could be the consequence of higher meristematic activity and coincided with an increase in both IAA and ABA concentrations. After 15 days on the clinostat, a marked increase in IAA, ABA and zeatin, which probably reached supraoptimal levels, seems to cause a progressive disturbance of the meristematic cells, during a decrease of primary root growth between 15 and 25 days. These modifications in the hormonal balance and the perturbation of the meristematic activity on the clinostat were followed by a loss of apical dominance, which was responsible for the early initiation of secondary roots, the greater elongation of the root system and the emergence of the lateral roots near the tip of the primary root.

  5. The "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertoghe, T

    2005-12-01

    In the human body, the productions, levels and cell receptors of most hormones progressively decline with age, gradually putting the body into various states of endocrine deficiency. The circadian cycles of these hormones also change, sometimes profoundly, with time. In aging individuals, the well-balanced endocrine system can fall into a chaotic condition with losses, phase-advancements, phase delays, unpredictable irregularities of nycthemeral hormone cycles, in particular in very old or sick individuals. The desynchronization makes hormone activities peak at the wrong times and become inefficient, and in certain cases health threatening. The occurrence of multiple hormone deficits and spilling through desynchronization may constitute the major causes of human senescence, and they are treatable causes. Several arguments can be put forward to support the view that senescence is mainly a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome: First, many if not most of the signs, symptoms and diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, dementia) of senescence are similar to physical consequences of hormone deficiencies and may be caused by hormone deficiencies. Second, most of the presumed causes of senescence such as excessive free radical formation, glycation, cross-linking of proteins, imbalanced apoptosis system, accumulation of waste products, failure of repair systems, deficient immune system, may be caused or favored by hormone deficiencies. Even genetic causes such as limits to cell proliferation (such as the Hayflick limit of cell division), poor gene polymorphisms, premature telomere shortening and activation of possible genetic "dead programs" may have links with hormone deficiencies, being either the consequence, the cause, or the major favoring factor of hormone deficiencies. Third, well-dosed and -balanced hormone supplements may slow down or stop the progression of signs, symptoms, or diseases of senescence and may often

  6. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  7. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, J.; Lyons, D.J.; Sällström, J.; Vujoviv, M.; Dudazy-Gralla, S.; Warner, A.; Wallis, K.; Alkemade, A.; Nordström, K.; Monyer, H.; Broberger, C.; Arner, A.; Vennström, B.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s

  8. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  9. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  10. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  11. Hormone replacement therapy in Denmark, 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Møller, Lisbeth Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (NRM) was opened for research purposes, and therefore, on an individual basis, can merge with other national registers. The aim of this study was to analyse the use of hormones based on the individual data of the entire Danish...... female population, with the focus on a detailed evaluation of specific hormone regimens and factors associated with systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT)....

  12. Effects of a soy-based dietary supplement compared with low-dose hormone therapy on the urogenital system: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, Lucio O; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Montemor, Eliana B; Arias, Victor A; Costa-Paiva, Lucia H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a soy-based dietary supplement, low-dose hormone therapy (HT), and placebo on the urogenital system in postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 60 healthy postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years (mean time since menopause, 4.1 y) were randomized into three groups: a soy dietary supplement group (90 mg of isoflavone), a low-dose HT group (1 mg of estradiol plus 0.5 mg of norethisterone), and a placebo group. Urinary, vaginal, and sexual complaints were evaluated using the urogenital subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. Vaginal maturation value was calculated. Transvaginal sonography was performed to evaluate endometrial thickness. Genital bleeding pattern was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, paired Student's t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and analysis of variance. For intergroup comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (followed by Mann-Whitney U test) was used. Vaginal dryness improved significantly in the soy and HT groups (P = 0.04). Urinary and sexual symptoms did not change with treatment in the three groups. After 16 weeks of treatment, there was a significant increase in maturation value only in the HT group (P < 0.01). Vaginal pH decreased only in this group (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in endometrial thickness between the three groups, and the adverse effects evaluated were similar. This study shows that a soy-based dietary supplement used for 16 weeks fails to exert estrogenic action on the urogenital tract but improves vaginal dryness.

  13. Expression and distribution of octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the central nervous system and peripheral organs of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Kanda, Atshuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2004-09-20

    We recently purified a peptide with structural features similar to vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the brain of Octopus vulgaris, cloned a cDNA encoding the precursor protein, and named it oct-GnRH. In the current study, we investigated the expression and distribution of oct-GnRH throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organs of Octopus by in situ hybridization on the basis of the cDNA sequence and by immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum against oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH mRNA-expressing cell bodies were located in 10 of 19 lobes in the supraesophageal and subesophageal parts of the CNS. Several oct-GnRH-like immunoreactive fibers were seen in all the neuropils of the CNS lobes. The sites of oct-GnRH mRNA expression and the mature peptide distribution were consistent with each other as judged by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In addition, many immunoreactive fibers were distributed in peripheral organs such as the heart, the oviduct, and the oviducal gland. Modulatory effects of oct-GnRH on the contractions of the heart and the oviduct were demonstrated. The results suggested that, in the context of reproduction, oct-GnRH is a key peptide in the subpedunculate lobe and/or posterior olfactory lobe-optic gland-gonadal axis, an octopus analogue of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis. It may also act as a modulatory factor in controlling higher brain functions such as feeding, memory, movement, maturation, and autonomic functions

  14. Salt tolerance of Glycine max.L induced by endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus CSH1, via regulating its endogenous hormones and antioxidative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Jan, Rahmatullah; Lee, In-Jung; Hussain, Anwar

    2018-07-01

    Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment. This growth promotion action was due to the presence of various types of GAs and IAA in the endophyte culture filtrate. Significant up regulation with respect to levels in the control was observed in all endogenous plant GAs, after treatment with CHS1. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of CHS1 against NaCl stress up to 400 mM, it was tested for its ability to improve soybean plant growth under NaCl stress. In endophyte-soybean interaction, CHS1 association significantly increased plant growth and attenuated the NaCl stress by down regulating ABA and JA synthesis. Similarly, it significantly elevated antioxidant activities of enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase as compared to non-inoculated salt stress plants. Thus, CHS1 ameliorated the adverse effect of high NaCl stress and rescued soybean plant growth by regulating the endogenous plant hormones and antioxidative system. We conclude that CHS1 isolate could be exploited to increase salt resistant and yield in crop plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  16. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geninatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  19. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  20. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  1. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  2. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  3. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  5. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  6. Induction of a hypothyroid state during juvenile development delays pubertal reactivation of the neuroendocrine system governing luteinising hormone secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D R; Bhat, G K; Stah, C D; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the influence of thyroid status on the timing of the pubertal resurgence in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity [tracked by circulating luteinising hormone (LH) levels] in male rhesus monkeys. Six juvenile monkeys were orchidectomised and then treated with the antithyroid drug, methimazole, from 15-19 months until 36 months of age, at which time thyroxine (T(4)) replacement was initiated. Four additional agonadal monkeys served as controls. Blood samples were drawn weekly for hormonal assessments. Body weight, crown-rump length and bone age were monitored at regular intervals. By 8 weeks of methimazole treatment, plasma T(4) had fallen sharply, and the decline was associated with a plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone increase. In controls, plasma LH levels remained undetectable until the pubertal rise occurred at 29.3 +/- 0.2 months of age. This developmental event occurred in only half of the methimazole-treated animals before 36 months of age when T(4) replacement was initiated. The hypothyroid state was associated with a profound arrest of growth and bone maturation, but increased body mass indices and plasma leptin levels. T(4) replacement in methimazole-treated monkeys was associated with the pubertal rise in LH in the remaining three animals and accelerated somatic development in all six animals. Although pubertal resurgence in LH secretion occurred at a later chronological age in methimazole-treated animals compared to controls, bone age, crown-rump length and body weight at that time did not differ between groups. There were no long-term differences in plasma prolactin between groups. We conclude that juvenile hypothyroidism in male primates causes a marked delay in the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion, probably occasioned at the hypothalamic level. Whether this effect is meditated by an action of thyroid hormone directly on the hypothalamus or indirectly as a result of the concomitant deficit in

  7. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  8. Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimGonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular.MethodsEpidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed.ResultsAnalysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues. Sex hormones can have a neuroprotective action on the retina and modulate ocular blood flow. There are differences between the male and the female retina; moreover, sex hormones can influence the development (or not of certain disorders. For example, exposure to endogenous estrogens, depending on age at menarche and menopause and number of pregnancies, and exposure to exogenous estrogens, as in hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives, appear to protect against age-related macular degeneration (both drusenoid and neurovascular types, whereas exogenous testosterone therapy is a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy. Macular hole is more common among women than men, particularly in postmenopausal women probably owing to the sudden drop in estrogen production in later middle age. Progestin therapy appears to ameliorate the course of retinitis pigmentosa. Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes, may be more common among men than women.ConclusionWe observed a correlation between many retinopathies and sex, probably as a result of the protective effect some gonadal hormones may exert against the development of certain disorders. This may have ramifications for the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of eye disease and of retinal disorders in particular.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  10. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  11. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency and replacement therapy on the hematopoietic system in patients with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Bezalel; Lilos, Pearl; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Primary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiencies, such as in Laron syndrome (LS), are a unique model in man to study the consequences resulting from defects in growth hormone (GH) signal transmission. To assess retrospectively the effect of IGF-I deficiency and its therapy on the various cells of the hematopoietic system as reflected by peripheral blood counts. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of 11 untreated patients with LS, seven males and four females, who were followed from childhood into adult age. Average age at the time of data analysis was 45.4 +/- 9.6 years. The second group included ten children with LS, six males and four females, who received IGF-I replacement therapy for an average period of 6 years, ranging in age from 0.9-11 years. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 6.9 +/- 4.28 years. Only the seven children treated for 5 years or more were included in the analysis. Data on blood counts were collected from the patients' charts. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, weekly during the first month, once a month during the first year, and once every 3 months thereafter. Statistical analysis of the change over time was performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Children with LS had red cell indices in the lower normal range and an elevated monocyte count. A statistically significant rise in red blood cell (RBC) indices was seen in children during IGF-I therapy: RBC rose from 4.66 x 10(6)/ml to 4.93 x 10(6)/ml (p = 0.011); hemoglobin from 11.55 g/dl to 13.01 g/dl (p syndrome, confirms that IGF-I has a strong stimulatory effect on erythropoiesis. In addition, IGF-I therapy had a reducing effect on monocytes and platelets, an effect not previously described. The mechanism by which IGF-I mediates these effects needs further elucidation.

  12. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  13. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  14. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status.

  15. Developmental programming: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programming of the fetus has consequences for physiologic responses in the offspring as an adult and, more recently, is implicated in the expression of altered phenotypes of future generations. Some phenotypes, such as fertility, bone strength, and adiposity are highly relevant to food animal production and in utero factors that impinge on those traits are vital to understand. A key systemic regulatory hormone is growth hormone (GH), which has a developmental role in virtually all tissues and organs. This review catalogs the impact of GH on tissue programming and how perturbations early in development influence GH function.

  16. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  17. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  18. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  19. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  20. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sláma

    2016-01-01

    difference between the warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference, which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water and carbohydrate (-JH; lipid storage in the fat body. The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O 2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  1. Central and peripheral effects of thyroid hormone signalling in the control of energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence points towards a role for thyroid hormone signalling in the central nervous system with respect to the development of symptoms of thyroid disease, in addition to the well-known peripheral effects of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone affects target tissues directly via thyroid

  2. Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M; Crews, D

    2007-01-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  4. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  5. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velíšková, Jana; DeSantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced damage are complex to contradictory and depend on different mechanisms, which have to be accounted for in data interpretation. Both estradiol and progesterone/allopregnanolone may have beneficial effects for patients with epilepsy. Individualized hormonal therapy should be considered as adjunctive treatment in patients with epilepsy to improve seizure control as well as quality of life. PMID:22504305

  6. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical

  7. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  9. Novel neural pathways for metabolic effects of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Eric; Klieverik, Lars P.; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2010-01-01

    The relation between thyrotoxicosis, the clinical syndrome resulting from exposure to excessive thyroid hormone concentrations, and the sympathetic nervous system remains enigmatic. Nevertheless, beta-adrenergic blockers are widely used to manage severe thyrotoxicosis. Recent experiments show that

  10. Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Kloas, Werner; Preuer, Torsten; Hölker, Franz

    2018-01-01

    Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.

  11. Thyroid hormone participates in the regulation of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Pirondi, S; Manservigi, M; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are under thyroid hormone control. In this study we analysed the effects of chronic manipulation of thyroid status on the expression of a wide spectrum of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) markers and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb and optic nerve, and on neural stem cell (NSC) lineage in adult rats. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in male rats, by propyl-thio-uracil (PTU) and L-thyroxin (T4) treatment, respectively. Hypothyroidism increased and hyperthyroidism downregulated proliferation in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (Ki67 immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, bromodeoxyuridine uptake). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFalpha-R) and MBP mRNA levels decreased in the optic nerve of hypothyroid rats; the same also occurred at the level of MBP protein. Hyperthyroidism slightly upregulates selected markers such as NG2 in the olfactory bulb. The lineage of cells derived from primary cultures of NSC prepared from the forebrain of adult hypo- and hyperthyroid also differs from those derived from control animals. Although no difference of in vitro proliferation of NSCs was observed in the presence of epidermal growth factor, maturation of oligodendrocytes (defined by process number and length) was enhanced in hyperthyroidism, suggesting a more mature state than in control animals. This difference was even greater when compared with the hypothyroid group, the morphology of which suggested a delay in differentiation. These results indicate that thyroid hormone affects NSC and OPC proliferation and maturation also in adulthood.

  12. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  13. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone [GH] is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A) + RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A) + RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with [ 3 H]uridine, and quantitating [ 3 H]GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones

  14. Growth hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, A; Longobardi, S; Fazio, S; Saccà, L

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were considered essential only to the control of linear growth, glucose homeostasis, and for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. A large body of evidence recently coming from animal and human studies has unequivocally proven that the heart is a target organ for the GH/IGF-1 axis. Specifically GH exerts both direct and indirect cardiovascular actions. Among the direct effects, the ability of GH to trigger cardiac tissue growth plays a pivotal role. Another direct effect is to augment cardiac contractility, independent of myocardial growth. Direct effects of GH also include the improvement of myocardial energetics and mechanical efficiency. Indirect effects of GH on the heart include decreased peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), expansion of blood volume, increased glomerular filtration rate, enhanced respiratory activity, increased skeletal muscle performance, and psychological well-being. Among them, the most consistently found is the decrease of PVR. GH may also raise preload through its sodium-retaining action and its interference with the hormonal system that regulates water and electrolyte metabolism. Particularly important is the effect of GH on skeletal muscle mass and performance. Taking into account that heart failure is characterized by left ventricular dilation, reduced cardiac contractility, and increase of wall stress and peripheral vascular resistance, GH may be beneficial for treatment of heart failure. Animal studies and preliminary human trials have confirmed the validity of the GH approach to the treatment of heart failure. Larger placebo-controlled human studies represent the main focus of future investigations.

  15. Receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries after treatment with a sustained delivery system of LHRH antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Radulovic, S; Korkut, E; Schally, A V

    1990-12-01

    Membrane receptors for LHRH were evaluated in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries. The receptors were characterized both in untreated animals and after in vivo treatment with microcapsules of the agonist D-Trp6-LHRH and a sustained delivery system releasing different doses (23.8, 47.6, 71.4 micrograms/day) of LHRH antagonist [Ac-D-Nal(2)1-D-Phe(4Cl)2-D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6, D-Ala10]-LHRH (SB-75). The therapy, which lasted 8 weeks, strongly inhibited tumor growth. A group of normal Sprague-Dawley male rats was also treated for 6 weeks with microcapsules of SB-75 releasing 25 micrograms/day. In the Dunning tumors from the control group, ligand [125I, D-Trp6]-LHRH was bound to two classes of binding sites [dissociation constant, class a (Kda) = 1.01 +/- 0.30 x 10(-9) M; Kdb = 1.71 +/- 0.41 x 10(-6) M; maximal binding capacity of receptors, class a (Bmaxa) = 48.66 +/- 22.13 fmol/mg of protein; Bmaxb = 92.10 +/- 29.40 pmol/mg of protein] in both kinetic and equilibrium studies. Treatment with D-Trp6-LHRH produced down-regulation of membrane receptors for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Microcapsules of SB-75 resulted in dose-dependent up-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Analysis of the binding data showed that interaction of labeled D-Trp6-LHRH with binding sites in anterior pituitaries was consistent with the presence of a single class of noncooperative receptors (Kd = 43.75 x 10(-9) M; Bmax = 5.25 pmol/mg membrane proteins). Prolonged treatment with microcapsules of D-Trp6-LHRH reduced both Bmax and Kd. Lower doses of SB-75 (23.8 and 47.6 micrograms/day) produced up-regulation, whereas the highest dose (71.4 micrograms/day) resulted in down-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in rat pituitaries. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, treatment with microcapsules of SB-75 (25 micrograms/day) for 6 weeks produced a slight increase in the number of available binding sites (Bmax = 2.35 +/- 0.82 pmol/mg membrane protein) and a moderate decrease in

  16. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  17. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone. Application to rats and to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fressinaud-Masdefeix, Philippe.

    1976-06-01

    The general principles of antidiuretic hormone secretion are known from kidney function explorations and the use of biological methods. Radioimmunoassay of the hormone should contribute towards a better understanding of this secretion in the fields of both physiology and pathology. After a review on antidiuretic hormone and the methods used so far for its investigation, part two of this work concentrates on the development of our own radioimmunological system applied to this hormone. The system is specific, though interference in the measurement from metabolite(s) of the hormone cannot be absolutely ruled out; reproducible, as witnessed by the 'inter-test' variation coefficient of 8%; and sensitive, since the hormone is easily measured in the urine, when secretion is slowed down. In spite of its sensitivity however the hormone determination in the plasma is not possible for a small sample volume because of the difficulty of obtaining high-affinity specific antibodies. To our knowledge only one plasma ADH determination is in common use to date. Part three is devoted to the application of this technique in rats and man, and the results obtained [fr

  18. Kinetic study of internalization and degradation of 131I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse Sertoli cells and its relevance to other systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Kawashima, S.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of 131I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) after binding to cell-surface receptors in cultured Sertoli cells of C57BL/6NCrj mice was investigated. Sertoli cells cultured in F12/DME were pulse-labeled with 131I-FSH for 10 min at 4 degrees C, followed by cold chase for various periods of time. After the cold chase Sertoli cells were treated with 0.2 M acetate (pH 2.5) to dissociate membrane-bound 131I-FSH (surface radioactivity). The medium containing radioactivity after cold chase was mixed with 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged, and the radioactivity of the supernatant was measured (degraded hormone). The radiolabeled materials associated with each process (surface binding, internalization, and degradation) were concentrated with ultrafiltration and characterized with gel filtration and/or thin layer chromatography. The effects of lysosomotropic agents, NH4Cl and chloroquine, were studied. The cold chase study at 32 degrees C showed that the surface radioactivity was the largest among the three kinds of radioactivities associated with each process immediately after pulse labeling, but the surface radioactivity rapidly decreased, while the internalized radioactivity increased. The cold chase study at 4 degrees C did not show such time-related changes in radioactivities, and a high level of surface radioactivity constantly persisted. The surface and internalized radioactivities were due to 131I-FSH, and the degraded radioactivity was mainly due to [131I]monoiodotyrosine. When Sertoli cells were cultured with lysosomotropic agents, the internalized radioactivity increased, while the degraded radioactivity decreased. Based on these observations, a kinetic model was proposed and the relationships among the surface, internalized, and degraded radioactivities and cold chase time were calculated algebraically

  19. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  20. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  1. [Neuroendocrine effect of sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a generalization of data and the results of own experiments on influence ovarian steroids on the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction. Ovarian hormones have widespread effects throughout the brain: on catecholaminergic neurons and serotonergic pathways and the basal forebrain cholinergic system, as well as the hipocampus, spinal cord, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system, in addition to glial cells and blood-brain barrier. The widespread influences of these various neuronal systems ovarian steroids have measurable effects on mood and affect as well as on cognition, with implications for dementia. There are developmentally programmed sex differenced in hippocampal structure that may help to explain differences in the strategies which male and female rats use to solve spatial navigation problems. The multiple sites and mechanisms of estrogen action in brain underlie a variety of importants effects on cognitive and other brain functions--coordination of movement, pain, affective state, as well as possible protection in Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen withdrawal after natural or surgical menopause can lead to a host of changes in brain function and behavior.

  2. Interrelation of hormonal regulation parameters and metabolic processes in children from the families with radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenjev, M.M.; Kashkalda, D.A.; Borisko, G.O.; Cherevatova, S.Kh.; Bondarenko, V.A.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Spyivak, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Interrelations of the indices of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system with hormone level were investigated in teenagers born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up. Multiple inter-systemic relations indicating participation of hormonal regulation mechanisms in promotion of redox processes were revealed. In girls from the families of Chornobyl accident clean-up participants, LP and AOP processes dependent significantly on the level of steroid hormones. In boys, the relations with thyroid system dominated.

  3. Chemical regulators of plant hormones and their applications in basic research and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Asami, Tadao

    2018-04-20

    Plant hormones are small molecules that play versatile roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Classic methodologies, including genetics, analytic chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology, have contributed to the progress in plant hormone studies. In addition, chemical regulators of plant hormone functions have been important in such studies. Today, synthetic chemicals, including plant growth regulators, are used to study and manipulate biological systems, collectively referred to as chemical biology. Here, we summarize the available chemical regulators and their contributions to plant hormone studies. We also pose questions that remain to be addressed in plant hormone studies and that might be solved with the help of chemical regulators.

  4. Hormonal homeostasis in lung cancer patients under combined and radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotova, I.A.; Firsova, P.P.; Matveenko, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of hormonal homeostasis was performed in 200 lung cancer patients before and after combined and radiation treatment and in 25 healthy subjects (controls). The study showed an increase in the basal level of hormones of pituitary - adrenal system matched by a decline in thyroid function. Adequate combined and radiation treatment brought hormone levels to normal. Hormonal disorders accompanying recurrence were identical to those registered at disease onset. In some cases, changes in hormonal homeostasis developed as early as 3-6 months prior to clinically manifest recurrences or dissemination

  5. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  6. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone in human urine. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebidi, Abdelkrim.

    1977-10-01

    This work is devoted mainly to the development of a radioimmunological system of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) determination in the urine and its physiological and pathological applications. The radioimmunological method thus replaces the biological measurement of antidiuretic hormone in the urine. This new technique was not possible until specific arginine vasopressin antibodies were obtained and a labelled hormone was prepared according to the criteria set for a radioimmunoassay. The labelled hormone is lysine vasopressin (greater stability). Although 125 I-LVP has lost most of its biological activity the molecule keeps all its immunological properties, behaving in the same way as non-iodinated synthetic LVP towards anti-LVP antibodies. Once specific antivasopressin antibodies and immunologically competent labelled hormone were available, conditions were defined for the radioimmunological ADH test in the urine. This technique, relatively easy to use, allows twenty samples to be measured simultaneously. With this sensitive, specific and reproducible method, it is thus possible to estimate the urinary ADH excretion rates from a 20 ml volume of urine after previous extraction on amberlite CG 50. This extraction method is aimed at both concentrating the hormone and eliminating non-specific interferences. The hormone extraction yield is about 92%+-8 [fr

  7. [Neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms of tears production and secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Zywalewska, Nella; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina

    2005-01-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye, and to resist injury and protect the eye against bodily and environmental conditions. Homeostasis of this functional unit involves neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms. The eye appears to be a target organ for sex hormones particulary the androgen, as they modulate the immune system and trophic functions of the lacrimal and Meibomian glands.

  8. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  9. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  10. Protein Internal Dynamics Associated With Pre-System Glass Transition Temperature Endothermic Events: Investigation of Insulin and Human Growth Hormone by Solid State Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Grobelny, Pawel J; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lyophilized proteins are generally stored below their glass transition temperature (T g ) to maintain long-term stability. Some proteins in the (pure) solid state showed a distinct endotherm at a temperature well below the glass transition, designated as a pre-T g endotherm. The pre-T g endothermic event has been linked with a transition in protein internal mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal dynamics of 2 proteins, insulin and human growth hormone (hGH), both of which exhibit the pre-T g endothermic event with onsets at 50°C-60°C. Solid state hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of both proteins was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a temperature range from 30°C to 80°C. A distinct sigmoidal transition in the extent of H/D exchange had a midpoint of 56.1 ± 1.2°C for insulin and 61.7 ± 0.9°C for hGH, suggesting a transition to greater mobility in the protein molecules at these temperatures. The data support the hypothesis that the pre-T g event is related to a transition in internal protein mobility associated with the protein dynamical temperature. Exceeding the protein dynamical temperature is expected to activate protein internal motion and therefore may have stability consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal and clinical social support and adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy among hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients in an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Hershman, Dawn L; Gomez, Scarlett L; Adams, Sara R; Eldridge, Elizabeth H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Kubo, Ai; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2018-04-18

    We evaluated associations between personal and clinical social support and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) in a large, Northern California breast cancer (BC) cohort from an integrated healthcare network. This study included 3382 women from the Pathways Study diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 with stages I-III hormone receptor-positive BC and who responded to the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support and Interpersonal Processes of Care surveys, approximately 2 months post-diagnosis. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between tertiles of social support and non-initiation (social support (P trend = 0.02). Women with moderate (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.45) or low (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60) personal social support were also more likely to discontinue treatment (P trend = 0.01). Furthermore, women with moderate (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.53) or low (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70) personal social support had higher non-adherence (P trend = 0.007). Associations with clinical social support and outcomes were similar. Notably, high clinical social support mitigated the risk of discontinuation when patients' personal support was moderate or low (P value = 0.04). Women with low personal or clinical social support had higher AET non-adherence. Clinician teams may need to fill support gaps that compromise treatment adherence.

  12. Evolution of systemic treatment for hormone-sensitive breast cancer: from sequential use of single agents to the upfront administration of drug combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Imyanitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current standards of treatment of endocrine-dependent cancers (breast cancer (BC, prostate cancer imply sequential use of endocrine therapy and cytotoxic agents: it is believed, that steroid hormone antagonists cease the division of transformed cells and therefore make them resistant to other therapeutic modalities. It is important to recognize that conceptual investigations in this field were carried out dozens of years ago, and often involved relatively non-efficient drugs, imperfect laboratory tests, etc. There are several recent examples of combined use of endocrine therapy and other compounds. The addition of docetaxel (6 cycles to androgen deprivation resulted in significant improvement of overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Clinical trial involving the combined use of exemestane and everolimus demonstrated promising results. There are ongoing studies on inhibitors of cycline-dependent kinases. Use of these drugs in the beginning of endocrine therapy may significantly delay resistance to the antagonists of estrogen signaling.

  13. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  14. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  15. [Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of rats with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and effect of intranasal insulin on it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Sharova, T S; Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    The functional state of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) and its regulation by hormones, the inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (AC)--somatostatin (SST) in the brain and myocardium and 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NOT) in the brain of rats of different ages (5- and 7-month-old) with experimental obesity and a combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and the effect of long-term treatment of animals with intranasally administered insulin (II) on ACSS were studied. It was shown that the basal AC activity in rats with obesity and DM2 was increased in the myocardium, and to the lesser extent in the brain, the treatment with II reducing this parameter. The AC stimulating effects of forskolin are decreased in the myocardium, but not in the brain, of rats with obesity and DM2. The treatment with II restored the AC action of forskolin in the 7-month-old animals, but has little effect on it in the 5-month-old rats. In obesity the basal AC activity and its stimulation by forskolin varied insignificantly and weakly changed in treatment of animals with II. The AC inhibitory effects of SST and 5-NOT in the investigated pathology are essentially attenuated, the effect of SST to the greatest extent, which we believe to be associated with a reduction in the functional activity of Gi-proteins. The II treatment of animals with obesity and with a combination of obesity and DM2 restored completely or partially the AC inhibiting effects of hormones, to the greatest extent in the brain. Since impaired functioning of ACSS is one of the causes of the metabolic syndrome and DM2, their elimination by treatments with II can be an effective approach to treat these diseases and their CNS and cardiovascular system complications.

  16. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  17. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  18. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  19. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  20. Some important concepts in development of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for hormones, viruses and drugs. [Peptide hormones, non-peptide hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, K B; Mani, R S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Section

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures for the quantitative measurement of polypeptide and steroid hormones and other substances of medical and biological interest constitute one of the most important and rapidly expanding groups of applications of radioactive tracers in analytical chemistry and the life sciences. The method consists in setting up assays wherein the isotopically tagged substance is allowed to compete with its non-radioactive counterpart for the limited binding sites of a specific antibody. The degree of competitive inhibition of binding of labelled tracer is determined by measuring the radioactivity of the bound or unbound (free) complex, and comparing with the corresponding values for standard solutions of known concentration. This paper outlines the salient features, and specific problems associated with the preparation, purification of immunoreactive labelled tracers, and other suitable RIA reagents, the stability and storage conditions and standardisation of assay procedure. The characteristics of the assay systems have been investigated in detail and regular quality control has been instituted for evaluating various statistical parameters, inter-assay and intra-assay variances, and effective shelf life of the RIA reagents, with specific reference to assays of insulin growth hormones and thyroid and pregnancy hormones.

  1. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  2. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  3. Role of insulin hormone in modulation of inflammatory phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Petta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence demonstrates the involvement of hormones in thedevelopment of inflammatory response. Inflammation evokes markedstructural alterations of microvasculature, besides migration ofleukocytes from microcirculation to the site of lesion. These alterations are caused primarily by release or activation of endogenous mediators, in which hormones play an integral role in this regulatory system. Binding sites for many hormones may be characterized by vascular structures and hematogenous cells involved with the inflammatory response. Quantitative alterations of inflammatory events involving the decrease in microvascular response to inflammatory mediators, deficiency in the leukocyte-endothelium interaction, reduction of cell concentration in the inflammatory exudate, and failure of the phagocyte function of mononuclear cells were observed in insulindeficient states. Therefore, inflammation is not merely a local response, but rather a process controlled by hormones in which insulin plays an essential role in modulation of these phenomena, and assures tissue repair and remodeling within the limits of normality.

  4. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  5. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systemic photoprotection in solar urticaria with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue [Nle4-D-Phe7]-α-MSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylett, A K; Nie, Z; Brownrigg, M; Taylor, R; Rhodes, L E

    2011-02-01

    Solar urticaria is a rare photosensitivity disorder demonstrating a range of action spectra, which can inflict a very large impact on life quality despite available treatments. Melanin broadly reduces skin penetration by ultraviolet-visible wavelengths, thus increased melanization may protect in solar urticaria. To examine quantitatively for impact of the potent α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogue afamelanotide ([Nle(4)-D-Phe(7)]-α-MSH, Scenesse(®); Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) on the solar urticaria response and skin melanization. Five patients with solar urticaria received a single dose of 16 mg subcutaneous afamelanotide implant in winter time. Melanin density was assessed spectrophotometrically from day 0 to day 60. Detailed monochromated light testing to geometric dose series (increment ) of wavelengths 300-600 nm was performed at 0, 30 and 60 days, with assessment of weal and flare area and minimum urticarial dose (MUD). Data were analysed by repeated-measures anova. Mean melanin density increased by day 7, peaked at day 15 and remained elevated at day 60 (P=0·03, 0·01, 0·02 vs. baseline, respectively). Baseline phototesting revealed action spectra of 320-400 (n=1), 320-500 (n=2), 300-600 (n=1) and 370-500 nm (n=1), and on afamelanotide mean rises in MUD of 1-12 and 1-3 dose increments were seen at the individual wavelengths tested, at 30 and 60 days, respectively. A significant fall in weal area occurred across responding wavelengths from 300 to 600 nm at 60 days postimplant (P=0·049 vs. baseline), accompanied by greater than twofold overall increase in MUD (P=0·058 vs. baseline). Melanization following afamelanotide is accompanied by reduction in solar urticaria response across a broad spectrum of wavelengths. Further study is warranted to assess clinical benefit under ambient conditions in summer. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Sex steroid hormone determination of the maternal brain: effects beyond reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, C H; Meyer, E; Rafferty, K A

    2012-10-01

    Herein we discuss the effects of hormones on reproduction, but with a focus on the ripples that emanate from the main effects. That is, the role of hormones in reproductive events is both well-known and well accepted; less studied and understood are effects that appear to be ancillary to the primary objectives of the hormonal effects, which support, complement and extend their primary effects. We present evidence for how the hormonal stimulation of pregnancy constructs the maternal brain; makes it more efficient; enhances cognition; regulates stress responsiveness; modifies sensory systems (we discuss mainly olfaction); neurogenesis; and learning. Thus, steroid and other hormones and neuropeptides restructure the nervous system, particularly of females, to produce and regulate maternal behavior as well as behaviors and physiological systems that contribute to and support what is arguably the primary function of the hormones: survival and effective nurturance of the female's metabolic and genetic investment.

  11. Modeling associations between latent event processes governing time series of pulsing hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huayu; Carlson, Nichole E; Grunwald, Gary K; Polotsky, Alex J

    2017-10-31

    This work is motivated by a desire to quantify relationships between two time series of pulsing hormone concentrations. The locations of pulses are not directly observed and may be considered latent event processes. The latent event processes of pulsing hormones are often associated. It is this joint relationship we model. Current approaches to jointly modeling pulsing hormone data generally assume that a pulse in one hormone is coupled with a pulse in another hormone (one-to-one association). However, pulse coupling is often imperfect. Existing joint models are not flexible enough for imperfect systems. In this article, we develop a more flexible class of pulse association models that incorporate parameters quantifying imperfect pulse associations. We propose a novel use of the Cox process model as a model of how pulse events co-occur in time. We embed the Cox process model into a hormone concentration model. Hormone concentration is the observed data. Spatial birth and death Markov chain Monte Carlo is used for estimation. Simulations show the joint model works well for quantifying both perfect and imperfect associations and offers estimation improvements over single hormone analyses. We apply this model to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), two reproductive hormones. Use of our joint model results in an ability to investigate novel hypotheses regarding associations between LH and FSH secretion in obese and non-obese women. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  13. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (-JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O 2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  14. USE OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS HORMONES AND A XENOBIOTIC PESTICIDE ON GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a teleost model to screen physiological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on somatic growth. Growth is largely controlled by the endocrine system via the growth-hormone releasing hormone (GRF) - growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IG...

  15. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Arbogast

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a crucial regulator of gene expression in the developing and adult retina. Here we sought to map sites of thyroid hormone signaling at the cellular level using the transgenic FINDT3 reporter mouse model in which neurons express β-galactosidase (β-gal under the control of a hybrid Gal4-TRα receptor when triiodothyronine (T3 and cofactors of thyroid receptor signaling are present. In the adult retina, nearly all neurons of the ganglion cell layer (GCL, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells showed strong β-gal labeling. In the inner nuclear layer (INL, a minority of glycineric and GABAergic amacrine cells showed β-gal labeling, whereas the majority of amacrine cells were unlabeled. At the level of amacrine types, β-gal labeling was found in a large proportion of the glycinergic AII amacrines, but only in a small proportion of the cholinergic/GABAergic 'starburst' amacrines. At postnatal day 10, there also was a high density of strongly β-gal-labeled neurons in the GCL, but only few amacrine cells were labeled in the INL. There was no labeling of bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller glia cells at both stages. Most surprisingly, the photoreceptor somata in the outer nuclear layer also showed no β-gal label, although thyroid hormone is known to control cone opsin expression. This is the first record of thyroid hormone signaling in the inner retina of an adult mammal. We hypothesize that T3 levels in photoreceptors are below the detection threshold of the reporter system. The topographical distribution of β-gal-positive cells in the GCL follows the overall neuron distribution in that layer, with more T3-signaling cells in the ventral than the dorsal half-retina.

  16. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2007-08-01

    contraception. Headache appeared mostly only at the beginning of the use of combined oral contraceptives. Progestogen-only contraceptives worsened the results of the glucose tolerance test. A review of low evidence reported further risks of hormonal contraceptives (concerning menstrual problems, ovarian cysts, bone density, thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis as well as further benefits (concerning blood pressure and Crohn’s disease. Hormonal spirals were shown to be more effective than spirals which do not release hormones. In emergency contraception, Levonorgestrel was more effective than the Yuzpe method. Most other proven differences between hormonal contraceptives were related to menstrual problems. After spirals with or without hormone release, the other hormonal contraceptives were shown in typical use to be the second most cost-effective reversible methods of contraception. Discussion: The addressed questions could be answered only on relatively low evidence level, partly only for applications with estrogen doses which are not used in Germany any more. The transferability of the results of the analysed primary health-economics studies on the current situation in Germany is limited (clinical assumptions from out-dated information sources of low evidence levels, cost assumptions from the American health system. Conclusions: In perfect use, hormonal contraceptives have to be classified as the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. For the individual decision concerning the use of hormonal contraception, benefits should be related to the additional risks. Alternative methods such as spirals should be prioritised if perfect use seems to be impossible. In this case, spirals are also preferable from health-economics perspective. No ethical-social or legal conclusions can be derived from the available data.

  17. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  18. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  20. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I. The development of the thyroid hormones-neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2010-10-01

    The adequate functioning of the maternal thyroid gland plays an important role to ensure that the offspring develop normally. Thus, maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism are used from the gestation day 1 to lactation day 21, in general, to recognize the alleged association of offspring abnormalities associated with the different thyroid status. In maternal rats during pregnancy and lactation, hypothyroidism in one group was performed by antithyroid drug, methimazole (MMI) that was added in drinking water at concentration 0.02% and hyperthyroidism in the other group was induced by exogenous thyroxine (T4) (from 50 microg to 200 microg/kg body weight) intragastric administration beside adding 0.002% T4 to the drinking water. The hypothyroid and hyperthyroid states in mothers during pregnancy and lactation periods were confirmed by measuring total thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3) at gestational day 10 and 10 days post-partum, respectively; the effect was more pronounced at the later period than the first. In offspring of control maternal rats, the free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were pronouncedly increased as the age progressed from 1 to 3 weeks. In hypothyroid group, a marked decrease in serum FT3, FT4 and GH levels was observed while there was a significant increase in TSH level with age progress as compared with the corresponding control. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. The thyroid gland of offspring of hypothyroid group, exhibited some histopathological changes as luminal obliteration of follicles, hyperplasia, fibroblastic proliferation and some degenerative changes throughout the experimental period. The offspring of hyperthyroid rats showed larger and less thyroid follicles with flattened cell lining epithelium, decreased thyroid gland size and some degenerative changes along the experimental period. On the other hand, the biochemical data

  1. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  2. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  3. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of the Thyroid Hormone Pathway in Xenopus by Mercaptobenzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone-dependent process that provides a potential model system to assess chemicals for their ability to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this system to a variety of ...

  5. The effect of thyroid hormone on haemostasis and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debeij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the relation between thyroid hormones and the coagulation system will be examined. As an introduction, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the coagulation system and their interactions will be discussed. A short overview of the literature preceding the research reported in this

  6. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  7. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  8. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  9. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  10. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  11. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  13. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  14. Cloning and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone Subunits in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Soleimanifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH was secreted by the stimulating cells of the testes and ovaries in the anterior pituitary gland. The application of this hormone is in the treatment of men and women with infertility and amenorrhea respectively.Materials and Methods: In the present study the alpha and beta subunits of human LH gene were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 expression vector and produced the recombinant LH hormone in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO eukaryotic system.Results: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were cloned between NheI and BamHI cut sites of pEGFP_N1 expression plasmid and confirmed by PCR.  Hormone expression was evaluated in CHO cell line by Western blotting using the specific antibody.Conclusion: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were expressed in CHO cell line perfectly.

  15. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  16. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  17. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  18. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  1. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  2. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  3. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  4. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  6. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  7. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  8. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A V

    1988-03-01

    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicity of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogs was similar to that of the basic D-Arg6 antagonists. In vitro, most of the analogs completely inhibited LH-RH-mediated luteinizing hormone release in perfused rat pituitary cell systems at an antagonist to LH-RH molar ratio of 5:1. In vivo, the most active peptides, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Trp3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Nal(2) indicates 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine] and its D-Hci6 analog, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation in cycling rats in doses of 3 micrograms and suppressed the luteinizing hormone level in ovariectomized female rats for 47 hr when administered at doses of 25 micrograms. Characteristically, these peptides did not exert any edematogenic effects even at 1.5 mg/kg. These properties of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 antagonists may make them useful clinically.

  9. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  10. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  11. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  12. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  13. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  14. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  15. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  16. The impact of pituicytoma on hormone secretary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pituicytes are glial cells supporting hypothalamic axons in the posterior pituitary gland. Pituicytoma arises from pituicytes, and is currently classified as a World Health Organization grade I central nervous system tumor. Clinically, some patients with pituicytoma are misdiagnosed with functioning pituitary adenoma before surgical interventions and pathological examinations. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between pituicytoma and abnormal hormone function. Methods: The records of patients who underwent pituitary surgery at Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2016 were reviewed. Patients with a pathological diagnosis of pituicytoma were included. Among these patients, those with inadequate data and/or specimens were excluded. Clinical information including presenting symptoms, serum hormone level, neuroimages, and results of pathological examinations including hematoxylin and eosin stains and immunohistochemical stains were collected for analysis. Results: Between 2000 and 2016, eight patients were pathologically diagnosed with pituicytoma. Two patients were excluded due to missing data and/or specimens. Among the six remaining patients, five presented with hormone changes. The immunohistochemical stains of pituicytoma confirmed no secretory function; however, the surrounding pituitary glandular tissue showed positive results responsible for clinical hormone changes. Conclusions: Pituicytoma had a negative endocrine secretory function in this study. However, pituicytoma was associated with hyperactivity of the surrounding pituitary glandular tissue, which resulted in clinically abnormal hormone secretion. The diagnosis of pituicytoma before a thorough pathological examination is difficult when the patients present with hormone dysfunction. Therefore, maximum resection of the pituitary tumor is necessary to make the diagnosis of pituicytoma and to exclude pituitary adenoma. Keywords

  17. Mechanism-based testing strategy using in vitro approaches for identification of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Rijntjes, E.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Clewell, R.; Crofton, K.M.; Dingemans, M.M.L.; Furlow, J.D.; Kavlock, R.; Kohrle, J.; Opitz, R.; Traas, T.; Visser, T.J.; Xia, M.; Gutleb, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) system is involved in several important physiological processes, including regulation of energy metabolism, growth and differentiation, development and maintenance of brain function, thermo-regulation, osmo-regulation, and axis of regulation of other endocrine systems,

  18. Thyroid hormone action: Astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase, expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by type 2 deiodinase. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local thyroid hormone action during development.

  19. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  20. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns : Consequences for depression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, M.R.J.; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone

  1. The role of intracellular thyroid hormone metabolism in innate immune cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune cells have recently been identified as important thyroid hormone target cells. This thesis studies the role of intracellular thyroid hormone metabolism in the function of neutrophils and macrophages, two essential cell types of the innate immune system. Neutrophils, monocytes and

  2. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  3. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant

  4. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  5. In the nose of the beholder: are olfactory influences on human mate choice driven by variation in immune system genes or sex hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2010-11-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the most polymorphic region of the genome, coding for proteins that mediate human immune response. This polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection and certain populations show deviations from expected gene frequencies. Supporting this hypothesis, studies into olfactory preferences have suggested that females prefer the scent of males with dissimilar HLA to their own. However, it has also been proposed that androstenones play a role in female mate choice, and as these molecules inhibit the immune system, this has implications for the theory of HLA-driven mate preference. This review will critically analyze the findings of studies investigating olfactory preference in humans, and their implications for these two contrasting theories of mate choice.

  6. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaihara, Takumi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Motomi; Okinaga, Shoichi; Yanaihara, Noboru

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu 1 )-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  7. The hormonal fountains of youth: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Morley, J E

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long search for the best approach of ensuring successful aging. The remarkable demographic transformations in this century have not only led to increased medical needs of older people, who often have multiple chronic conditions, decrements in functional ability and age-related disease, but also to the increase of social expenditures, such as pension funds and health insurance to support them. Therefore, it is no wonder that there is now a great endeavor to find a fountain of youth in both society and individuals. In this review each of the hormones that have been suggested to play a role in rejuvenating older persons, ie, the so-called "hormonal fountain of youth" is briefly discussed. Any hope of a fountain of youth to stop people from getting older, however, is a long way off, with science just beginning to understand the complex genetic, physical and hormonal causes of aging. An essential, but still unanswered question, is whether the age-related decline in hormone systems is physiological, perhaps conveying a benefit, or if the changes are pathological, causing harm. Modern research has, however, demonstrated that the concept of a "hormonal fountain of youth" is predominantly mythological.

  8. Hormonal influences on growth of the fetal pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is considerable information on hormonal systems regulating growth postnatally, little is known about hormonal influences on growth in the fetuw. It has long been postulated that insulin is the major fetal growth promoting hormone. However, chronic administration of insulin to the fetal pig during 14 days in utero, although producing hyperinsulinaemia and elevated somatomedin levels, did not stimulate an increase in length, weight or cell number. Postnatally the principal growth promoting hormones are the growth hormone dependent somatomedins. It is thought that multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) is the fetal somatomedin. However, under similar conditions to those used for insulin administration, MSA did not affect growth in the fetal pig. Administration of somatostatin to chronically catheterized fetuses inhibited (p≤0.01) and thyrotrophin releasing factor stimulated (≤0.01) GH release. However, chronic administration of SRIF did not inhibit fetal growth. Thus there does seem to be some hypothalamic control over GH secretion but this may not play a major role in regulating fetal growth

  9. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  10. Association of Hormonal Contraception with depression in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy A; Hansen, Shana

    2017-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated an association between hormonal contraception use with subsequent depression and antidepressant use. This association has not been assessed among postpartum women. This study is a secondary analysis of insurance records from 75,528 postpartum women enrolled in the US military medical system, who delivered between October 2012 and September 2014. Our analyses excluded women who used antidepressants or had a diagnosis of depression in the 24months prior to delivery. We assessed the relationship of hormonal contraception use with subsequent antidepressant use or diagnosis with depression in the first 12months postpartum using Cox proportional hazards regression, with a time dependent covariate measuring exposure to hormonal contraception. Antidepressants were prescribed to 7.8% of women and 5.0% were diagnosed with depression. In multivariable analysis adjusting for demographics, both antidepressant use and diagnosis with depression were associated with: younger age, lower socioeconomic status, and a history of military service. Compared to women with no hormonal contraceptive use, use of etonogestrel containing contraception was associated with a higher risk of antidepressant use (Implant: adjHR:1.22(95%CI:1.06-1.41), pdepression diagnosis (0.56(0.49-0.64), pdepression diagnoses (0.65(0.52-0.82), pdepression diagnosis and antidepressant use in the postpartum period varies with the type of hormonal contraception used. Further research is required to describe the mechanisms of these relationships. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Revisiting available knowledge on teleostean thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Iván; Orozco, Aurea

    2018-03-21

    Teleosts are the most numerous class of living vertebrates. They exhibit great diversity in terms of morphology, developmental strategies, ecology and adaptation. In spite of this diversity, teleosts conserve similarities at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels. In the context of thyroidal systems, and as in the rest of vertebrates, thyroid hormones in fish regulate development, growth and metabolism by actively entering the nucleus and interacting with thyroid hormone receptors, the final sensors of this endocrine signal, to regulate gene expression. In general terms, vertebrates express the functional thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta, encoded by two distinct genes (thra and thrb, respectively). However, different species of teleosts express thyroid hormone receptor isoforms with particular structural characteristics that confer singular functional traits to these receptors. For example, teleosts contain two thra genes and in some species also two thrb; some of the expressed isoforms can bind alternative ligands. Also, some identified isoforms contain deletions or large insertions that have not been described in other vertebrates and that have not yet been functionally characterized. As in amphibians, the regulation of some of these teleost isoforms coincides with the climax of metamorphosis and/or life transitions during development and growth. In this review, we aimed to gain further insights into thyroid signaling from a comparative perspective by proposing a systematic nomenclature for teleost thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and summarize their particular functional features when the information was available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miozzi

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV, a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed.

  13. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan; Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine M; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathway which is critical to healthy brain function and has been implicated in psychiatric illness. We review normative developmental changes in dopamine, sex hormone, and stress hormone signaling during adolescence and throughout postnatal life, then highlight the interaction of sex and stress hormones and review their impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. Adolescence is a time of increased responsiveness to sex and stress hormones, during which the maturing dopaminergic neural circuitry is profoundly influenced by these factors. Testosterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoids interact with each other and have distinct, brain region-specific impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain, shaping brain maturation and cognitive function in adolescence and adulthood. Some effects of stress/sex hormones on cortical and subcortical dopamine parameters bear similarities with dopaminergic abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible role for sex/stress hormones at adolescence in influencing risk for psychiatric illness via modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Stress and sex hormones may prove useful targets in future strategies for modifying risk for psychiatric illness.

  14. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  15. Effect of physical and flexibility exercise on certain hormones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) in both sexes. Progesterone levels increased in male participants and decreased in female ... relationship between mental alertness and physical ... used to determine the mean, standard error of mean for ..... Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones ... Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal ...

  16. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis.

  17. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  18. Thyroid Hormone and the Neuroglia: Both Source and Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Mohácsik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. In order to bind to its nuclear receptor and regulate gene transcription thyroxine needs to be activated in the brain. This activation occurs via conversion of thyroxine to T3, which is catalyzed by the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2 in glial cells, in astrocytes, and tanycytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus. We discuss how thyroid hormone affects glial cell function followed by an overview on the fine-tuned regulation of T3 generation by D2 in different glial subtypes. Recent evidence on the direct paracrine impact of glial D2 on neuronal gene expression underlines the importance of glial-neuronal interaction in thyroid hormone regulation as a major regulatory pathway in the brain in health and disease.

  19. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  20. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  2. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  3. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  7. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M

    2017-06-01

    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  8. Thyroid hormones: Possible roles in epilepsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini; Karimi, Benyamin; Amini, Elham; Golpich, Mojtaba; Dargahi, Leila; Ali, Raymond Azman; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contraception and hormonal management in the perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Margaret E; Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M

    2015-01-01

    This literature review focuses on contraception in perimenopausal women. As women age, their fecundity decreases but does not disappear until menopause. After age 40, 75% of pregnancies are unplanned and may result in profound physical and emotional impact. Clinical evaluation must be relied on to diagnose menopause, since hormonal levels fluctuate widely. Until menopause is confirmed, some potential for pregnancy remains; at age 45, women's sterility rate is 55%. Older gravidas experience higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and death. Many safe and effective contraceptive options are available to perimenopausal women. In addition to preventing an unplanned and higher-risk pregnancy, perimenopausal contraception may improve abnormal uterine bleeding, hot flashes, and menstrual migraines. Long-acting reversible contraceptives, including the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), the etonogestrel subdermal implant (ESI), and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD), provide high efficacy without estrogen. LNG-IUS markedly decreases menorrhagia commonly seen in perimenopause. Both ESI and LNG-IUS provide endometrial protection for women using estrogen for vasomotor symptoms. Women without cardiovascular risk factors can safely use combined hormonal contraception. The CDC's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use informs choices for women with comorbidities. No medical contraindications exist for levonorgestrel emergency-contraceptive pills, though obesity does decrease efficacy. In contrast, the Cu-IUD provides reliable emergency and ongoing contraception regardless of body mass index (BMI).

  10. Antimüllerian hormone as a predictor of live birth following assisted reproduction: an analysis of 85,062 fresh and thawed cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database for 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Wantman, Ethan; Baker, Valerie; Tal, Oded

    2018-02-01

    To determine if serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is associated with and/or predictive of live birth assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Retrospective analysis of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database from 2012 to 2013. Not applicable. A total of 69,336 (81.8%) fresh and 15,458 (18.2%) frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles with AMH values. None. Live birth. A total of 85,062 out of 259,499 (32.7%) fresh and frozen-thawed autologous non-preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles had AMH reported for cycles over this 2-year period. Of those, 70,565 cycles which had embryo transfers were included in the analysis. Serum AMH was significantly associated with live birth outcome per transfer in both fresh and FET cycles. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that AMH is an independent predictor of live birth in fresh transfer cycles and FET cycles when controlling for age, body mass index, race, day of transfer, and number of embryos transferred. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC) for AMH as predictors of live birth in fresh cycles and thawed cycles were 0.631 and 0.540, respectively, suggesting that AMH alone is a weak independent predictor of live birth after ART. Similar ROC curves were obtained also when elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) cycles were analyzed separately in either fresh (AUC 0.655) or FET (AUC 0.533) cycles, although AMH was not found to be an independent predictor in eSET cycles. AMH is a poor independent predictor of live birth outcome in either fresh or frozen embryo transfer for both eSET and non-SET transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production.

  12. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  13. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic

  14. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  15. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  16. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  17. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  18. Localization and expression of molt-inhibiting hormone and nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system of the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Natalie L; Mykles, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). In green shore crab, Carcinus maenas, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein and NO are present in the SG. Moreover, C. maenas are refractory to eyestalk ablation (ESA), suggesting other regions of the nervous system secrete sufficient amounts of MIH to prevent molting. By contrast, ESA induces molting in the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Double-label immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to localize and quantify MIH and NOS proteins and transcripts, respectively, in the ESG, brain, and thoracic ganglion (TG) of C. maenas and G. lateralis. In ESG, MIH- and NOS-immunopositive cells were closely associated in the SG of both species; confocal microscopy showed that NOS was localized in cells adjacent to MIH-positive axon terminals. In brain, MIH-positive cells were located in a small number of cells in the olfactory lobe; no NOS immunofluorescence was detected. In TG, MIH and NOS were localized in cell clusters between the segmental nerves. In G. lateralis, Gl-MIH and Gl-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) mRNA levels were ~10 5 -fold higher in ESG than in brain or TG of intermolt animals, indicating that the ESG is the primary source of these neuropeptides. Gl-NOS and Gl-elongation factor (EF2) mRNA levels were also higher in the ESG. Molt stage had little or no effect on CHH, NOS, NOS-interacting protein (NOS-IP), membrane Guanylyl Cyclase-II (GC-II), and NO-independent GC

  19. Foetal immune programming: hormones, cytokines, microbes and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental cues play important roles in shaping the immune system. The first environment that the developing foetal immune system encounters is the uterus. Although physically the mother and the foetus are separated by the placental membranes, various factors such as hormones and cytokines may provide "environmental cues" to the foetal immune system. Additionally, increasing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal environmental factors, particularly microbial exposure, might significantly influence the foetal immune system, affecting long-term outcomes, a concept termed foetal immune programming. Here we discuss the potential mediators of foetal immune programming, focusing on the role of pregnancy-related hormones, cytokines and regulatory T cells, which play a critical role in immune tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Pearl, D; Glaser, R

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated hormonal changes and problem-solving behaviors in 90 newlywed couples who were admitted to a hospital research unit for 24 hours. The subjects were selected on the basis of stringent mental and physical health criteria, and admissions were scheduled during the follicular phase of the woman's menstrual cycle. For frequent, unobtrusive endocrine sampling during the interaction tasks, a long polyethylene tube was attached to a heparin well, allowing nurses to draw blood samples at set intervals, out of subjects' sight. Five blood samples were obtained before, during, and after a 30-minute structured problem-solving or conflict task. The conflict session was recorded on videotapes that were later scored for problem-solving behaviors using the Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS). Marital conflict and MICS-coded hostile or negative behavior during conflict was closely linked to changes in serum hormonal levels across five of the six hormones we studied, in spite of the high marital satisfaction of our newlywed couples and the healthy lifestyles demanded by our exclusion criteria. Hostile behavior was associated with decreased levels of prolactin (PRL) and increases in epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NEPI), ACTH, and growth hormone (GH), but not cortisol. These data suggest that the endocrine system may be an important mediator between personal relationships and health.

  1. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  3. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  4. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  5. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  6. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  7. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  8. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  9. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  10. Hormonal control of p53 and chemoprevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry, D Joseph; Minter, Lisa M; Becker, Klaus A; Blackburn, Anneke C

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer have dramatically altered its clinical course and outcome. However, prevention of breast cancer remains an elusive goal. Parity, age of menarche, and age at menopause are major risk factors drawing attention to the important role of the endocrine system in determining the risk of breast cancer, while heritable breast cancer susceptibility syndromes have implicated tumor suppressor genes as important targets. Recent work demonstrating hormonal modulation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway draws together these established determinants of risk to provide a model of developmental susceptibility to breast cancer. In this model, the mammary epithelium is rendered susceptible due to impaired p53 activity during specific periods of mammary gland development, but specific endocrine stimuli serve to activate p53 function and to mitigate this risk. The results focus attention on p53 as a molecular target for therapies to reduce the risk of breast cancer

  11. Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Ramanantsoa, Nélina; Saurini, Françoise; Callebert, Jacques; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Ringot, Maud; Bourgeois, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Collet, Corinne; Nardelli, Jeannette; Mallet, Jacques; Vodjdani, Guilan; Gallego, Jorge; Launay, Jean-Marie; Berrard, Sylvie

    2018-04-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development. ACh, together with these hormones and their receptors, is expressed before birth, and somatotroph cells are already responsive to GHRH, SRIF, and ghrelin. We thus hypothesized that ACh could contribute to the modulation of the main components of the somatotropic axis during development. In this study, we generated a choline acetyltransferase knockout mouse line and showed that heterozygous mice display a transient deficit in ACh from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 10, and they recover normal ACh levels from the second postnatal week. This developmental ACh deficiency had no major impact on weight gain and cardiorespiratory status of newborn mice. Using this mouse model, we found that endogenous ACh levels determined the concentrations of circulating GH and IGF-1 at embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, serum GH level was correlated with brain ACh content. ACh also modulated the levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the stomach, and it affected the levels of these hormones in the circulation. This study identifies ACh as a potential regulator of the somatotropic axis during the developmental period.

  12. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.

  13. Changes in Gut Hormones After Roux en Y Gastric bypass, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ilić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic has burdened healthcare systems worldwide. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method for long-term weight loss in obese adults, but the exact mechanism of weight loss is poorly understood. Bariatric procedures were initially classified by their presumed mechanism of action into restrictive, malabsoptive, or mixed procedures; however, due to recent advancements in the field of neuroendocrinology, hormones are increasing being recognized as important regulators of satiation, hunger, and energy expenditure. Studies examining changes in gut hormones following bariatric surgery have yielded conflicting results and the relationship between these hormones and weight loss is nothing but clear. This review will summarize the effect of Roux en Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding on various gut hormones including ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like polypeptide-1, peptide YY3, and pancreatic polypeptide. Furthermore, the relationship between these hormones and weight loss will be examined.

  14. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  15. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  16. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  17. Role of neuropeptide Y in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone system in the forebrain of Clarias batrachus (Linn.): immunocytochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, A; Biju, K C; Muthal, P L; Saha, S; Subhedar, N

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and reproduction has been highlighted in recent years, the neuroanatomical substrate within which these substances might interact has not been fully elucidated. Present work was undertaken with a view to define the anatomical-physiological correlates underlying the role exercised by NPY in the regulation of GnRH in the forebrain of the teleost Clarias batrachus. Application of double immunocytochemistry revealed close associations as well as colocalizations of the two peptides in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the glomeruli, ganglion cells of nervus terminalis, medial olfactory tract, fibers in the area ventralis telencephali/pars supracommissuralis and cells as well as fibers in the pituitary. NPY containing axons were found to terminate in the vicinity of GnRH cells in the pituitary with light as well as electron microscopy. Double immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated gold particles for NPY and GnRH colocalized on the membrane and in dense core of the secretory granules in the cells distributed in all components of the pituitary gland. To assess the physiological implication of these observations, NPY was injected via the intracranial route and the response of GnRH immunoreactive system was evaluated by relative quantitative morphometry as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Two hours following NPY (20 ng/g body weight) administration, a dramatic increase was observed in the GnRH immunoreactivity in the ORNs, in the fibers of the olfactory bulb (163%) and medial olfactory tract (351%). High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the immunocytochemical data. Significant rise in the salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-like peptide content was observed in the olfactory organ (194.23%), olfactory bulb (146.64%), telencephalon+preoptic area

  18. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  19. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  20. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  1. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  3. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taisuke

    2010-11-01

    Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu. In addition, the HF immune and hormonal systems may greatly affect skin immunobiology. Therefore, knowledge of HF immunobiology and hormonal aspects will lead to a better understanding of skin biology. The HF has a unique hair cycle (anagen, catagen and telogen) and contains stem cells in the bulge area. The HF is closely related to sebaceous glands and the nervous system. This article reviews the interaction between the endocrine/immune system and HFs, including the pathogenesis of alopecia areata associated with stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  5. A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Toyota, Kenji; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miura, Toru; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone is an essential regulator of major developmental and life history events in arthropods. Most of the insects use juvenile hormone III as the innate juvenile hormone ligand. By contrast, crustaceans use methyl farnesoate. Despite this difference that is tied to their deep evolutionary divergence, the process of this ligand transition is unknown. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant has an important role during evolution of the arthropod juvenile hormone pathway. Microcrustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna share a juvenile hormone signal transduction pathway with insects, involving Methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor coactivator proteins that form a heterodimer in response to various juvenoids. Juvenile hormone-binding pockets of the orthologous genes differ by only two amino acids, yet a single substitution within Daphnia Met enhances the receptor's responsiveness to juvenile hormone III. These results indicate that this mutation within an ancestral insect lineage contributed to the evolution of a juvenile hormone III receptor system.

  6. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  7. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  8. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  9. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  10. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  11. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  12. Intravaginal hormonal contraception for women of reproductive age with excessive body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Gridina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of disadvantages inherent in all oral hormonal contraceptives: need for daily administration, fluctuations of hormone levels throughout the day, metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, the effect of the first passage through the liver. All this became a prerequisite to the creation of prolonged oral hormonal methods of contraception, which would be devoid of these shortcomings. One of such method of hormonal contraception is intravaginal hormonal system. The aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of its use in women of reproductive age with overweight. 43 women were included. State of lipid metabolism, changes of the hemostatic system, blood pressure and weight fluctuations in the past 6 months of using intravaginal hormonal contraceptive system were studied. Results. It is established that hormonal intravaginal contraceptive ring gives minimal metabolic effects. Conclusion. This suggests that this ring can be used successfully in patients with excessive body mass, because there is no effect of the ring on hemostasis, lipid metabolism and body weight.

  13. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  14. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  15. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secreting Pheochromocytoma Underlying Glucocorticoid Induced Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil A. Geva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pheochromocytomas are hormone secreting tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands found in 0.1–0.5% of patients with hypertension. The vast majority of pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines, but they have been occasionally shown to also secrete interleukins, calcitonin, testosterone, and in rare cases adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life threatening event in which high levels of catecholamines cause a systemic reaction leading to organ failure. Case Description. A 70-year-old man was admitted with acute myocardial ischemia following glucocorticoid administration as part of an endocrine workup for an adrenal mass. Cardiac catheterization disclosed patent coronary arteries and he was discharged. A year later he returned with similar angina-like chest pain. During hospitalization, he suffered additional events of chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations following administration of glucocorticoids as preparation for intravenous contrast administration. Throughout his admission, the patient demonstrated both signs of Cushing’s syndrome and high catecholamine levels. Following stabilization of vital parameters and serum electrolytes, the adrenal mass was resected surgically and was found to harbor an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma. This is the first documented case of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma complicated by glucocorticoid induced pheochromocytoma crisis. Conclusion. Care should be taken when administering high doses of glucocorticoids to patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, even in a patient with concomitant Cushing’s syndrome.

  16. Abnormal Bleeding during Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Freitas De Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman's characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT, it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies.

  17. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-10-01

    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  18. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  20. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  1. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  2. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  3. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  4. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  5. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  6. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  7. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  8. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  9. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  10. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  11. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  12. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  13. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  14. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  15. Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl-methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mogensen, Brian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2004-01-01

    reproductive hormone levels in humans after topical application. In this 2-wk single-blinded study 32 healthy volunteers, 15 young males and 17 postmenopausal females, were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg per cm(2) of basic cream formulation without (week 1) and with (week 2) the three...... sunscreens at 10% (wt/wt) of each. Maximum plasma concentrations were 200 ng per mL BP-3, 20 ng per mL 4-MBC, and 10 ng per mL OMC for females and 300 ng per mL BP-3, 20 ng per mL 4-MBC, and 20 ng per mL OMC for men. All three sunscreens were detectable in urine. The reproductive hormones FSH, LH were...

  16. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  17. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  18. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  19. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  20. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  1. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  2. Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakare, U R; Ganatra, R D; Shah, D H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-04-01

    In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with /sup 125/I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones.

  3. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  4. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  5. Growth hormone deficiency in a Nigerian child with Turner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    Growth hormone treatment early in the course of management of a child with Turner syndrome may help achieve normal final height. Keywords: Turner's syndrome, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone ..... cognitive deficit.

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Estrogen overdose Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Menopause National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  7. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  8. The metabolism of parathyroid hormone in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanao, Yasuhisa

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism and localization of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the degradation and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation in kidney, bovine PTH (b-PTH 1 - 84) and its synthetic N-terminal peptide (b-PTH 1 - 34) labeled with 125 I by Chloramine T methods ( 125 I-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125 I-b-PTH 1 - 34) or labeled with horse radish peroxidase ( 125 I-POX-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125 I-POX-bPTH 1-34) were used to study the disappearance from the blood stream and degradation and retention in the kidney after intravenous injections in male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 350 - 450 g. Degradation of PTH was studied in vitro, using isolated cells and homogenates of the kidney, and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation were furthermore studied, using our kidney perfusion system. PTH labeled with 125 I and POX was less degraded by the kidney than PTH labeled with 125 I alone. PTH 1 - 34 was more delayed in blood stream than PTH 1 - 84. Isolated intact kidney cells degrade PTH less efficiently than homogenates, indicating the prominance of microsomal degradative system in the kidney. The degradation of PTH in kidney was supposed to be controlled by calcium ion in our kidney perfusion system. (author)

  9. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  10. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. New Solid Phases for Estimation of Hormones by Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, R.R.; Ayoub, H.S.M.; Shafik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The efforts in this study were initiated to develop and validate new solid phases for estimation of hormones by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The study argued the successful application of different hydroxy apatites (HAP) as new solid phases for estimation of Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) in human serum. Hydroxy apatites have different alkali earth elements were successfully prepared by a well-controlled co-precipitation method with stoichiometric ratio value 1.67. The synthesized barium and calcium hydroxy apatites were characterized using XRD and Ftir and data clarified the preparation of pure structures of both BaHAP and CaHAP with no evidence on presence of other additional phases. The prepared solid phases were applied in various radioimmunoassay systems for separation of bound and free antigens of AFP, TSH and LH hormones. The preparation of radiolabeled tracer for these antigens was carried out using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. The influence of different parameters on the activation and coupling of the used apatite particles with the polyclonal antibodies was systematically investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The assay was reproducible, specific and sensitive enough for regular estimation of the studied hormones. The intra-and inter-assay variation were satisfactory and also the recovery and dilution tests indicated an accurate calibration. The reliability of these apatite particles had been validated by comparing the results that obtained by using commercial kits. The results finally authenticates that hydroxyapatite particles would have a great potential to address the emerging challenge of accurate quantitation in laboratory medical application

  12. Potent agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, M; Serfozo, P; Zsigo, J; Bokser, L; Janaky, T; Olsen, D B; Bajusz, S; Schally, A V

    1992-03-01

    Analogs of the 29 amino acid sequence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) with agmatine (Agm) in position 29 have been synthesized by the solid phase method, purified, and tested in vitro and in vivo. The majority of the analogs contained desaminotyrosine (Dat) in position 1, but a few of them had Tyr1, or N-MeTyr1. Some peptides contained one or more additional L- or D-amino acid substitutions in positions 2, 12, 15, 21, 27, and/or 28. Compared to the natural sequence of GH-RH(1-29)NH2, [Dat1,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-191) and [D-Ala2,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-201) were 8.2 and 7.1 times more potent in vitro, respectively. These two peptides contained Met27. Their Nle27 analogs, [Dat1,Ala15,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-2-51), prepared previously (9), and [D-Ala2,Ala15,Nle28]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-3-195) showed relative in vitro potencies of 10.5 and 2.4, respectively. These data indicate that replacement of Met27 by Nle27 enhanced the GH-releasing activity of the analog when the molecule contained Dat1-Ala2 residues at the N-terminus, but peptides containing Tyr1-D-Ala2 in addition to Nle27 showed decreased potencies. Replacement of Ser28 with Asp in multi-substituted analogs of GH-RH(1-28)Agm resulted in a decrease in in vitro potencies compared to the parent compound. Thus, the Ser28-containing MZ-2-51, and [Dat1,Ala15,D-Lys21,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm, its Asp28 homolog (MZ-3-149), possessed relative activities of 10.5 and 5.6, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  14. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  15. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of simplified analysis system by using bio-markers of internal secretion disturbing substances - environmental hormone acting substances); 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu (kankyo hormone sayo busshitsu) no bio marker ni yoru kanben bunseki system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using the vitellogenin levels in male fishes as a parameter of pollution caused by internal secretion disturbing substances would allow collective measurement of compounding action of pollutants, acquisition of time averaged values, and large reduction in analysis cost. The present research and development works are intended to put such technological seeds into practical use, and promote its proliferation. The following subjects were implemented: (1) fabrication of effective anti-bodies, (2) their application to fresh water fishes, salmon, and trout, (3) their application to sea water fishes, (4) effects on mummichog and medaka, (5) correlation between spawning actions and vitellogenin manifestation in male fish, (6) discussions on chemical analysis methods and the correlativity therewith, and (7) establishment of methods for field investigation and evaluation. In Item (1), an ELISA system using vitellogenin anti-bodies of different fishes was established. A universal anti-body reacting commonly to all of fish vitellogenins was developed. In Items (2), (3) and (4), an evaluation system was established on actions of internal secretion disturbing substances on sea water fish and fresh water fish by using fish vitellogenins. In Item (5), effects on spawning of medaka, and effects on procreation activities (sterility) were evaluated by using vitellogenin. (NEDO)

  16. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of fourteen endogenous steroid hormones by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description: To understand how some chemicals affect the endocrine system, controlled lab experiments often monitor how chemicals impact natural steroid hormones in fish. Current methods can target only one or two hormones in a single sample, limiting the information that...

  18. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  19. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via β-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents

  20. Understanding the broad influence of sex hormones and sex differences in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S; Milner, Teresa A

    2017-01-02

    Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells. Hormonal regulation of a variety of signaling pathways as well as direct and indirect effects on gene expression induce spine synapses, up- or downregulate and alter the distribution of neurotransmitter receptors, and regulate neuropeptide expression and cholinergic and GABAergic activity as well as calcium sequestration and oxidative stress. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences and responses to sex hormones in brain regions, which influence functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era of our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  2. Citrate Defines a Regulatory Link Between Energy Metabolism and the Liver Hormone Hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira Courelas da Silva, Ana Rita

    2017-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin as well as a constituent of iron-sulfur clusters. Increasing evidence suggests that mechanisms maintaining iron homeostasis cross-talk to intermediary metabolism. The liver hormone hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Hepcidin transcriptional control is linked to the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway, proliferative signals, gluconeogenic responses during starvation and hormones that modulate energy metabolism. The...

  3. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos; João Victor eCabral-Costa; Caio Henrique Mazucanti; Cristoforo eScavone; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role ...

  4. Effects of irradiation and adrenal cortex disfunction on ovarial-hormonal status of mature female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Banetskaya, N.V.; Sechko, L.K.; Pavlenko, V.S.; Popov, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    It was shown that development of glucocorticoid disfunction in mature rats (made by series of 10 mg/kg body wt subcutaneous corticosterone injections, during I month) essentially increased radiosensitivity of female reproductive organs. Additionally in the experimental conditions after external g-irradiation (1.0 Gy) development of atrophic processes in follicular apparatus of ovary caused severe ovarial disorders (polycystosis, fibrosis). Simultaneously degree of hormonal misregulations and upsets for systems of hormone reception in female sex tissues is aggravating. (authors)

  5. Hormonal and developmental influences on adolescent suicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Teen suicide is a major public health problem. In the United States, it is the third cause of death among the 10-24 year olds. Adolescence involves numerous changes, whether physical, social, emotional or hormonal. At a neurobiological level, a teenager's nervous system is also affected and undergoes significant modifications. We conducted a systematic review of electronic literature published between January 1990 and August 2014 via MEDLINE, PubMED and PsychINFO to list articles concerning the risk of teen depression and suicide risks in adolescents as well as those relating to the adolescent's neuro-anatomical brain and the effect that puberty has on it. When analyzing the various studies, it is clear that all support the idea that adolescence is a special period, both at neuroanatomical and biological levels. The risk of impulsiveness and depression is explained, anatomically, by a faster maturation of the limbic system, and biologically, by a higher sensitivity of the serotoninergic system and to glucocorticoids, which themselves are influenced by the specific hormonal environment during this period. Moreover and above all, adolescence is a vulnerable time for many reasons: physical, hormonal, social, cognitive, and emotional changes, self-development, etc. We should not restrict it to structural neurological changes without taking into account the other factors or compartmentalize young people into a reductive model based on determinism. Adolescence is a time of change, transformation, and adaptation. The hormonal events that occur during this period have significant effects on brain development, neuro-cerebral chemistry, adolescent behavior and risks of depression. It is important to try to prevent suicide and depression in adolescents considering its entirety and complexity but also by paying attention to neuro-biological factors even if, at present, many research projects are currently underway to develop an appropriate drug therapy strategy.

  6. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  7. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  8. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  9. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  10. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  11. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  12. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  13. Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ping Chen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As in other Western countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death among women in Taiwan, exceeding the mortality from cervical or breast cancer. Women generally present with CVD after menopause and later than men, since menopause-related estrogen deficiency has been considered to be associated with an increased risk for CVD. Thus, coronary artery diseases and stroke are the two main contributors of mortality among postmenopausal women. Observational studies have reported a reduction in coronary artery disease risk after hormone therapy (HT ranging from 31-44%. However, recent randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of HT on primary and secondary CVD prevention have questioned the efficacy of HT, despite confirming the lipid-lowering effect of estrogen. However, a cluster of factors are responsible for the genesis and progression of CVD. Until we further evaluate their specific actions and how these different factors interact, the issue related to HT and cardiovascular risk will remain unsettled. Since these studies have contributed to our understanding of the benefits and risks associated with HT, HT use should be individualized after consideration of the condition of each postmenopausal patient. Ideally, the efficacy of different preparations and dosages of HT in postmenopausal women who are at risk of CVD, before atheromatous lesions have developed, should be investigated.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  15. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  17. Hormonal influence on language development in physically advanced children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, P; Wilson, B E

    1990-04-01

    Sex differences in language performance have long been noted, with females more verbal and males superior in visual-spatial tasks. Two theories seek to explain the differences in language function. Waber (1976, Science, 193, 572-574) suggests that these sex differences are secondary to differences in bilateral language function related to the faster maturation rate in girls. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985, Archives of Neurology, 42,(I), 428-459; (II), 521-552; (III), 634-654) on the other hand posit an intimate interrelationship of sex hormones, the immune system, and laterality as influencing the ultimate asymmetry of the nervous system, which in turn could account for such differences. In the present study, language function was examined in patients with accelerated maturation caused by conditions with sex hormone elevation (idiopathic precocious puberty and congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The degree of maturational advancement was similar between the two groups. However, significant language performance differences were noted between androgen- vs. estrogen-exposed patients, regardless of genetic sex or diagnosis of the patient, indicating a hormonal effect on language development over time. These data support Geschwind and Galaburda's multifactorial theory for the origin of sex differences in language performance, and argue against Waber's maturational hypothesis.

  18. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  19. THE ROLE OF HORMONES ON Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De La Luz Galván-Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world’s population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: a congenital transmission, b parasite reproduction, c strain virulence, d levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection and e participation of hormone receptors in Toxoplasma gondii infection.Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection?A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley and Google Scholar dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: 30 studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin and 17-ß estradiol. Type I (RH and BK and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49,T45, P78 and T38 were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate Toxoplasma gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the Toxoplasma gondii infectious process.

  20. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.