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  1. Transdifferentiation properties of adipocytes in the adipose organ.

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    Cinti, Saverio

    2009-11-01

    Mammals have two types of adipocytes, white and brown, but their anatomy and physiology is different. White adipocytes store lipids, and brown adipocytes burn them to produce heat. Previous descriptions implied their localization in distinct sites, but we demonstrated that they are mixed in many depots, raising the concept of adipose organ. We explain the reason for their cohabitation with the hypothesis of reversible physiological transdifferentiation; they are able to convert one into each other. If needed, the brown component of the organ could increase at the expense of the white component and vice versa. This plasticity is important because the brown phenotype of the organ associates with resistance to obesity and related disorders. Another example of physiological transdifferetiation of adipocytes is offered by the mammary gland; the pregnancy hormonal stimuli seems to trigger a reversible transdifferentiation of adipocytes into milk-secreting epithelial glands. The obese adipose organ is infiltrated by macrophages inducing chronic inflamation that is widely considered as a causative factor for insulin resistance. We showed that the vast majority of macrophages infiltrating the obese organ are arranged around dead adipocytes, forming characteristic crown-like structures. We recently found that visceral fat is more infiltrated than the subcutaneous fat despite a smaller size of visceral adipocytes. This suggests a different susceptibility of visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes to death, raising the concept of smaller critical death size that could be important to explain the key role of visceral fat for the metabolic disorders associated with obesity.

  2. Quantifying size and number of adipocytes in adipose tissue.

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    Parlee, Sebastian D; Lentz, Stephen I; Mori, Hiroyuki; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic and modifiable tissue that develops late during gestation in humans and through early postnatal development in rodents. WAT is unique in that it can account for as little as 3% of total body weight in elite athletes or as much as 70% in the morbidly obese. With the development of obesity, WAT undergoes a process of tissue remodeling in which adipocytes increase in both number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy). Metabolic derangements associated with obesity, including type 2 diabetes, occur when WAT growth through hyperplasia and hypertrophy cannot keep pace with the energy storage needs associated with chronic energy excess. Accordingly, hypertrophic adipocytes become overburdened with lipids, resulting in changes in the secreted hormonal milieu. Lipids that cannot be stored in the engorged adipocytes become ectopically deposited in organs such as the liver, muscle, and pancreas. WAT remodeling therefore coincides with obesity and secondary metabolic diseases. Obesity, however, is not unique in causing WAT remodeling: changes in adiposity also occur with aging, calorie restriction, cancers, and diseases such as HIV infection. In this chapter, we describe a semiautomated method of quantitatively analyzing the histomorphometry of WAT using common laboratory equipment. With this technique, the frequency distribution of adipocyte sizes across the tissue depot and the number of total adipocytes per depot can be estimated by counting as few as 100 adipocytes per animal. In doing so, the method described herein is a useful tool for accurately quantifying WAT development, growth, and remodeling. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seeking the source of adipocytes in adult white adipose tissues.

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    Lee, Yun-Hee; Granneman, James G

    2012-10-01

    Adipocyte progenitors are thought to play a fundamental role in white adipose tissue (WAT) plasticity, which enables dynamic modulation of WAT metabolic and cellular characteristics in response to various stimuli. In general, two main strategies have been used to identify adipocyte progenitor cells: fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based prospective analysis and lineage tracing. Although FACS-isolation is highly useful in defining multipotential stem cell populations for in vitro analysis and transplantation, lineage tracing is essential to identify endogenous progenitors that do, in fact, differentiate into adipocytes in vivo. Our recent lineage tracing studies have shown that cells expressing the surface marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) give rise to white and brown adipocytes in adult WAT, depending on inductive cues. PDGFRα+ cells are a subpopulation of those expressing CD34 and Sca1, and have unique morphology whereby long dendritic processes contact numerous cell types in the microenvironment. The significant contribution of PDGFRα+ cells to browning and hyperplastic expansion of WAT leads us to propose that PDGFRα+ cells are remodeling stem cells in adult WAT. Application of advanced imaging technology and genetic tools to this progenitor population will allow greater understanding of cellular plasticity in adipose tissue.

  4. The expanding problem of adipose depot remodeling and postnatal adipocyte progenitor recruitment.

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    Hepler, Chelsea; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-04-15

    The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IKKβ Is Essential for Adipocyte Survival and Adaptive Adipose Remodeling in Obesity.

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    Park, Se-Hyung; Liu, Zun; Sui, Yipeng; Helsley, Robert N; Zhu, Beibei; Powell, David K; Kern, Philip A; Zhou, Changcheng

    2016-06-01

    IκB kinase β (IKKβ), a central coordinator of inflammatory responses through activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), has been implicated as a critical molecular link between inflammation and metabolic disorders; however, the role of adipocyte IKKβ in obesity and related metabolic disorders remains elusive. Here we report an essential role of IKKβ in the regulation of adipose remodeling and adipocyte survival in diet-induced obesity. Targeted deletion of IKKβ in adipocytes does not affect body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure but results in an exaggerated diabetic phenotype when challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD). IKKβ-deficient mice have multiple histopathologies in visceral adipose tissue, including increased adipocyte death, amplified macrophage infiltration, and defective adaptive adipose remodeling. Deficiency of IKKβ also leads to increased adipose lipolysis, elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and impaired insulin signaling. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that IKKβ is a key adipocyte survival factor and that IKKβ protects murine and human adipocytes from HFD- or FFA-elicited cell death through NF-κB-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and NF-κB-independent inactivation of proapoptotic BAD protein. Our findings establish IKKβ as critical for adipocyte survival and adaptive adipose remodeling in obesity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Overexpression of adiponectin targeted to adipose tissue in transgenic mice: impaired adipocyte differentiation.

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    Bauche, Isabelle B; El Mkadem, Samira Ait; Pottier, Anne-Marie; Senou, Maximin; Many, Marie-Christine; Rezsohazy, René; Penicaud, Luc; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Brichard, Sonia M

    2007-04-01

    Adiponectin (ApN) is an adipokine whose expression and plasma levels are inversely related to obesity and insulin-resistant states. Chronic repercussions of ApN treatment or overexpression on adiposity and body weight are still controversial. Here, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse model allowing persistent and moderate overexpression of native full-length ApN targeted to white adipose tissue. Adipose mass and adipocyte size of Tg mice were reduced despite preserved calorie intake. This reduction resulted from increased energy expenditure and up-regulation of uncoupling proteins, and from abrogation of the adipocyte differentiation program, as shown by the loss of a key lipogenic enzyme and of adipocyte markers. Adipose mass remodeling favors enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved lipid profile of Tg mice. Alteration of the adipocyte phenotype was likely to result from increased expression of the preadipocyte factor-1 and from down-regulation of the transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, which orchestrates adipocyte differentiation. We further found that recombinant ApN directly stimulated pre- adipocyte factor-1 mRNA and attenuated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha expression in cultured 3T3-F442A cells. Conversely, opposite changes in the expression of these genes were observed in white fat of ApN-deficient mice. Thus, besides enhanced energy expenditure, our work shows that impairment of adipocyte differentiation contributes to the anti-adiposity effect of ApN.

  7. Adipocyte-specific blockade of gamma-secretase, but not inhibition of Notch activity, reduces adipose insulin sensitivity

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    David P. Sparling

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Notch signaling is dispensable for normal adipocyte function, but adipocyte-specific γ-secretase blockade reduces adipose insulin sensitivity, suggesting that specific Notch inhibitors would be preferable to GSIs for application in T2D.

  8. Adipose progenitor cells reside among the mature adipocytes: morphological research using an organotypic culture system.

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    Anayama, Hisashi; Fukuda, Ryo; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-11-01

    The precise localization and biological characteristics of the adipose progenitor cells are still a focus of debate. In this study, the localization of the adipose progenitor cells was determined using an organotypic culture system of adipose tissue slices. The tissue slices of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from rats were placed on a porous membrane and cultured at the interface between air and the culture medium for up to 5 days with or without adipogenic stimulation. The structure of adipose tissue components was sufficiently preserved during the culture and, following adipogenic stimulation with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, numerous multilocular adipocytes appeared in the interstitium among the mature adipocytes. Histomorphological 3-D observation using confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of small mesenchymal cells containing little or no fat residing in the perivascular region and on the mature adipocytes and differentiation from the pre-existing mesenchymal cells to multilocular adipocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these cells were initially present within the fibronectin-positive extracellular matrix (ECM). The adipose differentiation of the mesenchymal cells was confirmed by the enhanced expression of C/EBP-β suggesting adipose differentiation and the concurrent advent of CD105-expressing mesenchymal cells within the interstitium of the mature adipocytes. Based on the above, the mesenchymal cells embedded in the ECM around the mature adipocytes were confirmed to be responsible for adipogenesis because the transition of the mesenchymal cells to the stem state contributed to the increase in the number of adipocytes in rat adipose tissue. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Generation of human adipose stem cells through dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes in ceiling cultures.

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    Lessard, Julie; Côté, Julie Anne; Lapointe, Marc; Pelletier, Mélissa; Nadeau, Mélanie; Marceau, Simon; Biertho, Laurent; Tchernof, André

    2015-03-07

    Mature adipocytes have been shown to reverse their phenotype into fibroblast-like cells in vitro through a technique called ceiling culture. Mature adipocytes can also be isolated from fresh adipose tissue for depot-specific characterization of their function and metabolic properties. Here, we describe a well-established protocol to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissues using collagenase digestion, and subsequent steps to perform ceiling cultures. Briefly, adipose tissues are incubated in a Krebs-Ringer-Henseleit buffer containing collagenase to disrupt tissue matrix. Floating mature adipocytes are collected on the top surface of the buffer. Mature cells are plated in a T25-flask completely filled with media and incubated upside down for a week. An alternative 6-well plate culture approach allows the characterization of adipocytes undergoing dedifferentiation. Adipocyte morphology drastically changes over time of culture. Immunofluorescence can be easily performed on slides cultivated in 6-well plates as demonstrated by FABP4 immunofluorescence staining. FABP4 protein is present in mature adipocytes but down-regulated through dedifferentiation of fat cells. Mature adipocyte dedifferentiation may represent a new avenue for cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  10. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues

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    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.—Shan, T., Liu, W., Kuang, S. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues. PMID:23047894

  11. The adipose organ: white-brown adipocyte plasticity and metabolic inflammation.

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    Smorlesi, A; Frontini, A; Giordano, A; Cinti, S

    2012-12-01

    White adipocytes can store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions are contained in multiple fat depots forming the adipose organ. In this review, we outline the plasticity of this organ in physiological (cold exposure, physical exercise and lactation) and pathological conditions (obesity). We also highlight molecules and signalling pathways involved in the browning phenomena of white adipose tissue. This phenotypic change has proved to be effective in the protection against the metabolic disorders associated to obesity and diabetes, not only because brown adipocytes are more 'healthy' than white adipocytes, but also because the simple size reduction of white adipocytes that characterizes the first steps of transdifferentiation can be useful in determining how to avoid triggering death based on critical size and the consequent chronic low-grade inflammation due to macrophage infiltration. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of white-brown transdifferentiation can be extremely useful to exploit new therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. MiRNA expression profile of human subcutaneous adipose and during adipocyte differentiation.

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    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potential regulators of adipogenesis include microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that have been recently shown related to adiposity and differentially expressed in fat depots. However, to date no study is available, to our knowledge, regarding miRNAs expression profile during human adipogenesis. Thereby, the aim of this study was to investigate whether miRNA pattern in human fat cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated to obesity and co-morbidities and whether miRNA expression profile in adipocytes is linked to adipogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a global miRNA expression microarray of 723 human and 76 viral mature miRNAs in human adipocytes during differentiation and in subcutaneous fat samples from non-obese (n = 6 and obese with (n = 9 and without (n = 13 Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-2 women. Changes in adipogenesis-related miRNAs were then validated by RT-PCR. Fifty of 799 miRNAs (6.2% significantly differed between fat cells from lean and obese subjects. Seventy miRNAs (8.8% were highly and significantly up or down-regulated in mature adipocytes as compared to pre-adipocytes. Otherwise, 17 of these 799 miRNAs (2.1% were correlated with anthropometrical (BMI and/or metabolic (fasting glucose and/or triglycerides parameters. We identified 11 miRNAs (1.4% significantly deregulated in subcutaneous fat from obese subjects with and without DM-2. Interestingly, most of these changes were associated with miRNAs also significantly deregulated during adipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The remarkable inverse miRNA profile revealed for human pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes hints at a closely crosstalk between miRNAs and adipogenesis. Such candidates may represent biomarkers and therapeutic targets for obesity and obesity-related complications.

  13. Role of microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide in adipose tissue inflammation, adipocyte size and pyroptosis during obesity.

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    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2018-01-24

    It has been established that ingestion of a high-fat diet increases the blood levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria in the gut. Obesity is characterised by low-grade systemic and adipose tissue inflammation. This is suggested to be implicated in the metabolic syndrome and obesity. In the present review, we hypothesise that LPS directly and indirectly participates in the inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue during obesity. The experimental evidence shows that LPS is involved in the transition of macrophages from the M2 to the M1 phenotype. In addition, LPS inside adipocytes may activate caspase-4/5/11. This may induce a highly inflammatory type of programmed cell death (i.e. pyroptosis), which also occurs after infection with intracellular pathogens. Lipoproteins with or without LPS are taken up by adipocytes. Large adipocytes are more metabolically active and potentially more exposed to LPS than small adipocytes are. Thus, LPS might be involved in defining the adipocyte death size and the formation of crown-like structures. The adipocyte death size is reached when the intracellular concentration of LPS initiates pyroptosis. The mechanistic details remain to be elucidated, but the observations indicate that adipocytes are stimulated to cell death by processes that involve LPS from the gut microbiota. There is a complex interplay between the composition of the diet and microbiota. This influences the amount of LPS that is translocated from the gut. In particular, the lipid content of a meal may correlate with the amount of LPS built in to chylomicrons.

  14. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

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    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The blubber adipocyte index: A nondestructive biomarker of adiposity in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

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    Castrillon, Juliana; Huston, Wilhelmina; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2017-07-01

    The ability to accurately evaluate the energetic health of wildlife is of critical importance, particularly under conditions of environmental change. Despite the relevance of this issue, currently there are no reliable, standardized, nonlethal measures to assess the energetic reserves of large, free-roaming marine mammals such as baleen whales. This study investigated the potential of adipocyte area analysis and further, a standardized adipocyte index (AI), to yield reliable information regarding humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) adiposity. Adipocyte area and AI, as ascertained by image analysis, showed a direct correlation with each other but only a weak correlation with the commonly used, but error prone, blubber lipid-percent measure. The relative power of the three respective measures was further evaluated by comparing humpback whale cohorts at different stages of migration and fasting. Adipocyte area, AI, and blubber lipid-percent were assessed by binary logistic regression revealing that adipocyte area had the greatest probability to predict the migration cohort with a high level of redundancy attributed to the AI given their strong linear relationship (r = -.784). When only AI and lipid-percent were assessed, the performance of both predictor variables was significant but the power of AI far exceeded lipid-percent. The sensitivity of adipocyte metrics and the rapid, nonlethal, and inexpensive nature of the methodology and AI calculation validate the inclusion of the AI in long-term monitoring of humpback whale population health, and further raises its potential for broader wildlife applications.

  16. UCP1 induction during recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue is dependent on cyclooxygenase activity

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    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone M; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukaas

    2010-01-01

    expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. Indomethacin repressed beta...... attenuated diet-induced UCP1 expression and increased energy efficiency and adipose tissue mass in obesity-resistant mice kept at thermoneutrality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide evidence that induction of UCP1 expression in white adipose tissue, but not in classic interscapular brown adipose......-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. The use of PGE(2) receptor antagonists implicated EP(4) as a main PGE(2) receptor, and injection of the stable PGE(2) analog (EP(3/4) agonist) 16,16 dm PGE(2) induced UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue. Inhibition of COX activity...

  17. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

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    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen

    2009-01-01

    adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta......In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent......-agonists and atrial natriuretic peptide, and release of adiponectin and leptin. Herein, we show that, upon chronic exposure to a specific PPARgamma but not to a PPARbeta/delta or a PPARalpha agonist, hMADS cell-derived white adipocytes are able to switch to a brown phenotype by expressing both uncoupling protein one...

  18. Cadmium reduces adipocyte size and expression levels of adiponectin and Peg1/Mest in adipose tissue.

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    Kawakami, Takashige; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Furuichi, Rie; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Setsu, Kojun; Suzuki, Shinya; Sato, Masao

    2010-01-12

    Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with diabetogenic effects. The effects of repeated Cd exposure on adipocytes remain largely unknown. We administered Cd at doses of 0, 5, 10, and 20 micromol/kgbw sc for 2 weeks (3.5 times/week) to mice and assessed the possible alteration of epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), including histological difference, adipocyte differentiation and functional capacity. Whereas hepatic weight did not differ between the control and Cd-exposed groups, WAT weight, as well as adipose cell mass, significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in Cd-treated mice. The Cd concentration in WAT significantly increased in Cd-treated groups after 2 weeks of exposure. Next, we examined the effects of Cd on adipocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Cd exposure significantly decreased the paternally expressed gene 1/Mesoderm-specific transcript mRNA expression levels. Both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha mRNA expression levels in WAT tended to decrease in the Cd-treated groups. Next, we determined the effects of Cd exposure on the mRNA expression levels of adipose-derived hormones, such as adiponectin and resistin. The adiponectin mRNA expression level in WAT decreased after both 6h and 2 weeks of exposure to a high dose of Cd, and the reduction in resistin mRNA expression levels was observed after 2 weeks of exposure. These results suggest that Cd exposure causes abnormal adipocyte differentiation, expansion, and function, which might lead to development of insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation

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    Murumalla Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Methods Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid - LA and PA and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid - EPA, DHA and OA with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1. In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA, we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. Results None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. Conclusions This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  20. Obesity-induced DNA released from adipocytes stimulates chronic adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

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    Nishimoto, Sachiko; Fukuda, Daiju; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Hirata, Yoichiro; Murata, Chie; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-Ri; Sato, Fukiko; Bando, Masahiro; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Imoto, Issei; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    Obesity stimulates chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that obesity-related adipocyte degeneration causes release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which promotes macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), originally known as a sensor of exogenous DNA fragments. Fat-fed obese wild-type mice showed increased release of cfDNA, as determined by the concentrations of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in plasma. cfDNA released from degenerated adipocytes promoted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in wild-type macrophages, but not in TLR9-deficient (Tlr9 (-/-) ) macrophages. Fat-fed Tlr9 (-/-) mice demonstrated reduced macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue and better insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type mice, whereas bone marrow reconstitution with wild-type bone marrow restored the attenuation of insulin resistance observed in fat-fed Tlr9 (-/-) mice. Administration of a TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide to fat-fed wild-type mice reduced the accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue and improved insulin resistance. Furthermore, in humans, plasma ssDNA level was significantly higher in patients with computed tomography-determined visceral obesity and was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is the index of insulin resistance. Our study may provide a novel mechanism for the development of sterile inflammation in adipose tissue and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance.

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

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    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  2. Differential effects of a gelatinase inhibitor on adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue development.

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    Van Hul, Matthias; Bauters, Dries; Lijnen, Roger H

    2013-10-01

    (1) A potential role for the gelatinases in adipocyte differentiation in vitro and adipose tissue development in vivo was investigated using the gelatinase inhibitor tolylsam ((R)-3-methyl-2-[4-(3-p-tolyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-benzenesulphonylamino]-butyric acid). (2) Differentiation of murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes (12 days after reaching confluence) into mature adipocytes in vitro was promoted in the presence of tolylsam (10-100 μmol/L). (3) De novo development of fat tissue in nude mice injected with preadipocytes and kept on a high-fat diet was significantly impaired following treatment with tolylsam (100 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks). (4) Adipose tissue development in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 deficient mice, kept on a high-fat diet, was significantly impaired following administration of tolylsam (100 mg/kg per day for 15 weeks). This was associated with markedly enhanced metabolic rate. (5) Treatment of MMP-2-deficient mice with tolylsam (100 mg/kg per day, 15 weeks) was associated with the preservation of collagen and a reduction in blood vessel size in adipose tissues in vivo. (6) Furthermore, plasma levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids were reduced by tolylsam treatment of MMP-2-deficient mice (100 mg/kg per day, 15 weeks), whereas nutrient adsorption in the intestine was not affected. (7) The results of the present study indicate that tolylsam promotes preadipocyte differentiation in vitro, but impairs adipose tissue development in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Effects of GSK3 inhibitors on in vitro expansion and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into adipocytes

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    Peraldi Pascal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Results Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. Conclusion These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.

  4. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

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    Chao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n=6. Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT, PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT, PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve.

  5. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve.

  6. Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of NADPH Oxidase 4 Delays the Onset of Insulin Resistance and Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Laura J; Omer, Mohamed; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Wietecha, Tomasz; O'Brien, Kevin D; Han, Chang Yeop

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in adipose tissue during the development of obesity. We previously showed that in response to excess nutrients like glucose and palmitate, adipocytes generated ROS via NADPH oxidase (NOX) 4, the major adipocyte isoform, instead of using mitochondrial oxidation. However, the role of NOX4-derived ROS in the development of whole body insulin resistance, adipocyte inflammation, and recruitment of macrophages to adipose tissue during the development of obesity is unknown. In this study, control C57BL/6 mice and mice in which NOX4 has been deleted specifically in adipocytes were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. During the development of obesity in control mice, adipocyte NOX4 and pentose phosphate pathway activity were transiently increased. Primary adipocytes differentiated from mice with adipocytes deficient in NOX4 showed resistance against high glucose or palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation. Mice with adipocytes deficient in NOX4 showed a delayed onset of insulin resistance during the development of obesity, with an initial reduction in adipose tissue inflammation that normalized with prolonged high-fat, high-sucrose feeding. These findings imply that NOX4-derived ROS may play a role in the onset of insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. As such, therapeutics targeting NOX4-mediated ROS production could be effective in preventing obesity-associated conditions, such as insulin resistance. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1

  8. Adipocyte-Specific IKKβ Signaling Suppresses Adipose Tissue Inflammation through an IL-13-Dependent Paracrine Feedback Pathway

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    Hyokjoon Kwon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation is one pathway shown to mediate insulin resistance in obese humans and rodents. Obesity induces dynamic cellular changes in adipose tissue to increase proinflammatory cytokines and diminish anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, we have found that anti-inflammatory interleukin-13 (IL-13 is unexpectedly induced in adipose tissue of obese humans and high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice, and the source of IL-13 is primarily the adipocyte. Moreover, HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL-1β mediate IL-13 production in adipocytes in an IKKβ-dependent manner. In contrast, adipocyte-specific IKKβ-deficient mice show diminished IL-13 expression and enhanced inflammation after HFD feeding, resulting in a worsening of the insulin-resistant state. Together these data demonstrate that although IKKβ activates the expression of proinflammatory mediators, in adipocytes, IKKβ signaling also induces the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13, which plays a unique protective role by limiting adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  9. The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) regulates adipose tissue accumulation and adipocyte insulin sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Maria M; Ferguson, Kelly K; Sakuma, Hiroya; Ye, Honggang; Brady, Matthew J; Cohen, Ronald N

    2010-06-11

    The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) serves as a corepressor for nuclear receptors and other factors. Recent evidence suggests that SMRT is an important regulator of metabolism, but its role in adipocyte function in vivo remains unclear. We generated heterozygous SMRT knock-out (SMRT(+/-)) mice to investigate the function of SMRT in the adipocyte and the regulation of adipocyte insulin sensitivity. We show that SMRT(+/-) mice are normal weight on a regular diet, but develop increased adiposity on a high-fat diet (HFD). The mechanisms underlying this phenotype are complex, but appear to be due to a combination of an increased number of smaller subcutaneous adipocytes as well as decreased leptin expression, resulting in greater caloric intake. In addition, adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice was increased. However, adipocyte insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis, was enhanced in SMRT(+/-) adipocytes. These finding suggest that SMRT regulates leptin expression and limits the ability of fat mass to expand with increased caloric intake, but that SMRT also negatively regulates adipocyte insulin sensitivity.

  10. The Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (SMRT) Regulates Adipose Tissue Accumulation and Adipocyte Insulin Sensitivity in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Maria M.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Sakuma, Hiroya; Ye, Honggang; Brady, Matthew J.; Cohen, Ronald N.

    2010-01-01

    The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) serves as a corepressor for nuclear receptors and other factors. Recent evidence suggests that SMRT is an important regulator of metabolism, but its role in adipocyte function in vivo remains unclear. We generated heterozygous SMRT knock-out (SMRT+/−) mice to investigate the function of SMRT in the adipocyte and the regulation of adipocyte insulin sensitivity. We show that SMRT+/− mice are normal weight on a regular diet, but develop increased adiposity on a high-fat diet (HFD). The mechanisms underlying this phenotype are complex, but appear to be due to a combination of an increased number of smaller subcutaneous adipocytes as well as decreased leptin expression, resulting in greater caloric intake. In addition, adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice was increased. However, adipocyte insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis, was enhanced in SMRT+/− adipocytes. These finding suggest that SMRT regulates leptin expression and limits the ability of fat mass to expand with increased caloric intake, but that SMRT also negatively regulates adipocyte insulin sensitivity. PMID:20371609

  11. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  12. Cessation of physical exercise changes metabolism and modifies the adipocyte cellularity of the periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertie, Rogerio A L; Andreotti, Sandra; Proença, André R G; Campana, Amanda B; Lima-Salgado, Thais M; Batista, Miguél L; Seelaender, Marilia C L; Curi, Rui; Oliveira, Ariclecio C; Lima, Fabio B

    2013-08-01

    All of the adaptations acquired through physical training are reversible with inactivity. Although significant reductions in maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) can be observed within 2 to 4 wk of detraining, the consequences of detraining on the physiology of adipose tissue are poorly known. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effects of discontinuing training (physical detraining) on the metabolism and adipocyte cellularity of rat periepididymal (PE) adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats, aged 6 wk, were divided into three groups and studied for 12 wk under the following conditions: 1) trained (T) throughout the period; 2) detrained (D), trained during the first 8 wk and detrained during the remaining 4 wk; and 3) age-matched sedentary (S). Training consisted of treadmill running sessions (1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 50-60% Vo2max). The PE adipocyte size analysis revealed significant differences between the groups. The adipocyte cross-sectional area (in μm(2)) was significantly larger in D than in the T and S groups (3,474 ± 68.8; 1,945.7 ± 45.6; 2,492.4 ± 49.08, respectively, P reduction in the proportion of apoptotic adipocytes was observed in groups T and D compared with group S. The gene expression levels of adiponectin and PPAR-gamma were upregulated by factors of 3 and 2 in D vs. S, respectively. PREF-1 gene expression was 3-fold higher in T vs. S. From these results, we hypothesize that adipogenesis was stimulated in group D and accompanied by significant adipocyte hypertrophy and an increase in the lipogenic capacity of the adipocytes. The occurrence of apoptotic nuclei in PE fat cells was reduced in the D and T rats; these results raise the possibility that the adipose tissue changes after detraining are obesogenic.

  13. Adipose tissue-specific regulation of angiotensinogen in obese humans and mice: impact of nutritional status and adipocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, Shintaro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Okada, Sadanori; Ishii, Takako; Kozuka, Chisayo; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Fujikura, Junji; Ebihara, Ken; Hosoda, Kiminori; Katsurada, Akemi; Ohashi, Naro; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Naoki; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Naitoh, Motoko; Okada, Mitsuru; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-04-01

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and dysfunction of adipose tissue. However, neither regulation of angiotensinogen (AGT) expression in adipose tissue nor secretion of adipose tissue-derived AGT has been fully elucidated in humans. Human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were performed for 46 subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). Considering the mRNA level of AGT and indices of body fat mass, the amount of adipose tissue-derived AGT secretion (A-AGT-S) was estimated. Using a mouse model of obesity and weight reduction, plasma AGT levels were measured with a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the contribution of A-AGT-S to plasma AGT levels was assessed. A-AGT-S was substantially increased in obese humans and the value was correlated with the plasma AGT level in mice. A-AGT-S and plasma AGT were higher in obese mice, whereas lower in mice with weight reduction. However, the AGT mRNA levels in the liver, kidney, and aorta were not altered in the mouse models. In both humans and mice, the AGT mRNA levels in mature adipocytes (MAs) were comparable to those in stromal-vascular cells. Coulter Multisizer analyses revealed that AGT mRNA levels in the MAs were inversely correlated with the average size of mature adipocytes. This study demonstrates that adipose tissue-derived AGT is substantially augmented in obese humans, which may contribute considerably to elevated levels of circulating AGT. Adipose tissue-specific regulation of AGT provides a novel insight into the clinical implications of adipose tissue RAS in human obesity.

  14. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR, a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained

  15. AT1 receptor antagonist induces thermogenic beige adipocytes in the inguinal white adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Rachid, Tamiris Lima; de Oliveira Santos, Felipe; Barbosa-da-Silva, Sandra; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day). Biochemical, morphometrical, stereological and molecular approaches were used to evaluate the outcomes. The high-fat diet elicited overweight, insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy in the high-fat group, all of which losartan rescued in the high-fat-losartan group. These effects comply with the induction of beige adipocytes within the inguinal fat pads in high-fat-losartan group as they exhibited the greatest energy expenditure among the groups along with the presence uncoupling protein 1 positive multilocular adipocytes with enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and PR domain containing 16 mRNA levels, indicating a significant potential for mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis. Our results show compelling evidence that losartan countered diet-induced obesity in mice by enhancing energy expenditure through beige adipocytes induction. Reduced body mass, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased adipocyte size and marked expression of uncoupling protein 1 by ectopic multilocular adipocytes support these findings. The use of losartan as a coadjutant medicine to tackle obesity and its related disorders merits further investigation.

  16. Changes in adipocytes and dendritic cells in lymph node containing adipose depots during and after many weeks of mild inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Dawn; Mattacks, Christine A; Pond, Caroline M

    2005-12-01

    The time course and cellular basis for inflammation-induced hypertrophy of adipose tissue were investigated over 20 weeks in mature male rats. Mild inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20 microg lipopolysaccharide into one hind-leg three times/week for 4 or 8 weeks, followed by up to 12 weeks 'rest' without intervention. Mean volume and frequency of apoptosis (TUNEL assay) were measured in adipocytes isolated from sites defined by their anatomical relations to lymph nodes, plus numbers of CCL21-stimulated lymph node-derived and adipose tissue-derived dendritic cells. Experimental inflammation increased dendritic cells and adipocyte apoptosis in the locally stimulated popliteal depot and the lymphoid tissue-associated regions of the contralateral popliteal and mesentery and omentum. Responses declined slowly after inflammation ended, but all measurements from the locally stimulated popliteal depot, and the omentum, were still significantly different from controls after 12 weeks rest. The locally stimulated popliteal adipose tissue enlarged by 5% within 4 weeks and remained larger than the control. We conclude that prolonged inflammation induces permanent enlargement, greater adipocyte turnover and increased dendritic cell surveillance in the adjacent adipose tissue and the omentum. The experiment suggests a mechanism for selective hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue-associated adipose tissue in chronic stress and inflammatory disorders, including impaired lymph drainage, Crohn's disease and HIV-associated lipodystrophy, and a link between evolutionary fitness, sexual selection and aesthetically pleasing body symmetry. It would be useful for further study of molecular mechanisms in inflammation-induced local hypertrophy of adipose tissue and development of specific therapies that avoid interference with whole-body lipid metabolism.

  17. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide Against Ethanol-Induced Injury in Rat Adipose Tissue and Primary Human Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kema, Venkata Harini; Khan, Imran; Jamal, Reshma; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Lakki Reddy, Chandrakala; Parwani, Kirti; Patel, Farhin; Patel, Dhara; Khan, Aleem A; Mandal, Palash

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol-mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol-induced tissue damage. This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol-induced outcomes on adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed with 36% Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) for 4 weeks. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric diet containing maltodextrin instead of EtOH. During the last week of feeding protocol, the EtOH-fed rat group was given 200 mg/kg body weight of DAS through diet. We also studied DAS effect on isolated human primary adipocytes. Viability of human primary adipocytes on DAS treatment was assessed by MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, was measured by HPLC and the thiobarbituric acid method. Expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes was studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Serum inflammatory gene expression was studied by ELISA. Our study results showed that DAS could alleviate EtOH-induced expression levels of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes and improve adipose tissue mass and adipocyte morphology in male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6% EtOH. Further, we showed that DAS reduced the expression of lipogenic genes and improved lipid accumulation and adipocyte mass in human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH. Subsequently, we also showed that oxidative stress, as measured by the changes in MDA levels, was reduced in both male Wistar rats and human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH plus DAS. Our study results prove that DAS is effective in ameliorating EtOH-induced damage to adipose tissue as evidenced by the reduction brought about by DAS in oxidative stress

  18. Macrophages and Adipocytes in Human Obesity Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Insulin Sensitivity During Calorie Restriction and Weight Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, F.; Klimcakova, E.; Viguerie, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We investigated the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression during different phases of a dietary weight loss program and its relation with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Twenty-two obese women followed a dietary intervention program composed of an energy restriction...... macrophages and adipocytes show distinct patterns of gene regulation and association with insulin sensitivity during the various phases of a dietary weight loss program. Diabetes 58:1558-1567, 2009...

  19. Novel pathway of adipogenesis through cross-talk between adipose tissue macrophages, adipose stem cells and adipocytes: evidence of cell plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Chazenbalk

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies highlight a complex relationship between lineage and phenotype for adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs, adipose stem cells (ASCs, and adipocytes, suggesting a high degree of plasticity of these cells. In the present study, using a novel co-culture system, we further characterized the interaction between ATMs, ASCs and adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Human adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction containing ATMs and ASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and co-cultured for 24 hours. FACS was used to characterize ATMs and ASCs before and after co-culture. Preadipocytes generated after co-culture were characterized by immunostaining for DLK (preadipocytes, CD14 and CD68 (ATMs, CD34 (ASCs, and Nile Red staining for lipid drops. qRT-PCR was used to quantify adipogenic markers such as C/EBPα and PPARγ. A novel fluorescent nanobead lineage tracing method was utilized before co-culture where fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by CD68 (+ ATMs. RESULTS: Co-culture of adipocytes with ATMs and ASCs increased the formation of new preadipocytes, thereby increasing lipid accumulation and C/EBPα and PPARγ gene expression. Preadipocytes originating after co-culture were positive for markers of preadipocytes, ATMs and ASCs. Moreover, fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by ATMs before co-culture and the new preadipocytes formed after co-culture also contained fluorescent nanobeads, suggesting that new preadipocytes originated in part from ATMs. The formation of CD34(+/CD68(+/DLK (+ cell spheres supported the interaction of ATMs, ASCs and preadipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-talk between adipocytes, ATMs and ASCs promotes preadipocyte formation. The regulation of this novel adipogenic pathway involves differentiation of ATMs to preadipocytes. The presence of CD34(+/CD68(+/DLK(+ cells grouped in spheres suggest that paracrine interactions between these cell types plays an important role in the generation and

  20. Novel pathway of adipogenesis through cross-talk between adipose tissue macrophages, adipose stem cells and adipocytes: evidence of cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Bertolotto, Cristina; Heneidi, Saleh; Jumabay, Medet; Trivax, Bradley; Aronowitz, Joel; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Simmons, Charles F; Dumesic, Daniel A; Azziz, Ricardo

    2011-03-31

    Previous studies highlight a complex relationship between lineage and phenotype for adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), adipose stem cells (ASCs), and adipocytes, suggesting a high degree of plasticity of these cells. In the present study, using a novel co-culture system, we further characterized the interaction between ATMs, ASCs and adipocytes. Human adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction containing ATMs and ASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and co-cultured for 24 hours. FACS was used to characterize ATMs and ASCs before and after co-culture. Preadipocytes generated after co-culture were characterized by immunostaining for DLK (preadipocytes), CD14 and CD68 (ATMs), CD34 (ASCs), and Nile Red staining for lipid drops. qRT-PCR was used to quantify adipogenic markers such as C/EBPα and PPARγ. A novel fluorescent nanobead lineage tracing method was utilized before co-culture where fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by CD68 (+) ATMs. Co-culture of adipocytes with ATMs and ASCs increased the formation of new preadipocytes, thereby increasing lipid accumulation and C/EBPα and PPARγ gene expression. Preadipocytes originating after co-culture were positive for markers of preadipocytes, ATMs and ASCs. Moreover, fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by ATMs before co-culture and the new preadipocytes formed after co-culture also contained fluorescent nanobeads, suggesting that new preadipocytes originated in part from ATMs. The formation of CD34(+)/CD68(+)/DLK (+) cell spheres supported the interaction of ATMs, ASCs and preadipocytes. Cross-talk between adipocytes, ATMs and ASCs promotes preadipocyte formation. The regulation of this novel adipogenic pathway involves differentiation of ATMs to preadipocytes. The presence of CD34(+)/CD68(+)/DLK(+) cells grouped in spheres suggest that paracrine interactions between these cell types plays an important role in the generation and proliferation of new preadipocytes. This phenomenon may reflect the in

  1. Novel Pathway of Adipogenesis through Cross-Talk between Adipose Tissue Macrophages, Adipose Stem Cells and Adipocytes: Evidence of Cell Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Bertolotto, Cristina; Heneidi, Saleh; Jumabay, Medet; Trivax, Bradley; Aronowitz, Joel; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Simmons, Charles F.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Azziz, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies highlight a complex relationship between lineage and phenotype for adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), adipose stem cells (ASCs), and adipocytes, suggesting a high degree of plasticity of these cells. In the present study, using a novel co-culture system, we further characterized the interaction between ATMs, ASCs and adipocytes. Research Design and Methods Human adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction containing ATMs and ASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and co-cultured for 24 hours. FACS was used to characterize ATMs and ASCs before and after co-culture. Preadipocytes generated after co-culture were characterized by immunostaining for DLK (preadipocytes), CD14 and CD68 (ATMs), CD34 (ASCs), and Nile Red staining for lipid drops. qRT-PCR was used to quantify adipogenic markers such as C/EBPα and PPARγ. A novel fluorescent nanobead lineage tracing method was utilized before co-culture where fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by CD68 (+) ATMs. Results Co-culture of adipocytes with ATMs and ASCs increased the formation of new preadipocytes, thereby increasing lipid accumulation and C/EBPα and PPARγ gene expression. Preadipocytes originating after co-culture were positive for markers of preadipocytes, ATMs and ASCs. Moreover, fluorescent nanobeads were internalized by ATMs before co-culture and the new preadipocytes formed after co-culture also contained fluorescent nanobeads, suggesting that new preadipocytes originated in part from ATMs. The formation of CD34(+)/CD68(+)/DLK (+) cell spheres supported the interaction of ATMs, ASCs and preadipocytes. Conclusions Cross-talk between adipocytes, ATMs and ASCs promotes preadipocyte formation. The regulation of this novel adipogenic pathway involves differentiation of ATMs to preadipocytes. The presence of CD34(+)/CD68(+)/DLK(+) cells grouped in spheres suggest that paracrine interactions between these cell types plays an important role in the generation and

  2. Study of caveolin-1 gene expression in whole adipose tissue and its subfractions and during differentiation of human adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Hermosa Jose I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Caveolins are 21-24 kDa integral membrane proteins that serve as scaffolds to recruit numerous signaling molecules. Specific subclasses of caveolae carry out specific functions in cell metabolism. In particular, triglycerides are synthesized at the site of fatty acid entry in one of these caveolae classes. Objective and Methods We studied the expression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1 gene in association with metabolic variables in 90 visceral and 55 subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from subjects with a wide range of fat mass, in the stromovascular fraction (SVC and isolated adipocytes, and during differentiation of human adipocytes. Results CAV-1 gene expression was significantly decreased in visceral adipose tissue (v-CAV-1 of obese subjects. v-CAV-1 was positively associated with several lipogenic genes such as acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACACA, r = 0.34, p = 0.004 and spot-14 (r = 0.33, p = 0.004. In non-obese subjects v-CAV-1 also correlated with fatty acid synthase (FAS, r = 0.60, p c-CAV-1 gene expression was not associated with these lipogenic factors when obese and non-obese subjects were studied together. In obese subjects, however, sc-CAV-1 was associated with fatty acid synthase (FAS, r = 0.36, p = 0.02, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c (r = 0.58, p ACACA (r = 0.33, p = 0.03, spot-14 (r = 0.36, p = 0.02, PPAR-γ co-activator-1 (PGC-1, r = 0.88, n = 19. In these obese subjects, sc-CAV-1 was also associated with fasting triglycerides (r = -0.50, p CAV-1 expression in mature adipocytes was significantly higher than in stromal vascular cells. CAV-1 gene expression in adipocytes from subcutaneous adipose tissue (but not in adipocytes from visceral adipose tissue was significatively associated with fasting triglycerides. CAV-1 gene expression did not change significantly during differentiation of human preadipocytes from lean or obese subjects despite significant increase of FAS gene expression. Conclusion

  3. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Region-specific variation in the properties of skeletal adipocytes reveals regulated and constitutive marrow adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Doucette, Casey R; Learman, Brian S; Cawthorn, William P; Khandaker, Shaima; Schell, Benjamin; Wu, Brent; Ding, Shi-Ying; Bredella, Miriam A; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Khoury, Basma; Jepsen, Karl J; Pilch, Paul F; Klibanski, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2015-08-06

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accumulates in diverse clinical conditions but remains poorly understood. Here we show region-specific variation in MAT adipocyte development, regulation, size, lipid composition, gene expression and genetic determinants. Early MAT formation in mice is conserved, whereas later development is strain dependent. Proximal, but not distal tibial, MAT is lost with 21-day cold exposure. Rat MAT adipocytes from distal sites have an increased proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and expression of Scd1/Scd2, Cebpa and Cebpb. Humans also have increased distal marrow fat unsaturation. We define proximal 'regulated' MAT (rMAT) as single adipocytes interspersed with active haematopoiesis, whereas distal 'constitutive' MAT (cMAT) has low haematopoiesis, contains larger adipocytes, develops earlier and remains preserved upon systemic challenges. Loss of rMAT occurs in mice with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4, whereas both rMAT and cMAT are preserved in mice with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 3. Consideration of these MAT subpopulations may be important for future studies linking MAT to bone biology, haematopoiesis and whole-body metabolism.

  5. HMOX1 as a marker of iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, affecting glucose uptake and respiratory capacity in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Rodríguez, Amaia; Latorre, Jèssica; Becerril, Sara; Sabater-Masdeu, Mònica; Ricart, Wifredo; Frühbeck, Gema; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Iron excess in adipose tissue is known to promote adipose tissue dysfunction. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of haem oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Cross-sectionally, HMOX1 gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was analysed in two independent cohorts (n = 234 and 40) in relation to obesity. We also evaluated the impact of weight loss (n = 21), weight gain (in rats, n = 20) on HMOX1 mRNA; HMOX1 mRNA levels during human adipocyte differentiation; the effects of inflammation and iron on adipocyte HMOX1; and the effects of HMOX1-induced activity on adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function, glucose uptake and adipogenesis. Adipose tissue HMOX1 was increased in obese participants (p = 0.01) and positively associated with obesity-related metabolic disturbances, and markers of iron accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress (p iron excess, adipogenesis and inflammation. In human adipocytes, iron excess and inflammation led to increased HMOX1 mRNA levels. HMOX1 induction (by haem arginate [hemin] administration), resulted in a significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory capacity (including basal respiration and spare respiratory capacity), glucose uptake and adipogenesis in parallel with increased expression of inflammatory- and iron excess-related genes. HMOX1 is an important marker of iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and metabolic disturbances in human obesity.

  6. Pregnancy in obese mice protects selectively against visceral adiposity and is associated with increased adipocyte estrogen signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M A Pedroni

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is linked with increased adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. The metabolic impact of excessive fat within the context of pregnancy is not fully understood. We used a mouse model of high fat (HF feeding to induce maternal obesity to identify adipose tissue-mediated mechanisms driving metabolic dysfunction in pregnant and non-pregnant obese mice. As expected, chronic HF-feeding for 12 weeks preceding pregnancy increased peripheral (subcutaneous and visceral (mesenteric fat mass. However, unexpectedly at late gestation (E18.5 HF-fed mice exhibited a remarkable normalization of visceral but not peripheral adiposity, with a 53% reduction in non-pregnant visceral fat mass expressed as a proportion of body weight (P<0.001. In contrast, in control animals, pregnancy had no effect on visceral fat mass proportion. Obesity exaggerated glucose intolerance at mid-pregnancy (E14.5. However by E18.5, there were no differences, in glucose tolerance between obese and control mice. Transcriptomic analysis of visceral fat from HF-fed dams at E18.5 revealed reduced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2--Dgat2 and inflammation (chemokine C-C motif ligand 20--Ccl2 and upregulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα compared to HF non pregnant. Attenuation of adipose inflammation was functionally confirmed by a 45% reduction of CD11b+CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages (expressed as a proportion of all stromal vascular fraction cells in HF pregnant compared to HF non pregnant animals (P<0.001. An ERα selective agonist suppressed both de novo lipogenesis and expression of lipogenic genes in adipocytes in vitro. These data show that, in a HF model of maternal obesity, late gestation is associated with amelioration of visceral fat hypertrophy, inflammation and glucose intolerance, and suggest that these effects are mediated in part by elevated visceral adipocyte ERα signaling.

  7. Interferon-gamma released from omental adipose tissue of insulin-resistant humans alters adipocyte phenotype and impairs response to insulin and adiponectin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, J M; Zhang, J-G; Bandala-Sanchez, E; Naselli, G; Liu, R; Ritchie, M; Smyth, G K; O'Brien, P E; Harrison, L C

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory factors derived from adipose tissue have been implicated in mediating insulin resistance in obesity. We sought to identify these using explanted human adipose tissue exposed to innate and adaptive immune stimuli. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant donors was cultured in the presence of macrophage and T-cell stimuli, and the conditioned medium tested for its ability to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. The nature of the inhibitory factor in conditioned medium was characterized physicochemically, inferred by gene microarray analysis and confirmed by antibody neutralization. Conditioned medium from omental adipose tissue exposed to a combination of macrophage- and T-cell stimuli inhibited insulin action and adiponectin secretion in SGBS adipocytes. This effect was associated with a pronounced change in adipocyte morphology, characterized by a decreased number of lipid droplets of increased size. The bioactivity of conditioned medium was abolished by trypsin treatment and had a molecular weight of 46 kDa by gel filtration. SGBS adipocytes exposed to a bioactive medium expressed multiple gene transcripts regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Recombinant human IFN-γ recapitulated the effects of the bioactive medium and neutralizing antibody against IFN-γ but not other candidate factors abrogated medium bioactivity. IFN-γ released from inflamed omental adipose tissue may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities seen in human obesity.

  8. THP-1 macrophages and SGBS adipocytes - a new human in vitro model system of inflamed adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela eKeuper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue. This inflammation of adipose tissue is a key event in the pathogenesis of several obesity-related disorders, particularly insulin resistance.Here, we summarized existing model systems that mimic the situation of inflamed adipose tissue in vitro, most of them being murine. Importantly, we introduce our newly established human model system which combines the THP-1 monocytic cell line and the preadipocyte cell strain SGBS. THP-1 cells, which originate from an acute monocytic leukemia, differentiate easily into macrophages in vitro. The human preadipocyte cell strain SGBS (Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome was recently introduced as a unique to tool to study human fat cell functions. SGBS cells are characterized by a high capacity for adipogenic differentiation. SGBS adipocytes are capable of fat cell-specific metabolic functions such as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and beta-adrenergic-stimulated lipolysis and they secrete typical adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, and RBP4. Applying either macrophage-conditioned medium or a direct co-culture of macrophages and fat cells, our model system can be used to distinguish between paracrine and cell-contact dependent effects.In conclusion, we propose this model as a useful tool to study adipose inflammation in vitro. It represents an inexpensive, highly reproducible human system. The methods described here can be easily extended for usage of primary human macrophages and fat cells.

  9. Exercise decreases lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue and alters adipocyte cellularity during weight regain after weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Danielle Giles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX. Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: a ad libitum low fat diet (LFD, b ad libitum LFD plus EX, or c a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 & LPL, de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1, and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT & DGAT in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  10. E4orf1 induction in adipose tissue promotes insulin-independent signaling in the adipocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Kusminski

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that E4orf1 expression in the adipocyte leads to enhanced baseline activation of the distal insulin signaling node, yet impaired insulin receptor stimulation in the presence of insulin, with important implications for the regulation of adiponectin secretion. The resulting systemic phenotype is complex, yet highlights the powerful nature of manipulating selective branches of the insulin signaling network within the adipocyte.

  11. Butein induction of HO-1 by p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in adipocytes attenuates high-fat diet induced adipose hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Ka, Sun-O; Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Eun Ju

    2017-03-15

    Adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are key components in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in adipocytes protects against obesity and adipose dysfunction. In this study, we report the identification of butein, a flavonoid chalcone, as a novel inducer of HO-1 expression in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Butein upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, accompanied by Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein (Keap) 1 degradation and increase in the nuclear level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Butein modulation of Keap1 and Nrf2 as well as HO-1 upregulation was reversed by pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating the involvement of p38 MAPK in butein activation of Nrf2 in adipocytes. In addition, HO-1 activation by butein led to the inhibitions of reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by the fact that butein repression of reactive oxygen species and adipogenesis was reversed by pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Induction of HO-1 expression by butein was also demonstrated in the adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet administered along with butein for three weeks, and correlated with the inhibitions of adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation, which were reversed by co-administration of SnPP. Altogether, our results demonstrate that butein activates the p38 MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway to act as a potent inhibitor of adipose hypertrophy and inflammation in a diet-induced obesity model and thus has potential for suppressing obesity-linked metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  13. Identification of a Novel Function of Adipocyte Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein (APMAP) in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Proteomic Analysis of Omental Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhang; Gao, Jing; Yin, Jiajing; Gu, Liping; Liu, Xing; Chen, Su; Huang, Qianfang; Lu, Huifang; Yang, Yuemin; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Yufan; Peng, Yongde

    2016-02-05

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered as an early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we compared demographic and clinical data between six GDM subjects and six normal glucose tolerance (NGT; healthy controls) subjects and found that homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) increased in GDM. Many previous studies demonstrated that omental adipose tissue dysfunction could induce insulin resistance. Thus, to investigate the cause of insulin resistance in GDM, we used label-free proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins in omental adipose tissues from GDM and NGT subjects (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003095). A total of 3528 proteins were identified, including 66 significantly changed proteins. Adipocyte plasma membrane-associated protein (APMAP, a.k.a. C20orf3), one of the differentially expressed proteins, was down-regulated in GDM omental adipose tissues. Furthermore, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to simulate omental adipocytes. The inhibition of APMAP expression by RNAi impaired insulin signaling and activated NFκB signaling in these adipocytes. Our study revealed that the down-regulation of APMAP in omental adipose tissue may play an important role in insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  14. Upregulation of Early and Downregulation of Terminal Pathway Complement Genes in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes in Acquired Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI [n = 26, within-pair difference (Δ in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m2] with as much as 18 kg mean Δweight. Additionally, 14 BMI-concordant (BMI <3 kg/m2 served as a reference group. The detailed measurements included body composition (DEXA, fat distribution (MRI, glucose, insulin, adipokines, C3a and SC5b-9 levels, and the expression of complement and insulin signaling pathway-related genes in AT and adipocytes. In both AT and isolated adipocytes, the classical and alternative pathway genes were upregulated, and the terminal pathway genes downregulated in the heavier co-twins of the BMI-discordant pairs. The upregulated genes included C1q, C1s, C2, ficolin-1, factor H, receptors for C3a and C5a (C5aR1, and the iC3b receptor (CR3. While the terminal pathway components C5 and C6 were downregulated, its inhibitor clusterin was upregulated. Complement gene upregulation in AT and adipocytes correlated positively with adiposity and hyperinsulinemia and negatively with the expression of insulin signaling-related genes. Plasma C3a, but not SC5b-9, levels were elevated in the heavier co-twins. There were no differences between the co-twins in BMI-concordant pairs. Obesity is associated with increased expression of the early, but not late, complement pathway components and of key receptors. The twins with acquired obesity have therefore an inflated inflammatory activity in the AT. The results suggest that complement is likely involved in orchestrating clearance of apoptotic debris

  15. Gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction during differentiation into adipocytes

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    Škugor Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive fat deposition is one of the largest problems faced by salmon aquaculture industries, leading to production losses due to high volume of adipose tissue offal. In addition, increased lipid accumulation may impose considerable stress on adipocytes leading to adipocyte activation and production and secretion of inflammatory mediators, as observed in mammals. Results Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed to follow transcriptome changes during adipogenesis in the primary culture of adipose stromo-vascular fraction (aSVF of Atlantic salmon. Cellular heterogeneity decreased by confluence as evidenced by the down-regulation of markers of osteo/chondrogenic, myogenic, immune and vasculature lineages. Transgelin (TAGLN, a marker of the multipotent pericyte, was prominently expressed around confluence while adipogenic PPARγ was up-regulated already in subconfluent cells. Proliferative activity and subsequent cell cycle arrest were reflected in the fluctuations of pro- and anti-mitotic regulators. Marked regulation of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and pathways producing NADPH and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P was seen during the terminal differentiation, also characterised by diverse stress responses. Activation of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems and changes in the iron metabolism suggested the need for protection against oxidative stress. Signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR occured in parallel with the increased lipid droplet (LD formation and production of secretory proteins (adipsin, visfatin. The UPR markers XBP1 and ATF6 were induced together with genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal proteolysis. Concurrently, translation was suppressed as evidenced by the down-regulation of genes encoding elongation factors and components of the ribosomal machinery. Notably, expression changes of a panel of genes that belong to different

  16. Influence of adipocyte size and adipose depot on the in vitro lipolytic activity and insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue in dairy cows at the end of the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Van den Broeck, W; Hulpio, L; Claeys, E; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Opsomer, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to describe characteristics of adipose tissue lipolysis in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten clinically healthy Holstein Friesian cows were selected based on BCS and euthanized 10 to 13 d before the expected parturition date. Immediately after euthanasia, adipose tissue samples were collected from subcutaneous and omental fat depots. In both depots, we observed an increase in adipocyte size with increasing BCS. Using an in vitro explant culture of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue, we aimed to determine the influence of adipocyte size and localization of adipose depot on the lipolytic activity in basal conditions and after addition of isoproterenol (nonselective β-agonist) and insulin in different concentrations. Glycerol release in the medium was used as a measure for lipolytic activity. We observed that the basal lipolytic activity of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue increased with adipocyte volume, meaning that larger fat cells have higher basal lipolytic activity independent of the location of the adipose depot. Dose-response curves were created between the concentration of isoproterenol or insulin and the amount of glycerol released. The shape of the dose-response curves is determined by the concentration of isoproterenol and insulin needed to elicit the half-maximal effect and the maximal amount of stimulated glycerol release or the maximal inhibitory effect of insulin. We observed that larger fat cells released more glycerol upon maximal stimulation with isoproterenol and this was more pronounced in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, larger fat cells had a higher sensitivity toward lipolytic signals. We observed a trend for larger adipocytes to be more resistant to the maximal antilipolytic effect of insulin. The insulin concentration needed to elicit the half-maximal inhibitory effect of insulin was within the physiological range of insulin and was not influenced by adipocyte

  17. Type-1 diabetes induces depot-specific alterations in adipocyte diameter and mass of adipose tissues in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, A; Varedi, M; Hadjzadeh, M-Al-R; Omrani, G H

    2010-07-01

    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disorder associated with massive reduction in mass of adipose tissue. Measuring cell diameter, an index of fat metabolism, we determined depot-specific alterations in weight of adipose tissue, fat cell diameter and size heterogeneity and distribution at 5 depots in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. T1D was induced by a single injection of STZ. Seven days after the injection, fat depots were isolated, weighted, washed and maintained in tissue culture medium. Using a microscope equipped with calibrated micrometer, cell diameter as well as size distribution pattern and heterogeneity of adipocytes were determined in fresh tissue slices of subcutaneous (SC), proximal epididymal (PE), distal epididymal (DE), perirenal (PR) and retroperitoneal (RP) fat depots. The T1D induced marked reductions in fat mass and mean of fat cell diameter at all depots. The most affected depot was the SC. With the exception of PE, adipocytes at all depots showed significant increases in size heterogeneity. The effect of the diabetes on mean fat cell diameter and size heterogeneity was minimal at PE depot. Depots with similar cell size distribution pattern exhibited similar fat mass reduction. However, the DE depot with a unique cell size distribution pattern showed a fat mass reduction similar to that of PE and PR depots. These data indicate that T1D induces a massive fat mass reduction in a reasonably depot-specific manner and that the fat depots close to survival organs are less vulnerable to fat mobilization. Moreover, peculiar disagreement between cell size distribution and heterogeneity as well as the level of fat mass reduction at DE and PE depots suggests that not only cell size and heterogeneity but also local factors may play roles in depot-specific fat mobilization. J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  18. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from...... hamster or rat. However, the role of adenosine in human BAT is unknown. Here we show that adenosine activates human and murine brown adipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. Adenosine is released in BAT during stimulation of sympathetic nerves as well as from brown adipocytes. The adenosine A2A...... receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation...

  19. Influence of resveratrol on endoplasmic reticulum stress and expression of adipokines in adipose tissues/adipocytes induced by high-calorie diet or palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Ting; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Nuojin; Gui, Li; Dai, Fang; Fang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qiu; Lu, Yunxia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed. The gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. The induced mature 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol and then palmitic acid, and the gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the high-calorie diet-fed mice exhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Resveratrol alleviated high-calorie diet-induced insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, increased expression of SIRT1, and reversed expression of adipokines in varying degrees in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. The effects of resveratrol on palmitic acid-treated adipocytes were similar to those shown in the tissues. Resveratrol treatment obviously reversed adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thus increasing the expression of SIRT1 and inverting the expression of adipokines in vivo and in vitro.

  20. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Downregulation of zinc-?2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue and liver of obese ob/ob mice and by tumour necrosis factor-? in adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mracek, T.; Gao, D; Tzanavari, T; Bao, Y.; Xiao, X.; C. Stocker; Trayhurn, P.; Bing, C. (C.)

    2010-01-01

    Zinc-?2-glycoprotein (ZAG, also listed as AZGP1 in the MGI Database), a lipid-mobilising factor, has recently been suggested as a potential candidate in the modulation of body weight. We investigated the effect of increased adiposity on ZAG expression in adipose tissue and the liver and on plasma levels in obese (ob/ob) mice compared with lean siblings. The study also examined the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF?) on ZAG expression in adipocytes. Zag mRNA...

  2. A PDGFRα-Mediated Switch toward CD9high Adipocyte Progenitors Controls Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Geneviève; Ferreira, Adaliene; Liu, Yuejun; Atlan, Michael; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Pelloux, Véronique; Botbol, Yair; Ambrosini, Marc; Fradet, Magali; Rouault, Christine; Hénégar, Corneliu; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Poitou, Christine; Torcivia, Adriana; Nail-Barthelemy, Raphael; Bichet, Jean-Christophe; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Clément, Karine

    2017-03-07

    Obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis is believed to accelerate WAT dysfunction. However, the cellular origin of WAT fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we show that adipocyte platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα+) progenitors adopt a fibrogenic phenotype in obese mice prone to visceral WAT fibrosis. More specifically, a subset of PDGFRα+ cells with high CD9 expression (CD9high) originates pro-fibrotic cells whereas their CD9low counterparts, committed to adipogenesis, are almost completely lost in the fibrotic WAT. PDGFRα pathway activation promotes a phenotypic shift toward PDGFRα+CD9high fibrogenic cells, driving pathological remodeling and altering WAT function in obesity. These findings translated to human obesity as the frequency of CD9high progenitors in omental WAT (oWAT) correlates with oWAT fibrosis level, insulin-resistance severity, and type 2 diabetes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that in addition to representing a WAT adipogenic niche, different PDGFRα+ cell subsets modulate obesity-induced WAT fibrogenesis and are associated with loss of metabolic fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PPARγ activation alters fatty acid composition in adipose triglyceride, in addition to proliferation of small adipocytes, in insulin resistant high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Oda, Kanako; Kusunoki, Masataka; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2016-02-15

    It was reported that adipocyte size is potentially correlated in part to amount of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and insulin resistance because several long chain PUFAs can be ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In our previous study, marked reduction of PUFAs was observed in insulin-resistant high-fat fed rats, which may indicate that PUFAs are consumed to improve insulin resistance. Although PPARγ agonist, well known as an insulin sensitizer, proliferates small adipocytes, the effects of PPARγ agonist on FA composition in adipose tissue have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we administered pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, to high-fat fed rats, and measured their FA composition of triglyceride fraction in adipose tissue and adipocyte diameters in pioglitazone-treated (PIO) and non-treated (control) rats. Insulin sensitivity was obtained with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Average adipocyte diameter in the PIO group were smaller than that in the control one without change in tissue weight. In monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), 14:1n-5, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 contents in the PIO group were lower than those, respectively, in the control group. In contrast, 22:6n-3, 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:4n-6 contents in the PIO group were higher than those, respectively, in the control group. Insulin sensitivity was higher in the PIO group than in the control one. These findings suggest that PPARγ activation lowered MUFAs whereas suppressed most of C20 or C22 PUFAs reduction, and that the change of fatty acid composition may be relevant with increase in small adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A biomimetic hydrogel functionalized with adipose ECM components as a microenvironment for the 3D culture of human and murine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Fiona; Pannetier, Pauline; Souguir, Zied; Le Cerf, Didier; Valet, Philippe; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Vidal, Guillaume; Demange, Elise

    2017-08-01

    The lack of relevant in vitro models for adipose tissue makes necessary the development of a more physiological environment providing spatial and chemical cues for the effective maturation of adipocytes. We developed a biofunctionalized hydrogel with components of adipose extracellular matrix: collagen I, collagen VI, and the cell binding domain of fibronectin and we compared it to usual 2D cultures on plastic plates. This scaffold allowed 3D culture of mature adipocytes from the preadipocytes cell lines 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A, as well as primary Human White Preadipocytes (HWP), acquiring in vivo-like organization, with spheroid shaped adipocytes forming multicellular aggregates. The size of these aggregates increased with time up to 120 μm in diameter after 4 weeks of maturation, with good viability. Significantly higher lipogenic activity (up to 20-fold at day 28 for HWP cultures) and differentiation rates were also observed compared to 2D. Gene expression analyses highlighted earlier differentiation and complete maturation of 3D HWP compared to 2D, reinforced by the expression of Perilipin protein after 21 days of nutrition. This increase in adipocytes phenotypic and genotypic markers made this scaffold-driven culture as a robust adipose 3D model. Retinoic acid inhibition of lipogenesis in HWP or isoprenalin and caffeine induction of lipolysis performed on mouse 3T3-F442A cells, showed higher doses of molecules than typically used in 2D, underlying the physiologic relevance of this 3D culture system. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1813-1824. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism induces browning of white adipose tissue through impairment of autophagy and prevents adipocyte dysfunction in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, Andrea; Cinti, Francesca; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Morgan, James; Cranston, Greg A; Antelmi, Antonella; Carpinelli, Giulia; Canese, Rossella; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Malorni, Walter; Matarrese, Paola; Marconi, Matteo; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Cinti, Saverio; Young, Morag J; Caprio, Massimiliano

    2014-08-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) controls adipocyte function, but its role in the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into thermogenic fat has not been elucidated. We investigated responses to the MR antagonists spironolactone (spiro; 20 mg/kg/d) and drospirenone (DRSP; 6 mg/kg/d) in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 90 d. DRSP and spiro curbed HF diet-induced impairment in glucose tolerance, and prevented body weight gain and white fat expansion. Notably, either MR antagonist induced up-regulation of brown adipocyte-specific transcripts and markedly increased protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in visceral and inguinal fat depots when compared with the HF diet group. Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed acquisition of brown fat features in WAT. Interestingly, MR antagonists markedly reduced the autophagic rate both in murine preadipocytes in vitro (10(-5) M) and in WAT depots in vivo, with a concomitant increase in UCP1 protein expression. Moreover, the autophagy repressor bafilomycin A1 (10(-8) M) mimicked the effect of MR antagonists, increasing UCP1 protein expression in primary preadipocytes. Hence, we showed that adipocyte MR regulates brown remodeling of WAT through a modulation of autophagy. These results provide a rationale for the use of MR antagonists to prevent the adverse metabolic consequences of adipocyte dysfunction. © FASEB.

  6. Paracrine Interactions between Adipocytes and Tumor Cells Recruit and Modify Macrophages to the Mammary Tumor Microenvironment: The Role of Obesity and Inflammation in Breast Adipose Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santander, Ana M.; Lopez-Ocejo, Omar; Casas, Olivia; Agostini, Thais; Sanchez, Lidia; Lamas-Basulto, Eduardo; Carrio, Roberto [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1600 NW 10th Ave, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Cleary, Margot P. [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R. [Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Torroella-Kouri, Marta, E-mail: mtorroella@med.miami.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1600 NW 10th Ave, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The relationship between obesity and breast cancer (BC) has focused on serum factors. However, the mammary gland contains adipose tissue (AT) which may enable the crosstalk between adipocytes and tumor cells contributing to tumor macrophage recruitment. We hypothesize that the breast AT (bAT) is inflamed in obese females and plays a major role in breast cancer development. The effects of this interplay on macrophage chemotaxis were examined in vitro, using co-cultures of mouse macrophages, mammary tumor cells and adipocytes. Macrophages were exposed to the adipocyte and tumor paracrine factors leptin, CCL2 and lauric acid (alone or in combinations). In cell supernatants Luminex identified additional molecules with chemotactic and other pro-tumor functions. Focus on the adipokine leptin, which has been shown to have a central role in breast cancer pathogenesis, indicated it modulates macrophage phenotypes and functions. In vivo experiments demonstrate that mammary tumors from obese mice are larger and that bAT from obese tumor-bearers contains higher numbers of macrophages/CLS and hypertrophic adipocytes than bAT from lean tumor-bearers, thus confirming it is more inflamed. Also, bAT distal from the tumor is more inflamed in obese than in lean mice. Our results reveal that bAT plays a role in breast cancer development in obesity.

  7. Downregulation of zinc-{alpha}2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue and liver of obese ob/ob mice and by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Gao, D; Tzanavari, T; Bao, Y; Xiao, X; Stocker, C; Trayhurn, P; Bing, C

    2010-02-01

    Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG, also listed as AZGP1 in the MGI Database), a lipid-mobilising factor, has recently been suggested as a potential candidate in the modulation of body weight. We investigated the effect of increased adiposity on ZAG expression in adipose tissue and the liver and on plasma levels in obese (ob/ob) mice compared with lean siblings. The study also examined the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on ZAG expression in adipocytes. Zag mRNA levels were significantly reduced in subcutaneous (fourfold) and epididymal (eightfold) fat of ob/ob mice. Consistently, ZAG protein content was decreased in both fat depots of ob/ob mice. In the liver of obese animals, steatosis was accompanied by the fall of both Zag mRNA (twofold) and ZAG protein content (2.5-fold). Plasma ZAG levels were also decreased in obese mice. In addition, Zag mRNA was reduced in epididymal (fivefold) and retroperitoneal (fivefold) adipose tissue of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. In contrast to Zag expression, Tnfalpha mRNA levels were elevated in adipose tissue (twofold) and the liver (2.5-fold) of ob/ob mice. Treatment with TNFalpha reduced Zag gene expression in differentiated adipocytes, and this inhibition was chronic, occurring at 24 and 48 h following TNFalpha treatment. It is concluded that ZAG synthesis in adipose tissue and the liver is downregulated, as are its circulating levels, in ob/ob mice. The reduced ZAG production may advance the susceptibility to lipid accumulation in these tissues in obesity, and this could be at least in part attributable to the inhibitory effect of TNFalpha.

  8. Downregulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue and liver of obese ob/ob mice and by tumour necrosis factor-α in adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Gao, D; Tzanavari, T; Bao, Y; Xiao, X; Stocker, C; Trayhurn, P; Bing, C

    2010-01-01

    Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, also listed as AZGP1 in the MGI Database), a lipid-mobilising factor, has recently been suggested as a potential candidate in the modulation of body weight. We investigated the effect of increased adiposity on ZAG expression in adipose tissue and the liver and on plasma levels in obese (ob/ob) mice compared with lean siblings. The study also examined the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) on ZAG expression in adipocytes. Zag mRNA levels were significantly reduced in subcutaneous (fourfold) and epididymal (eightfold) fat of ob/ob mice. Consistently, ZAG protein content was decreased in both fat depots of ob/ob mice. In the liver of obese animals, steatosis was accompanied by the fall of both Zag mRNA (twofold) and ZAG protein content (2·5-fold). Plasma ZAG levels were also decreased in obese mice. In addition, Zag mRNA was reduced in epididymal (fivefold) and retroperitoneal (fivefold) adipose tissue of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. In contrast to Zag expression, Tnfα mRNA levels were elevated in adipose tissue (twofold) and the liver (2·5-fold) of ob/ob mice. Treatment with TNFα reduced Zag gene expression in differentiated adipocytes, and this inhibition was chronic, occurring at 24 and 48 h following TNFα treatment. It is concluded that ZAG synthesis in adipose tissue and the liver is downregulated, as are its circulating levels, in ob/ob mice. The reduced ZAG production may advance the susceptibility to lipid accumulation in these tissues in obesity, and this could be at least in part attributable to the inhibitory effect of TNFα. PMID:19934249

  9. WAT is a functional adipocyte?

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Christopher; Horowitz, Mark; Rodeheffer, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, adipose tissue is the main storage site for lipids within specialized lipid-laden mature adipocytes. While many species have evolved cells capable of lipid storage, the adipocyte represents a unique specialized cell involved in fuel storage, endocrine, nervous and immune function. However, the adipocytes are not the only cell type in mammals that can accumulate lipid droplets. The ectopic accumulation of lipid in non-adipose tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, bone, ...

  10. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells reveals novel patterns of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Anyasi Ambele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have undertaken an in-depth transcriptome analysis of adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Gene expression was assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 post-induction and genes differentially expressed numbered 128, 218, 253 and 240 respectively. Up-regulated genes were associated with blood vessel development, leukocyte migration, as well as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. They also shared common pathways with certain obesity-related pathophysiological conditions. Down-regulated genes were enriched for immune response processes. KLF15, LMO3, FOXO1 and ZBTB16 transcription factors were up-regulated throughout the differentiation process. CEBPA, PPARG, ZNF117, MLXIPL, MMP3 and RORB were up-regulated only on days 14 and 21, which coincide with the maturation of adipocytes and could possibly serve as candidates for controlling fat accumulation and the size of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified genes that were up-regulated only on days 1 and 7 or days 14 and 21 that could serve as potential early and late-stage differentiation markers.

  11. WAT is a functional adipocyte?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Christopher; Horowitz, Mark; Rodeheffer, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, adipose tissue is the main storage site for lipids within specialized lipid-laden mature adipocytes. While many species have evolved cells capable of lipid storage, the adipocyte represents a unique specialized cell involved in fuel storage, endocrine, nervous and immune function. However, the adipocytes are not the only cell type in mammals that can accumulate lipid droplets. The ectopic accumulation of lipid in non-adipose tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, bone, pancreas, and heart in combination with its excessive accumulation in adipose tissue contributes to metabolic disease. Determining the lipid processing components that are necessary and sufficiently for lipid accumulation in adipose and non-adipose tissues, in addition to endocrine function, will lead to a clearer definition of an adipocyte.

  12. Resistance to diet-induced adiposity in cannabinoid receptor-1 deficient mice is not due to impaired adipocyte function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Koolman, Anniek H.; de Boer, Pieter T.; Bos, Trijnie; Bleeker, Aycha; Bloks, Vincent W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Overactivity and/or dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) contribute to development of obesity. In vitro studies indicate a regulatory role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in adipocyte function and CB1-receptor deficient (CB1-/-) mice are resistant to high fat

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Synergizes with Insulin in Human Adipose Stem Cell-Derived (hASC) Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darwin V.; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Qingyun; Zhu, Yimin; Goodwin, Bryan; Calle, Roberto; Brenner, Martin B.; Talukdar, Saswata

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has evolved as a major metabolic regulator, the pharmacological administration of which causes weight loss, insulin sensitivity and glucose control in rodents and humans. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects, we developed a human in vitro model of adipocytes to examine crosstalk between FGF21 and insulin signaling. Human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC) adipocytes were acutely treated with FGF21 alone, insulin alone, or in combination. Insulin signaling under these conditions was assessed by measuring tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and serine 473 phosphorylation of Akt, followed by a functional assay using 14C-2-deoxyglucose [14C]-2DG to measure glucose uptake in these cells. FGF21 alone caused a modest increase of glucose uptake, but treatment with FGF21 in combination with insulin had a synergistic effect on glucose uptake in these cells. The presence of FGF21 also effectively lowered the insulin concentration required to achieve the same level of glucose uptake compared to the absence of FGF21 by 10-fold. This acute effect of FGF21 on insulin signaling was not due to IR, IGF-1R, or IRS-1 activation. Moreover, we observed a substantial increase in basal S473-Akt phosphorylation by FGF21 alone, in contrast to the minimal shift in basal glucose uptake. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake. These effects were shown to occur at or downstream of Akt, or separate from the canonical insulin signaling pathway. PMID:25365322

  14. Fibroblast growth factor 21 improves insulin sensitivity and synergizes with insulin in human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin V Lee

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has evolved as a major metabolic regulator, the pharmacological administration of which causes weight loss, insulin sensitivity and glucose control in rodents and humans. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects, we developed a human in vitro model of adipocytes to examine crosstalk between FGF21 and insulin signaling. Human adipose stem cell-derived (hASC adipocytes were acutely treated with FGF21 alone, insulin alone, or in combination. Insulin signaling under these conditions was assessed by measuring tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1, and serine 473 phosphorylation of Akt, followed by a functional assay using 14C-2-deoxyglucose [14C]-2DG to measure glucose uptake in these cells. FGF21 alone caused a modest increase of glucose uptake, but treatment with FGF21 in combination with insulin had a synergistic effect on glucose uptake in these cells. The presence of FGF21 also effectively lowered the insulin concentration required to achieve the same level of glucose uptake compared to the absence of FGF21 by 10-fold. This acute effect of FGF21 on insulin signaling was not due to IR, IGF-1R, or IRS-1 activation. Moreover, we observed a substantial increase in basal S473-Akt phosphorylation by FGF21 alone, in contrast to the minimal shift in basal glucose uptake. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake. These effects were shown to occur at or downstream of Akt, or separate from the canonical insulin signaling pathway.

  15. Repressive effects of oat extracts on intracellular lipid-droplet formation in adipocytes and a three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Kato, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroki; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the repression of lipid-droplet formation in mouse mesenchymal stromal preadipocytes OP9 by specified oat extracts (Hatomugi, Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen) named "SPH" which were proteolytically and glucosyl-transferredly prepared from finely-milled oat whole-grain. Stimulation of OP9 preadipocytes with insulin-containing serum-replacement promoted differentiation to adipocytes, concurrently with an increase in the intracellular lipid droplets by 51.5%, which were repressed by SPH-bulk or SPH-water-extract at 840ppm, to 33.5% or 46.9%, respectively, but not by SPH-ethanol-extract at the same dose, showing the hydrophilic property of the anti-adipogenetic ingredients. The intracellular lipid droplets were scanty for intact preadipocytes, small-sized but abundant for the SPH-unadministered adipocytes, and large-sized but few for SPH-bulk-administered adipocytes being coexistent with many lipid-droplet-lacking viable cells, suggesting "the all-or-none rule" for lipid-droplet generation in cell-to-cell. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death in human epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT was prevented by SPH-bulk at 100 or 150ppm by 5.6-8.1%, being consistent with higher viabilities of SPH-bulk-administered OP9 cells, together with repressions of both cell shrinkage and cell detachment from the culture substratum. In three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue models reconstructed with HaCaT-keratinocytes and OP9-preadipocytes, lipid droplets were accumulated in dermal OP9-cell-parts, and repressed to 43.5% by SPH-bulk at 840ppm concurrently with marked diminishment of huge aggregates of lipid droplets. Thus SPH-bulk suppresses adipogenesis-associated lipid-droplet accumulation during differentiation of OP9 preadipocytes together with lowered cytotoxicity to either HaCaT keratinocytes or the preadipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Progesterone stimulates adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene expression. potential mechanism for the lipogenic effect of progesterone in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, D; Le Liepvre, X; Ferre, P; Dugail, I

    2001-04-13

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a nutritionally regulated lipogenic enzyme, is transcriptionally controlled by ADD1/SREBP1c (adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c), through insulin-mediated stimulation of ADD1/SREBP1c expression. Progesterone exerts lipogenic effects on adipocytes, and FAS is highly induced in breast tumor cell lines upon progesterone treatment. We show here that progesterone up-regulates ADD1/SREBP1c expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and the primary cultured preadipocyte from rat parametrial adipose tissue. In MCF7, progesterone induced ADD1/SREBP1c and Metallothionein II (a well known progesterone-regulated gene) mRNAs, with comparable potency. In preadipocytes, progesterone increased ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA dose-dependently, but not SREBP1a or SREBP2. Run-on experiments demonstrated that progesterone action on ADD1/SREBP1c was primarily at the transcriptional level. The membrane-bound and mature nuclear forms of ADD1/SREBP1 protein accumulated in preadipocytes cultured with progesterone, and FAS induction could be abolished by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative form of ADD1/SREBP1 in these cells. Finally, in the presence of insulin, progesterone was unable to up-regulate ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA in preadipocytes, whereas its effect was restored after 24 h of insulin deprivation. Together these results demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is controlled by progesterone, which, like insulin, acts by increasing ADD1/SREBP1c gene transcription. This provides a potential mechanism for the lipogenic actions of progesterone on adipose tissue.

  17. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  18. Farnesol Has an Anti-obesity Effect in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Induces the Development of Beige Adipocytes in Human Adipose Tissue Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Lin Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat and hence have an important therapeutic capacity for obesity. Development of brown-like adipocytes (also called beige is also another attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of farnesol, an isoprenoid, on adipogenesis in adipocytes and on the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT as well as on the weight gain of high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Farnesol inhibited adipogenesis and the related key regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α through the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs. Farnesol markedly increased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and PPARγ coactivator 1 α in differentiated hAMSCs. In addition, farnesol limited the weight gain in HFD obese mice and induced the development of beige adipocytes in both inguinal and epididymal WAT. These results suggest that farnesol could be a potential therapeutic agent for obesity treatment.

  19. Exercise Decreases Lipogenic Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue and Alters Adipocyte Cellularity during Weight Regain After Weight Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giles, Erin D; Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Lindstrom, Rachel C; MacLean, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    ... the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity...

  20. Lack of Adipocyte AMPK Exacerbates Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis through Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottillo, Emilio P; Desjardins, Eric M; Crane, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    in regulating BAT and WAT metabolism is unclear. We generated an inducible model for deletion of the two AMPK β subunits in adipocytes (iβ1β2AKO) and found that iβ1β2AKO mice were cold intolerant and resistant to β-adrenergic activation of BAT and beiging of WAT. BAT from iβ1β2AKO mice had impairments...... in mitochondrial structure, function, and markers of mitophagy. In response to a high-fat diet, iβ1β2AKO mice more rapidly developed liver steatosis as well as glucose and insulin intolerance. Thus, AMPK in adipocytes is vital for maintaining mitochondrial integrity, responding to pharmacological agents...

  1. The fat controller: adipocyte development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Stephens

    Full Text Available Obesity is a condition characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from positive energy balance and is the most common metabolic disorder in the industrialized world. The obesity epidemic shows no sign of slowing, and it is increasingly a global problem. Serious clinical problems associated with obesity include an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Hence, understanding the origin and development of adipocytes and adipose tissue will be critical to the analysis and treatment of metabolic diseases. Historically, albeit incorrectly, adipocytes were thought to be inert cells whose singular function was lipid storage. It is now known that adipocytes have other critical functions; the most important include sensitivity to insulin and the ability to produce and secrete adipocyte-specific endocrine hormones that regulate energy homeostasis in other tissues. Today, adipocytes are recognized as critical regulators of whole-body metabolism and known to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of metabolic diseases. All cells come from other cells and many cells arise from precursor cells. Adipocytes are not created from other adipocytes, but they arise from precursor cells. In the last two decades, scientists have discovered the function of many proteins that influence the ability of precursor cells to become adipocytes. If the expansion of the adipose tissue is the problem, it seems logical that adipocyte development inhibitors could be a viable anti-obesity therapeutic. However, factors that block adipocyte development and limit adipocyte expansion also impair metabolic health. This notion may be counterintuitive, but several lines of evidence support the idea that blocking adipocyte development is unhealthy. For this reason it is clear that we need a better understanding of adipocyte development.

  2. Exercise Decreases Lipogenic Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue and Alters Adipocyte Cellularity during Weight Regain After Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Danielle Giles; Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Lindstrom, Rachel C.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose ...

  3. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity) have a fetal origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Hou, Lei; Johnsen, Lærke

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has ...... long-term differential impacts on development, expandability and metabolic features in subcutaneous as compared to perirenal and mesenteric adipose tissues, which 2) will predispose for visceral obesity upon exposure to an obesogenic diet in early postnatal life....

  4. Alterations in lipid metabolism and thermogenesis with emergence of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity-resistant Lou/C rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Poher, Anne-Laure; Caillon, Aurélie; Montet, Xavier; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies describe the Lou/C rat as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity and suggest a preferential channeling of nutrients toward utilization rather than storage under standard feeding conditions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate lipid metabolism of Lou/C and Wistar rats under a high-fat (HF) diet. Four-month-old male Lou/C and Wistar animals were submitted to a 40% HF diet for 5-9 wk. Evolution of food intake, body weight, and body composition, hormonal parameters, and expression of key transcription factors and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Wistar rats developed obesity after 5 wk of HF diet, as previously described. Among the various parameters measured, accumulation of intraperitoneal fat was particularly evident in HF-fed Wistar rats. In these animals, thermogenesis was, however, stimulated as a likely compensatory mechanism against the development of obesity. On the contrary, Lou/C animals failed to develop obesity under such a diet, and intraperitoneal fat, not including epididymal and retroperitoneal fat depots, was virtually absent. Enzyme measurements confirmed lipid utilization rather than storage, which was accompanied by the striking emergence of uncoupling protein-1, characteristic of brown adipocytes, in white adipose tissue, particularly in the subcutaneous depot.

  5. Mechanotransduction in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Naama; Gefen, Amit

    2012-01-03

    Obesity is widely recognized as a major public health problem due to its strong association with a number of serious chronic diseases including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type II diabetes and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. During the development of obesity, the positive energy balance involves recruitment of new adipocytes from preadipocytes in adipose tissue, which have proliferated and differentiated. Given that cells in adipose tissues are physiologically exposed to compound mechanical loading: tensile, compressive and shear strains/stresses, which are caused by bodyweight loads as well as by weight-bearing, it is important to determine whether the adipose conversion process is influenced by mechanical stimulations. In this article we provide a comprehensive review of the experimental studies addressing mechanotransduction in adipocytes, as well as of mathematical and computational models that are useful for studying mechanotransduction in adipocytes or for quantifying the responsiveness of adipocytes to different types of mechanical loading. The new understanding that adipogenesis is influenced by mechanical stimulations has the potential to open new and important research paths, driven by mechanotransduction, to explore mechanisms as well as treatment approaches in obesity and related conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of apelin and its receptor expression in adipose tissues of obesity rats with hypertension and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxian; Cheng, Xian Wu; Hao, Changning; Zhang, Zhi; Yao, Huali; Murohara, Toyoaki; Dai, Qiuyan

    2014-01-01

    The apelin/APJ system has been implicated in obesity-related hypertension. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension with a special focus on the crosstalk between AngII/its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and apelin/APJ expression. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat (obesity-related hypertension, OH) or normal-fat diet (NF) for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to one of two groups and administered vehicle or perindopril for 4 weeks. Compared to the NF rats, the OH rats showed lower levels of plasma apelin and apelin/APJ mRNAs of perirenal adipose tissues, and these changes were restored by perindopril. Administration of the AT1R antagonist olmesartan resulted in the restoration of the reduction of apelin and APJ expressions induced by AngII for 48 h in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Among several inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) PD98059, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) SB203580 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) LY294002, the latter showed an additive effect on AngII-mediated inhibitory effects. In addition, the levels of p-Akt, p-ERK and p38MAPK proteins were decreased by long-term treatment with AngII (120 min), and these changes were restored by Olmesartan. Apelin/APJ appears to be impaired in obesity-related hypertension. The AngII inhibition-mediated beneficial effects are likely attributable, at least in part, to restoration of p38/ERK-dependent apelin/APJ expression in diet-induced obesity-related hypertension.

  7. Adipocyte differentiation and leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Loftus, T M; Mandrup, S

    1997-01-01

    Adipose tissue has long been known to house the largest energy reserves in the animal body. Recent research indicates that in addition to this role, the adipocyte functions as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of endocrine and paracrine...... signals, e.g. insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), that combine to control both the secretion of other regulatory factors and the recruitment and differentiation of new adipocytes. The process of adipocyte differentiation is controlled by a cascade of transcription factors......, most notably those of the C/EBP and PPAR families, which combine to regulate each other and to control the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. One such gene, i.e. the obese gene, was recently identified and found to encode a hormone, referred to as leptin, that plays a major role in the regulation...

  8. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity in Female C57BL/6J Mice and Enhances Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPKα-Mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Quancai; Qi, Weipeng; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Szu-Hao; Kim, Daeyoung; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2017-08-09

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was previously reported to enhance adipogenesis and resulted in insulin resistance in cell culture models. It was also reported to promote high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. Thus, the goal of the present study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and dietary fat interaction on the development of adiposity and insulin resistance in female C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed with a low (4% w/w) or high fat (20% w/w) diet containing imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) for 12 weeks. Mice fed with imidacloprid (0.6 mg/kg bw/day) significantly enhanced high fat diet-induced weight gain and adiposity. Treatment with imidacloprid significantly increased serum insulin levels with high fat diet without effects on other markers of glucose homeostasis. AMPKα activation was significantly inhibited by 0.6 and 6 mg imidacloprid/kg bw/day in white adipose tissue. Moreover, AMPKα activation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide abolished the effects of imidacloprid (10 μM) on enhanced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. N-Acetyl cysteine also partially reversed the effects of imidacloprid on reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) in C2C12 myotubes. These results indicate that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity in female C57BL/6J mice and enhance adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the AMPKα-mediated pathway. Imidacloprid might also influence glucose homeostasis partially by inducing cellular oxidative stress in C2C12 myotubes.

  9. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity in Female C57BL/6J Mice and Enhances Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPKα-Mediated Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was previously reported to enhance adipogenesis and resulted in insulin resistance in cell culture models. It was also reported to promote high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. Thus, the goal of the present study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and dietary fat interaction on the development of adiposity and insulin resistance in female C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed with a low (4% w/w) or high fat (20% w/w) diet containing imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) for 12 weeks. Mice fed with imidacloprid (0.6 mg/kg bw/day) significantly enhanced high fat diet-induced weight gain and adiposity. Treatment with imidacloprid significantly increased serum insulin levels with high fat diet without effects on other markers of glucose homeostasis. AMPKα activation was significantly inhibited by 0.6 and 6 mg imidacloprid/kg bw/day in white adipose tissue. Moreover, AMPKα activation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide abolished the effects of imidacloprid (10 μM) on enhanced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. N-Acetyl cysteine also partially reversed the effects of imidacloprid on reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) in C2C12 myotubes. These results indicate that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity in female C57BL/6J mice and enhance adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the AMPKα-mediated pathway. Imidacloprid might also influence glucose homeostasis partially by inducing cellular oxidative stress in C2C12 myotubes. PMID:28704996

  10. NGF gene expression and secretion in white adipose tissue: regulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by hormones and inflammatory cytokines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad R. Peeraully; John R. Jenkins; Paul Trayhurn

    2004-01-01

    ...). In this study, we have examined whether nerve growth factor (NGF), a target-derived neurotropin that is a key signal in the development and survival of sympathetic neurons, is expressed and secreted by white adipocytes...

  11. Adipocyte Liver Kinase b1 Suppresses Beige Adipocyte Renaissance Through Class IIa Histone Deacetylase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangmeng; Paulo, Esther; Wu, Dongmei; Wu, Yixuan; Huang, Wendong; Chawla, Ajay; Wang, Biao

    2017-12-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 + beige adipocytes are dynamically regulated by environment in rodents and humans; cold induces formation of beige adipocytes, whereas warm temperature and nutrient excess lead to their disappearance. Beige adipocytes can form through de novo adipogenesis; however, how "beiging" characteristics are maintained afterward is largely unknown. In this study, we show that beige adipocytes formed postnatally in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue lost thermogenic gene expression and multilocular morphology at the adult stage, but cold restored their beiging characteristics, a phenomenon termed beige adipocyte renaissance. Ablation of these postnatal beige adipocytes inhibited cold-induced beige adipocyte formation in adult mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that beige adipocyte renaissance was governed by liver kinase b1 and histone deacetylase 4 in white adipocytes. Although neither presence nor thermogenic function of uncoupling protein 1 + beige adipocytes contributed to metabolic fitness in adipocyte liver kinase b1-deficient mice, our results reveal an unexpected role of white adipocytes in maintaining properties of preexisting beige adipocytes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Human Primary Adipocytes Exhibit Immune Cell Function : Adipocytes Prime Inflammation Independent of Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kees; de Vries, Marcel; Al-Lahham, Saad; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Weening, Desiree; Dijkstra, Martijn; Kloosterhuis, Niels; van der Leij, Roelof Jan; van der Want, Han; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Vonk, Roel; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity promotes inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and this is implicated in pathophysiological complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although based on the classical hypothesis, necrotic AT adipocytes (ATA) in obese state activate AT

  13. Adipocyte Death and Chronic Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masashi; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Cell death is closely linked to many diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. Increased adipocyte death has been reported during the development of obesity. Adipocyte death may be caused by excessive stress during obesity-related adipose tissue remodeling. Adipose tissue macrophages are key players in obesity-related inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that adipocyte death is involved in immune cell function and initiates inflammation through an interaction with macrophages; however, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. This review focuses on the contribution of dead cells (particularly dead adipocytes in adipose tissue) to the pathophysiological conditions associated with obesity. J. Med. Invest. 64: 193-196, August, 2017.

  14. Human adipocyte extracellular vesicles in reciprocal signaling between adipocytes and macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariëtte E G; Visseren, Frank L J; van Balkom, Bas W M; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; van Herwaarden, Joost A; de Jager, Wilco; Schipper, Henk S; Brenkman, Arjan B; Verhaar, Marianne C; Wauben, Marca H M; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or adipose tissue (AT)-explants play a role in the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, a key mechanism in AT inflammation, leading to metabolic complications like insulin resistance (IR) were determined.

  15. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess.

  16. The adipose organ at a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Cinti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ – a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ’s plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that ‘browning’ of the adipose organ curbs these disorders.

  17. Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Robert A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that activate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. To address this gap in knowledge, we have measured the effect of reducing adipocyte LPL expression on intracellular lipid accumulation using a well-established cultured model of adipocyte differentiation. Methods siRNA specific for mouse LPL was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of LPL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric detection following substrate (p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis. Apolipoprotein CII and CIII expression ratios were also measured by qRT-PCR. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by Nile Red staining. Results During differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, LPL mRNA expression increases 6-fold resulting in a 2-fold increase in cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity. Parallel to this increase in LPL expression, we found that intracellular lipids increased ~10-fold demonstrating a direct correlation between adipocyte-derived LPL expression and lipid storage. We next reduced LPL expression in adipocytes using siRNA transfections to directly quantify the contributions of adipocyte-derived LPL to lipid storage, This treatment reduced LPL mRNA expression and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity to ~50% of non-treated controls while intracellular lipid levels were reduced by 80%. Exogenous addition of purified LPL (to restore extracellular lipolytic activity or palmitate (as a source of free fatty acids to siRNA-treated cells restored intracellular lipid levels to those measured for non

  18. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazliana Mansor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT- induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100 μg/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10 μM of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones. LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

  19. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear.......Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear....

  20. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Adipose tissue can be generated in vitro by using adipocytes from human fat tissue mesenchymal stem cells seeded and cultured on fibrin gel sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong Toai; Huynh, Duy Thao; Gargiulo, Ciro; Tran, Le Bao Ha; Huynh, Minh Hang; Nguyen, Khanh Hoa; Filgueira, Luis; Strong, D Micheal

    2013-03-01

    The current study has developed an innovative procedure to generate ex novo fat tissue by culturing adipocytes from human fat tissue mesenchymal stem cells (hFTMSCs) on fibrin gel sheet towards applications in medicine and cosmetology. Fibrin gel has been obtained by combining two components fibrinogen and thrombin collected by human peripheral blood. By this procedure it was possible to generate blocks of fibrin gel containing adipocytes within the gel that show similar features and consistency to human fat tissue mass. Results were assessed by histological staining methods, fluorescent immune-histochemistry staining as well photos by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to demonstrate the adhesion and growth of cells in the fibrin gel. This result opens a real possibility for future clinical applications in the treatment of reconstructive and regenerative medicine where the use of stem cell may eventually be a unique solution or in the field of aesthetic medicine where autograft fat stem cells may grant for a safer and better outcome with long lasting results.

  2. Breast Cancer and Estrogen Biosynthesis in Adipose Tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bulin, Serdar

    1998-01-01

    .... Our results are supportive of the following hypothesis: Regional differences in relative proportions of histological components of the breast adipose tissue (e.g., fibroblasts vs. mature adipocytes...

  3. Notch intracellular domain overexpression in adipocytes confers lipodystrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios V. Chartoumpekis

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Increased Notch signaling in adipocytes in mice results in blocked expansion of white adipose tissue which leads to ectopic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, thus to a lipodystrophic phenotype. These results suggest that further investigation of the role of Notch signaling in adipocytes could lead to the manipulation of this pathway for therapeutic interventions in metabolic disease.

  4. Positive Effects of Subdermal Lipotransfer on Pig's Upper Eyelid Skin: Mature Adipocytes or Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alone Contribute Little and Only Cotransplantation of Them Can Generate Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianwen; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Tailing

    Many studies have shown that autologous fat grafting and cell-assisted lipotransfer can improve skin quality, with both mature adipocytes (MAs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) considered to play a role. However, it is unclear whether transplantation of ADSCs or MAs has the same impact on the overlying skin. Nine pigs were divided into 3 equal groups, with lipoaspirates obtained from the porcine dorsum of each pig. Transplant content was injected into the right upper eyelids, while the left eyelids were used as controls. Following cellular isolation, 1 group underwent MA grafting, 1 underwent ADSCs transplantation, and 1 underwent cotransplantation of MAs and ADSCs. Epidermal thickness, epidermal cell proliferation, dermal thickness, collagen content, and arteriole density were examined. While no significant skin changes in the areas examined were noted following MAs or ADSCs transplantations, the cotransplantation of MAs and ADSCs resulted in significant increases in epidermal cell proliferation, dermal thickness, collagen content, and arteriole density. Subdermal injection of MAs or ADSCs alone does not significantly impact the overlying skin and the benefits to the skin can only be seen when MAs and ADSCs are cotransplanted; these findings suggest that ADSCs-enhanced fat grafting is necessary for the aim of antiaging treatments.

  5. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Mediated Suppression of Adipocyte Apolipoprotein E Gene Transcription: Primary Role for the Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB Pathway and NFκB p50

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Lili; Christman, John W.; Mazzone, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The adipose tissue inflammation accompanying obesity has important consequences for adipocyte lipid metabolism, and increased adipose tissue TNFα plays an important role for mediating the effect of inflammation on adipocyte function. Recent studies have shown that apolipoprotein E (apoE) is highly expressed in adipose tissue where it plays an important role in modulating adipocyte triglyceride metabolism, triglyceride mass, and adipocyte size. We have previously reported that TNFα reduces adi...

  7. Quercetin, a functional compound of onion peel, remodels white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Parks, John S; Kang, Hye Won

    2017-04-01

    Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for obesity prevention. Using onion-peel-derived extracts and their bioactive compounds, we demonstrate that onion peel, a by-product of onion, can change the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue of mice and 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of the following brown adipose tissue-specific genes was increased in the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 0.5% onion-peel-extract-fed mice: PR domain-containing 16, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, uncoupling protein 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, onion peel extract induced the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific genes and increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α. This effect was supported by decreased lipid levels and multiple small-sized lipid droplets. The ethyl acetate fraction of the onion peel extract that contained the highest proportion of hydrophobic molecules showed the same browning effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis further identified quercetin as a functional compound in the browning effect of onion peel. The quercetin-associated browning effect was mediated in part by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. In summary, our study provides the first demonstration of the browning effects of onion peel and quercetin using both animal and cell models. This result indicates that onion peel has the potential to remodel the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipocytes, aldosterone and obesity-related hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Cat, Aurelie Nguyen; Friederich-Persson, Malou; White, Anna; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms linking obesity with hypertension is important in the current obesity epidemic as it may improve therapeutic interventions. Plasma aldosterone levels are positively correlated with body mass index and weight loss in obese patients is reported to be accompanied by decreased aldosterone levels. This suggests a relationship between adipose tissue and the production/secretion of aldosterone. Aldosterone is synthesized principally by the adrenal glands, but its production may be regulated by many factors, including factors secreted by adipocytes. In addition, studies have reported local synthesis of aldosterone in extra-adrenal tissues, including adipose tissue. Experimental studies have highlighted a role for adipocyte-secreted aldosterone in the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular complications via the mineralocorticoid receptor. This review focuses on how aldosterone secretion may be influenced by adipose tissue and the importance of these mechanisms in the context of obesity-related hypertension. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  10. Exploring the activated adipogenic niche: interactions of macrophages and adipocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Thacker, Robert I; Hall, Brian Eric; Kong, Raymond; Granneman, James G

    2014-01-01

    Adult adipose tissue contains a large supply of progenitors that can renew fat cells for homeostatic tissue maintenance and adaptive growth or regeneration in response to external challenges. However, the in vivo mechanisms that control adipocyte progenitor behavior are poorly characterized. We recently demonstrated that recruitment of adipocyte progenitors by macrophages is a central feature of adipose tissue remodeling under various adipogenic conditions. Catabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation requires anti-inflammatory M2-polarized macrophages to clear dying adipocytes and to recruit new brown adipocytes from progenitors. In this Extra Views article, we discuss in greater detail the cellular elements of adipogenic niches and report a strategy to isolate and characterize the subpopulations of macrophages and adipocyte progenitors that actively participate in adrenergic tissue remodeling. Further characterization of these subpopulations may facilitate identification of new cellular targets to improve metabolic and immune function of adipose tissue.

  11. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  12. CD36 is important for adipocyte recruitment and affects lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; van Klinken, Jan Bert; van Diepen, Janna A; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Febbraio, Maria; Steinbusch, Laura K M; Glatz, Jan F C; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J; Rensen, Patrick C N; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2013-10-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 facilitates the cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids. As CD36-deficiency attenuates the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, the role of CD36-deficiency in preadipocyte recruitment and adipocyte function was set out to characterize. Fat cell size and number were determined in gonadal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of CD36(-/-) and WT mice after 6 weeks on HFD. Basal lipolysis and insulin-inhibited lipolysis were investigated in gonadal adipose tissue. CD36(-/-) mice showed a reduction in adipocyte size in all fat pads. Gonadal adipose tissue also showed a lower total number of adipocytes because of a lower number of very small adipocytes (diameter adipocytes. Regarding lipolysis, in adipose tissue from CD36(-/-) mice, cAMP levels were increased and both basal and 8-bromo-cAMP stimulated lipolysis were higher. However, insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis was more potent in CD36(-/-) mice. These results indicate that during fat depot expansion, CD36-deficiency negatively affects preadipocyte recruitment and that in mature adipocytes, CD36-deficiency is associated with increased basal lipolysis and insulin responsiveness. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Stress stimulates production of catecholamines in rat adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnansky, R.; Ukropec, J.; Laukova, M.; Manz, B.; Pacak, K.; Vargovic, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sympathoadrenal system is the main source of catecholamines (CAs) in adipose tissues and therefore plays the key role in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. We recently reported existence of an alternative catecholamine producing system directly in adipose tissue cells, and here we investigated effect of various stressors - physical (cold) and emotional stress (immobilization) on dynamics of this system. Acute or chronic cold exposure increased intracellular NE and EPI concentration in isolated rat mesenteric adipocytes. Gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes did not change in adipocytes but was increased in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) after 28-day cold. Exposure of rats to a single immobilization stress caused increases in NE and EPI levels, and also gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in adipocytes. In SVF changes were similar but more pronounced. Animals adapted to a long-term cold exposure (28 days, 4°C) did not show those responses found after a single immobilization stress either in adipocytes or SVF. Our data indicate that gene machinery accommodated in adipocytes, which is able to synthesize NE and EPI de novo, is significantly activated by stress. Cold-adapted animals keep their adaptation even after an exposure to a novel stressor (immobilization). These findings suggest the functionality of CAs produced endogenously in adipocytes. Taken together, the newly discovered catecholamine synthesizing system in adipocytes is activated in stress situations and might significantly contribute to regulation of lipolysis and other metabolic or thermogenetic processes. PMID:22402834

  14. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  15. Adipose tissue fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-05-15

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Thereby adipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglycerides are stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes and hypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissue fibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction, both in rodent models and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin both reduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibrotic drugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1 antagonists will improve adipose tissue function and thereby ameliorate metabolic diseases.

  16. Clinical Implications of Bone Marrow Adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis-Vlug, Annegreet G.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2017-01-01

    Marrow adipocytes, collectively termed marrow adipose tissue (MAT), reside in the bone marrow in close contact to bone cells and hematopoietic cells. Marrow adipocytes arise from the mesenchymal stem cell and share their origin with the osteoblastst. Shifts in the lineage allocation of the

  17. The contribution of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in tissue macrophages to adipose tissue remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, H-J.; Kim, S-N; Kim, Y-A; Lee, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    Cellular plasticity in adipose tissue involves adipocyte death, its clearance, and de novo adipogenesis, enabling homeostatic turnover and adaptation to metabolic challenges; however, mechanisms regulating these serial events are not fully understood. The present study investigated the roles of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the clearance of dying adipocytes by adipose tissue macrophages. First, upregulation of Alox15 expression and apoptotic adipocyte death in gonadal white adipose...

  18. Visceral adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with dyslipidemia independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y; Tchernof, André

    2011-05-01

    We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

  19. Characterization of age-related gene expression profiling in bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Masami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While an increase in bone marrow adiposity is associated with age-related bone disease, the function of bone marrow adipocytes has not been studied. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the age-related gene expression profiles in bone marrow adipocytes and epididymal adipocytes. Results A total of 3918 (13.7% genes were differentially expressed in bone marrow adipocytes compared to epididymal adipocytes. Bone marrow adipocytes revealed a distinct gene profile with low expression of adipocyte-specific genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, perilipin (Plin1, adipsin (CFD and high expression of genes associated with early adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ, regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2. In addition, a number of genes including secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, transforming growth factor beta 1(TGFβ1, G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A and interleukin 6 (IL-6, that could affect adipose-derived signaling to bone are markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes. Age had a substantial effect on genes associated with mitochondria function and inflammation in bone marrow adipocytes. Twenty seven genes were significantly changed with age in both adipocyte depots. Among these genes, IL6 and GPR109A were significantly reduced with age in both adipocyte depots. Conclusions Overall, gene profiling reveals a unique phenotype for primary bone marrow adipocytes characterized by low adipose-specific gene expression and high expression of inflammatory response genes. Bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes share a common pathway in response to aging in mice, but age has a greater impact on global gene expression in epididymal than in bone marrow adipocytes. Genes that are differentially expressed at greater levels in the bone marrow are highly regulated with age.

  20. Adipocyte nuclei captured from VAT and SAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Suresh; Yu, Ping; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; Hartzell, Diane; Baile, Clifton A; Meagher, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein. The SUN1mRFP1Flag reporter is comprised of a fragment of the nuclear transmembrane protein SUN1, the fluorescent protein mRFP1, and three copies of the Flag epitope tag. Mature adipocyte nuclei were rapidly and efficiently immuno-captured from VAT and SAT (MVA and MSA nuclei, respectively), of MA-INTACT mice. MVA and MSA nuclei contained 1,000 to 10,000-fold higher levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts, ADIPOQ, PPARg2, EDNRB, and LEP, relative to uncaptured nuclei, while the latter expressed higher levels of leukocyte and endothelial cell markers IKZF1, RETN, SERPINF1, SERPINE1, ILF3, and TNFA. MVA and MSA nuclei differentially expressed several factors linked to adipogenesis or obesity-related health risks including CEBPA, KLF2, RETN, SERPINE1, and TNFA. The various nuclear populations dramatically differentially expressed transcripts encoding chromatin remodeler proteins regulating DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation (TETs, DNMTs, TDG, GADD45s) and nucleosomal histone modification (ARID1A, KAT2B, KDM4A, PRMT1, PRMT5, PAXIP1). Remarkably, MSA and MVA nuclei expressed 200 to 1000-fold higher levels of thermogenic marker transcripts PRDM16 and UCP1. The MA-INTACT mouse enables a simple way to perform cell-type specific analysis of highly purified mature adipocyte nuclei from VAT and SAT

  1. Sex differences in human adipose tissues - the biology of pear shape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Smith, Steven R; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fried, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    .... Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose...

  2. Human primary adipocytes exhibit immune cell function: adipocytes prime inflammation independent of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Meijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity promotes inflammation in adipose tissue (AT and this is implicated in pathophysiological complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although based on the classical hypothesis, necrotic AT adipocytes (ATA in obese state activate AT macrophages (ATM that then lead to a sustained chronic inflammation in AT, the link between human adipocytes and the source of inflammation in AT has not been in-depth and systematically studied. So we decided as a new hypothesis to investigate human primary adipocytes alone to see whether they are able to prime inflammation in AT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using mRNA expression, human preadipocytes and adipocytes express the cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, MHC II molecule genes and 14 acute phase reactants including C-reactive protein. Using multiplex ELISA revealed the expression of 50 cytokine/chemokine proteins by human adipocytes. Upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, most of these adipocyte-associated cytokines/chemokines and immune cell modulating receptors were up-regulated and a few down-regulated such as (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TNF-β highly up-regulated and IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13 and VEGF down-regulated. In migration assay, human adipocyte-derived chemokines attracted significantly more CD4+ T cells than controls and the number of migrated CD4+ cells was doubled after treating the adipocytes with LPS. Neutralizing MCP-1 effect produced by adipocytes reduced CD4+ migration by approximately 30%. CONCLUSION: Human adipocytes express many cytokines/chemokines that are biologically functional. They are able to induce inflammation and activate CD4+ cells independent of macrophages. This suggests that the primary event in the sequence leading to chronic inflammation in AT is metabolic dysfunction in adipocytes, followed by production of immunological mediators by these adipocytes, which is then exacerbated by

  3. Ethanol impairs differentiation of human adipocyte stromal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, David W; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Jones, Rosemarie; Considine, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Bioinformatic resources suggest that adipose tissue expresses mRNAs for alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and ALDH2, and epidemiological studies indicate that heavy alcohol use reduces adipose tissue mass. We therefore characterized the expression of alcohol metabolizing enzymes in human, rat and mouse adipose tissue, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, the ability of adipocytes to metabolize ethanol, and the effects of ethanol on differentiation of human adipose stromal cells (hASCs). Adipose tissue, preadipocytes, and adipocytes were collected from rodents or from humans undergoing bariatric surgery. hASCs were differentiated in vitro using standard methods. Gene expression and cellular differentiation were analyzed by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and microscopy. Class I ADH was expressed in human > mouse > rat adipose tissue, whereas ALDH2 was high in all samples. ADH, catalase, and ALDH2 were induced during differentiation of hASCs. The presence of 50 mM ethanol markedly reduced the differentiation of hASCs; this effect was associated with inhibition of expression of transcription factors required for differentiation, but did not depend on the ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol. Human adipose tissue expresses alcohol oxidizing enzymes. The presence of ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations inhibits differentiation of hASCs. Ethanol could alter adipose tissue biology, inducing a form of acquired lipodystrophy, which is consistent with epidemiological studies. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (SMRT) regulates glucocorticoid action in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emont, Margo P; Mantis, Stelios; Kahn, Jonathan H; Landeche, Michael; Han, Xuan; Sargis, Robert M; Cohen, Ronald N

    2015-05-15

    Local modulation of glucocorticoid action in adipocytes regulates adiposity and systemic insulin sensitivity. However, the specific cofactors that mediate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action in adipocytes remain unclear. Here we show that the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) is recruited to GR in adipocytes and regulates ligand-dependent GR function. Decreased SMRT expression in adipocytes in vivo increases expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. Moreover, adipocytes with decreased SMRT expression exhibit altered glucocorticoid regulation of lipolysis. We conclude that SMRT regulates the metabolic functions of GR in adipocytes in vivo. Modulation of GR-SMRT interactions in adipocytes represents a novel approach to control the local degree of glucocorticoid action and thus influence adipocyte metabolic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of adipose tissue in facial aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Wetzker, Reinhard; Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Kruglikov, Ilja L

    2017-01-01

    Age-dependent modification of the facial subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) connected with reduction of its volume, modification of collagen content and adhesion between dermal and adipose layers can significantly influence mechanical stability of the skin and cause the development of aging symptoms such as wrinkles. Typical aging appearance in facial skin is at least partly connected with special phenotypical features of facial preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. In this paper, we have discussed the possible roles of local inflammation, compartmental structure of facial sWAT and trans-differentiation processes such as beiging of white adipocytes and adipocyte-myofibroblast transition in facial skin aging.

  6. Dermal Adipocytes: From Irrelevance to Metabolic Targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) has received little appreciation in the past as a distinct entity from the better recognized subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). However, recent work has established dWAT as an important contributor to a multitude of processes, including immune response, wound healing and scarring, hair follicle (HF) growth, and thermoregulation. Unique metabolic contributions have also been attributed to dWAT, at least in part due to its thermic insulation properties and response to cold exposure. Dermal adipocytes can also undergo an adipocyte-myofibroblast transition (AMT), a process that is suspected to have an important role in several pathophysiological processes within the skin. Here, we discuss emerging concepts regarding dWAT physiology and its significance to a variety of cellular processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct and Indirect Effects of Leptin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B.S.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is hypothesized to function as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy balance. It is produced primarily by adipose tissue and circulating concentrations correlate with the size of body fat stores. Administration of exogenous leptin to normal weight, leptin responsive animals inhibits food intake and reduces the size of body fat stores whereas mice that are deficient in either leptin or functional leptin receptors are hyperphagic and obese, consistent with a role for leptin in the control of body weight. This review discusses the effect of leptin on adipocyte metabolism. Because adipocytes express leptin receptors there is the potential for leptin to influence adipocyte metabolism directly. Adipocytes also are insulin responsive and receive sympathetic innervation, therefore leptin can also modify adipocyte metabolism indirectly. Studies published to date suggest that direct activation of adipocyte leptin receptors has little effect on cell metabolism in vivo, but that leptin modifies adipocyte sensitivity to insulin to inhibit lipid accumulation. In vivo administration of leptin leads to a suppression of lipogenesis, an increase in triglyceride hydrolysis and an increase in fatty acid and glucose oxidation. Activation of central leptin receptors also contributes to the development of a catabolic state in adipocytes, but this may vary between different fat depots. Leptin reduces the size of white fat depots by inhibiting cell proliferation both through induction of inhibitory circulating factors and by contributing to sympathetic tone which suppresses adipocyte proliferation. PMID:23685313

  8. Selective effect of phosphatidylcholine on the lysis of adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kwon, Min-Seo; Son, Junghyun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Song, Youngsup

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, a serious health risk factor, is often associated with depression and negatively affects many aspects of life. Injection of a formula comprising phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and deoxycholate (DC) has emerged as an alternative to liposuction in the reduction of local fat deposits. However, the formula component mainly responsible for this effect and the mechanism behind the actions of the components with respect to fat reduction are unknown. Here, we investigate the specific effects of PPC and DC on adipocyte viability. When exposed to PPC or DC, 3T3L1 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability. Interestingly, while DC mediated cell death was non-specific to both preadipocytes and adipocytes, PPC specifically induced a decrease in mature adipocyte viability, but had less effect on preadipocytes. Injection of PPC and DC into inguinal fat pads caused reduction in size. PPC injections preferentially decreased gene expression in mature adipocytes, while a strong inflammatory response was elicited by DC injection. In line with the decreased adipocyte viability, exposure of differentiated adipocytes to PPC resulted in triglyceride release, with a minimal effect on free fatty acids release, suggesting that its fat-reducing effect mediated mainly through the induction of adipocyte cell death rather than lipolysis. Taken together, it appears that PPC specifically affects adipocytes, and has less effect on preadipocyte viability. It can therefore be a promising agent to selectively reduce adipose tissue mass.

  9. Selective effect of phosphatidylcholine on the lysis of adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kim

    Full Text Available Obesity, a serious health risk factor, is often associated with depression and negatively affects many aspects of life. Injection of a formula comprising phosphatidylcholine (PPC and deoxycholate (DC has emerged as an alternative to liposuction in the reduction of local fat deposits. However, the formula component mainly responsible for this effect and the mechanism behind the actions of the components with respect to fat reduction are unknown. Here, we investigate the specific effects of PPC and DC on adipocyte viability. When exposed to PPC or DC, 3T3L1 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability. Interestingly, while DC mediated cell death was non-specific to both preadipocytes and adipocytes, PPC specifically induced a decrease in mature adipocyte viability, but had less effect on preadipocytes. Injection of PPC and DC into inguinal fat pads caused reduction in size. PPC injections preferentially decreased gene expression in mature adipocytes, while a strong inflammatory response was elicited by DC injection. In line with the decreased adipocyte viability, exposure of differentiated adipocytes to PPC resulted in triglyceride release, with a minimal effect on free fatty acids release, suggesting that its fat-reducing effect mediated mainly through the induction of adipocyte cell death rather than lipolysis. Taken together, it appears that PPC specifically affects adipocytes, and has less effect on preadipocyte viability. It can therefore be a promising agent to selectively reduce adipose tissue mass.

  10. Skp2 controls adipocyte proliferation during the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tamon; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takehiro; Okada, Mitsuru; Matsuki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eijiro; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Kasuga, Masato

    2007-01-19

    The increase in the mass of adipose tissue during the development of obesity can arise through an increase in cell size, an increase in cell number, or both. Here we show that long term maintenance of C57BL/6 mice on a high fat diet (for approximately 25 weeks) induces an initial increase in adipocyte size followed by an increase in adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. The latter effect was found to be accompanied by up-regulation of expression of the gene for the F-box protein Skp2 as well as by downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), a principal target of the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase, in white adipose tissue. Ablation of Skp2 protected mice from the development of obesity induced either by a high fat diet or by the lethal yellow agouti (A(y)) mutation, and this protective action was due to inhibition of the increase in adipocyte number without an effect on adipocyte hypertrophy. The reduction in the number of adipocyte caused by Skp2 ablation also inhibited the development of obesity-related insulin resistance in the A(y) mutant mice, although the reduced number of beta cells and reduced level of insulin secretion in Skp2-deficient mice resulted in glucose intolerance. Our observations thus indicate that Skp2 controls adipocyte proliferation during the development of obesity.

  11. Analysis and Isolation of Adipocytes by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Helm, Karen M.; Acosta, Alistaire S.; Childs, Christine R.; Kong, Raymond; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis and isolation of adipocytes via flow cytometry is particularly useful to study their biology. However, the adoption of this technology has often been hampered by the presence of stromal/vascular cells in adipocyte fractions prepared from collagenase-digested adipose tissue. Here, we describe a multistep staining method and gating strategy that effectively excludes stromal contaminants. Initially, we set a gate optimized to the size and internal complexity of adipocytes. Exclusion of cell aggregates is then performed based on fluorescence of a nuclear stain followed by positive selection to collect only those cell events containing lipid droplets. Lastly, negative selection of cells expressing stromal or vascular lineage markers removes any remaining stromal contaminants. These procedures are applicable to simple analysis of adipocytes and their subcellular constituents by flow cytometry as well as isolation of adipocytes by flow sorting. PMID:24480352

  12. Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Chen, Xin; Whitener, Rick J; Boder, Eric T; Jones, Jeremy O; Porollo, Aleksey; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further.

  13. Impaired response of mature adipocytes of diabetic mice to hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seok Jong, E-mail: seok-hong@northwestern.edu; Jin, Da P.; Buck, Donald W.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A., E-mail: tmustoe@nmh.org

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue contains various cells such as infiltrated monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes. Adipocytes have an endocrine function by secreting adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin. Dysregulation of adipokines in adipose tissues leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation which could result in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. A sustained inflammatory state, which is characterized by prolonged persistence of macrophages and neutrophils, is found in diabetic wounds. In addition, subcutaneous adipocytes are enormously increased in amount clinically in type 2 diabetes. However, the function of subcutaneous adipocytes, which play an important role in injured tissue subjected to hypoxia, has not been well characterized in vitro due to the difficulty of maintaining mature adipocytes in culture using conventional methods because of their buoyancy. In this study, we established a novel in vitro culture method of mature adipocytes by enclosing them in a hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogel to study their role in response to stress such as hypoxia. BrdU labeling and Ki67 immunostaining experiments showed that hydrogel enclosed mature adipocytes proliferate in vitro. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses for hypoxia regulated genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), showed that mature adipocytes of wild type mice respond to hypoxia. In contrast, mature adipocytes of diabetic db/db and TallyHo mice did not efficiently respond to hypoxia. Our studies suggest that mature adipocytes are functionally active cells, and their abnormal function to hypoxia can be one of underlining mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

  14. Intrinsic Properties of Brown and White Adipocytes Have Differential Effects on Macrophage Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowal, Louisa; Parameswaran, Pooja; Phat, Sarah; Akella, Syamala; Majumdar, Ishita Deb; Ranjan, Jyoti; Shah, Chahan; Mogre, Saie; Guntur, Kalyani; Thapa, Khampaseuth; Gesta, Stephane; Vishnudas, Vivek K.; Narain, Niven R.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Here, we examined whether intrinsic differences between white and brown adipocytes influence the inflammatory status of macrophages. White and brown adipocytes were characterized by transcriptional regulation of UCP-1, PGC1α, PGC1β, and CIDEA and their level of IL-6 secretion. The inflammatory profile of PMA-differentiated U937 and THP-1 macrophages, in resting state and after stimulation with LPS/IFN-gamma and IL-4, was assessed by measuring IL-6 secretion and transcriptional regulation of a panel of inflammatory genes after mono- or indirect coculture with white and brown adipocytes. White adipocyte monocultures show increased IL-6 secretion compared to brown adipocytes. White adipocytes cocultured with U937 and THP-1 macrophages induced a greater increase in IL-6 secretion compared to brown adipocytes cocultured with both macrophages. White adipocytes cocultured with macrophages increased inflammatory gene expression in both types. In contrast, macrophages cocultured with brown adipocytes induced downregulation or no alterations in inflammatory gene expression. The effects of adipocytes on macrophages appear to be independent of stimulation state. Brown adipocytes exhibit an intrinsic ability to dampen inflammatory profile of macrophages, while white adipocytes enhance it. These data suggest that brown adipocytes may be less prone to adipose tissue inflammation that is associated with obesity. PMID:28458470

  15. Intrinsic Properties of Brown and White Adipocytes Have Differential Effects on Macrophage Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dowal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Here, we examined whether intrinsic differences between white and brown adipocytes influence the inflammatory status of macrophages. White and brown adipocytes were characterized by transcriptional regulation of UCP-1, PGC1α, PGC1β, and CIDEA and their level of IL-6 secretion. The inflammatory profile of PMA-differentiated U937 and THP-1 macrophages, in resting state and after stimulation with LPS/IFN-gamma and IL-4, was assessed by measuring IL-6 secretion and transcriptional regulation of a panel of inflammatory genes after mono- or indirect coculture with white and brown adipocytes. White adipocyte monocultures show increased IL-6 secretion compared to brown adipocytes. White adipocytes cocultured with U937 and THP-1 macrophages induced a greater increase in IL-6 secretion compared to brown adipocytes cocultured with both macrophages. White adipocytes cocultured with macrophages increased inflammatory gene expression in both types. In contrast, macrophages cocultured with brown adipocytes induced downregulation or no alterations in inflammatory gene expression. The effects of adipocytes on macrophages appear to be independent of stimulation state. Brown adipocytes exhibit an intrinsic ability to dampen inflammatory profile of macrophages, while white adipocytes enhance it. These data suggest that brown adipocytes may be less prone to adipose tissue inflammation that is associated with obesity.

  16. Dynamic upregulation of CD24 in pre-adipocytes promotes adipogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Nicole C; Fairbridge, Nicholas A; Pallegar, Nikitha K; Christian, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    .... CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface receptor that has been identified as a critical cell surface marker for identifying pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo...

  17. No evidence of white adipocyte browning after endurance exercise training in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiloulis, T; Carey, A L; Bayliss, J; Canny, B; Meex, R C R; Watt, M J

    2017-11-30

    The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged endurance exercise training induces beige adipogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese men. Molecular markers of beiging were examined in adipocytes obtained from abdominal (AbSC) and gluteofemoral (GF) subcutaneous adipose tissues before and after six weeks of endurance exercise training in obese men (n=6, 37.3±2.3 years, 30.1±2.3 kg/m2). The mRNAs encoding the brown or beige adipocyte-selective proteins were very lowly expressed in AbSC and GF adipose tissues and exercise training did not alter the mRNA expression of UCP1, CD137, CITED, TBX1, LHX8 and TCF21. Using immunohistochemistry, neither multilocular adipocytes, nor UCP1 or CD137-positive adipocytes were detected in any sample. MicroRNAs known to regulate brown and/or beige adipose development were highly expressed in white adipocytes but endurance exercise training did not impact their expression. The present study reaffirms emerging data in humans demonstrating no evidence of white adipose tissue beiging in response to exercise training, and supports a growing body of work demonstrating divergence of brown/beige adipose location, molecular characterisation and physiological function between rodents and humans.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 30 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.295.

  18. The Action of D-Dopachrome Tautomerase as an Adipokine in Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Iwata; Hisaaki Taniguchi; Masamichi Kuwajima; Takako Taniguchi; Yuko Okuda; Akiko Sukeno; Kyoko Ishimoto; Noriko Mizusawa; Katsuhiko Yoshimoto

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-rela...

  19. Exploring the activated adipogenic niche: Interactions of macrophages and adipocyte progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Thacker, Robert I.; Hall, Brian Eric; Kong, Raymond; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Adult adipose tissue contains a large supply of progenitors that can renew fat cells for homeostatic tissue maintenance and adaptive growth or regeneration in response to external challenges. However, the in vivo mechanisms that control adipocyte progenitor behavior are poorly characterized. We recently demonstrated that recruitment of adipocyte progenitors by macrophages is a central feature of adipose tissue remodeling under various adipogenic conditions. Catabolic remodeling of white adipo...

  20. Beneficial paracrine effects of adipocytes from obese rats on cultured endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Jenkins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to test the hypothesis that adipocytes from obese rats would exert pro-atherogenic paracrine effects on cultured endothelial cells compared to adipocytes from lean rats, and that the adverse obesity-associated paracrine effects of adipocytes would be more pronounced in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were harvested from 32-wk old obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated for 24 h with media conditioned with LETO subcutaneous adipocytes (LSA, OLETF subcutaneous adipocytes (OSA, LETO epididymal adipocytes (LEA, and OLETF epididymal adipocytes (OEA. The amount of key adipokines secreted by ATs was measured in the supernatant fluid with ELISA and mRNA levels of a number of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes were assessed in treated endothelial cells via quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to adipocytes from other depots, secretion of leptin and TNFα was highest and vaspin secretion was lowest from OEA. However, endothelial cells treated with OEA conditioned media exhibited lower expression of several pro-atherogenic genes. These data suggest that adipocytes isolated from obese visceral adipose tissue secrete some as-yet unidentified factor(s that confers a beneficial effect on transcription of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes of endothelial cells.

  1. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  2. Regulation of glycolysis in brown adipocytes by HIF-1α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L; Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue takes up large amounts of glucose during cold exposure in mice and humans. Here we report an induction of glucose transporter 1 expression and increased expression of several glycolytic enzymes in brown adipose tissue from cold-exposed mice. Accordingly, these genes were also...... with glucose as the only exogenously added fuel. These data suggest that HIF-1α-dependent regulation of glycolysis is necessary for maximum glucose metabolism in brown adipocytes....

  3. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT(-/-)) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd-MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT(+/+)) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT(-/-) mice than that of MT(+/+) mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT(-/-) mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PPARs and Adipose Cell Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Casteilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of fat tissues in both energy balance and in the associated disorders arising when such balance is not maintained, adipocyte differentiation has been extensively investigated in order to control and inhibit the enlargement of white adipose tissue. The ability of a cell to undergo adipocyte differentiation is one particular feature of all mesenchymal cells. Up until now, the peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR subtypes appear to be the keys and essential players capable of inducing and controlling adipocyte differentiation. In addition, it is now accepted that adipose cells present a broad plasticity that allows them to differentiate towards various mesodermal phenotypes. The role of PPARs in such plasticity is reviewed here, although no definite conclusion can yet be drawn. Many questions thus remain open concerning the definition of preadipocytes and the relative importance of PPARs in comparison to other master factors involved in the other mesodermal phenotypes.

  5. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  6. Leptin differentially regulates STAT3 activation in the ob/ob mice adipose mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptin-deficient genetically obese ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Studies have shown that multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute...

  7. AdipoCount: A New Software for Automatic Adipocyte Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Zhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has spread worldwide and become a common health problem in modern society. One typical feature of obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes, which occurs through the following two physiological phenomena: hyperplasia (increase in quantity and hypertrophy (increase in size of adipocytes. In clinical and scientific research, the accurate quantification of the number and diameter of adipocytes is necessary for assessing obesity. In this study, we present a new automatic adipocyte counting system, AdipoCount, which is based on image processing algorithms. Comparing with other existing adipocyte counting tools, AdipoCount is more accurate and supports further manual correction. AdipoCount counts adipose cells by the following three-step process: (1 It detects the image edges, which are used to segment the membrane of adipose cells; (2 It uses a watershed-based algorithm to re-segment the missing dyed membrane; and (3 It applies a domain connectivity analysis to count the cells. The outputs of this system are the labels and the statistical data of all adipose cells in the image. The AdipoCount software is freely available for academic use at: http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/AdipoCount/.

  8. Selective Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Ng, Yvonne; Pant, Himani; Li, Jia; Meoli, Christopher C.; Coster, Adelle C. F.; Stöckli, Jacqueline; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes. Defective regulation of glucose uptake was observed in all models of insulin resistance, whereas other major actions of insulin such as protein synthesis and anti-lipolysis were normal. This defect corresponded to a reduction in the maximum response to insulin. The pattern of change observed for phosphorylation in the Akt pathway was inconsistent with a simple defect at the level of Akt. The only Akt substrate that showed consistently reduced phosphorylation was the RabGAP AS160 that regulates GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that insulin resistance in adipose tissue is highly selective for glucose metabolism and likely involves a defect in one of the components regulating GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin. PMID:25720492

  9. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Granneman, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticit...

  10. Effect of clenbuterol on apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Hausman, Dorothy B; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-09-01

    Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) selective agonist, has been shown to decrease body fat in animals and can induce apoptosis in adipose tissue in mice. We hypothesized that direct actions of a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist on adipocytes could trigger the observed apoptotic effect. The hypothesis was inspected by investigating the direct effect of clenbuterol on apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis in vitro using the 3T3-L1 cell line and rat primary adipocytes. Cells were treated with 10(-9) to 10(-5) M clenbuterol depending on the experiments. There was no apoptotic effect of clenbuterol both in 3T3-L1 cells and rat primary adipocytes. Adipogenesis monitored by Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay was modestly decreased by clenbuterol treatment (p clenbuterol increased basal lipolysis compared with the control (p clenbuterol does not cause apoptosis in adipocytes, despite a direct lipolytic stimulation and attenuation of adipogenesis.

  11. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  12. Evaluation of a laminin-alginate biomaterial, adipocytes, and adipocyte-derived stem cells interaction in animal autologous fat grafting model using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yo-Shen; Hsueh, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Yu; Lo, Cheng-Yu; Tai, Hao-Chih; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Biomaterials are often added to autologous fat grafts both as supporting matrices for the grafted adipocytes and as cell carrier for adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). This in vivo study used an autologous fat graft model to test a lamininalginate biomaterial, adipocytes, and ADSCs in immune-competent rats. We transplanted different combinations of shredded autologous adipose tissue [designated "A" for adipose tissue]), laminin-alginate beads [designated "B" for bead], and ADSCs [designated "C" for cell]) into the backs of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. Group A received only adipocytes, Group B received only laminin-alginate beads, Group AB received adipocytes mixed with laminin-alginate beads, Group BC received laminin-alginate beads encapsulating ADSCs, and Group ABC received adipocytes and laminin-alginate beads containing ADSCs. Seven-tesla magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the rats at the 1st, 6th, and 12th weeks after transplantation. At the 12th week, the rats were sacrificed and the implanted materials were retrieved for gross examination and histological evaluation. The results based on MRI, gross evaluation, and histological data all showed that implants in Group ABC had better resorption of the biomaterial, improved survival of the grafted adipocytes, and adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Volume retention of grafts in Group ABC (89%) was also significantly greater than those in Group A (58%) (p < 0.01). Our findings support that the combination of shredded adipose tissue with ADSCs in laminin-alginate beads provided the best overall outcome.

  13. In vivo dedifferentiation of adult adipose cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Liao

    Full Text Available Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown.A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining.The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells.Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a more general role in the

  14. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbridge, Nicholas A.; Southall, Thomas M.; Ayre, D. Craig; Komatsu, Yumiko; Raquet, Paula I.; Brown, Robert J.; Randell, Edward; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Christian, Sherri L.

    2015-01-01

    CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vi...

  15. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K

    2004-01-01

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo...... into adipocytes with a gene expression pattern and mitochondria content resembling brown adipose tissue. pRB-deficient MEFs exhibit an increased expression of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxc2 and its target gene cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit RIalpha, resulting in increased c......AMP sensitivity. Suppression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Rb(-/-)MEFs blocked the brown adipocyte-like gene expression pattern without affecting differentiation per se. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that pRB is present in the nuclei of white but not brown adipocyte precursor cells...

  16. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  17. Stressed Liver and Muscle Call on Adipocytes with FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde eLuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an emerging regulator of local and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Treatment with pharmacological levels of FGF21 alleviates obesity and associated metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, beyond antiobesogenic effects, the normal roles and underlying mechanisms of FGF21 as an endocrine hormone remain unclear. A recent wave of studies has revealed that FGF21 is a stress-induced endocrine factor in liver, muscle and other tissues that targets adipose tissue and adipocytes through FGFR1-betaKlotho (KLB complex. Adipose tissues and adipocytes within diverse tissues respond with metabolites and adipokine signals that affect functions of body tissues systemically and cells within local microenvironment adjacent to adipocytes. Normally this is to prevent impaired tissue-specific function and damage to diverse tissues secreting FGF21 in response to chronic stress. Therefore, diverse stressed tissues and the adipose tissue and adipocytes constitute a beneficial endocrine and paracrine communication network through FGF21. Here we attempt to unify these developments with beneficial pharmacological effects of FGF21 on obesity in respect to inter-organ stress communication and mechanisms.

  18. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P; Granneman, James G

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodeling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Gene expression of the zinc transporter ZIP14 (SLC39a14) is affected by weight loss and metabolic status and associates with PPARγ in human adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Trine Maxel; Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expansion and function of adipose tissue are important during the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Zinc dyshomeostasis is common in obese individuals. In the liver, zinc influx transporter ZIP14, affects proliferation and glucose metabolism but the role...... intervention and compared to 14 non-obese controls. Gene expressions of ZIP14 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue and correlated with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Further, we investigated gene expression of ZIP14 and PPARγ during early...... and during adipogenesis. However, in silico analysis revealed that the ZIP14 promoter does not contain PPARγ-binding motifs. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that ZIP14-mediated zinc influx might directly influence PPARγ activity and that ZIP14 may regulate expansion and function of adipose tissue and serve...

  20. Materials for engineering vascularized adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Uriel, Shiri; Brey, Eric M

    2011-05-01

    Loss of adipose tissue can occur due to congenital and acquired lipoatrophies, trauma, tumor resection, and chronic disease. Clinically, it is difficult to regenerate or reconstruct adipose tissue. The extensive microvsacular network present in adipose, and the sensitivity of adipocytes to hypoxia, hinder the success of typical tissue transfer procedures. Materials that promote the formation of vascularized adipose tissue may offer alternatives to current clinical treatment options. A number of synthetic and natural biomaterials common in tissue engineering have been investigated as scaffolds for adipose regeneration. While these materials have shown some promise they do not account for the unique extracellular microenvironment of adipose. Adipose derived hydrogels more closely approximate the physical and chemical microenvironment of adipose tissue, promote preadipocyte differentiation and vessel assembly in vitro, and stimulate vascularized adipose formation in vivo. The combination of these materials with techniques that promote rapid and stable vascularization could lead to new techniques for engineering stable, vascularized adipose tissue for clinical application. In this review we discuss materials used for adipose tissue engineering and strategies for vascularization of these scaffolds. Materials that promote formation of vascularized adipose tissue have the potential to serve as alternatives or supplements to existing treatment options, for adipose defects or deficiencies resulting from chronic disease, lipoatrophies, trauma, and tumor resection. Copyright © 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Kurozu concentrated liquid on adipocyte size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Kumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kurozu concentrated liquid (KCL is used as a health-promoting supplement for the treatment of disorders such as cancer, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Japan. We investigated the possible anti-obesity effects of KCL in rats. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed American Institute of Nutrition 76 formula diet and were orally administrated KCL or acetic acid at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight or deionized water for 4 weeks. Adipocyte size, DNA content in subcutaneous adipose tissue, lipid levels in the serum and liver, and the rate of fatty acid excretion were determined. Effects of KCL on pancreatic lipase activity and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation were investigated in vitro. Results In the KCL group, the average adipocyte size in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues was significantly reduced. The KCL-administered rats displayed greater numbers of small adipocytes in the subcutaneous, perirenal and mesenteric adipose tissues than did rats from the other groups. In the KCL group, the DNA content in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly increased. The rate of fatty acid excretion was significantly increased in the KCL group. Furthermore, KCL significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and also significantly inhibited fat accumulation and mRNA expression of fatty acid binding protein 2 (aP2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. The levels of serum and liver lipids, the concentration of serum glucose, and the levels of adiponectin were similar among the 3 groups. Conclusion Oral administration of KCL decreases the adipocyte size via inhibition of dietary fat absorption and reductions of PPARγ and aP2 mRNA expression levels in adipocytes.

  2. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  3. Adipocyte Dynamics and Reversible Metabolic Syndrome in Mice with an Inducible Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of the Insulin Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masaji; Fujisaka, Shiho; Cai, Weikang; Winnay, Jonathon N; Konishi, Masahiro; O'Neill, Brian T; Li, Mengyao; García-Martín, Rubén; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Hu, Jiang; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Kahn, C Ronald

    2017-02-07

    Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing. This cycle can be repeated with a second round of receptor inactivation. Leptin administration prior to tamoxifen treatment blocks development of the metabolic syndrome without affecting adipocyte loss or regeneration. Thus, IR is critical in adipocyte maintenance, and this loss of adipose tissue stimulates regeneration of brown/white fat and reversal of metabolic syndrome associated with fat loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Autotaxin Is Regulated by Glucose and Insulin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Kenneth; Kane, Daniel A; Touaibia, Mohamed; Kershaw, Erin E; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra C

    2017-04-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Despite recent studies implicating adipose-derived ATX in metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance, the nutritional and hormonal regulation of ATX in adipocytes remains unclear. The current study examined the regulation of ATX in adipocytes by glucose and insulin and the role of ATX in adipocyte metabolism. Induction of insulin resistance in adipocytes with high glucose and insulin concentrations increased ATX secretion, whereas coincubation with the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, prevented this response. Moreover, glucose independently increased ATX messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Glucose also acutely upregulated secreted ATX activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue explants. Insulin elicited a biphasic response. Acute insulin stimulation increased ATX activity in a PI3Kinase-dependent and mTORC1-independent manner, whereas chronic insulin stimulation decreased ATX mRNA, protein, and activity. To examine the metabolic role of ATX in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we incubated cells with the ATX inhibitor, PF-8380, for 24 hours. Whereas ATX inhibition increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and its downstream targets, insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiration were unaffected. However, ATX inhibition enhanced mitochondrial H2O2 production. Taken together, this study suggests that ATX secretion from adipocytes is differentially regulated by glucose and insulin. This study also suggests that inhibition of autocrine/paracrine ATX-lysophosphatidic acid signaling does not influence insulin signaling or mitochondrial respiration, but increases reactive oxygen species production in adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  5. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces “white adipocytes” with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP...

  6. MCT1 and MCT4 expression and lactate flux activity increase during white and brown adipogenesis and impact adipocyte metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Mette D.; Andersen, Elise S.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue takes up glucose and releases lactate, thereby contributing significantly to systemic glucose and lactate homeostasis. This implies the necessity of upregulation of net acid and lactate flux capacity during adipocyte differentiation and function. However, the regulation of lactate......- and acid/base transporters in adipocytes is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adipocyte thermogenesis, browning and differentiation are associated with an upregulation of plasma membrane lactate and acid/base transport capacity that in turn is important for adipocyte metabolism. The m...... level upon differentiation of cultured pre-adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was accompanied by increased plasma membrane lactate flux capacity, which was reduced by MCT inhibition and by MCT1 knockdown. Finally, in differentiated brown adipocytes, glycolysis (assessed as ECAR), and after...

  7. Osseous and Adipocytic Differentiations in the Intraocular Lens and Vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Ma, Lina; Wolkow, Natalie; Cameron, J Douglas; Maltry, Amanda C

    2017-11-27

    To analyze three unusual mesenchymal transformations within the eye - adipose or osseous metaplasia of the lens and adipose tissue in the vitreous cavity. Observational case series. Re-evaluation of clinico-pathologic diagnoses and histopathologic findings in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction and Masson trichrome method. The three cases of mesenchymal transformation occurred in microphthalmic eyes with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (more recently termed persistent fetal vasculature). In one case there was total lens replacement with lamellar bone; in another total replacement of the crystalline lens by adipose tissue; and in a third an anomalous pocket of adipose tissue in the central vitreous. Multifocal remnants of the lens capsule were seen in the osseous case but were absent from the adipocytic cases. The vitreous adipose tissue was surrounded by an elaborate capillary plexus with an empty, collapsed PAS-positive lens capsule in the pupillary region. Anterior pigmented neuroectodermal disorganization, dysgenesis of angle structures and a hypoplastic or disorganized iris were also observed in the 3 cases. After reviewing the literature, it appears that lenticular osseous replacement occurs more often than adipocytic. In addition to vascularization of the lens through a capsular dehiscence, other causes are explored, including direct epithelial-mesenchymal transformations of the lens epithelium or less likely of the disorganized adjacent neuroectoderm. The focus of vitreous adipose tissue may represent a transformed luxated lens extruded from its capsule, which was left behind in the pupillary zone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 [corrected] controls adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue function through the regulation of the activity of the retinoid X receptor/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma [corrected] heterodimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Péter; Houten, Sander M.; Huber, Aline; Schreiber, Valérie; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Kiss, Borbála; de Murcia, Gilbert; Auwerx, Johan; Ménissier-de Murcia, Josiane

    2007-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma, NR1C3) in complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays a central role in white adipose tissue (WAT) differentiation and function, regulating the expression of key WAT proteins. In this report we show that poly(ADP-ribose)

  9. Increased apoptosis and browning of TAK1-deficient adipocytes protects against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassmann-Schweda, Antonia; Singh, Pratibha; Tang, Cong; Wietelmann, Astrid; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat obesity, obesity-dependent diabetes, and other associated complications.

  10. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Sean M; Bader, David A; Abadie, Kathleen V; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D; Mancini, Michael A; McGuire, Sean E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis.

  11. Regulation of adiponectin secretion by adipocytes in the polycystic ovary syndrome: role of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Trivax, Bradley S; Yildiz, Bulent O; Bertolotto, Cristina; Mathur, Ruchi; Heneidi, Saleh; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-02-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulation of adipokine secretion might significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to determine whether the effect of TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or coculture of adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), on the secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes, differs in PCOS compared with controls. Primary cultures of sc adipocytes and coculture of adipocytes and ATMs from overweight and obese patients with PCOS and healthy control women were used. Adiponectin secretion by adipocytes was measured. The baseline secretion of adiponectin by isolated adipocytes did not differ between PCOS and control samples. The net change in adiponectin secretion in response to IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-alpha differed between PCOS (decreasing) and control (increasing) adipocytes, although the difference reached significance only for TNF-alpha (P < 0.04). Coculture of isolated adipocytes and ATMs resulted in a decrease in adiponectin secretion by PCOS (P < 0.05) but not control adipocytes, and the difference between the net change in adiponectin secretion in PCOS vs. control samples was significant (P < 0.03). Our results suggest that adiponectin secretion by adipocytes in response to cytokines/chemokines and most notably in response to coculturing with ATMs differs between PCOS and control women, favoring greater suppression of adiponectin in PCOS. The mechanisms underlying these defects and the role of concurrent obesity remain to be determined.

  12. Up-regulation of the complement system in subcutaneous adipocytes from nonobese, hypertriglyceridemic subjects is associated with adipocyte insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Greevenbroek, M M J; Ghosh, S; van der Kallen, C J H; Brouwers, M C G J; Schalkwijk, C G; Stehouwer, C D A

    2012-12-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue plays an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipocyte dysfunction are incompletely understood. The aim of the study was to identify differentially regulated pathways in sc adipocytes of dyslipidemic subjects. Whole-genome expression profiling was conducted on sc adipocytes from a discovery group of nine marginally overweight subjects with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and nine controls of comparable body sizes as well as two independent confirmation groups. In this study, FCHL served as a model of familial insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, in the absence of frank obesity. Functional analyses and gene set enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or a custom pathway database identified the complement system and complement regulators as one of the top up-regulated pathways in FCHL [false discovery rate (FDR) complement expression in FCHL was confirmed in the appropriate confirmation group. Higher complement gene expression was associated with lower adipocyte insulin receptor substrate-1 expression as marker of adipocyte insulin resistance, independent of age, sex, or disease status, and this association was corroborated in the two confirmation groups. Additionally, complement gene expression was associated with triglycerides in the discovery set and with triglycerides and/or waist circumference in the confirmation groups. Complement pathway up-regulation did not appear to be driven by hypertriglyceridemia because a 40% pharmacological reduction in triglycerides did not affect complement expression. These findings point to an up-regulation of a complement-related transcriptome in sc adipocytes under metabolically stressed conditions, even in the absence of overt obesity. Such up-regulation may subsequently influence downstream processes, including macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and

  13. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Improves Insulin Resistance With Reduced Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Mira; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Choi, Goun; Kim, Ji-Won; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Je-Won; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays important roles in redox regulation and de novo lipogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that aberrant upregulation of G6PD in obese adipose tissue mediates insulin resistance as a result of imbalanced energy metabolism and oxidative stress. It remains elusive, however, whether inhibition of G6PD in vivo may relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this study we showed that a hematopoietic G6PD defect alleviates insulin resistance in obesity, accompanied by reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermates, G6PD-deficient mutant (G6PD(mut)) mice were glucose tolerant upon high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Intriguingly, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes to produce reactive oxygen species was alleviated, whereas that of antioxidant genes was enhanced in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed G6PD(mut) mice. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the adipose tissue of G6PD(mut) mice decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by downregulated proinflammatory macrophages. Accordingly, macrophages from G6PD(mut) mice greatly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory signaling cascades, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of G6PD(mut) bone marrow to wild-type mice attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in DIO. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of macrophage G6PD would ameliorate insulin resistance in obesity through suppression of proinflammatory responses. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

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  19. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose stromal cell... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose stromal... cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose stromal c...019504,SRX019510,SRX019496,SRX019517,SRX019503,SRX019497 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, White http://dbarchi...ve.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, White http://dbarchi...ve.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127394,SRX127409,SRX127396,SRX127407,SRX127381,SRX127383 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose stromal cell S...11,SRX019515,SRX019508 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose stromal c...019496,SRX019511,SRX019518,SRX019504,SRX019497,SRX019503 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_stromal_cell.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX134...732 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose Tissue...SRX821815,SRX821821,SRX821816,SRX821809,SRX821817,SRX821810 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX134...732 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX13473...2 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX13473...2 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, Whi...te http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX13473...2 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...X821815,SRX821821,SRX821816,SRX821809,SRX821817,SRX821810 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose Tissue...SRX821810,SRX821806,SRX821809,SRX821817,SRX821816,SRX821807 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, Whi...te http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose Tissue...SRX821821,SRX821815,SRX821811,SRX821817,SRX821809,SRX821810 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...X821817,SRX821821,SRX821815,SRX821811,SRX821810,SRX821809 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX134...732 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, Whi...te http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX13473...2 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...X821810,SRX821806,SRX821809,SRX821817,SRX821816,SRX821807 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose Tissue...SRX821817,SRX821821,SRX821815,SRX821811,SRX821810,SRX821809 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue hg19 No description Adipocyte Adipose Tissue SRX134...732 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, Whi...te http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 All antigens Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...X821821,SRX821815,SRX821811,SRX821817,SRX821809,SRX821810 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose Tissue..., White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  7. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  8. Identification of regulatory elements that control PPARγ expression in adipocyte progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Chou

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue renewal and obesity-driven expansion of fat cell number are dependent on proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that reside in the vasculature that develops in coordination with adipose depots. The transcriptional events that regulate commitment of progenitors to the adipose lineage are poorly understood. Because expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ defines the adipose lineage, isolation of elements that control PPARγ expression in adipose precursors may lead to discovery of transcriptional regulators of early adipocyte determination. Here, we describe the identification and validation in transgenic mice of 5 highly conserved non-coding sequences from the PPARγ locus that can drive expression of a reporter gene in a manner that recapitulates the tissue-specific pattern of PPARγ expression. Surprisingly, these 5 elements appear to control PPARγ expression in adipocyte precursors that are associated with the vasculature of adipose depots, but not in mature adipocytes. Characterization of these five PPARγ regulatory sequences may enable isolation of the transcription factors that bind these cis elements and provide insight into the molecular regulation of adipose tissue expansion in normal and pathological states.

  9. Second messenger signaling mechanisms of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program: an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fubiao; Collins, Sheila

    2017-09-26

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat. The discovery of functional brown adipocytes in humans and inducible brown-like ('beige' or 'brite') adipocytes in rodents have suggested that recruitment and activation of these thermogenic adipocytes could be a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure for obesity therapy. More recently, the cardiac natriuretic peptides and their second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have gained attention as a parallel signaling pathway in adipocytes, with some unique features. In this review, we begin with some important historical work that touches upon the regulation of brown adipocyte development and physiology. We then provide a synopsis of some recent advances in the signaling cascades from β-adrenergic agonists and natriuretic peptides to drive thermogenic gene expression in the adipocytes and how these two pathways converge at a number of unexpected points. Finally, moving from the physiologic hormonal signaling, we discuss yet another level of control downstream of these signals: the growing appreciation of the emerging roles of non-coding RNAs as important regulators of brown adipocyte formation and function. In this review, we discuss new developments in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms and factors including new secreted proteins and novel non-coding RNAs that control the function as well as the plasticity of the brown/beige adipose tissue as it responds to the energy needs and environmental

  10. Effects of Wnt signaling on brown adipocyte differentiation and metabolism mediated by PGC-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Sona; Bajnok, Laszlo; Longo, Kenneth A

    2005-01-01

    expression of PGC-1alpha is required for activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Wnt10b blocks brown adipose tissue development and expression of UCP1 when expressed from the fatty acid binding protein 4 promoter, even when mice are administered a beta3-agonist. In differentiated brown adipocytes...... expression of PGC-1alpha and UCP1, the presence of unilocular lipid droplets and expression of white adipocyte genes suggest conversion of brown adipose tissue to white. Reciprocal expression of Wnt10b with UCP1 and PGC-1alpha in interscapular tissue from cold-challenged or genetically obese mice provides...... further evidence for regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by Wnt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of canonical Wnt signaling early in differentiation blocks brown adipogenesis, whereas activating Wnt signaling in mature brown adipocytes stimulates their conversion to white...

  11. Role of adipose tissue in facial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Reinhard Wetzker,2 Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser,3 Ilja L Kruglikov4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, and Center for Sepsis Control and Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; 3Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt; 4Wellcomet GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany Abstract: Age-dependent modification of the facial subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT connected with reduction of its volume, modification of collagen content and adhesion between dermal and adipose layers can significantly influence mechanical stability of the skin and cause the development of aging symptoms such as wrinkles. Typical aging appearance in facial skin is at least partly connected with special phenotypical features of facial preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. In this paper, we have discussed the possible roles of local inflammation, compartmental structure of facial sWAT and trans-differentiation processes such as beiging of white adipocytes and adipocyte-myofibroblast transition in facial skin aging. Keywords: facial aging, adipose tissue, preadipocytes, adipocytes, inflammation, beiging, adipocyte-myofibroblast transition 

  12. Adipose tissue remodeling in pathophysiology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Fried, Susan K

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that adipose tissue undergoes a continuous process of remodeling that is pathologically accelerated in the obese state. Contrary to earlier dogma, adipocytes die and are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This review will summarize recent advances of our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue remodeling and highlight the influences of obesity, depot, and sex, as well as the relevance of rodent models to humans. A substantial literature now points to the importance of dynamic changes in adipocyte and immune cell turnover, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling in regulating the expandability and functional integrity of this tissue. In obesity, the macrophages are recruited, surrounding dead adipocytes and polarized toward an inflammatory phenotype. The number of dead adipocytes is closely associated with the pathophysiological consequences of obesity, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Further, there are substantial depot, sex and species differences in the extent of remodeling. Adipose tissue undergoes a continuous remodeling process that normally maintains tissue health, but may spin out of control and lead to adipocyte death in association with the recruitment and activation of macrophages, and systemic insulin resistance.

  13. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  14. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. DAPK2 Downregulation Associates With Attenuated Adipocyte Autophagic Clearance in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Hedi; Reggio, Sophie; Alili, Rohia; Prado, Cecilia; Mutel, Sonia; Pini, Maria; Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Dugail, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has been linked to low-grade inflammation causing insulin resistance. Transcriptomic studies have identified death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2) among the most strongly downregulated adipose tissue genes in human obesity, but the role of this kinase is unknown. We show that mature adipocytes rather than the stromal vascular cells in adipose tissue mainly expressed DAPK2 and that DAPK2 mRNA in obese patients gradually recovered after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. DAPK2 mRNA is also downregulated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Adenoviral-mediated DAPK2 overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not affect lipid droplet size or cell viability but did increase autophagic clearance in nutrient-rich conditions, dependent on protein kinase activity. Conversely, DAPK2 inhibition in human preadipocytes by small interfering RNA decreased LC3-II accumulation rates with lysosome inhibitors. This led us to assess autophagic clearance in adipocytes freshly isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Severe reduction in autophagic flux was observed in obese adipocytes compared with control adipocytes, inversely correlated to fat cell lipids. After bariatric surgery, adipocyte autophagic clearance partially recovered proportional to the extent of fat cell size reduction. This study links adipocyte expression of an autophagy-regulating kinase, lysosome-mediated clearance and fat cell lipid accumulation; it demonstrates obesity-related attenuated autophagy in adipocytes, and identifies DAPK2 dependence in this regulation. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...... of phenformin. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of a Ca(2+) /CaMKK signaling pathway that can also regulate the activity of AMPK in adipocytes....

  17. Maintenance of osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation potential with age and osteoporosis in human marrow stromal cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, J; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Eriksen, E F

    2002-01-01

    Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common precursor cell in the bone marrow stroma, termed marrow stromal cell (MSC). As the volume of bone adipose tissue increases in vivo with age, we hypothesized that decreased bone formation observed during aging and in patients with osteoporosis (OP) is the ......Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common precursor cell in the bone marrow stroma, termed marrow stromal cell (MSC). As the volume of bone adipose tissue increases in vivo with age, we hypothesized that decreased bone formation observed during aging and in patients with osteoporosis (OP...... phosphatase (AP+), and adipocytic colonies containing adipocytes (Ad+) were quantitated. In addition, steady state mRNA levels of gene markers of adipocytic and osteoblastic phenotypes were determined using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The adipogenic and osteogenic media induced...

  18. Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Mariman, E.; Keijer, J.; Noben, J.P.; Robben, J.; Renes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ capable of secreting a number of adipokines with a role in the regulation of adipose tissue and whole-body metabolism. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to profile the secreted proteins from (pre)adipocytes. The culture

  19. Measurement of long-chain fatty acid uptake into adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubikovskaya, Elena; Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Karateev, Grigory; Park, Hyo Min; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The ability of white and brown adipose tissue to efficiently take up long-chain fatty acids is key to their physiological functions in energy storage and thermogenesis, respectively. Several approaches have been taken to determine uptake rates by cultured cells and primary adipocytes including radio- and fluorescently labeled fatty acids. In addition, the recent description of activatable bioluminescent fatty acids has opened the possibility for expanding these in vitro approaches to real-time monitoring of fatty acid uptake kinetics by adipose depots in vivo. Here, we will describe some of the most useful experimental paradigms to quantitatively determine long-chain fatty acid uptake by adipocytes in vitro and provide the reader with detailed instruction on how bioluminescent probes for in vivo imaging can be synthesized and used in living mice. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    A diet enriched in PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 family, decreases adipose tissue mass and suppresses development of obesity in rodents. Although several nuclear hormone receptors are identified as PUFA targets, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PUFAs still remain...... adipose tissue mass and suppress the development of obesity in rodents by targeting a set of key regulatory transcription factors involved in both adipogensis and lipid homeostasis in mature adipocytes. The same set of factors are targeted by PUFAs of the n-6 family, but the cellular...

  1. The Mechanism of White and Brown Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Nakagami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity gives vent to many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, being considered as the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome can well be understood by studying the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of adipose tissue. In human body, exist two types of adipose tissue, the white and the brown one, which are reported to play various roles in energy homeostasis. The major and most efficient storage of energy occurs in the form of triglycerides in white adipose tissue while brown adipose tissue actively participates in both basal and inducible energy consumption in the form of thermogenesis. Recent years have observed a rapid and greater interest towards developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells those isolated from adipose tissue. The adipocyte differentiation involves a couple of regulators in the white or brown adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ actively participates in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also acts as main regulator of both white and brown adipogenesis. This review based on our recent research, seeks to highlight the adipocyte differentiation.

  2. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Cormac T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Silke, E-mail: silke.ryan@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  3. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  4. Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Helen; Liu, Mingxia; Key, Chia-Chi C; Boudyguina, Elena; Sawyer, Janet K; Weckerle, Allison; Bashore, Alexander; Fried, Susan K; Chung, Soonkyu; Parks, John S

    2018-01-18

    Adipose tissue cholesterol increases with adipocyte triglyceride content and size during development of obesity. However, how adipocyte cholesterol affects adipocyte function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cellular cholesterol exporter, Abca1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1), on adipose tissue function during diet-induced obesity. Adiponectin Cre recombinase transgenic mice were crossed with Abca1flox/flox mice to generate ASKO (adipocyte-specific Abca1 knockout) mice. Control and ASKO mice were then fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (45% calories as fat and 0.2% cholesterol) diet for 16 weeks. Compared with control mice, ASKO mice had a 2-fold increase in adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content and significantly lower body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size. ASKO versus control adipose tissue had decreased PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression, nuclear SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1) protein, lipogenesis, and triglyceride accretion but similar Akt activation after acute insulin stimulation. Acute siRNA-mediated Abca1 silencing during 3T3L1 adipocyte differentiation reduced adipocyte Abca1 and PPARγ protein expression and triglyceride content. Systemic stimulated triglyceride lipolysis and glucose homeostasis was similar between control and ASKO mice. Adipocyte Abca1 is a key regulator of adipocyte lipogenesis and lipid accretion, likely because of increased adipose tissue membrane cholesterol, resulting in decreased activation of lipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and SREBP1. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Measurement of long-chain fatty acid uptake into adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubikovskaya, Elena; Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Karateev, Grigory; Park, Hyo Min; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The ability of white and brown adipose tissue to efficiently take up long-chain fatty acids is key to their physiological functions in energy storage and thermogenesis respectively. Several approaches have been taken to determine uptake rates by cultured cells as well as primary adipocytes including radio- and fluorescently labeled fatty acids. In addition, the recent description of activatable bioluminescent fatty acids has opened the possibility for expanding these in vitro approaches to re...

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  7. Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Natasa; Walden, Tomas B; Shabalina, Irina G

    2009-01-01

    The recent insight that brown adipocytes and muscle cells share a common origin and in this respect are distinct from white adipocytes has spurred questions concerning the origin and molecular characteristics of the UCP1-expressing cells observed in classic white adipose tissue depots under certain...... physiological or pharmacological conditions. Examining precursors from the purest white adipose tissue depot (epididymal), we report here that chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone promotes not only the expression of PGC-1alpha and mitochondriogenesis...... associated with classic brown adipocytes (Zic1, Lhx8, Meox2, and characteristically PRDM16) or for myocyte-associated genes (myogenin and myomirs (muscle-specific microRNAs)) and retain white fat characteristics such as Hoxc9 expression. Co-culture experiments verify that the UCP1-expressing cells...

  8. Tailbone Pain: How Can I Relieve It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Manipulation is typically done through the rectum. Medication. An injection of a local anesthetic into the tailbone can relieve pain for a few weeks. Certain antidepressants or anti-epileptic medications might relieve tailbone pain as well. Surgery. During ...

  9. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  10. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  11. Adipocyte-Specific Deficiency of De Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Leads to Lipodystrophy and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Hui-Young; Song, Jae-Hwi; Kim, Goon-Tae; Jeon, Suwon; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Lee, Jae Sung; Hur, Jang-Ho; Oh, Hyun Hee; Park, Shi-Young; Shim, Soon-Mi; Yoo, Hyun Joo; Lee, Byung Cheon; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Tae-Sik

    2017-10-01

    Sphingolipids have been implicated in the etiology of chronic metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with the development of adipose tissues and metabolic diseases. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was transcriptionally upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and in differentiating adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific SPTLC2-deficient (aSPTLC2 KO) mice had markedly reduced adipose tissue mass. Fatty acids that were destined for the adipose tissue were instead shunted to liver and caused hepatosteatosis. This impaired fat distribution caused systemic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, indicating severe lipodystrophy. Mechanistically, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was reduced in the adipose tissues of aSPTLC2 KO mice, and this inhibited adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via the downregulation of S1P receptor 1 and decreased activity of the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ. In addition, downregulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein)-1c prevented adipogenesis of aSPTLC2 KO adipocytes. Collectively, our observations suggest that the tight regulation of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and S1P signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis and hepatosteatosis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Silibinin regulates lipid metabolism and differentiation in functional human adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio eBarbagallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a natural plant flavonoid, is the main active constituent found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum. It is known to have hepatoprotective, anti-neoplastic effect and suppresses lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silibinin on adipogenic differentiation and thermogenic capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Silibinin (10 μM treatment, either at the beginning or at the end of adipogenic differentiation, resulted in an increase of SIRT-1, PPARα, Pgc-1α and UCPs gene expression. Moreover, silibinin administration resulted in a decrease of PPARγ, FABP4, FAS and MEST/PEG1 gene expression during the differentiation, confirming that this compound is able to reduce fatty acid accumulation and adipocyte size. Our data showed that silibinin regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism, inducing thermogenesis and promoting a brown remodelling in adipocyte. Taken together, our findings suggest that silibinin increases UCPs expression by stimulation of SIRT1, PPARα and Pgc-1α, improved metabolic parameters, decreased lipid mass leading to the formation of functional adipocytes.

  13. The contribution of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in tissue macrophages to adipose tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H-J; Kim, S-N; Kim, Y-A; Lee, Y-H

    2016-06-30

    Cellular plasticity in adipose tissue involves adipocyte death, its clearance, and de novo adipogenesis, enabling homeostatic turnover and adaptation to metabolic challenges; however, mechanisms regulating these serial events are not fully understood. The present study investigated the roles of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the clearance of dying adipocytes by adipose tissue macrophages. First, upregulation of Alox15 expression and apoptotic adipocyte death in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) were characterized during adipose tissue remodeling induced by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Next, an in vitro reconstruction of adipose tissue macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes recapitulated adipocyte clearance by macrophages and demonstrated that macrophages co-cultured with apoptotic adipocytes increased the expression of efferocytosis-related genes. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Alox15 diminished the levels of adipocyte clearance by macrophages in a co-culture system. Gene expression profiling of macrophages isolated from gWAT of Alox15 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated distinct phenotypes, especially downregulation of genes involved in lipid uptake and metabolism compared to wild-type mice. Finally, in vivo β3-adrenergic stimulation in Alox15 KO mice failed to recruit crown-like structures, a macrophage network clearing dying adipocytes in gWAT. Consequently, in Alox15 KO mice, proliferation/differentiation of adipocyte progenitors and β3-adrenergic remodeling of gWAT were impaired compared to wild-type control mice. Collectively, our data established a pivotal role of Alox15 in the resolution of adipocyte death and in adipose tissue remodeling.

  14. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengle Shao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient homeostasis in obesity. Importantly, these data reveal the distinct phenotypes that can occur when adiponectin driven transgenes are activated in fetal vs. adult adipose tissue.

  15. Obesity, adiposity, and dyslipidemia: a consensus statement from the National Lipid Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Toth, Peter P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Abate, Nicola; Aronne, Louis J; Brown, W Virgil; Gonzalez-Campoy, J Michael; Jones, Steven R; Kumar, Rekha; La Forge, Ralph; Samuel, Varman T

    2013-01-01

    The term "fat" may refer to lipids as well as the cells and tissue that store lipid (ie, adipocytes and adipose tissue). "Lipid" is derived from "lipos," which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat and is derived from "adipo," referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, including triglycerides and free cholesterol. Adipocytes and adipose tissue are active from an endocrine and immune standpoint. Adipocyte hypertrophy and excessive adipose tissue accumulation can promote pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue effects (adiposopathy), resulting in abnormal levels of circulating lipids, with dyslipidemia being a major atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factor. It is therefore incumbent upon lipidologists to be among the most knowledgeable in the understanding of the relationship between excessive body fat and dyslipidemia. On September 16, 2012, the National Lipid Association held a Consensus Conference with the goal of better defining the effect of adiposity on lipoproteins, how the pathos of excessive body fat (adiposopathy) contributes to dyslipidemia, and how therapies such as appropriate nutrition, increased physical activity, weight-management drugs, and bariatric surgery might be expected to impact dyslipidemia. It is hoped that the information derived from these proceedings will promote a greater appreciation among clinicians of the impact of excess adiposity and its treatment on dyslipidemia and prompt more research on the effects of interventions for improving dyslipidemia and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  17. The action of D-dopachrome tautomerase as an adipokine in adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takeo; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Kuwajima, Masamichi; Taniguchi, Takako; Okuda, Yuko; Sukeno, Akiko; Ishimoto, Kyoko; Mizusawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-related clinical parameters such as BMI, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. Experiments using SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, revealed that DDT mRNA levels were increased in an adipocyte differentiation-dependent manner and DDT was secreted from adipocytes. In DDT knockdown adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells that were infected with the adenovirus expressing shRNA against the DDT gene, mRNA levels of genes involved in both lipolysis and lipogenesis were slightly but significantly increased. Furthermore, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which phosphorylates and inactivates enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in DDT knockdown adipocytes. The AMPK phosphorylation of HSL Ser-565 and ACC Ser-79 was inhibited in DDT knockdown cells and recovered in the cells treated with recombinant DDT (rDDT), suggesting that down-regulated DDT in adipocytes brings about a state of active lipid metabolism. Furthermore, administration of rDDT in db/db mice improved glucose intolerance and decreased serum free fatty acids levels. In the adipose tissue from rDDT-treated db/db mice, not only increased levels of HSL phosphorylated by AMPK, but also decreased levels of HSL phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates HSL to promote its activity, were observed. These results suggested that DDT acts on adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism through AMPK and/or PKA

  18. The action of D-dopachrome tautomerase as an adipokine in adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Iwata

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-related clinical parameters such as BMI, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. Experiments using SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, revealed that DDT mRNA levels were increased in an adipocyte differentiation-dependent manner and DDT was secreted from adipocytes. In DDT knockdown adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells that were infected with the adenovirus expressing shRNA against the DDT gene, mRNA levels of genes involved in both lipolysis and lipogenesis were slightly but significantly increased. Furthermore, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling, which phosphorylates and inactivates enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, in DDT knockdown adipocytes. The AMPK phosphorylation of HSL Ser-565 and ACC Ser-79 was inhibited in DDT knockdown cells and recovered in the cells treated with recombinant DDT (rDDT, suggesting that down-regulated DDT in adipocytes brings about a state of active lipid metabolism. Furthermore, administration of rDDT in db/db mice improved glucose intolerance and decreased serum free fatty acids levels. In the adipose tissue from rDDT-treated db/db mice, not only increased levels of HSL phosphorylated by AMPK, but also decreased levels of HSL phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA, which phosphorylates HSL to promote its activity, were observed. These results suggested that DDT acts on adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism through

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  11. Adrenalectomy reduces adiposity by decreasing food efficiency, not direct effects on white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, N K; Moshirfar, A; Potter, G M; Fried, S K; Castonguay, T W

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to establish the effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) on adipose tissue metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a standard chow diet. The effects of adrenalectomy on adipose cell size, lipoprotein lipase activity, and basal and insulin-stimulated glucose conversion to lipid and lipolysis were measured. ADX decreased body weight gain during the post-operative period in the absence of changes in food intake; feed efficiency was decreased significantly. ADX decreased adipocyte size by 30%. ADX increased adipocyte response to the effect of submaximal concentrations of insulin on lipid synthesis and lipolysis. ADX decreased maximally insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis, but this effect was accounted for by decreased adipocyte size. In contrast, ADX had no effect on maximally insulin-inhibited lipolysis. ADX did not affect heparin-releasable LPL. The small effect of ADX on residual extractable adipose tissue LPL activity was accounted for by decreased fat cell size. ADX decreased adiposity in the absence of changes in food intake, lipoprotein lipase activity, and adipocyte lipid metabolism. The effect is best attributed to decreased feed efficiency.

  12. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  13. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  14. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  15. Cholesterol, a cell size-dependent signal that regulates glucose metabolism and gene expression in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, S; Krief, S; Farnier, C; Lefrère, I; Le Liepvre, X; Bazin, R; Ferré, P; Dugail, I

    2001-05-18

    Enlarged fat cells exhibit modified metabolic capacities, which could be involved in the metabolic complications of obesity at the whole body level. We show here that sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and its target genes are induced in the adipose tissue of several models of rodent obesity, suggesting cholesterol imbalance in enlarged adipocytes. Within a particular fat pad, larger adipocytes have reduced membrane cholesterol concentrations compared with smaller fat cells, demonstrating that altered cholesterol distribution is characteristic of adipocyte hypertrophy per se. We show that treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, which mimics the membrane cholesterol reduction of hypertrophied adipocytes, induces insulin resistance. We also produced cholesterol depletion by mevastatin treatment, which activates SREBP-2 and its target genes. The analysis of 40 adipocyte genes showed that the response to cholesterol depletion implicated genes involved in cholesterol traffic (caveolin 2, scavenger receptor BI, and ATP binding cassette 1 genes) but also adipocyte-derived secretion products (tumor necrosis factor alpha, angiotensinogen, and interleukin-6) and proteins involved in energy metabolism (fatty acid synthase, GLUT 4, and UCP3). These data demonstrate that altering cholesterol balance profoundly modifies adipocyte metabolism in a way resembling that seen in hypertrophied fat cells from obese rodents or humans. This is the first evidence that intracellular cholesterol might serve as a link between fat cell size and adipocyte metabolic activity.

  16. Dynamic upregulation of CD24 in pre-adipocytes promotes adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole C; Fairbridge, Nicholas A; Pallegar, Nikitha K; Christian, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    The development of mature adipocytes from pre-adipocytes is a highly regulated process. CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface receptor that has been identified as a critical cell surface marker for identifying pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Here, we examined the role and regulation of CD24 during adipogenesis in vitro. We found that CD24 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated early during adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and in murine primary pre-adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and visceral WAT, followed by downregulation in mature adipocytes. CD24 mRNA expression was found to be dependent on increased transcription due to increased promoter activity in response to activation of a pre-existing transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, either intracellular cAMP or dexamethasone were sufficient to increase expression in pre-adipocytes, while both additively increased CD24 expression. Preventing the increase in CD24 expression, by siRNA-mediated knock-down, resulted in fewer mature lipid-laden adipocytes and decreased expression of mature adipogenic genes. Therefore, conditions experienced during adipogenesis in vitro are sufficient to increase CD24 expression, which is necessary for differentiation. Overall, we conclude that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 actively promotes adipogenesis in vitro.

  17. Loss of fat with increased adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis in adipose tissue during laying stages in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujin; Suh, Yeunsu; Choi, Young Min; Shin, Sangsu; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate regulation of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose and liver to relate lipolytic and lipogenic capacities with physiological changes at the pre-laying, onset of laying, and actively laying stages of quail. Followed by a 50 % increase from pre-laying to onset of laying, adipose to body weight ratio was significantly reduced by 60 % from the onset of laying to the actively laying stage (P adipocyte size from the pre-laying stage to the onset of laying and reduction of adipocyte size from the onset of laying to the actively laying stage (P adipocyte hypotrophy (P adipocyte, and increase VLDL secretion from the liver in order to secure a lipid supply for yolk maturation.

  18. Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Gilles; Tellier, Edwige; Try, Anne; Grés, Sandra; Naime, Isabelle; Simon, Marie Françoise; Rodriguez, Marianne; Boucher, Jérémie; Tack, Ivan; Gesta, Stéphane; Chomarat, Pascale; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Galizzi, Jean Pierre; Valet, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta et al. J. Lipid. Res, 2002, 43:904–910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase D-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A-adipocyte conditioned-medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase: autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A-adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in primary culture of mouse preadipocytes. Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX expressing-COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing-COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue, and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared to their lean siblings. In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes, and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:12642576

  19. Effect of exercise training on adipocyte-size-dependent expression of leptin and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoko; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Nomura, Sachiko; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Komabayashi, Takao

    2010-04-24

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (TR) on adipocyte-size-dependent expression of leptin and adiponectin. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups, sedentary control (CR) and TR group, and both monitored for 9weeks. Adipocytes isolated from epididymal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal fat depots were independently separated into 3 fractions of different cell size, and the relationships between adipocyte size and either leptin or adiponectin mRNA were determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. In epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, positive relationships between adipocyte size and both leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression were found. Comparison of TR and CR rats showed no significant effect of TR on the slopes of the linear regression lines of correlation between leptin mRNA and adipocyte size in either adipose tissue, whereas the slopes of the regression line of correlation between adipocyte size and adiponectin mRNA were greater in TR group. Leptin levels per milliliter of plasma were significantly lower in TR than CR rats, whereas leptin levels adjusted to the 3 fat depots did not differ. TR did not affect adiponectin levels in plasma, whereas adiponectin levels adjusted to the 3 fat depots were significantly greater in TR than CR group. TR-induced reduction in leptin mRNA expression was closely associated with smaller adipocyte size. However, TR amplified the adipocyte-size-dependent expression of adiponectin mRNA, suggesting that TR-induced alterations in adiponectin mRNA may also be mediated by factor(s) other than adipocyte size.

  20. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosick, Peter A; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W; Moore, Kyle H; Stec, David E

    2017-03-11

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males.

  1. Adipose extracellular matrix remodelling in obesity and insulin resistance☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, De; Chun, Tae-Hwa; Kang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues undergoes constant remodelling to allow adipocytes and their precursor cells to change cell shape and function in adaptation to nutritional cues. Abnormal accumulation of ECM components and their modifiers in adipose tissues has been recently demonstrated to cause obesity-associated insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Integrins and other ECM receptors (e.g. CD44) that are expressed in adipose tissues have been shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. It is well understood that a hypoxic response is observed in adipose tissue expansion during obesity progression and that hypoxic response accelerates fibrosis and inflammation in white adipose tissues. The expansion of adipose tissues should require angiogenesis; however, the excess deposition of ECM limits the angiogenic response of white adipose tissues in obesity. While recent studies have focused on the metabolic consequences and the mechanisms of adipose tissue expansion and remodelling, little attention has been paid to the role played by the interaction between peri-adipocyte ECM and their cognate cell surface receptors. This review will address what is currently known about the roles played by adipose ECM, their modifiers, and ECM receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding how excess ECM deposition in the adipose tissue deteriorates insulin sensitivity would provide us hints to develop a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27179976

  2. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  3. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  4. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  5. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid metabo...

  6. Adipocyte cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates energy homeostasis and alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Mancini, Giacomo; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Rey, Alejandro Aparisi; Cardinal, Pierre; Tedesco, Laura; Zingaretti, Cristina Maria; Sassmann, Antonia; Quarta, Carmelo; Schwitter, Claudia; Conrad, Andrea; Wettschureck, Nina; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Hartwig, Jens; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Bindila, Laura; Monory, Krisztina; Giordano, Antonio; Cinti, Saverio; Marsicano, Giovanni; Offermanns, Stefan; Nisoli, Enzo; Pagotto, Uberto; Cota, Daniela; Lutz, Beat

    2017-11-01

    Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice. Compared with controls, Ati-CB1-KO mice showed decreased body weight, reduced total adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced energy expenditure, and fat depot-specific cellular remodeling toward lowered energy storage capacity and browning of white adipocytes. These changes were associated with an increase in alternatively activated macrophages concomitant with enhanced sympathetic tone in adipose tissue. Remarkably, these alterations preceded the appearance of differences in body weight, highlighting the causal relation between the loss of CB1 and the triggering of metabolic reprogramming in adipose tissues. Finally, the lean phenotype of Ati-CB1-KO mice and the increase in alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue were also present at thermoneutral conditions. Our data provide compelling evidence for a crosstalk among adipocytes, immune cells, and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), wherein CB1 plays a key regulatory role.

  7. SMRT-GPS2 corepressor pathway dysregulation coincides with obesity-linked adipocyte inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Amine; Clément, Karine; Fan, Rongrong; Ancel, Patricia; Pelloux, Veronique; Rouault, Christine; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hartemann, Agnes; Treuter, Eckardt; Venteclef, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function. Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the transcriptional corepressor complex subunits GPS2 and SMRT was significantly reduced in obese adipose tissue, inversely correlated to inflammatory status, and was restored upon gastric bypass surgery-induced weight loss in morbid obesity. These alterations correlated with reduced occupancy of the corepressor complex at inflammatory promoters, providing a mechanistic explanation for elevated inflammatory transcription. In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, we identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes. These findings were clinically relevant, because treatment of diabetic obese patients with pioglitazone, an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory PPARγ agonist, restored expression of TWIST1, GPS2, and SMRT in adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity.

  8. beta-adrenoceptors mediate inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Obels, PP; Van Den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    The regulation of triglyceride mobilization by catecholamines was investigated in the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) in vivo and in vitro. In vitro experiments were carried out with adipocytes that were isolated for the first time from fish adipose tissue. For the in vivo

  9. Iron metabolism is associated with adipocyte insulin resistance and plasma adiponectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Bravenboer, B.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Adipocyte insulin resistance (IR) is a key feature early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and although scarce, data in the literature suggest a direct role for iron and iron metabolism-related factors in adipose tissue function and metabolism. Serum ferritin and

  10. White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moisan, A.; Lee, Y. K.; Zhang, J.D.; Hudak, C.S.; Meyer, C.A.; Prummer, M.; Zoffmann, S.; Truong, H.H.; Ebeling, M.; Kiialainen, A.; Gerard, R.; Xia, F.; Schinzel, R.T.; Amrein, K.E.; Cowan, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes and heart disease has focused considerable attention on the discovery of new therapeutics. One promising approach has been to increase the number or activity of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose depots, as this has been

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated suppression of adipocyte apolipoprotein E gene transcription: primary role for the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway and NFkappaB p50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lili; Christman, John W; Mazzone, Theodore

    2008-08-01

    The adipose tissue inflammation accompanying obesity has important consequences for adipocyte lipid metabolism, and increased adipose tissue TNFalpha plays an important role for mediating the effect of inflammation on adipocyte function. Recent studies have shown that apolipoprotein E (apoE) is highly expressed in adipose tissue where it plays an important role in modulating adipocyte triglyceride metabolism, triglyceride mass, and adipocyte size. We have previously reported that TNFalpha reduces adipocyte apoE, and the current studies were undertaken to evaluate the molecular mechanism for this regulation. TNFalpha repression of adipocyte apoE gene expression required an intact nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB binding site at -43 in the apoE promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis at this site completely eliminated TNFalpha regulation of an apoE gene reporter. TNFalpha treatment activated binding of NFkappaB p50, isolated from adipocyte nuclei, to the apoE promoter. Two structurally distinct inhibitors of NFkappaB complex activation or translocation abrogated the TNFalpha effect on the apoE gene. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that treatment of adipocytes with TNFalpha led to increased binding of NFkappaB p50, and decreased binding of p65 and Sp1, to this region of the apoE promoter in living cells. The key role played by increased p50 binding was confirmed by p50 knockdown experiments. Reduction of p50 expression using small interference RNA completely eliminated TNFalpha-mediated reduction of endogenous adipocyte apoE gene expression. These results establish the molecular link between adipose tissue inflammation and apoE gene expression in adipocytes. The suppression of adipocyte apoE by the proinflammatory adipose tissue milieu associated with obesity will have important downstream effects on adipocyte triglyceride turnover and content.

  12. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  13. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  14. Insulin/IGF-I regulation of necdin and brown adipocyte differentiation via CREB- and FoxO1-associated pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cypess, Aaron M; Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J

    2011-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue plays an important role in obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We have previously shown that the transition from brown preadipocytes to mature adipocytes is mediated in part by insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the cell cycle regulator protein necdin. In this study......-Akt pathway to deactivate FoxO1. These two pathways combine to decrease necdin levels and permit the clonal expansion and coordinated gene expression necessary to complete brown adipocyte differentiation....

  15. Advanced application of porcine intramuscular adipocytes for evaluating anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of immunobiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available We previously established a clonal porcine intramuscular preadipocyte (PIP line and we were able to establish a protocol to obtain functional mature adipocytes from PIP cells. We hypothesized that both PIP cells and mature adipocytes are likely to be useful in vitro tools for increasing our understanding of immunobiology of adipose tissue, and for the selection and study of immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics able to modulate adipocytes immune responses. In this study, we investigated the immunobiology of PIP cells and mature adipocytes in relation to their response to TNF-α stimulation. In addition, we evaluated the possibility that immunobiotic microorganisms modify adipogenesis and immune functions of porcine adipose tissue through Peyer's patches (PPs immune-competent cells. We treated the porcine PPs immune cells with different probiotic strains; and we evaluated the effect of conditioned media from probiotic-stimulated immune cells in PIP cells and mature adipocytes. The Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 showed remarkable effects, and were able to significantly reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and negative regulators (A20, Bcl-3, and MKP-1 in adipocytes challenged with TNF-α. The results of this study demonstrated that the evaluation of IL-6, and MCP-1 production, and A20 and Bcl-3 down-regulation in TNF-α-challenged adipocytes could function as biomarkers to screen and select potential immunobiotic strains. Taking into consideration that several in vivo and in vitro studies clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 in adipose inflammation, the results presented in this work indicate that the PIP cells and porcine adipocytes could be used for the screening and the selection of new immunobiotic strains with the potential to functionally modulate adipose inflammation when orally administered.

  16. The cytoskeletal protein septin 11 is associated with human obesity and is involved in adipocyte lipid storage and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Castellanos, Natalia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; López-Miranda, José; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Frühbeck, Gema; Malagón, María M

    2017-02-01

    Septins are newly identified members of the cytoskeleton that have been proposed as biomarkers of a number of diseases. However, septins have not been characterised in adipose tissue and their relationship with obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we characterised a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in human adipose tissue and analysed its potential involvement in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. Gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human adipose tissue. SEPT11 distribution was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation techniques. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid screening were used to identify the SEPT11 interactome. Gene silencing was used to assess the role of SEPT11 in the regulation of insulin signalling and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. We demonstrate the expression of SEPT11 in human adipocytes and its upregulation in obese individuals, with SEPT11 mRNA content positively correlating with variables of insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue. SEPT11 content was regulated by lipogenic, lipolytic and proinflammatory stimuli in human adipocytes. SEPT11 associated with caveolae in mature adipocytes and interacted with both caveolin-1 and the intracellular fatty acid chaperone, fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5). Lipid loading of adipocytes caused the association of the three proteins with the surface of lipid droplets. SEPT11 silencing impaired insulin signalling and insulin-induced lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Our findings support a role for SEPT11 in lipid traffic and metabolism in adipocytes and open new avenues for research on the control of lipid storage in obesity and insulin resistance.

  17. The orphan nuclear receptor Rev-Erbalpha is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma target gene and promotes PPARgamma-induced adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontaine, Coralie; Dubois, Guillaume; Duguay, Yannick

    2003-01-01

    Rev-Erbalpha (NR1D1) is an orphan nuclear receptor encoded on the opposite strand of the thyroid receptor alpha gene. Rev-Erbalpha mRNA is induced during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and its expression is abundant in rat adipose tissue. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma...... (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) is a nuclear receptor controlling adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Here we show that Rev-Erbalpha expression is induced by PPARgamma activation with rosiglitazone in rat epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues in vivo as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro...... of functional PPARgamma response element. Finally, ectopic expression of Rev-Erbalpha in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes potentiated adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone. These results identify Rev-Erbalpha as a target gene of PPARgamma in adipose tissue and demonstrate a role...

  18. Mammary alveolar epithelial cells convert to brown adipocytes in post-lactating mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Antonio; Perugini, Jessica; Kristensen, David M; Sartini, Loris; Frontini, Andrea; Kajimura, Shingo; Kristiansen, Karsten; Cinti, Saverio

    2017-11-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, subcutaneous white adipocytes in the mouse mammary gland transdifferentiate reversibly to milk-secreting epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that in the post-lactating mammary gland interscapular multilocular adipocytes found close to the mammary alveoli contain milk protein granules. Use of the Cre-loxP recombination system allowed showing that the involuting mammary gland of whey acidic protein-Cre/R26R mice, whose secretory alveolar cells express the lacZ gene during pregnancy, contains some X-Gal-stained and uncoupling protein 1-positive interscapular multilocular adipocytes. These data suggest that during mammary gland involution some milk-secreting epithelial cells in the anterior subcutaneous depot may transdifferentiate to brown adipocytes, highlighting a hitherto unappreciated feature of mouse adipose organ plasticity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Obesity is associated with depot-specific alterations in adipocyte DNA methylation and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Yadav, Rachita; Yin, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify genes exhibiting concomitant obesity-dependent changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in adipose tissues in the mouse using diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J and genetically obese ob/ob mice as models. Mature adipocytes were isolated from epididymal...... that hypomethylation did not reflect methyl donor deficiency. In both DIO and ob/ob mice, we observed more obesity-associated methylation changes in epididymal than in inguinal adipocytes. Assignment of DMRs to promoter, exon, intron and intergenic regions demonstrated that DIO-induced changes in DNA methylation in C......57BL/6J mice occurred primarily in exons, whereas inguinal adipocytes of ob/ob mice exhibited a higher enrichment of DMRs in promoter regions than in other regions of the genome, suggesting an influence of leptin on DNA methylation in inguinal adipocytes. We observed altered methylation...

  20. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Yang, Qiong [Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Chengdu Agricultural College, Chengdu 611100, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Yanzhi [College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhang, Shunhua, E-mail: zhangsh1919@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhu, Li, E-mail: zhuli7508@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China)

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. -- Highlights: •MiR-145a-5p promotes adipocytes proliferation. •MiR-145a-5p is negatively correlated with obesity. •MiR-145a-5p mediates adipocytes differentiation via regulating pathway related adipocytes differentiation. MiR-145a-5p mediating adipocytes differentiation was regulated by DNA methylation.

  1. Dynamics of human adipose lipid turnover in health and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Peter; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Eriksson, Mats; Arner, Erik; Hauner, Hans; Skurk, Thomas; Rydén, Mikael; Frayn, Keith N; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2011-09-25

    Adipose tissue mass is determined by the storage and removal of triglycerides in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about adipose lipid turnover in humans in health and pathology. To study this in vivo, here we determined lipid age by measuring (14)C derived from above ground nuclear bomb tests in adipocyte lipids. We report that during the average ten-year lifespan of human adipocytes, triglycerides are renewed six times. Lipid age is independent of adipocyte size, is very stable across a wide range of adult ages and does not differ between genders. Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. In obesity, triglyceride removal rate (lipolysis followed by oxidation) is decreased and the amount of triglycerides stored each year is increased. In contrast, both lipid removal and storage rates are decreased in non-obese patients diagnosed with the most common hereditary form of dyslipidaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Lipid removal rate is positively correlated with the capacity of adipocytes to break down triglycerides, as assessed through lipolysis, and is inversely related to insulin resistance. Our data support a mechanism in which adipocyte lipid storage and removal have different roles in health and pathology. High storage but low triglyceride removal promotes fat tissue accumulation and obesity. Reduction of both triglyceride storage and removal decreases lipid shunting through adipose tissue and thus promotes dyslipidaemia. We identify adipocyte lipid turnover as a novel target for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease.

  2. Stress of endoplasmic reticulum modulates differentiation and lipogenesis of human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Michal; Mayerová, Veronika; Kračmerová, Jana [Franco-Czech Laboratory for Clinical Research on Obesity, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Sport Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, CZ-100 00 (Czech Republic); Mairal, Aline [Franco-Czech Laboratory for Clinical Research on Obesity, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Inserm, UMR1048, Obesity Research Laboratory, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, 31432 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Mališová, Lucia; Štich, Vladimír [Franco-Czech Laboratory for Clinical Research on Obesity, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Sport Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, CZ-100 00 (Czech Republic); Langin, Dominique [Franco-Czech Laboratory for Clinical Research on Obesity, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Inserm, UMR1048, Obesity Research Laboratory, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, 31432 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); University of Toulouse, UMR1048, Paul Sabatier University, 31432 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Toulouse University Hospitals, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, 31059 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Rossmeislová, Lenka, E-mail: Lenka.Rossmeislova@lf3.cuni.cz [Franco-Czech Laboratory for Clinical Research on Obesity, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Sport Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, CZ-100 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-08

    Background: Adipocytes are cells specialized for storage of neutral lipids. This storage capacity is dependent on lipogenesis and is diminished in obesity. The reason for the decline in lipogenic activity of adipocytes in obesity remains unknown. Recent data show that lipogenesis in liver is regulated by pathways initiated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, we aimed at investigating the effect of ERS on lipogenesis in adipose cells. Methods: Preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese volunteers and in vitro differentiated into adipocytes. ERS was induced pharmacologically by thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM). Activation of Unfolded Protein Response pathway (UPR) was monitored on the level of eIF2α phosphorylation and mRNA expression of downstream targets of UPR sensors. Adipogenic and lipogenic capacity was evaluated by Oil Red O staining, measurement of incorporation of radio-labelled glucose or acetic acid into lipids and mRNA analysis of adipogenic/lipogenic markers. Results: Exposition of adipocytes to high doses of TG (100 nM) and TM (1 μg/ml) for 1–24 h enhanced expression of several UPR markers (HSPA5, EDEM1, ATF4, XBP1s) and phosphorylation of eIF2α. This acute ERS substantially inhibited expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, SCD1) and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to low dose of TG (2.5 nM) during the early phases of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Acute ERS weakened a capacity of mature adipocytes to store lipids and chronic ERS diminished adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. - Highlights: • High intensity ERS inhibits lipogenic capacity of adipocytes. • ERS impairs adipogenesis when present in early stages of adipogenesis. • Lipogenesis in mature adipocytes is not

  3. Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 on adipocyte size in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masao; Uzu, Kazunori; Yoshida, Takeshi; Hamad, Essam M; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Hiroaki; Abd El-Gawad, Ibrahim A; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2008-05-01

    Despite adequate scientific evidence of the potential benefits of probiotics to human health or disease prevention, their contribution to the growth of adipose tissue remains to be established. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing skim milk (control diet) or skim milk fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LGSP diet) for 4 weeks. Their body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, adipocyte size distribution profile, blood and hepatic lipids, and serum leptin, glucose and adiponectin levels were determined. There was a significant reduction in average adipocyte size in mesenteric white adipose tissue (P = 0.004). Moreover, the rats fed the LGSP diet displayed greater numbers of small adipocytes from mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues than did those on the control diet. Whereas adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the groups, serum leptin concentrations were decreased to 32 % in the LGSP diet group compared with the control group. Concentrations of serum glucose and lipids, and liver lipids, except for the liver TAG level, were similar in the two groups. These results indicate a possible role for a fermented milk product in the regulation of adipose tissue growth.

  4. Lipase: Localization in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, M S; Moskowitz, A A

    1965-07-02

    Certain problems usually associated with the histochemistry of lipases are obviated by a technique that utilizes the endogenous blood chylomicrons and the cellular stores of triglyceride as substrates for the histochemical demonstration of lipolytic enzyme activity in situ. In spreads of mesenteric adipose tissue, the technique makes it possible to distinguish between lipoprotein lipase activity at sites in the capillaries and lipolysis occurring in the adipocytes. The selective anatomic lolization of the lipase reaction correlated with the functional state of the tissue, and the absence of reaction product in control mesenteries from starved mice or in heat-inactivated controls, support the validity of this histochemical reaction.

  5. Fetal baboon sex-specific outcomes in adipocyte differentiation at 0.9 gestation in response to moderate maternal nutrient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoukalova, Y D; Krishnapuram, R; White, U A; Burk, D; Fang, X; Nijland, M J; Nathanielsz, P W

    2014-02-01

    To investigate in vitro adipocyte differentiation in baboon fetuses in response to reduced maternal nutrition. Cross-sectional comparison of adipocyte differentiation in normally grown fetuses and fetuses of pregnant baboons fed 70% of the control global diet from 30 days of pregnancy to term. The subjects comprised control (CTR) fetuses (five female and five male) of mothers fed ad libitum and fetuses of mothers fed 70% of the global diet consumed by CTR (maternal nutrient reduction (MNR), five female and five male fetuses). The expression of genes/proteins involved in adipogenesis (PPARγ, FABP4 and adiponectin) and brown adipose tissue development (UCP1, TBX15 and COXIV) were determined in in vitro-differentiated stromal-vascular cultures from subcutaneous abdominal, subcutaneous femoral and omental adipose tissue depots. Adipocyte number per area (mm(2)) was determined histologically to assist in the evaluation of adipocyte size. Maternal suboptimal nutrition suppressed growth of male but not female fetuses and led to adipocyte hypertrophy accompanied by increased markers of white- and, particularly, brown-type adipogenesis in male but not female fetuses. Adipose tissue responses to fetal nonhuman primate undernutrition are sexually dimorphic. While female fetuses adapt adequately, the male ones enhance pathways involved in white and brown adipose tissue development but are unable to compensate for a delayed development of adipose tissue associated with intrauterine growth restriction. These differences need to be considered when assessing developmental programming of adiposity in response to suboptimal maternal nutrition.

  6. Fat-brain connections: Adipocyte glucocorticoid control of stress and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Herman, James P

    2017-10-16

    Glucocorticoids act via multiple mechanisms to mobilize energy for maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. In adipose tissue, glucocorticoids can promote lipolysis and facilitate adipocyte differentiation/growth, serving both energy-mobilizing and restorative processes during negative energy balance. Recent data suggest that adipose-dependent feedback may also be involved in regulation of stress responses. Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deletion causes increased HPA axis stress reactivity, due to a loss of negative feedback signals into the CNS. The fat-to-brain signal may be mediated by neuronal mechanisms, release of adipokines or increased lipolysis. The ability of adipose GRs to inhibit psychogenic as well as metabolic stress responses suggests that (1) feedback regulation of the HPA axis occurs across multiple bodily compartments, and (2) fat tissue integrates psychogenic stress signals. These studies support a link between stress biology and energy metabolism, a connection that has clear relevance for numerous disease states and their comorbidities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Coprinus comatus cap inhibits adipocyte differentiation via regulation of PPARγ and Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Joon; Yun, Jisoo; Jang, Sun-Hee; Kang, Suk Nam; Jeon, Beong-Sam; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Won, Chung-Kil; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of Coprinus comatus cap (CCC) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effects of CCC on the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Here, we showed that the CCC has an inhibitory effect on the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, resulting in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation through the downregulation of several adipocyte specific-transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, C/EBPδ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Moreover, treatment with CCC during adipocyte differentiation induced a significant down-regulation of PPARγ and adipogenic target genes, including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Interestingly, the CCC treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed the insulin-stimulated Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, and these effects were stronger in the presence of an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, LY294002, suggesting that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the down-regulation of Akt signaling. In the animal study, CCC administration significantly reduced the body weight and adipose tissue weight of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) and attenuated lipid accumulation in the adipose tissues of the HFD-induced obese rats. The size of the adipocyte in the epididymal fat of the CCC fed rats was significantly smaller than in the HFD rats. CCC treatment significantly reduced the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum of HFD rats. These results strongly indicated that the CCC-mediated decrease in body weight was due to a reduction in adipose tissue mass. The expression level of PPARγ and phospho-Akt was significantly lower in the CCC-treated HFD rats than that in the HFD obesity rats. These results suggested that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation by the down-regulation of major transcription factor involved in the adipogenesis pathway including PPARγ through the regulation of the Akt pathway in 3T3

  8. Coprinus comatus cap inhibits adipocyte differentiation via regulation of PPARγ and Akt signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Joon Park

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of Coprinus comatus cap (CCC on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effects of CCC on the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Here, we showed that the CCC has an inhibitory effect on the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, resulting in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation through the downregulation of several adipocyte specific-transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, C/EBPδ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Moreover, treatment with CCC during adipocyte differentiation induced a significant down-regulation of PPARγ and adipogenic target genes, including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Interestingly, the CCC treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed the insulin-stimulated Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, and these effects were stronger in the presence of an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, LY294002, suggesting that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the down-regulation of Akt signaling. In the animal study, CCC administration significantly reduced the body weight and adipose tissue weight of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD and attenuated lipid accumulation in the adipose tissues of the HFD-induced obese rats. The size of the adipocyte in the epididymal fat of the CCC fed rats was significantly smaller than in the HFD rats. CCC treatment significantly reduced the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum of HFD rats. These results strongly indicated that the CCC-mediated decrease in body weight was due to a reduction in adipose tissue mass. The expression level of PPARγ and phospho-Akt was significantly lower in the CCC-treated HFD rats than that in the HFD obesity rats. These results suggested that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation by the down-regulation of major transcription factor involved in the adipogenesis pathway including PPARγ through the regulation of the

  9. Regulation of Adiponectin Secretion by Adipocytes in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Trivax, Bradley S.; Yildiz, Bulent O.; Bertolotto, Cristina; Mathur, Ruchi; Heneidi, Saleh; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Context: Adipose tissue dysfunction associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulation of adipokine secretion might significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the effect of TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or coculture of adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), on the secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes, differs in PCOS compared with controls. Design and Participants: Primary cultures of sc adipocytes and coculture of adipocytes and ATMs from overweight and obese patients with PCOS and healthy control women were used. Main Outcome Measures: Adiponectin secretion by adipocytes was measured. Results: The baseline secretion of adiponectin by isolated adipocytes did not differ between PCOS and control samples. The net change in adiponectin secretion in response to IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α differed between PCOS (decreasing) and control (increasing) adipocytes, although the difference reached significance only for TNF-α (P < 0.04). Coculture of isolated adipocytes and ATMs resulted in a decrease in adiponectin secretion by PCOS (P < 0.05) but not control adipocytes, and the difference between the net change in adiponectin secretion in PCOS vs. control samples was significant (P < 0.03). Conclusions: Our results suggest that adiponectin secretion by adipocytes in response to cytokines/chemokines and most notably in response to coculturing with ATMs differs between PCOS and control women, favoring greater suppression of adiponectin in PCOS. The mechanisms underlying these defects and the role of concurrent obesity remain to be determined. PMID:20089616

  10. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mengle; Hepler, Chelsea; Vishvanath, Lavanya; MacPherson, Karen A; Busbuso, Napoleon C; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-01-01

    Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified. Here, we utilize two models that confer adipose-specific Zfp423 inactivation during fetal adipose development (Adiponectin-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP and Adiponectin-rtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP). We assess the impact of fetal adipose Zfp423 deletion on the initial formation of adipose tissue and evaluate the metabolic consequences of challenging these animals with high-fat diet feeding. Deletion of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in a different phenotype than is observed when deleting Zfp423 in adipocytes of adult mice. Inactivation of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in arrested differentiation, specifically of inguinal white adipocytes, rather than a white-to-beige phenotypic switch that occurs when Zfp423 is inactivated in adult mice. This is likely explained by the observation that adiponectin driven Cre expression is active at an earlier stage of the adipocyte life cycle during fetal subcutaneous adipose development than in adult mice. Upon high-fat diet feeding, obese adipose Zfp423-deficient animals undergo a pathological adipose tissue expansion, associated with ectopic lipid deposition and systemic insulin resistance. Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient

  11. Adipose Tissue Hypoxia in Obesity and Its Impact on Preadipocytes and Macrophages: Hypoxia Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses. Hypoxia affects a number of biological functions, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Additionally, reactive oxygen radical (ROS) generation at mitochondria is responsible for propagation of the hypoxic signal. Actually mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, but not oxygen consumption is required for hypoxic HIF-1alpha protein stabilization. Adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity is reduced in obese compared with non-obese adults. In this respect, mitochondrial dysfunction of adipocyte is associated with the overall adiposity. Furthermore, hypoxia also inhibits macrophage migration from the hypoxic adipose tissue. Alterations in oxygen availability of adipose tissue directly affect the macrophage polarization and are responsible from dysregulated adipocytokines production in obesity. Hypoxia also inhibits adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes. In addition to stressed adipocytes, hypoxia contributes to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. Fibrosis is initiated in response to adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity.

  12. Adipose Tissue Function and Expandability as Determinants of Lipotoxicity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Pellegrinelli, Vanessa; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The adipose tissue organ is organised as distinct anatomical depots located all along the body axis and it is constituted of three different types of adipocytes : white, beige and brown which are integrated with vascular, immune, neural and extracellular stroma cells. These distinct adipocytes serve different specialised functions. The main function of white adipocytes is to ensure healthy storage of excess nutrients/energy and its rapid mobilisation to supply the demand of energy imposed by physiological cues in other organs, whereas brown and beige adipocytes are designed for heat production through uncoupling lipid oxidation from energy production. The concert action of the three type of adipocytes/tissues has been reported to ensure an optimal metabolic status in rodents. However, when one or multiple of these adipose depots become dysfunctional as a consequence of sustained lipid/nutrient overload, then insulin resistance and associated metabolic complications ensue. These metabolic alterations negatively affects the adipose tissue functionality and compromises global metabolic homeostasis. Optimising white adipose tissue expandability and its functional metabolic flexibility and/or promoting brown/beige mediated thermogenic activity counteracts obesity and its associated lipotoxic metabolic effects. The development of these therapeutic approaches requires a deep understanding of adipose tissue in all broad aspects. In this chapter we will discuss the characteristics of the different adipose tissue depots with respect to origins and precursors recruitment, plasticity, cellular composition and expandability capacity as well as molecular and metabolic signatures in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  13. Increased bone marrow adiposity in a context of energy deficit: the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ghali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elevated bone marrow adiposity is defined as an increase in the proportion of the bone marrow cavity volume occupied by adipocytes. This can be caused by an increase in the size and/or number of adipocytes. Bone marrow adiposity increases with age in a bone-site-specific manner. This increase may be linked to certain pathophysiological situations. Osteoporosis or compromised bone quality is frequently associated with high bone marrow adiposity. The involvement of bone marrow adipocytes in bone loss may be due to commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipogenic pathway rather than the osteogenic pathway. However, adipocytes may also act on their microenvironment by secreting factors with harmful effects for the bone health. Here, we review evidence that in a context of energy deficit (such as anorexia nervosa and restriction rodent models bone alterations can occur in the absence of an increase in bone marrow adiposity. In severe cases, bone alterations are even associated with gelatinous bone marrow transformation. The relationship between bone marrow adiposity and energy deficit, and the potential regulators of this adiposity in this context are also discussed. On the basis of clinical studies and preliminary results on animal model we propose that competition between differentiation into osteoblasts and differentiation into adipocytes might trigger bone loss at least in moderate-to severe anorexia nervosa and in some calorie restriction models. Finally, some of the main questions resulting from this hypothesis are discussed.

  14. Naringenin Inhibits Adipogenesis and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison J. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue development and function are widely studied to examine the relationship between obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is well documented that the inability of adipose tissue to properly increase its lipid storage capacity during the obese state can lead to metabolic dysfunction. In a blind screen of 425 botanicals, we identified naringenin as an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation. Naringenin is one of the most abundant citrus flavonoids, and recent studies have demonstrated antihyperlipidemic capabilities. These studies have largely focused on the effects of naringenin on the liver. Our biochemical studies clearly demonstrate that naringenin inhibits adipogenesis and impairs mature fat cell function. Naringenin specifically inhibited adipogenesis in a dose-dependent fashion as judged by examining lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte marker protein expression. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, naringenin reduced the ability of insulin to induce IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and substantially inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner and over a time frame of 1.5 to 24 hours. Exposure to naringenin also inhibited adiponectin protein expression in mature murine and human adipocytes. Our studies have revealed that naringenin may have a negative impact on adipocyte-related diseases by limiting differentiation of preadipocytes, by significantly inducing insulin resistance, and by decreasing adiponectin expression in mature fat cells.

  15. Thermogenic activity of UCP1 in human white fat-derived beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Stefano; Hallen, Stefan; Huang, Li; Svensson, Per-Arne; Momo, Remi A; Wallin, Simonetta; Carlsson, Eva K; Forslöw, Anna; Seale, Patrick; Peng, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Heat-producing beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes in white adipose tissue have the potential to suppress metabolic disease in mice and hold great promise for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (hASCs) from subcutaneous white adipose tissue can be efficiently converted into beige adipocytes. Upon pharmacological activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, hASC-derived adipocytes activated beige fat-selective genes and a brown/beige fat-selective electron transport chain gene program. Importantly, hASC-derived beige fat cells displayed the bioenergetic characteristics of genuine brown fat cells, including a capacity for increased respiratory uncoupling in response to β-adrenergic agonists. Furthermore, knock-down experiments reveal that the thermogenic capacity of human beige fat cells was entirely dependent on the presence of Uncoupling protein 1. In summary, this study reveals that hASCs can be readily differentiated into beige adipocytes that, upon activation, undergo uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis.

  16. Macrophage-secreted factors inhibit ZAG expression and secretion by human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, D; Trayhurn, P; Bing, C

    2010-08-30

    Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is downregulated in adipose tissue in obesity, a state characterized by increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigated whether macrophage-secreted factors and TNF-alpha, a major product of macrophages, modulate ZAG expression and secretion by human adipocytes. ZAG was produced primarily by adipocytes, and not by preadipocytes and macrophages. Incubation of preadipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium for up to 12 days decreased ZAG mRNA and protein release, and the expression of adipogenic markers (PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha). Adipocytes treated with macrophage-conditioned medium for 24h displayed significant reductions in ZAG mRNA and release. Chronic TNF-alpha treatment let to significant decreases in ZAG expression and secretion, but marked upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, leptin, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES) in adipocytes. These findings suggest that macrophage-associated inflammation may play a significant role in the downregulation of ZAG in adipose tissue in obesity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Growth Hormone on Lipid Accumulation or Maturation in Adipocytes

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    Yuchao Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipogenesis of adipocytes includes two stages: initiation and maturation. Growth hormone (GH secretion is decreased in obese subjects and GH levels are inversely correlated with abdominal fat mass. The effects of growth hormone (GH on lipids accumulation or maturation of adipocytes remains elusive. Methods: In the present study, effect of GH on lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo was examined. cDNA microarray, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR and western blotting was used to analyze the expression of genes related to adipocyte lipid accumulation or degradation in pre- or mature 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with GH and in epididymal adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice administrated with GH. Level of adiponectin in supernatants of cultured F442A adipocytes was determined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results: We found that in 3T3-F442A especially 6 days post initiation of adipogenesis, GH intervention resulted in decreased expression of adipocyte maturation regulators (C/EBPα, PPARγ and prominent genes related to lipid synthesis such as FAS and FABP, while the expression of UCP1 was markedly enhanced. cDNA microarray analysis and qPCR showed that the expression of SOCS2 and Adipor2 was increased under GH-treatment in mature 3T3-F442A adipocytes. GH treatment increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin and UCP1 in mature adipocytes. The above results were confirmed by in vivo study. Conclusions: GH potentially negatively modulates the maturation and accumulation of lipid in adipocytes.

  18. Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki eItoh; Hiroya eOhta

    2014-01-01

    White and brown adipose tissues, which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among twenty-two FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and brown adipose tissues. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue remodeling. The PPARγ–F...

  19. Transcriptional networks controlling adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, R; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a complex cascade of signals that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of the fibroblastic precursors. Genome-wide analyses of chromatin accessibility and binding of adipogenic transcription factors make it possible to generate "snapshots" of the trans......Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a complex cascade of signals that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of the fibroblastic precursors. Genome-wide analyses of chromatin accessibility and binding of adipogenic transcription factors make it possible to generate "snapshots...

  20. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    We hypothesized that increased NO generated from its donors may alter basal and/or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissues of both normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of GSNO and SNAP on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes.

  1. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst...

  2. Autocrine effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-A is essential for mitochondrial function in brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdaviani, Kiana; Chess, David; Wu, Yuanyuan; Shirihai, Orian; Aprahamian, Tamar R

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the United States, as well as the accompanying condition of type 2 diabetes, puts a majority of the population at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, stroke, and myocardial infarction. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is well vascularized, rich in mitochondria, and highly oxidative. While it is known that the angiogenic factor VEGF-A is required for brown adipocyte development, the functional consequences and exact mechanism remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that VEGF-A plays an essential autocrine role in the function of BAT. Mouse models were generated with an adipose-specific and macrophage-specific ablation of VEGF-A. Adipose tissue characteristics and thermogenic response were analyzed in vivo, and mitochondrial morphology and oxidative respiration were analyzed in vitro to assess effects of endogenous VEGF-A ablation. VEGF-A expression levels are highest in adipocyte precursors compared to immune or endothelial cell populations within both WAT and BAT. Loss of VEGF-A in adipocytes, but not macrophages, results in decreased adipose tissue vascularization, with remarkably diminished thermogenic capacity in vivo. Complete ablation of endogenous VEGF-A decreases oxidative capacity of mitochondria in brown adipocytes. Further, acute ablation of VEGF-A in brown adipocytes in vitro impairs mitochondrial respiration, despite similar mitochondrial mass compared to controls. These data demonstrate that VEGF-A serves to orchestrate the acquisition of thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes through mitochondrial function in conjunction with the recruitment of blood vessels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of TNF-Alpha on Caveolin-1 Expression and Insulin Signaling During Adipocyte Differentiation and in Mature Adipocytes

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    Sara Palacios-Ortega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is the central component of adipocyte caveolae and has an essential role in the regulation of insulin signaling. The effects of TNF-α on Cav-1 expression and insulin signaling during adipocyte differentiation and in mature adipocytes were studied. Methods: 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated (21 days in the presence TNF-α (10 ng/mL and mature adipocytes were also treated with TNF-α for 48 hours. Cav-1 and insulin receptor (IR gene methylation were determined as well as Cav-1, IR, PKB/AKT-2 and Glut-4 expression and activation by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Baseline and insulin-induced glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[C14]-deoxyglucose uptake assay. Results: TNF-α slowed down the differentiation program, hindering the expression of some insulin signaling intermediates without fully eliminating insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In mature adipocytes, TNF-α did not compromise lipid-storage capacity, but downregulated the expression of the insulin signaling intermediates, totally blocking insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity correlated with the level of activated phospho-Cav-1 in both situations, strongly suggesting the direct contribution of Cav-1 to the maintenance of this physiological response. Conclusion: Cav-1 activation by phosphorylation seems to be essential for the maintenance of an active and insulin-sensitive glucose uptake.

  4. Original Research: Adipose-derived stem cells from younger donors, but not aging donors, inspire the host self-healing capability through its secreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Qiao, Chenhui; Zhang, Weihua; Luo, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Donghai; Zang, Suhua; Zhang, Liang; Bai, Jingyun

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells demonstrate promising effects in promoting cutaneous wound healing, but the mechanisms are still not well defined and contradictory views are still debatable. In the present research, we established a mouse cutaneous wound model and investigated the effects of adipose-derived stem cells in wound healing. Adipocyte, adipose-derived stem cells, and epidermal keratinocyte stem cells were isolated from younger and aged donors according to the standard protocol. The conditioned medium either from adipose-derived stem cells or from adipocytes was used to treat epidermal keratinocyte cells. The results showed that adipocytes or adipose-derived stem cells isolated from younger donors demonstrated mild advantage over those cells isolated from aging donors. Adipose-derived stem cells showed stronger stimuli than adipocytes, and the adipose-derived stem cells or adipocytes from younger donors enabled to support higher growth rate of keratinocyte stem cells. The invasion of vasculature was observed at day 10 after posttransplantation in the mice bearing the keratinocyte stem cells or combination of keratinocyte stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells; however, simply inoculating keratinocyte stem cells from aging donors did not result in vasculature formation. Adipose-derived stem cells isolated from younger donors were able to inspire the host's self-healing capabilities, and age-associated factors should be taken into consideration when designing a feasible therapeutic treatment for skin regeneration. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Sex matters: The effects of biological sex on adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females. This review summarises the current understanding of adipose tissue dynamics with a focus on sex-specific differences in adipose tissue energy metabolism and endocrine functions, focussing on mammalian model organisms as well as human-derived data. In females, pink adipocytes trans-differentiate during pregnancy from subcutaneous white adipocytes and are responsible for milk-secretion in mammary glands. Overlooking biological sex variation may ultimately hamper clinical treatments of many aspects of metabolic disorders.

  6. Adrenaline is a critical mediator of acute exercise-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation in adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Hirshman, Michael F.; He, Huamei; Li, Yangfeng; Manabe, Yasuko; Balschi, James A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise increases AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activity in human and rat adipocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of this activation are not known. Since adrenaline (epinephrine) concentrations increase with exercise, in the present study we hypothesized that adrenaline activates AMPK in adipocytes. We show that a single bout of exercise increases AMPKα1 and α2 activities and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) Ser79 phosphorylation in rat adipocytes. Similarly to exercise, adrenaline treatment in vivo increased AMPK activities and ACC phosphorylation. Pre-treatment of rats with the β-blocker propranolol fully blocked exercise-induced AMPK activation. Increased AMPK activity with exercise and adrenaline treatment in vivo was accompanied by an increased AMP/ATP ratio. Adrenaline incubation of isolated adipocytes also increased the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activities, an effect blocked by propranolol. Adrenaline incubation increased lipolysis in isolated adipocytes, and Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, attenuated this effect. Finally, a potential role for AMPK in the decreased adiposity associated with chronic exercise was suggested by marked increases in AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes from rats trained for 6 weeks. In conclusion, both acute and chronic exercise are significant regulators of AMPK activity in rat adipocytes. Our findings suggest that adrenaline plays a critical role in exercise-stimulated AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes, and that AMPK can function in the regulation of lipolysis. PMID:17253964

  7. Pain Relievers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for back pain (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pain Relievers updates ... Tolmetin overdose Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Chronic Pain Medicines Opioid Abuse and Addiction Over- ...

  8. Revisiting the adipocyte: a model for integration of cytokine signaling in the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Amaia; Ezquerro, Silvia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Becerril, Sara; Frühbeck, Gema

    2015-10-15

    Adipose tissue constitutes an extremely active endocrine organ with a network of signaling pathways enabling the organism to adapt to a wide range of different metabolic challenges, such as starvation, stress, infection, and short periods of gross energy excess. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a huge variety of hormones, cytokines, complement and growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction leading to the onset of several pathologies including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver, or hypertension, among others. The mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and its associated comorbidities include the hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of adipocytes, adipose tissue inflammation, impaired extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis together with an altered secretion of adipokines. Recently, the potential role of brown and beige adipose tissue in the protection against obesity has been also recognized. In contrast to white adipocytes, which store energy in the form of fat, brown and beige fat cells display energy-dissipating capacity through the promotion of triacylglycerol clearance, glucose disposal, and generation of heat for thermogenesis. Identification of the morphological and molecular changes in white, beige, and brown adipose tissue during weight gain is of utmost relevance for the identification of pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Multilocular adipocytes from muscovy ducklings differentiated in response to cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, H; Cohen-Adad, F; Duchamp, C; Rouanet, J L

    1986-01-01

    Morphological and functional aspects of adipose tissue from 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings reared at 4 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta) from the age of 1 week were examined for the occurrence of brown adipose tissue (b.a.t.) in order to explain non-shivering thermogenesis (n.s.t.) observed at this age. Metabolic rate and integrated muscle electrical activity (e.m.g.) were measured at different Ta (from -10 to +28 degrees C) in cold-acclimated and in control ducklings reared at thermoneutrality. The results confirm the existence of n.s.t. in 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings. In cold-acclimated ducklings, typical multilocular adipocytes were found in subcutaneous adipose deposits instead of the unilocular white adipocytes as in control ducklings. Mitochondria isolated from this differentiated tissue were less abundant than in b.a.t. of mammals. Their respiration rate was similar to the respiration rate of white adipose tissue mitochondria from control rats and much lower than the b.a.t. mitochondria rate from cold-acclimated rats. It is therefore unlikely that this differentiated adipose tissue contributes to the n.s.t. observed, an n.s.t. whose capacity reached 5.26 W/kg (+73.5% above resting metabolic rate) in cold-acclimated ducklings. The role of this differentiated adipose tissue in the metabolic adaptation to cold is discussed. Images Plate 4 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:3795059

  10. Activated macrophages control human adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics via secreted factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Michaela; Sachs, Stephan; Walheim, Ellen; Berti, Lucia; Raedle, Bernhard; Tews, Daniel; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m 2 ). Guided by these results, the impact of secreted factors of LPS/IFNγ- and IL10/TGFβ-activated human macrophages (THP1, primary blood-derived) on mitochondrial function in human subcutaneous white adipocytes (SGBS, primary) was determined by extracellular flux analysis (Seahorse technology) and gene/protein expression. Stepwise regression analysis of human WAT gene expression data revealed that a linear combination of CD40 and CD163 was the strongest predictor for mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) levels, independent of BMI. IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs displayed high CD163 and low CD40 expression and secreted factors that decreased UQCRC2 gene/protein expression and ATP-linked respiration in human white adipocytes. In contrast, LPS/IFNγ-activated MΦs showed high CD40 and low CD163 expression and secreted factors that enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial activity resulting in a total difference of 37% in ATP-linked respiration of white adipocytes (p = 0.0024) when comparing the effect of LPS/IFNγ- vs IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs. Our data demonstrate that macrophages modulate human adipocyte energy metabolism via an activation-dependent paracrine mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  11. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  12. Adipocyte property evaluation with photoacoustic spectrum analysis: a feasibility study on human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meng; Zhu, Yunhao; O'Rourke, Robert; Wang, Huaideng; Yuan, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Guan; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) offers potential advantages in identifying optically absorbing microstructures in biological tissues. Working at high ultrasound frequency, PASA is capable of identifying the morphological features of cells based on their intrinsic optical absorption. Adipocyte size is correlated with metabolic disease risk in the form of diabetes mellitus, thus it can be adopted as a pathology predictor to evaluate the condition of obese patient, and can be helpful for assessing the patient response to bariatric surgery. In order to acquire adipocyte size, usually adipose tissue biopsy is performed and histopathology analysis is conducted. The whole procedure is not well tolerated by patients, and is also labor and cost intensive. An unmet need is to quantify and predict adipocyte size in a mild and more efficient way. This work aims at studying the feasibility to analyze the adipocyte size of human fat tissue using the method of PASA. PA measurements were performed at the optical wavelength of 1210 nm where lipid has strong optical absorption, enabling the study of adipocyte without need of staining. Both simulation and ex vivo experiments have been completed. Good correlation between the quantified photoacoustic spectral parameter slope and the average adipocyte size obtained by the gold-standard histology has been established. This initial study suggests the potential opportunity of applying PASA to future clinical management of obesity.

  13. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2016-06-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C.; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  15. Loss of MyoD Promotes Fate Transdifferentiation of Myoblasts Into Brown Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT represents a promising agent to ameliorate obesity and other metabolic disorders. However, the abundance of BAT decreases with age and BAT paucity is a common feature of obese subjects. As brown adipocytes and myoblasts share a common Myf5 lineage origin, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the fate choices of brown adipocytes versus myoblasts may lead to novel approaches to expand BAT mass. Here we identify MyoD as a key negative regulator of brown adipocyte development. CRISPR/CAS9-mediated deletion of MyoD in C2C12 myoblasts facilitates their adipogenic transdifferentiation. MyoD knockout downregulates miR-133 and upregulates the miR-133 target Igf1r, leading to amplification of PI3K–Akt signaling. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K or Akt abolishes the adipogenic gene expression of MyoD null myoblasts. Strikingly, loss of MyoD converts satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts to brown adipocytes through upregulation of Prdm16, a target of miR-133 and key determinant of brown adipocyte fate. Conversely, forced expression of MyoD in brown preadipocytes blocks brown adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of myogenic genes. Importantly, miR-133a knockout significantly blunts the inhibitory effect of MyoD on brown adipogenesis. Our results establish MyoD as a negative regulator of brown adipocyte development by upregulating miR-133 to suppress Akt signaling and Prdm16.

  16. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  17. Blocking gp130 signaling suppresses autotaxin expression in adipocytes and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhong; Wang, Ran; Song, Jianwen; Guan, Ming; Li, Na; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhenwen; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-11-01

    Autotaxin (ATX), which is highly expressed and secreted by adipocytes, functions as the key enzyme to generate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. Adipose tissue is the main source of circulating ATX that modulates plasma LPA levels. Upregulation of ATX expression in obese patients and mice is closely related with insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. However, the mechanism of ATX expression in adipocytes remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-mediated Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation was required for abundant ATX expression in adipocytes. Through gp130, the interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines, such as IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, cardiotrophin-1, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, upregulated ATX expression in adipocytes. ATX contributes to the induction of insulin resistance and lipolysis in IL-6-stimulated adipocytes. Oral administration of gp130 inhibitor SC144 suppressed ATX expression in adipose tissue, decreased plasma ATX, LPA, and FFA levels, and significantly improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed obese mice. In summary, our results indicate that the activation of gp130-JAK-STAT3 pathway by IL-6 family cytokines has an important role in regulating ATX expression in adipocytes and that gp130 is a promising target in the management of obesity-associated glucose metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Adipose tissue: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa; Taylor, Carla; Zahradka, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The ever-increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with obesity is linked through signaling pathways within adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules. In obesity, the adipose tissue itself undergoes changes in cell size which alters its normal physiological function. Altered adipocyte function changes production and secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and several inflammatory molecules. Adipokines interact with other tissues and cells in the body, including many pathways linked to CVD. Future research in the area of obesity-related CVD requires further investigation into a combination of lifestyle and pharmacological therapies that alter adipokine production by reducing adipocyte size.

  19. TRB3 gene silencing activates AMPK in adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Song, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Huimin; Wang, Feng; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Ti, Yun

    2017-06-17

    Our previous study had suggested Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) might be involved in metabolic syndrome via adipose tissue. Given prior studies, we sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in adipocytes and adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated to induce insulin resistant adipocytes. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were all fed high-fat (HF) diet. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Compared with control group, in insulin resistant adipocytes, protein levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) and phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)were reduced, TRB3 protein level and triglyceride level were significantly increased, glucose uptake was markedly decreased. TRB3 silencing alleviated adipocytes insulin resistance. With TRB3 gene silencing, protein levels of IRS-1, GLUT4 and p-AMPK were significantly increased in adipocytes. TRB3 gene silencing decreased blood glucose, ameliorated insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue remodeling in diabetic rats. TRB3 silencing decreased triglyceride, increased glycogen simultaneously in diabetic epididymal and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Consistently, p-AMPK levels were increased in diabetic epididymal adipose tissue, and BAT after TRB3-siRNA treatment. TRB3silencing increased phosphorylation of Akt in liver, and improved liver insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. SORLA facilitates insulin receptor signaling in adipocytes and exacerbates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Schulz, Nadja; Yan, Xin; Schürmann, Annette; Kempa, Stefan; Kern, Matthias; Blüher, Matthias; Poy, Matthew N; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Willnow, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    In humans, genetic variation of sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing (SORL1), which encodes the intracellular sorting receptor SORLA, is a major genetic risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease. Recent GWAS analysis has also associated SORL1 with obesity in humans and in mouse models, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in regulating metabolism. Here, using mouse models with genetic loss or tissue-specific overexpression of SORLA as well as data from obese human subjects, we observed a gene-dosage effect that links SORLA expression to obesity and glucose tolerance. Overexpression of human SORLA in murine adipose tissue blocked hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and caused excessive adiposity. In contrast, Sorl1 gene inactivation in mice accelerated breakdown of triacylglycerides in adipocytes and protected animals from diet-induced obesity. We then identified the underlying molecular mechanism whereby SORLA promotes insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis in adipocytes. Specifically, we determined that SORLA acts as a sorting factor for the insulin receptor (IR) that redirects internalized receptor molecules from endosomes to the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing IR surface expression and strengthening insulin signal reception in target cells. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the association of SORL1 with human obesity and confirm a genetic link between neurodegeneration and metabolism that converges on the receptor SORLA.

  1. A Combined Transcriptomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Subcutaneous, Epididymal and Mesenteric Adipose Tissue Reveals Marked Functional Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.R.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  2. A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  3. Secretion of a lysophospholipase D activity by adipocytes: involvement in lysophosphatidic acid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesta, Stéphane; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Rey, Astrid; Sibrac, David; Girard, Alexia; Lafontan, Max; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to depict the metabolic pathways involved in extra-cellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes. LPA was followed by quantifying the accumulation of LPA in the incubation medium (conditioned medium: CM) of 3T3F442A adipocytes, or human adipose tissue explants, using a radioenzymatic assay. Surprisingly, after separation from the cells, the amount of LPA present in CM could significantly be increased by further incubation at 37°C. This suggested the presence of a LPA-synthesizing activity (LPA-SA) in CM. LPA-SA appeared as a soluble activity which was inhibited by divalent ion chelators: EDTA and phenanthrolin. The effect of EDTA was preferentially reverted by CoCl2, as described for a lysophospholipase D- (lyso-PLD) activity previously identified in rat plasma. LPA concentration could also be increased by treatment with a bacterial PLD, demonstrating the presence of PLD-sensitive LPA-precursors (mainly lysophosphatidylcholine) in adipocyte CM. LPA-SA could be increased by addition of exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, or lyso-platelet activating factor, demonstrating that LPA-SA resulted from the action of a lyso-PLD. LPA-SA was not inhibited, but rather activated, by primary alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol), suggesting that adipocyte lyso-PLD was not a classical PLD. Finally, LPA-SA was found to be weaker in CM of undifferentiated adipocyte (preadipocytes) as compared to CM of differentiated adipocytes. In conclusion, our results reveal the existence of a secreted lyso-PLD activity regulated during adipocyte-differentiation and involved in extra-cellular production of synthesis of LPA by adipocytes. PMID:12032165

  4. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  5. Metabolic remodeling in adipocytes promotes ciliary neurotrophic factor-mediated fat loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Seamus; Turpin, Sarah M; Ke, Francine; Kemp, Bruce E; Watt, Matthew J

    2008-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an expanded adipose tissue mass, and reversing obesity reduces the risk of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reverses obesity by promoting the preferential loss of white adipose tissue. We evaluated the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CNTF regulates adiposity. Obese mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with saline or recombinant CNTF for 10 d, and adipose tissue was removed for analysis. Another group fed a high-fat diet was pair fed to CNTF mice. In separate experiments, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CNTF to examine metabolic responses and signaling. CNTF reduced adipose mass that resulted from reductions in adipocyte area and triglyceride content. CNTF treatment did not affect lipolysis but resulted in decreases in fat esterification and lipogenesis and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. The enhanced fat oxidation was associated with the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 and increases in oxidative phosphorylation subunits and mitochondrial biogenesis as determined by electron microscopy. Studies in cultured adipocytes revealed that CNTF activates p38 MAPK and AMP-activated protein kinase. Inhibiting p38 activation prevented the CNTF-induced increase in PGC1alpha but not AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Diminished food intake with pair feeding induced similar decreases in fat mass, but this was related to increased expression of uncoupling protein 1. We conclude that CNTF reprograms adipose tissue to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing oxidative capacity and reducing lipogenic capacity, thereby resulting in triglyceride loss.

  6. Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate that adip......Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate...... that adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) isolated from visceral and subcutaneous white adipose depots of mice have distinct patterns of gene expression, differentiation potential, and response to environmental and genetic influences. APCs derived from subcutaneous fat differentiate well in the presence of classical...

  7. Temporal profiling of the adipocyte proteome during differentiation using a five-plex SILAC based strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Henrik; Yang, Yi; Ruch, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The adipose tissue has important secretory and endocrine functions in humans. The regulation of adipocyte differentiation has been actively pursued using transcriptomic methods over the last several years. Quantitative proteomics has emerged as a promising approach to obtain temporal profiles...... of arginine to study the nuclear proteome and the secretome during the course of adipocyte differentiation. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument resulted in identification of a total 882 proteins from these two proteomes. Of these proteins, 427 were identified...... adipocyte differentiation has not been documented previously. For example, THO complex 4, a context-dependent transcriptional activator in the T-cell receptor alpha enhancer complex, showed highest expression at middle stage of adipogenesis, while SNF2 alpha, a chromatin remodeling protein...

  8. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 in mice impairs lipolysis and increases body weight, and leads to insulin resistance with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sally Yu; Luk, Cynthia T; Brunt, Jara J; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Lu, Shun-Yan; Schroer, Stephanie A; Woo, Minna

    2014-05-01

    The growing obesity epidemic necessitates a better understanding of adipocyte biology and its role in metabolism. The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway mediates signalling by numerous cytokines and hormones that regulate adipocyte function, illustrating the physiological importance of adipose JAK-STAT. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of adipocyte JAK2, an essential player in the JAK-STAT pathway, in adipocyte biology and metabolism. We generated adipocyte-specific Jak2 knockout (A-Jak2 KO) mice using the Cre-loxP system with Cre expression driven by the Ap2 (also known as Fabp4) promoter. Starting at 2-3 months of age, male and female A-Jak2 KO mice gradually gained more body weight than control littermates primarily due to increased adiposity. This was associated with reduced energy expenditure in A-Jak2 KO mice. In perigonadal adipose tissue, the expression of numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism was differentially regulated. In addition, adipose tissue from A-Jak2 KO mice displayed impaired lipolysis in response to isoprenaline, growth hormone and leptin stimulation, suggesting that adipose JAK2 directly modulates the lipolytic program. Impaired lipid homeostasis was also associated with disrupted adipokine secretion. Accordingly, while glucose metabolism was normal at 2 months of age, by 5-6 months of age, A-Jak2 KO mice had whole-body insulin resistance. Our results suggest that adipocyte JAK2 plays a critical role in the regulation of adipocyte biology and whole-body metabolism. Targeting of the JAK-STAT pathway could be a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Human biallelic MFN2 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction, upper body adipose hyperplasia, and suppression of leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Nuno; Bulger, David A; Frontini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial...... normal in skin fibroblasts. These findings suggest that specific MFN2 mutations cause tissue-selective mitochondrial dysfunction with increased adipocyte proliferation and survival, confirm a novel form of excess adiposity with paradoxical suppression of leptin expression, and suggest potential targeted...

  10. Oxidative Stress and Adipocyte Biology: Focus on the Role of AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Boyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a major health problem that is usually associated with obesity, together with hyperglycemia and increased advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs formation. Elevated AGEs elicit severe downstream consequences via their binding to receptors of AGEs (RAGE. This includes oxidative stress and oxidative modifications of biological compounds together with heightened inflammation. For example, albumin (major circulating protein undergoes increased glycoxidation with diabetes and may represent an important biomarker for monitoring diabetic pathophysiology. Despite the central role of adipose tissue in many physiologic/pathologic processes, recognition of the effects of greater AGEs formation in this tissue is quite recent within the obesity/diabetes context. This review provides a brief background of AGEs formation and adipose tissue biology and thereafter discusses the impact of AGEs-adipocyte interactions in pathology progression. Novel data are included showing how AGEs (especially glycated albumin may be involved in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in adipocytes and its potential links to diabetes progression.

  11. Long lasting cadmium intake is associated with reduction of insulin receptors in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficková, M; Eybl, V; Kotyzová, D; Micková, V; Möstbök, S; Brtko, J

    2003-12-01

    The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on adipose tissue have not been extensively reported. In adult Wistar male rats we investigated in vivo effect of 6 weeks lasting cadmium intake in drinking tap water (CdCl2 9,7 mg/l). Insulin receptors in isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat and glucose transporter protein GLUT4 content in fat tissue plasma membranes were determined. Control and Cd treated rats had similar water intake with subsequent heavy augmentation of Cd content in liver of experimental animals. In comparison with controls, Cd intake did not influence body mass increment and fat cell size, but significantly increased serum glycemia and moderately elevated insulinemia. Cadmium intake significantly reduced (approximately 50%) both, total insulin receptors number and density of the receptors in fat cells. No differences in the content of GLUT4 in crude plasma membranes of adipose tissue were observed. Diminished insulin receptors in adipocytes could account for diabetogenic effect of long lasting cadmium intake.

  12. The Genetics of Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P. Kozak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that adult humans have functional brown adipose tissue has stirred interest in the possibility that the impressive effectiveness of induction of brown adipocytes to reduce obesity in mice may be translated to the human condition. A major focus recently on the identification of signaling and transcription factor that stimulate the induction of brown adipocytes has come from transgenic and gene KO models. However, these models have created a very complex picture of the regulatory mechanisms for brown fat induction. In this review insights into the critical regulatory pathways involved in brown adipocyte induction in the retroperitoneal fat depot of mice are described from quantitative trait locus analysis of allelic variability determining Ucp1 levels and brown adipocyte induction in A/J vs B6 mice. The key observation is that recombinant genotypes, found in recombinant inbred stains and backcross and intercross progeny , show transgressive variation for Ucp1 mRNA levels. These genetic crosses also show that the levels of Ucp1 mRNA are determined by interactions that control the levels of PPARα, PGC-1α and type 2 deiodinase and that each factor is controlled by a subset of QTLs that also control Ucp1expression. These results indicate that induction of Ucp1 in the retroperitoneal fat depot involves synergy between signaling and transcription factors that vary depending upon the environmental conditions. Inherent in this model is the idea that there is a high level of redundancy that can involve any factor with the potential to influence expression of the core factors, PPARα, PGC-1a and DIO2.

  13. The Effect of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan, Won

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture(CFP on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3days in the absence or presence of CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL. The effect of CFP on adipogenesis was examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL for 3 hrs. The effect of CFP on lipolysis was examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with CFP ranging from 0.1 to 10mg/mL to examine the effect of CFP on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 1.0mg/mL 2. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL. 3. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ok. lipolysis at the concentration of 0.1mg/ml. 4. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ranging 0.1 to 10mg/mL failed to exert lysis of cell membrane in porcine fat tissue. Conclusions : These results suggest that Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture at relatively high concentration inhibited adipogenesis and increased lipolysis of adipocytes. However, Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture didn’t exert any effect on lysis of cell membrane in fat tissue.

  14. Bacterial peptidoglycan stimulates adipocyte lipolysis via NOD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Chi

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with inflammation that can drive metabolic defects such as hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Specific metabolites can contribute to inflammation, but nutrient intake and obesity are also associated with altered bacterial load in metabolic tissues (i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. These bacterial cues can contribute to obesity-induced inflammation. The specific bacterial components and host receptors that underpin altered metabolic responses are emerging. We previously showed that Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 activation with bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN caused insulin resistance in mice. We now show that PGN induces cell-autonomous lipolysis in adipocytes via NOD1. Specific bacterial PGN motifs stimulated lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT explants from WT, but not NOD1⁻/⁻mice. NOD1-activating PGN stimulated mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK,protein kinase A (PKA, and NF-κB in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The NOD1-mediated lipolysis response was partially reduced by inhibition of ERK1/2 or PKA alone, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. NOD1-stimulated lipolysis was partially dependent on NF-κB and was completely suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 and PKA simultaneously or hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Our results demonstrate that bacterial PGN stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes by engaging a stress kinase, PKA, NF-κB-dependent lipolytic program. Bacterial NOD1 activation is positioned as a component of metabolic endotoxemia that can contribute to hyperlipidemia, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance by acting directly on adipocytes.

  15. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  16. Obesity is associated with depot-specific alterations in adipocyte DNA methylation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Yadav, Rachita; Yin, Guangliang; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Gupta, Ramneek; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kajimura, Shingo; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-04-03

    The present study aimed to identify genes exhibiting concomitant obesity-dependent changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in adipose tissues in the mouse using diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J and genetically obese ob/ob mice as models. Mature adipocytes were isolated from epididymal and inguinal adipose tissues of ob/ob and DIO C57BL/6J mice. DNA methylation was analyzed by MeDIP-sequencing and gene expression by microarray analysis. The majority of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were hypomethylated in obese mice. Global methylation of long interspersed elements indicated that hypomethylation did not reflect methyl donor deficiency. In both DIO and ob/ob mice, we observed more obesity-associated methylation changes in epididymal than in inguinal adipocytes. Assignment of DMRs to promoter, exon, intron and intergenic regions demonstrated that DIO-induced changes in DNA methylation in C57BL/6J mice occurred primarily in exons, whereas inguinal adipocytes of ob/ob mice exhibited a higher enrichment of DMRs in promoter regions than in other regions of the genome, suggesting an influence of leptin on DNA methylation in inguinal adipocytes. We observed altered methylation and expression of 9 genes in epididymal adipocytes, including the known obesity-associated genes, Ehd2 and Kctd15, and a novel candidate gene, Irf8, possibly involved in immune type 1/type2 balance. The use of 2 obesity models enabled us to dissociate changes associated with high fat feeding from those associated with obesity per se. This information will be of value in future studies on the mechanisms governing the development of obesity and changes in adipocyte function associated with obesity.

  17. Stress of endoplasmic reticulum modulates differentiation and lipogenesis of human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Michal; Mayerová, Veronika; Kračmerová, Jana; Mairal, Aline; Mališová, Lucia; Štich, Vladimír; Langin, Dominique; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2015-05-08

    Adipocytes are cells specialized for storage of neutral lipids. This storage capacity is dependent on lipogenesis and is diminished in obesity. The reason for the decline in lipogenic activity of adipocytes in obesity remains unknown. Recent data show that lipogenesis in liver is regulated by pathways initiated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, we aimed at investigating the effect of ERS on lipogenesis in adipose cells. Preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese volunteers and in vitro differentiated into adipocytes. ERS was induced pharmacologically by thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM). Activation of Unfolded Protein Response pathway (UPR) was monitored on the level of eIF2α phosphorylation and mRNA expression of downstream targets of UPR sensors. Adipogenic and lipogenic capacity was evaluated by Oil Red O staining, measurement of incorporation of radio-labelled glucose or acetic acid into lipids and mRNA analysis of adipogenic/lipogenic markers. Exposition of adipocytes to high doses of TG (100 nM) and TM (1 μg/ml) for 1-24 h enhanced expression of several UPR markers (HSPA5, EDEM1, ATF4, XBP1s) and phosphorylation of eIF2α. This acute ERS substantially inhibited expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, SCD1) and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to low dose of TG (2.5 nM) during the early phases of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. Acute ERS weakened a capacity of mature adipocytes to store lipids and chronic ERS diminished adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leptin controls the fate of fatty acids in isolated rat white adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, W N; Ceddia, R B; Curi, R

    2002-12-01

    Leptin directly increases the rate of exogenous glucose and fatty acids oxidation in isolated adipocytes. However, the effects of leptin on fatty acid metabolism in white adipose tIssue have not been examined in detail. Here, we report that in adipocytes incubated for 6 h in the presence of leptin (10 ng/ml), the insulin-stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis was inhibited by 36% (Pacetic and oleic acids was increased by 50% and 76% respectively. Interestingly, leptin did not alter the oxidation of intracellular fatty acids. Leptin-incubated cells presented a 16-fold increase in the incorporation of oleic acid into triglyceride (TG) and a 123% increase in the intracellular TG hydrolysis (as measured by free fatty acids release). Fatty acid-TG cycling was not affected by leptin. By employing fatty acids radiolabeled with (3)H and (14)C, we could determine the concomitant influx of fatty acids (incorporation of fatty acids into TG) and efflux of fatty acids (intracellular fatty acids oxidation and free fatty acids release) in the incubated cells. Leptin increased by 30% the net efflux of fatty acids from adipocytes. We conclude that leptin directly inhibits de novo synthesis of fatty acids and increases the release and oxidation of fatty acids in isolated rat adipocytes. These direct energy-dissipating effects of leptin may play an important role in reducing accumulation of fatty acids into TG of rat adipose cells.

  19. Cardiovascular risk score is linked to subcutaneous adipocyte size and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, M; Arner, P

    2017-09-01

    Although white adipose tissue mass and distribution correlates with cardiovascular disease, the fat cell-specific perturbations underlying this association are not known. We determined the relationship between adipocyte size and lipid metabolism with cardiovascular risk. Adipocyte size as well as spontaneous (basal) and hormone-stimulated effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism (lipolysis and lipogenesis) were investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of 304 men and 775 women. Subjects were classified into five categories according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) metabolic syndrome criteria. Adipocyte size increased with increasing ATPIII score (P ATPIII (P ATPIII classes. Basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis decreased with increasing score (P ATPIII score and lipolysis but negatively with lipogenesis. All these differences were independent of age, sex and body weight status (P ATPIII in score. Independently of sex, age and body weight status, a high cardiovascular risk score associates with increased circulating free fatty acid levels and hormone-specific alterations of lipolysis/lipogenesis in enlarged subcutaneous fat cells. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Michael V; Hausman, Gary J; Guan, Leluo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Poulos, Sylvia P; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G; Fernyhough, Melinda E; McFarland, Douglas C; Rhoads, Robert P; Soret, Beatrice; Reecy, James M; Velleman, Sandra G; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-11-22

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny of fatty livers.

  1. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny...

  2. How Do Pain Relievers Work? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain relievers work with your cells, your body's nerve endings, your nervous system , and your brain to keep you from feeling ... to this chemical. When prostaglandin is released, the nerve endings respond ... through the nervous system to the brain. They tell the brain everything ...

  3. Adipocytes: Impact on Tumor Growth and Potential Sites for Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz-Sela, Simona; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades, reaching epidemic proportions. It is becoming clear that obesity is associated not only with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but also with multiple types of cancer. Obesity is characterized by impaired adipose tissue function, leading to adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, hypoxia and induced angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrosis as well as additional stress responses. While epidemiological data indicate that obesity is a well-established risk factor for certain malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and cancer are still poorly understood. Recent data implicates systemic and paracrine factors secreted from adipose tissue during the obese state, promoting cancer development and progression. Here, we focus on the obesity-associated adipose tissue remodeling that may not only lead to metabolic complications, but also to a permissive pro-tumorigenic environment. Particular attention is given to the local pro-tumorigenic effects derived from adipocytes that present an important part of the tumor microenvironment of at least some cancers, in an attempt to describe the nature of the major players of the adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk that dictates to a large extent tumor progression. PMID:23353703

  4. Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces an inflammatory response in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Verena; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Roos, Julian; Dahlhaus, Meike; Abd El Hay, Muad; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Marienfeld, Ralf; Kietzmann, Thomas; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Wabitsch, Martin; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2017-07-18

    High serum concentrations of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor protein family, are found in patients with increased BMI and serum lipid levels. In a model of murine obesity, both the expression of TRAIL and its receptor (TRAIL-R) is elevated in adipose tissue. Accordingly, TRAIL has been proposed as an important mediator of adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if TRAIL regulates inflammatory processes at the level of the adipocyte. Using human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cells as a model system, we found that TRAIL induces an inflammatory response in both preadipocytes and adipocytes. It stimulates the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) as well as the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL-20) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By using small molecule inhibitors, we found that both the NFκB and the ERK1/2 pathway are crucial for mediating the effect of TRAIL. Taken together, we identified a novel pro-inflammatory function of TRAIL in human adipocytes. Our findings suggest that targeting the TRAIL/TRAIL-R system might be a useful strategy to tackle obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation.

  5. Dietary magnesium intake alters age-related changes in rat adipose tissue cellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Sylvie; Adrian, Markus; Laurant, Pascal; Berthelot, Alain; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown the beneficial effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on cardiovascular disease in rats. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of an Mg-deficient or supplemented diet on adipose tissue cellularity changes during aging, and on blood pressure (BP), in rats. Male rats received for one (young adult) or 22 months (old), an Mg-deficient (Def) (150 mg/kg), standard (Std) (800 mg/kg) or Mg-supplemented (Sup) (3200 mg/kg) diet. Adipose tissue development and cellularity, BP and leptinemia were evaluated. In rats fed a standard diet, the large increase in adipose tissue weight observed during aging was related to an increase in both size and number of adipocytes. In young adult rats, although adiposity was unchanged, Mg supplementation resulted in a shift of the frequency distribution of adipocytes toward greater sizes, adipose cell weight increasing by 62%. Mg deficiency did not modify adipocyte size, but increased their number (30% more than for the standard or Sup-diet). In old rats, the Def-diet led to relative adipocyte hypotrophy, which was counterbalanced by an increase in the number of adipocyte. Conversely, adipocyte size and number were similar in the Sup-diet and standard diet-fed rats. BP was modified in old rats according to dietary Mg, whereas it remained unchanged young adult rats regardless of the diet received. This study suggests that Mg intake may affect age-related changes in rat adipose tissue lipid storage capacity.

  6. Factors associated with adipocyte size reduction after weight loss interventions for overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jessica; Moullec, Grégory; Santosa, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Enlarged adipocytes are a prime feature of adipose tissue dysfunction, and may be an appropriate target to decrease disease risk in obesity. We aimed to assess the change in adipocyte size in response to lifestyle and surgical weight loss interventions for overweight or obesity; and to explore whether certain participant and intervention characteristics influence this response. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane electronic databases to identify weight loss studies that quantified adipocyte size before and after the intervention. Using meta-regression analysis, we assessed the independent effects of weight loss, age, sex, adipocyte region, and intervention type (surgical vs. lifestyle) on adipocyte size reduction. We repeated the model as a sensitivity analysis including only the lifestyle interventions. Thirty-five studies met our eligibility criteria. In our main model, every 1.0% weight loss was associated with a 0.64% reduction in adipocyte size (p=0.003); and adipocytes from the upper body decreased 5% more in size than those in the lower body (p=0.009). These relationships were no longer significant when focusing only on lifestyle interventions. Moreover, age, sex and intervention type did not independently affect adipocyte size reduction in either model. Weight loss in obese individuals is consistently associated with a decrease in adipocyte size that is more pronounced in upper-body adipocytes. It remains to be clarified how biological differences and intervention characteristics influence this relationship, and whether it corresponds with reductions in other aspects of adipose tissue dysfunction and disease risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiobesity Action of ACAM by Modulating the Dynamics of Cell Adhesion and Actin Polymerization in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazutoshi; Eguchi, Jun; Hida, Kazuyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Katayama, Akihiro; Sakurai, Miwa; Choshi, Haruki; Furutani, Masumi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Takei, Kohji; Otsuka, Fumio; Wada, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor-like membrane protein (CLMP) was identified as the tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of epithelial cells with homophilic binding activities. CLMP is also recognized as adipocyte adhesion molecule (ACAM), and it is upregulated in mature adipocytes in rodents and humans with obesity. Here, we present that aP2 promoter-driven ACAM transgenic mice are protected from obesity and diabetes with the prominent reduction of adipose tissue mass and smaller size of adipocytes. ACAM is abundantly expressed on plasma membrane of mature adipocytes and associated with formation of phalloidin-positive polymerized form of cortical actin (F-actin). By electron microscopy, the structure of zonula adherens with an intercellular space of ∼10-20 nm was observed with strict parallelism of the adjoining cell membranes over distances of 1-20 μm, where ACAM and γ-actin are abundantly expressed. The formation of zonula adherens may increase the mechanical strength, inhibit the adipocyte hypertrophy, and improve the insulin sensitivity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Isolated adipocytes from growth hormone-treated obese (ob/ob) mice exhibit insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, P; Towns, R J; Kostyo, J L

    1990-05-02

    The genetically obese (ob/ob) mouse is a useful model for the study of the diabetogenic action of growth hormone (GH), because treatment of these animals with GH results in decreased responsiveness of their adipose tissue to insulin in vitro. Studies of the mechanisms involved in GH-induced insulin resistance using isolated adipocytes of ob/ob mice have not been possible, however, because of their extreme fragility and the lack of an adequate system for the maintenance of these cells. This study describes a new method for the isolation of ob/ob mouse adipocytes. The isolated cells are stable, viable and metabolically responsive to insulin. In addition, these adipocytes have been maintained in primary culture, in serum-free medium, for up to 3 days. During culture, the cells exhibit large increases in 125I-hGH binding (10-20-fold) and porcine 125I-insulin binding (5-10-fold). The induction of insulin resistance by GH has also been demonstrated in these freshly isolated ob/ob mouse adipocytes. The studies to date indicate that the ob/ob mouse adipocyte system should provide a useful model for detailed studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of GH induced insulin resistance.

  9. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  10. Mice heterozygous for the xanthine oxidoreductase gene facilitate lipid accumulation in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Noboru; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kansui, Yasuo; Goto, Kenichi; Noguchi, Hideko; Haga, Yoshie; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the production of uric acid with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species. XOR has been shown to regulate adipogenesis through the control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, but its role in adipose tissue remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of XOR in adipose tissue using XOR genetically modified mice. Experiments were performed using 2-, 4-, and 18-month-old XOR heterozygous mice (XOR(+/-)) and their wild-type littermates to evaluate the physiological role of XOR as the mice aged. Stromal vascular fraction cells were prepared from epididymal white adipose tissue in 2-month-old XOR mice to assess adipogenesis. At 18 months, XOR(+/)- mice had significantly higher body weight, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher incidence of insulin resistance compared with wild-type mice. At 4 months, blood glucose and the expressions of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor α mRNA in epididymal white adipose tissue were significantly higher in XOR(+/-) than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, histological analysis of epididymal white adipose tissue in XOR(+/-) mice revealed that adipocyte size and the F4/80-positive macrophage count were increased. Experiments with a high-fat diet exhibited that body weight gain was also significantly higher in XOR(+/-) than in wild-type mice. In stromal vascular fraction cells derived from XOR(+/-) mice, the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α mRNA were upregulated, and oxidative stress levels were elevated during differentiation into adipocytes. These results suggest that the reduction in XOR gene expression in mice augments lipid accumulation in adipocytes, accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress, and induces obesity with insulin resistance in older age.

  11. Impact of Reduced ATGL-Mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis on Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Menke, Marie N; Wills, Rachel C; Surlow, Beth A; Basantani, Mahesh K; Sitnick, Mitch T; Cai, Lingzhi; Yazbeck, Cynthia F; Stolz, Donna B; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; O'Doherty, Robert M; Kershaw, Erin E

    2015-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that impaired regulation of adipocyte lipolysis contributes to the proinflammatory immune cell infiltration of metabolic tissues in obesity, a process that is proposed to contribute to the development and exacerbation of insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing triacylglycerol hydrolysis. In contrast to previous models, adiponectin-driven Cre expression was used for targeted ATGL deletion. The resulting adipocyte-specific ATGL knockout (AAKO) mice were then characterized for metabolic and immune phenotypes. Lean and diet-induced obese AAKO mice had reduced adipocyte lipolysis, serum lipids, systemic lipid oxidation, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes in adipose tissue (AT) and liver. These changes did not increase overall body weight or fat mass in AAKO mice by 24 weeks of age, in part due to reduced expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, synthesis, and adipogenesis. Systemic glucose and insulin tolerance were improved in AAKO mice, primarily due to enhanced hepatic insulin signaling, which was accompanied by marked reduction in diet-induced hepatic steatosis as well as hepatic immune cell infiltration and activation. In contrast, although adipocyte ATGL deletion reduced AT immune cell infiltration in response to an acute lipolytic stimulus, it was not sufficient to ameliorate, and may even exacerbate, chronic inflammatory changes that occur in AT in response to diet-induced obesity.

  12. Secretion of fatty acid binding protein aP2 from adipocytes through a nonclassical pathway in response to adipocyte lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertunc, Meric Erikci; Sikkeland, Jørgen; Fenaroli, Federico; Griffiths, Gareth; Daniels, Mathew P; Cao, Haiming; Saatcioglu, Fahri; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2015-02-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4, aP2, contributes to the pathogenesis of several common diseases including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver disease, asthma, and cancer. Although the biological functions of aP2 have classically been attributed to its intracellular action, recent studies demonstrated that aP2 acts as an adipokine to regulate systemic metabolism. However, the mechanism and regulation of aP2 secretion remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate a specific role for lipase activity in aP2 secretion from adipocytes in vitro and ex vivo. Our results show that chemical inhibition of lipase activity, genetic deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase and, to a lesser extent, hormone-sensitive lipase blocked aP2 secretion from adipocytes. Increased lipolysis and lipid availability also contributed to aP2 release as determined in perilipin1-deficient adipose tissue explants ex vivo and upon treatment with lipids in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we identify a nonclassical route for aP2 secretion in exosome-like vesicles and show that aP2 is recruited to this pathway upon stimulation of lipolysis. Given the effect of circulating aP2 on glucose metabolism, these data support that targeting aP2 or the lipolysis-dependent secretory pathway may present novel mechanistic and translational opportunities in metabolic disease.

  13. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  14. Glucose availability controls adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes via up-regulation of nicotinamide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; Gurley, Jami M; Szweda, Luke I; Olson, Ann Louise

    2017-11-10

    Expansion of adipose tissue in response to a positive energy balance underlies obesity and occurs through both hypertrophy of existing cells and increased differentiation of adipocyte precursors (hyperplasia). To better understand the nutrient signals that promote adipocyte differentiation, we investigated the role of glucose availability in regulating adipocyte differentiation and maturation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown and differentiated in medium containing a standard differentiation hormone mixture and either 4 or 25 mm glucose. Adipocyte maturation at day 9 post-differentiation was determined by key adipocyte markers, including glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin expression and Oil Red O staining of neutral lipids. We found that adipocyte differentiation and maturation required a pulse of 25 mm glucose only during the first 3 days of differentiation. Importantly, fatty acids were unable to substitute for the 25 mm glucose pulse during this period. The 25 mm glucose pulse increased adiponectin and GLUT4 expression and accumulation of neutral lipids via distinct mechanisms. Adiponectin expression and other early markers of differentiation required an increase in the intracellular pool of total NAD/P. In contrast, GLUT4 protein expression was only partially restored by increased NAD/P levels. Furthermore, GLUT4 mRNA expression was mediated by glucose-dependent activation of GLUT4 gene transcription through the cis-acting GLUT4-liver X receptor element (LXRE) promoter element. In summary, this study supports the conclusion that high glucose promotes adipocyte differentiation via distinct metabolic pathways and independently of fatty acids. This may partly explain the mechanism underlying adipocyte hyperplasia that occurs much later than adipocyte hypertrophy in the development of obesity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Dose- and type-dependent effects of long-chain fatty acids on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanting, Chen; Yang, Q Y; Ma, G L; Du, M; Harrison, J H; Block, E

    2017-11-15

    Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid. When concentrations of myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in adipogenic mediums were 150 and 200 μM, the induced mature adipocytes had greater lipid content compared with other concentrations of FA. In addition, mature adipocytes induced at 100 μM stearic acid and 300 μM linoleic acid had the greatest content of lipid than at other concentrations. High concentrations of saturated FA were more toxic for cells than the same concentration of unsaturated FA during the induction. When commitment stage was solely treated with FA, the number of differentiated mature adipocytes was greater for oleic and linoleic acids than other FA. When the maturation stage was treated with FA, the number of mature adipocytes was not affected, but the lipid content in adipocytes was affected and ranked oleic > linoleic > myristic > stearic > palmitic. In summary, this study showed that adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes were differentially affected by long-chain FA, with unsaturated FA more effective than saturated FA. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remodeling adipose tissue through in silico modulation of fat storage for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Thierry; Guénard, Frédéric; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Carpentier, André; Tchernof, André; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2017-06-12

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading non-infectious diseases worldwide and closely relates to excess adipose tissue accumulation as seen in obesity. Specifically, hypertrophic expansion of adipose tissues is related to increased cardiometabolic risk leading to type 2 diabetes. Studying mechanisms underlying adipocyte hypertrophy could lead to the identification of potential targets for the treatment of these conditions. We present iTC1390adip, a highly curated metabolic network of the human adipocyte presenting various improvements over the previously published iAdipocytes1809. iTC1390adip contains 1390 genes, 4519 reactions and 3664 metabolites. We validated the network obtaining 92.6% accuracy by comparing experimental gene essentiality in various cell lines to our predictions of biomass production. Using flux balance analysis under various test conditions, we predict the effect of gene deletion on both lipid droplet and biomass production, resulting in the identification of 27 genes that could reduce adipocyte hypertrophy. We also used expression data from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues to compare the effect of single gene deletions between adipocytes from each compartment. We generated a highly curated metabolic network of the human adipose tissue and used it to identify potential targets for adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction leading to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Adipocyte dysfunction in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS: evidence of adipocyte hypertrophy and tissue-specific inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Marino

    Full Text Available Clinical research shows an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and chronic inflammation, a pathological state thought to contribute to insulin resistance. The underlying pathways, however, have not been defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inflammatory state of a novel mouse model of PCOS. Female mice lacking leptin and insulin receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons (IR/LepR(POMC mice and littermate controls were evaluated for estrous cyclicity, ovarian and adipose tissue morphology, and body composition by QMR and CT scan. Tissue-specific macrophage infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression were measured, as well as circulating cytokine levels. Finally, glucose regulation during pregnancy was evaluated as a measure of risk for diabetes development. Forty-five percent of IR/LepR(POMC mice showed reduced or absent ovulation. IR/LepR(POMC mice also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production in perigonadal adipose tissue, liver, and ovary. These mice also exhibited gestational hyperglycemia as predicted. This report is the first to show the presence of inflammation in IR/LepR(POMC mice, which develop a PCOS-like phenotype. Thus, IR/LepR(POMC mice may serve as a new mouse model to clarify the involvement of adipose and liver tissue in the pathogenesis and etiology of PCOS, allowing more targeted research on the development of PCOS and potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep...... with a time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial...... NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over time...

  19. FTO Obesity Risk Variants Are Linked to Adipocyte IRX3 Expression and BMI of Children - Relevance of FTO Variants to Defend Body Weight in Lean Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Kathrin; Scholz, Markus; Kovacs, Peter; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified variants within the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) locus as the strongest predictors of obesity amongst all obesity-associated gene loci. Recent evidence suggests that variants in FTO directly affect human adipocyte function through targeting IRX3 and IRX5 and thermogenesis regulation. We addressed the relevance of this proposed FTO-IRX pathway in adipose tissue (AT) of children. Expression of IRX3 was higher in adipocytes compared to SVF. We found increased adipocyte-specific expression of IRX3 and IRX5 with the presence of the FTO risk haplotype in lean children, whereas it was unaffected by risk variants in obese peers. We further show that IRX3 expression was elevated in isolated adipocytes and AT of lean compared to obese children, particularly in UCP1-negative adipocytes, and inversely correlated with BMI SDS. Independent of BMI, IRX3 expression in adipocytes was significantly related to adipocyte hypertrophy, and subsequent associations with AT inflammation and HOMA-IR in the children. One interpretation of our observation of FTO risk variants linked to IRX3 expression and adipocyte size restricted to lean children, along with the decreased IRX3 expression in obese compared to lean peers, may reflect a defense mechanism for protecting body-weight, which is pertinent for lean children.

  20. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Fairbridge

    Full Text Available CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vivo, we evaluated the development of the inguinal and interscapular subcutaneous WAT and the epididymal visceral WAT in mice with a homozygous deletion of CD24 (CD24KO. We observed a significant decrease in WAT mass of 40% to 74% in WAT mass from both visceral and subcutaneous depots in male mice, with no significant effect in female mice, compared to wild-type (WT sex- and age-matched controls. We also found that CD24KO mice had increased fasting glucose and free fatty acids, decreased fasting insulin, and plasma leptin. No major differences were observed in the sensitivity to insulin or glucose, or in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels between WT and CD24KO mice. Challenging the CD24KO mice with either high sucrose (35% or high fat (45% diets that promote increased adiposity, increased WAT mass and fasting insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels, as well as reduced the sensitivity to insulin and glucose, to the levels of WT mice on the same diets. The CD24-mediated reduction in fat pad size was due to a reduction in adipocyte cell size in all depots with no significant reduction pre-adipocyte or adipocyte cell number. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated that the global absence of CD24 affects adipocyte cell size in vivo in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, as well as causing metabolic disturbances in glucose homeostasis and free fatty acid levels.

  1. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbridge, Nicholas A; Southall, Thomas M; Ayre, D Craig; Komatsu, Yumiko; Raquet, Paula I; Brown, Robert J; Randell, Edward; Kovacs, Christopher S; Christian, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vivo, we evaluated the development of the inguinal and interscapular subcutaneous WAT and the epididymal visceral WAT in mice with a homozygous deletion of CD24 (CD24KO). We observed a significant decrease in WAT mass of 40% to 74% in WAT mass from both visceral and subcutaneous depots in male mice, with no significant effect in female mice, compared to wild-type (WT) sex- and age-matched controls. We also found that CD24KO mice had increased fasting glucose and free fatty acids, decreased fasting insulin, and plasma leptin. No major differences were observed in the sensitivity to insulin or glucose, or in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels between WT and CD24KO mice. Challenging the CD24KO mice with either high sucrose (35%) or high fat (45%) diets that promote increased adiposity, increased WAT mass and fasting insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels, as well as reduced the sensitivity to insulin and glucose, to the levels of WT mice on the same diets. The CD24-mediated reduction in fat pad size was due to a reduction in adipocyte cell size in all depots with no significant reduction pre-adipocyte or adipocyte cell number. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated that the global absence of CD24 affects adipocyte cell size in vivo in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, as well as causing metabolic disturbances in glucose homeostasis and free fatty acid levels.

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma bypasses the function of the retinoblastoma protein in adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B.; Petersen, R K; Larsen, B M

    1999-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is an important regulator of development, proliferation, and cellular differentiation. pRB was recently shown to play a pivotal role in adipocyte differentiation, to interact physically with adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), and to positively......RB. The differentiated RB-/- cells accumulate lipid and express adipocyte markers, including C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma2. Interestingly, adipose conversion of pRB-deficient cells occurs in the absence of compensatory up-regulations of the other pRB family members p107 and p130. RB+/+ as well as RB-/- cells efficiently...

  3. RNase L controls terminal adipocyte differentiation, lipids storage and insulin sensitivity via CHOP10 mRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Odile Martine Julie; Salehzada, T; Lambert, K

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue structure is altered during obesity, leading to deregulation of whole-body metabolism. Its function depends on its structure, in particular adipocytes number and differentiation stage. To better understand the mechanisms regulating adipogenesis, we have investigated the role...... RNase L in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs triggers CHOP10 mRNA instability, allowing increased lipids storage, insulin response and glucose uptake. Similarly, downregulation of CHOP10 mRNA with CHOP10 siRNA in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs improves their differentiation in adipocyte. In vivo, aged RNase L(-)/(-) mice present...

  4. Omental adipocyte hypertrophy relates to coenzyme Q10 redox state and lipid peroxidation in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Galinier, Anne; Casteilla, Louis; Carpentier, André C; Tchernof, André

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of oxidative stress in white adipose tissues contributes to its dysfunction and the development of obesity-related metabolic complications. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is the single lipophilic antioxidant synthesized in humans and is essential for electron transport during mitochondrial respiration. To understand the role of CoQ10 in adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction, the abundance of the oxidized and reduced (CoQ10red) isoforms of the CoQ10 were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of women covering the full range of BMI (from 21.5 to 53.2 kg/m(2)). Lean women displayed regional variations of CoQ10 redox state between the omental and subcutaneous depot, despite similar total content. Obese women had reduced CoQ10red concentrations in the omental depot, leading to increased CoQ10 redox state and higher levels of lipid hydroperoxide. Women with low omental CoQ10 content had greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, increased omental adipocyte diameter, and higher circulating interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels and were more insulin resistant. The associations between abdominal obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors and CoQ10 content in the omental depot were abolished after adjustment for omental adipocyte diameter. This study shows that hypertrophic remodeling of visceral fat closely relates to depletion of CoQ10, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Mitochondrial homeostasis in adipose tissue remodeling.

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    Altshuler-Keylin, Svetlana; Kajimura, Shingo

    2017-02-28

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is regulated by a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation. Emerging evidence suggests that mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy that degrades mitochondria, plays a key role in the physiology and pathophysiology of mitochondria-enriched cells, such as brown and beige adipocytes. This review discusses findings regarding the roles of autophagy and mitophagy in cellular development, maintenance, and functions of metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, liver, and pancreas. A better understanding of the molecular links between mitophagy and energy metabolism will help to identify promising targets for the treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuquan eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots has physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or beige fat [BAT] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [VAT] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [WAT], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid out of harms way and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilisation, enhanced insulin action and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand WAT adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defence mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle.Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARg being most important in WAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1a on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype.Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be helpful in human disease, particularly cardiometabolic disorders associated with the world wide explosion of

  7. Lipocalin 2 expression and secretion is highly regulated by metabolic stress, cytokines, and nutrients in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2 has been recently characterized as a new adipokine having a role in innate immunity and energy metabolism. Nonetheless, the metabolic regulation of Lcn2 production in adipocytes has not been comprehensively studied. To better understand the Lcn2 biology, we investigated the regulation of Lcn2 expression in adipose tissue in response to metabolic stress in mice as well as the control of Lcn2 expression and secretion by cytokines and nutrients in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that the mRNA expression of Lcn2 was upregulated in white and brown adipose tissues as well as liver during fasting and cold stress in mice. Among pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, IL-1β showed most profound effect on Lcn2 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin stimulated Lcn2 expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner; this insulin effect was significantly abolished in the presence of low concentration of glucose. Moreover, insulin-stimulated Lcn2 expression and secretion was also attenuated when glucose was replaced by 3-O-methyl-d-glucose or by blocking NFκB pathway activation. Additionally, we showed that palmitate and oleate induced Lcn2 expression and secretion more significantly than EPA, while phytanic acid reduced Lcn2 production. Our results demonstrated that Lcn2 production in adipocytes is highly responsive to metabolic stress, cytokines, and nutrient signals, suggesting an important role of Lcn2 in adipocyte metabolism and inflammation.

  8. Role of extrathyroidal TSHR expression in adipocyte differentiation and its association with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Sumei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is known to be associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR is the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin, the key regulator of thyroid functions. The expression of TSHR, once considered to be limited to thyrocytes, has been so far detected in many extrathyroidal tissues including liver and fat. Previous studies have shown that TSHR expression is upregulated when preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes, suggestive of a possible role of TSHR in adipogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether TSHR expression in adipocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In the present study, TSHR expression in adipose tissues from both mice and human was analyzed, and its association with obesity was evaluated. Results We here showed that TSHR expression was increased at both mRNA and protein levels when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate. Knockdown of TSHR blocked the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as evaluated by Oil-red-O staining for lipid accumulation and by RT-PCR analyses of PPAR-γ and ALBP mRNA expression. We generated obesity mice (C57/BL6 by high-fat diet feeding and found that the TSHR protein expression in visceral adipose tissues from obesity mice was significantly higher in comparison with the non-obesity control mice (P Conclusion Taken together, these results suggested that TSHR is an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Dysregulated expression of TSHR in adipose tissues is associated with obesity, which may involve a mechanism of excess adipogenesis.

  9. Inflammation and ER Stress Regulate Branched-Chain Amino Acid Uptake and Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrill, Joel S.; Long, Eric K.; Reilly, Brian; Deng, Yingfeng; Armitage, Ian M.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathology of obesity-linked insulin resistance and is mechanistically linked to the effects of macrophage-derived cytokines on adipocyte energy metabolism, particularly that of the mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathways. To address the role of inflammation on energy metabolism in adipocytes, we used high fat-fed C57BL/6J mice and lean controls and measured the down-regulation of genes linked to BCAA and TCA cycle metabolism selectively in visceral but not in subcutaneous adipose tissue, brown fat, liver, or muscle. Using 3T3-L1 cells, TNFα, and other proinflammatory cytokine treatments reduced the expression of the genes linked to BCAA transport and oxidation. Consistent with this, [14C]-leucine uptake and conversion to triglycerides was markedly attenuated in TNFα-treated adipocytes, whereas the conversion to protein was relatively unaffected. Because inflammatory cytokines lead to the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, we evaluated the effects of tunicamycin or thapsigargin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and measured a similar down-regulation in the BCAA/TCA cycle pathway. Moreover, transgenic mice overexpressing X-box binding protein 1 in adipocytes similarly down-regulated genes of BCAA and TCA metabolism in vivo. These results indicate that inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress attenuate lipogenesis in visceral adipose depots by down-regulating the BCAA/TCA metabolism pathway and are consistent with a model whereby the accumulation of serum BCAA in the obese insulin-resistant state is linked to adipose inflammation. PMID:25635940

  10. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formationviaelevating retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhixiu; de Avila, Jeanene M; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Faya; Gomez, Noe Alberto; Zhao, Liang; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Junxing; Maricelli, Joseph; Zhang, Hui; Rodgers, Buel D; Du, Min

    2017-10-01

    Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo. Alcohol intake prevented body weight gain, induced the formation of uncoupling protein 1-positive beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue, and increased thermogenesis in mice, which is associated with decreased serum glucose and triacylglycerol levels. Mechanistically, alcohol intake increased RA levels in serum and adipose tissue, which was associated with increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A1 ( Aldh1a1 ). When RA receptor-α signaling was conditionally blocked in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive adipose progenitors, the effects of alcohol on beige adipogenesis were largely abolished. Finally, moderate alcohol prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. In conclusion, moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and promotes glucose and lipid oxidation via elevation of RA signaling.-Wang, B., Wang, Z., de Avila, J. M., Zhu, M.-J., Zhang, F., Gomez, N. A., Zhao, L., Tian, Q., Zhao, J., Maricelli, J., Zhang, H., Rodgers, B. D., Du, M. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation via elevating retinoic acid signaling. © FASEB.

  11. Adaptation of human adipose tissue to hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeislová, L; Mališová, L; Kračmerová, J; Štich, V

    2013-05-01

    Hypocaloric diet is a key component of the weight-reducing treatment of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Hypocaloric diets and the associated weight reduction promote improvement of metabolic profile of obese individuals. Among the mechanisms that underlie this beneficial metabolic outcome, the diet-induced modifications of morphological and functional characteristics of human adipose tissue (AT) are believed to have an important role. Prospective studies of hypocaloric weight-reducing dietary intervention demonstrate effects on adipocyte metabolism, namely lipolysis and lipogenesis, and associated changes of the adipocyte size. The endocrine function of AT, which involves cytokine and adipokine production by adipocytes, as well as by cells of stromavascular fraction, is also regulated by dietary intervention. Related inflammatory status of AT is modulated also as a consequence of the changes in recruitment of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in AT. Here, we give an overview of metabolic and endocrine modifications in human AT induced by a variety of hypocaloric diets.

  12. Targeting IκB kinase β in Adipocyte Lineage Cells for Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsley, Robert N; Sui, Yipeng; Park, Se-Hyung; Liu, Zun; Lee, Richard G; Zhu, Beibei; Kern, Philip A; Zhou, Changcheng

    2016-07-01

    IκB kinase β (IKKβ), a central coordinator of inflammation through activation of nuclear factor-κB, has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions. In this study, we evaluated an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibitor of IKKβ and found that IKKβ ASO ameliorated diet-induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice. Interestingly, IKKβ ASO also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and reduced adiposity in high-fat (HF)-fed mice, indicating an important role of IKKβ signaling in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Indeed, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion of IKKβ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes blocked these cells differentiating into adipocytes. To further elucidate the role of adipose progenitor IKKβ signaling in diet-induced obesity, we generated mice that selectively lack IKKβ in the white adipose lineage and confirmed the essential role of IKKβ in mediating adipocyte differentiation in vivo. Deficiency of IKKβ decreased HF-elicited adipogenesis in addition to reducing inflammation and protected mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Further, pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ also blocked human adipose stem cell differentiation. Our findings establish IKKβ as a pivotal regulator of adipogenesis and suggest that overnutrition-mediated IKKβ activation serves as an initial signal that triggers adipose progenitor cell differentiation in response to HF feeding. Inhibition of IKKβ with antisense therapy may represent as a novel therapeutic approach to combat obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Stem Cells 2016;34:1883-1895. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Impact of fibroblast growth factor 21 on the secretome of human perivascular preadipocytes and adipocytes: a targeted proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Lucia; Hartwig, Sonja; Irmler, Martin; Rädle, Bernhard; Siegel-Axel, Dorothea; Beckers, Johannes; Lehr, Stefan; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Staiger, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is suggested to impact on vascular cells via humoral factors, possibly contributing to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. To address whether the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 affects the PVAT secretome. Human perivascular (pre)adipocytes were subjected to targeted proteomics and whole-genome gene expression analysis. Preadipocytes, as compared to adipocytes, secreted higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Adipocytes released higher amounts of adipokines [e.g. adipisin, visfatin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), leptin; p < 0.05, all]. In preadipocytes, omentin 1 release was 1.28-fold increased by FGF-21 (p < 0.05). In adipocytes, FGF-21 reduced chemerin release by 5% and enhanced DPP4 release by 1.15-fold (p < 0.05, both). FGF-21 altered the expression of four secretory genes in preadipocytes and of 18 in adipocytes (p < 0.01, all). The hepatokine FGF-21 exerts secretome-modulating effects in human perivascular (pre)adipocytes establishing a new liver-PVAT-blood vessel axis that possibly contributes to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  14. Alterations in adipocyte glucose transporter GLUT4 and circulating adiponectin and visfatin in rat adjuvant induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcovicová, Jana; Stofková, Andrea; Skurlová, Martina; Baculíková, Miroslava; Zórad, Stefan; Stancíková, Mária

    2010-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis in humans brings about impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Since adipose tissue plays a role in glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the size of adipocytes, the amount of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in adipocyte plasma membranes, and circulating insulin, glucose, and adipokines affecting glucose metabolism, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin during experimental adjuvant arthritis (AA) in male Lewis rats. AA was induced by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvans. Adipocyte diameter was assessed microscopically, GLUT4 was measured by Western blotting. Plasma insulin, adiponectin, visfatin were quantitated by RIA, and resistin by ELISA. Arthritic rats showed cachexia, reduced adipocyte size, and downregulated membrane GLUT4 (4065 +/- 962 vs. 9911 +/- 680 arb. units of optic density, p reduction of adipocyte size, and paradoxically also in downregulation of GLUT4 in adipocyte membranes. This is supposed to be functionally related to the reduced adiponectin levels. The upregulated visfatin in rat arthritis is a novel finding, and it confirms its role in autoimmunity across the species.

  15. MicroRNA networks regulate development of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Lodish, Harvey

    2013-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity; in both humans and mice increased amounts of BAT are associated with a lean phenotype and resistance to development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Here we summarize recent research showing that several BAT-expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating differentiation and metabolism of brown and beige adipocytes; we discuss the key mRNA targets downregulated by these miRNAs and show how these miRNAs affect directly or indirectly transcription factors important for BAT development. We suggest that these miRNAs could be part of novel therapeutics to increase BAT in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  17. Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies.

  18. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Trimming the Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Burr, Aaron A; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-06-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and the development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of the potential impact of MAT on health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adipose-specific knockout of SEIPIN/BSCL2 results in progressive lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Jiang, Qingqing; Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Yuxi; Lin, Ruby C Y; Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou; Zhou, Linkang; Li, Peng; Wang, Yuhui; Cui, Xin; Gao, Mingming; Zhang, Ling; Lv, Ying; Xu, Guoheng; Liu, George; Zhao, Dong; Yang, Hongyuan

    2014-07-01

    Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) is the most severe form of human lipodystrophy, characterized by an almost complete loss of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. BSCL2 is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the BSCL2/SEIPIN gene, which is upregulated during adipogenesis and abundantly expressed in the adipose tissue. The physiological function of SEIPIN in mature adipocytes, however, remains to be elucidated. Here, we generated adipose-specific Seipin knockout (ASKO) mice, which exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy with enlarged lipid droplets, reduced lipolysis, adipose tissue inflammation, progressive loss of white and brown adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Lipidomic and microarray analyses revealed accumulation/imbalance of lipid species, including ceramides, in ASKO adipose tissue as well as increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, the ASKO mice almost completely phenocopy the fat-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (Pparγ) knockout (FKO-γ) mice. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly improved a number of metabolic parameters of the ASKO mice, including insulin sensitivity. Our results therefore demonstrate a critical role of SEIPIN in maintaining lipid homeostasis and function of adipocytes and reveal an intimate relationship between SEIPIN and PPAR-γ. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Brown Adipocytes in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig ePorter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences represent a significant clinical problem. From a thermodynamic standpoint, obesity results from a discord in energy intake and expenditure. To date, lifestyle interventions based on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity, owing to poor long-term adherence to such interventions. Thus, an effective strategy to prevent or correct obesity is currently lacking.As the combustion engines of our cells, mitochondria play a critical role in energy expenditure. At a whole body level, approximately 80% of mitochondrial membrane potential generated by fuel oxidation is used to produce ATP, and the remaining 20% is lost through heat-producing uncoupling reactions. The coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production represents an important component in whole body energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is densely populated with mitochondria containing the inner mitochondrial proton carrier uncoupling protein 1 (UCP. UCP1 uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, meaning that mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated as heat. The recent re-discovery of BAT depots in adult humans has rekindled scientific interest in the manipulation of mitochondrial uncoupling reactions as a means to increase metabolic rate, thereby counteracting obesity and its associated metabolic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the role BAT plays in metabolic rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in humans, and the potential for UCP1 recruitment in the white adipose tissue of humans. While the future holds much promise for a therapeutic role of UCP1 expressing adipocytes in human energy metabolism, particularly in the context of obesity, tissue specific strategies that activate or recruit UCP1 in human adipocytes represent an obligatory translation step for this early promise to be realized.

  1. The Gq signalling pathway inhibits brown and beige adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Katarina; Kilić, Ana; Gnad, Thorsten; Brown, Loren M.; Herrmann, Beate; Wilderman, Andrea; Balkow, Aileen; Glöde, Anja; Simon, Katharina; Lidell, Martin E.; Betz, Matthias J.; Enerbäck, Sven; Wess, Jürgen; Freichel, Marc; Blüher, Matthias; König, Gabi; Kostenis, Evi; Insel, Paul A.; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates nutritional energy as heat via the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and BAT activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Here we profile G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brown adipocytes to identify druggable regulators of BAT. Twenty-one per cent of the GPCRs link to the Gq family, and inhibition of Gq signalling enhances differentiation of human and murine brown adipocytes. In contrast, activation of Gq signalling abrogates brown adipogenesis. We further identify the endothelin/Ednra pathway as an autocrine activator of Gq signalling in brown adipocytes. Expression of a constitutively active Gq protein in mice reduces UCP1 expression in BAT, whole-body energy expenditure and the number of brown-like/beige cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, expression of Gq in human WAT inversely correlates with UCP1 expression. Thus, our data indicate that Gq signalling regulates brown/beige adipocytes and inhibition of Gq signalling may be a novel therapeutic approach to combat obesity. PMID:26955961

  2. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  3. Perivascular adipose tissue: more than just structural support

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz, Theodora; R Clinton Webb

    2012-01-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has recently been recognized as a novel factor in vascular biology, with implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Composed mainly of adipocytes, PVAT releases a wide range of biologically active molecules that modulate the vascular smooth muscle cell contraction, proliferation and migration. PVAT exerts an anticontractile effect in various vascular beds which seems to be mediated by yet elusive PVAT-derived relaxing factor or factor...

  4. Integrator complex plays an essential role in adipose differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Yuichiro; Nakatsu, Yusuke [Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Sakoda, Hideyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, Toshiaki [Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fujishiro, Midori [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kushiyama, Akifumi [Department of Internal Medicine, The Institute for Adult Diseases, Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo (Japan); Okubo, Hirofumi; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Haruya [Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro [Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Fusanori [Department of Dental Science for Health Promotion, Division of Cervico-Gnathostomatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Kamata, Hideaki [Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Katagiri, Hideki [Division of Molecular Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Asano, Tomoichiro, E-mail: tasano@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •IntS6 and IntS11 are subunits of the Integrator complex. •Expression levels of IntS6 and IntS11 were very low in 3T3-L1 fibroblast. •IntS6 and IntS11 were upregulated during adipose differentiation. •Suppression of IntS6 or IntS11 expression inhibited adipose differentiation. -- Abstract: The dynamic process of adipose differentiation involves stepwise expressions of transcription factors and proteins specific to the mature fat cell phenotype. In this study, it was revealed that expression levels of IntS6 and IntS11, subunits of the Integrator complex, were increased in 3T3-L1 cells in the period when the cells reached confluence and differentiated into adipocytes, while being reduced to basal levels after the completion of differentiation. Suppression of IntS6 or IntS11 expression using siRNAs in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes markedly inhibited differentiation into mature adipocytes, based on morphological findings as well as mRNA analysis of adipocyte-specific genes such as Glut4, perilipin and Fabp4. Although Pparγ2 protein expression was suppressed in IntS6 or IntS11-siRNA treated cells, adenoviral forced expression of Pparγ2 failed to restore the capacity for differentiation into mature adipocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that increased expression of Integrator complex subunits is an indispensable event in adipose differentiation. Although further study is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism, the processing of U1, U2 small nuclear RNAs may be involved in cell differentiation steps.

  5. Succination of Thiol Groups in Adipose Tissue Proteins in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Norma; Rajesh, Mathur; Jepson, Matthew J.; Nagai, Ryoji; Carson, James A.; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Baynes, John W.

    2009-01-01

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate with cysteine residues in protein, a process termed succination of protein. Both fumarate and succination of proteins are increased in adipocytes cultured in high glucose medium (Nagai, R., Brock, J. W., Blatnik, M., Baatz, J. E., Bethard, J., Walla, M. D., Thorpe, S. R., Baynes, J. W., and Frizzell, N. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 34219–34228). We show here that succination of protein is also increased in epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of diabetic (db/db) mice and that adiponectin is a major target for succination in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. Cys-39, which is involved in cross-linking of adiponectin monomers to form trimers, was identified as a key site of succination of adiponectin in adipocytes. 2SC was detected on two of seven monomeric forms of adiponectin immunoprecipitated from adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue. Based on densitometry, 2SC-adiponectin accounted for ∼7 and 8% of total intracellular adiponectin in cells and tissue, respectively. 2SC was found only in the intracellular, monomeric forms of adiponectin and was not detectable in polymeric forms of adiponectin in cell culture medium or plasma. We conclude that succination of adiponectin blocks its incorporation into trimeric and higher molecular weight, secreted forms of adiponectin. We propose that succination of proteins is a biomarker of mitochondrial stress and accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates in adipose tissue in diabetes and that succination of adiponectin may contribute to the decrease in plasma adiponectin in diabetes. PMID:19592500

  6. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Le Roux, Pascal; Bjåmer, Ditlef

    2006-01-01

    on ICS investigated whether a novel regimen using budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort maintenance and relief therapy [SMART]) [Symbicort; AstraZeneca R&D, Lund, Sweden] could reduce exacerbations. METHODS: Patients received SMART (budesonide/formoterol 80/4.5 microg qd...... maintenance plus additional inhalations for symptom relief), budesonide/formoterol 80/4.5 microg qd for maintenance (fixed combination), or higher-dose budesonide 320 microg qd (fixed-dose budesonide). Blinded as-needed medication (terbutaline 0.4 microg) was provided in both fixed-dose groups. RESULTS: SMART......, respectively; both p maintenance and as-needed symptom relief reduces the exacerbation...

  7. The Farnesoid X Receptor Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Function by Promoting Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma and Interfering with the Wnt/beta-Catenin Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Caron, Sandrine; Duhem, Christian; Prawitt, Janne; Dumont, Julie; Lucas, Anthony; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Briand, Olivier; Brozek, John; Kuipers, Folkert; Fievet, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Staels, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is expressed in adipose tissue, but its function remains poorly defined. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) is a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and function. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of

  8. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  9. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

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    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  10. Effects of Genetic Loci Associated with Central Obesity on Adipocyte Lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona J Strawbridge

    Full Text Available Numerous genetic loci have been associated with measures of central fat accumulation, such as waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI. However the mechanisms by which genetic variations influence obesity remain largely elusive. Lipolysis is a key process for regulation of lipid storage in adipocytes, thus is implicated in obesity and its metabolic complications. Here, genetic variants at 36 WHRadjBMI-associated loci were examined for their influence on abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis.Fasting subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 789 volunteers (587 women and 202 men, body mass index (BMI range 17.7-62.3 kg/m2. We quantified subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis, both spontaneous and stimulated by the catecholamine isoprenaline or a cyclic AMP analogue. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and genotyping of SNPs associated with WHRadjBMI conducted. The effects on adipocyte lipolysis measures were assessed for SNPs individually and combined in a SNP score.The WHRadjBMI-associated loci CMIP, PLXND1, VEGFA and ZNRF3-KREMEN1 demonstrated nominal associations with spontaneous and/or stimulated lipolysis. Candidate genes in these loci have been reported to influence NFκB-signaling, fat cell size and Wnt signalling, all of which may influence lipolysis.This report provides evidence for specific WHRadjBMI-associated loci as candidates to modulate adipocyte lipolysis. Additionally, our data suggests that genetically increased central fat accumulation is unlikely to be a major cause of altered lipolysis in abdominal adipocytes.

  11. Identification of hypoxia-induced genes in human SGBS adipocytes by microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Geiger

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in adipose tissue is suggested to be involved in the development of a chronic mild inflammation, which in obesity can further lead to insulin resistance. The effect of hypoxia on gene expression in adipocytes appears to play a central role in this inflammatory response observed in obesity. However, the global impact of hypoxia on transcriptional changes in human adipocytes is unclear. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles of human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS adipocytes under normoxic or hypoxic conditions to detect hypoxia-responsive genes in adipocytes by using whole human genome microarrays. Microarray analysis showed more than 500 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs after incubation of the cells under low oxygen levels. To gain further insight into the biological processes, hypoxia-regulated genes after 16 hours of hypoxia were classified according to their function. We identified an enrichment of genes involved in important biological processes such as glycolysis, response to hypoxia, regulation of cellular component movement, response to nutrient levels, regulation of cell migration, and transcription regulator activity. Real-time PCR confirmed eight genes to be consistently upregulated in response to 3, 6 and 16 hours of hypoxia. For adipocytes the hypoxia-induced regulation of these genes is shown here for the first time. Moreover in six of these eight genes we identified HIF response elements in the proximal promoters, specific for the HIF transcription factor family members HIF1A and HIF2A. In the present study, we demonstrated that hypoxia has an extensive effect on gene expression of SGBS adipocytes. In addition, the identified hypoxia-regulated genes are likely involved in the regulation of obesity, the incidence of type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárvári, Anitta K., E-mail: anittasarvari@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Veréb, Zoltán, E-mail: jzvereb@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Uray, Iván P., E-mail: ipuray@mdanderson.org [Clinical Cancer Prevention Department, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Fésüs, László, E-mail: fesus@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA DE Apoptosis, Genomics and Stem Cell Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Balajthy, Zoltán, E-mail: balajthy@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin

  13. Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-06-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. The dietary intake of RK has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies. To elucidate a possible mechanism for anti-obese actions of RK, the effects of RK on the adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated from day 2 to day 8 of differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24 h on day 12 with 1, 10, 20, and 50 μM of RK. Triacylglycerols were assessed by spectrophotometry and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10 μM of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B). These findings suggest that RK holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  14. Natural compounds involved in adipose tissue mass control in in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kowalska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized obesity as an epidemic of the 21st century. Obesity is pathological fat accumulation in the body influenced by many factors: metabolic, endocrine, genetic, environmental, psychological and behavioral. The quality and quantity of food intake to a considerable degree determine excessive fat accumulation in the body. The strategy in obesity prevention includes, among other things, a proper diet. It is widely known that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables reduces body weight. Adipocytes are not only cells serving as storage depots for “energy”, but are also specialized cells influenced by various hormones, cytokines and nutrients, which have pleiotropic effects on the body. Knowledge of adipocyte biology is crucial for our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of obesity and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, rational manipulation of adipose physiology is a promising avenue for therapy of these conditions. Adipose tissue mass can be reduced through elimination of adipocytes by apoptosis, inhibition of adipogenesis and increased lipolysis in adipocytes. Natural products have a potential to induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis and stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes. Various dietary bioactive compounds target different stages of the adipocyte life cycle and may be useful as natural therapeutic agents in obesity prevention.

  15. Loss of white adipose hyperplastic potential is associated with enhanced susceptibility to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo M; Lun, Mingyue; Wang, Mei; Senyo, Samuel E; Guillermier, Christelle; Patwari, Parth; Steinhauser, Matthew L

    2014-12-02

    Fat mass expansion occurs by adipocyte hypertrophy or recruitment of differentiating adipocyte progenitors, the relative balance of which may impact systemic metabolism. We measured adipogenesis in murine subcutaneous (sWAT) and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) using stable isotope methodology and then modeled adipocyte turnover. Birth and death rates were similar within depots; however, turnover was higher in vWAT relative to sWAT. In juvenile mice, obesity increased adipogenesis, but in adults, this was only seen in vWAT after prolonged high-fat feeding. Statistical modeling suggests differentiation of adipocyte progenitors without an accompanying self-renewing division step may partially explain the age-dependent decline in hyperplastic potential. Additional metabolic interrogation of obese mice demonstrated an association between adipocyte turnover and insulin sensitivity. These data therefore identify adipocyte hypertrophy as the dominant mechanism of adult fat mass expansion and support the paradoxical concept that metabolic disease ensues due to a failure of adipose tissue plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal human adipose tissue functions and differentiation in patients with biallelic LPIN1 inactivating mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Michele; Testet, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Dugail, Isabelle; Tang, Xiaoyun; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Hamel, Yamina; Madrange, Marine; Blanc, Thomas; Odent, Thierry; McMullen, Todd P W; Alfò, Marco; Brindley, David N; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2017-12-01

    Lipin-1 is a Mg2+-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) that in mice is necessary for normal glycerolipid biosynthesis, controlling adipocyte metabolism, and adipogenic differentiation. Mice carrying inactivating mutations in the Lpin1 gene display the characteristic features of human familial lipodystrophy. Very little is known about the roles of lipin-1 in human adipocyte physiology. Apparently, fat distribution and weight is normal in humans carrying LPIN1 inactivating mutations, but a detailed analysis of adipose tissue appearance and functions in these patients has not been available so far. In this study, we performed a systematic histopathological, biochemical, and gene expression analysis of adipose tissue biopsies from human patients harboring LPIN1 biallelic inactivating mutations and affected by recurrent episodes of severe rhabdomyolysis. We also explored the adipogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal cell populations derived from lipin-1 defective patients. White adipose tissue from human LPIN1 mutant patients displayed a dramatic decrease in lipin-1 protein levels and PAP activity, with a concomitant moderate reduction of adipocyte size. Nevertheless, the adipose tissue develops without obvious histological signs of lipodystrophy and with normal qualitative composition of storage lipids. The increased expression of key adipogenic determinants such as SREBP1, PPARG, and PGC1A shows that specific compensatory phenomena can be activated in vivo in human adipocytes with deficiency of functional lipin-1. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines, and low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Poli Mara; Lecke, Sheila B; Satler, Fabíola; Morsch, Debora M

    2015-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex condition that affects women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and androgen excess. Women with PCOS present higher prevalence of obesity, central adiposity, and dyslipidemia, and face increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PCOS is closely linked to functional derangements in adipose tissue. Adipocytes seem to be prone to hypertrophy when exposed to androgen excess, as experienced by women with PCOS, and both adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperandrogenism are related to insulin resistance. Hypertrophic adipocytes are more susceptible to inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and release of free fatty acids. Disturbed secretion of adipokines may also impact the pathophysiology of PCOS through their influence on metabolism and on sex steroid secretion. Chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS is also related to hyperandrogenism and to the hypertrophy of adipocytes, causing compression phenomena in the stromal vessels, leading to adipose tissue hypoperfusion and altered secretion of cytokines. Lifestyle changes are the first-line intervention for reducing metabolic risks in PCOS and the addition of an insulin-sensitizing drug might be required. Nevertheless, there is not sufficient evidence in favor of any specific pharmacologic therapies to directly oppose inflammation. Further studies are warranted to identify an adipokine that could serve as an indirect marker of adipocyte production in PCOS, representing a reliable sign of metabolic alteration in this syndrome. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. Adipose tissue and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Hannah; Castracane, V Daniel; Mantzoros, Christos

    2017-11-16

    The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons. Meanwhile, adiponectin is notable for its action in mediating insulin sensitivity, with receptors found at every level of the reproductive axis. Both have been examined in the context of physiologic and pathologic reproductive conditions. Leptin has been shown to influence puberty, pregnancy, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and lipodystrophy, and with a potential therapeutic role for both metabolic and reproductive health. Adiponectin mediates the relative state of insulin resistance in pregnancy, and has been implicated in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive malignancies. There are numerous other adipokines, including resistin, visfatin, chemerin and retinol binding protein-4, which may also play roles in reproductive health and disease states. The continued examination of these and other adipokines in both normal reproduction and reproductive pathologies represents an important avenue for continued study. Here, we seek to provide a broad, yet comprehensive overview of many facets of these relationships and highlight areas of consideration for clinicians and future study. Copyright © 2017

  19. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Sarah B; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene; Sorobetea, Daniel; Sitnik, Kasia; Hopwood, Thomas; Lawrence, Catherine B; Agace, William W; Else, Kathryn J; Heagerty, Anthony M; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M

    2017-03-17

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that adiponectin and nitric oxide are released after activation of adipocyte-expressed β3 adrenoceptors by catecholamines, and identified eosinophils as a novel source of these mediators. We conclude that adipose tissue eosinophils play a key role in the regulation of normal PVAT anti-contractile function.

  20. Alamandine reduces leptin expression through the c-Src/p38 MAP kinase pathway in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Okajima, Fumikazu; Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Ayaka; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine are heptameric renin angiotensin system peptide hormones. Further, alamandine levels increase with renal dysfunction. In the cardiovascular system, angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produce similar improvements and counterbalance angiotensin II in regulating vascular function. We aimed to determine whether the effect of alamandine on leptin expression and secretion in adipocytes was similar to that of angiotensin 1-7. We studied isolated peri-renal visceral adipose tissue and peri-renal isolated visceral adipocytes from male Wistar rats. Angiotensin II from 0.01 to 10nM had no effect on leptin expression. Angiotensin 1-7 (1 nM) increased leptin secretion and expression, whereas alamandine (1 nM) decreased leptin secretion and expression in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes and reduced blood leptin levels in vivo. These effects were mediated by Gq, c-Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein, and IκB activation. Additionally, alamandine induced nitric oxide expression via inducible nitric oxidase synthase and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produced opposing effects on leptin expression and secretion in adipose tissue. This result suggests that the action of Mas (angiotensin 1-7 receptor) and Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor D in adipocytes exhibited opposing actions similar to angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors.

  1. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  2. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Sirt2 Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation Involving FoxO1 Acetylation/Deacetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Enxuan; Gesta, Stephane; Ronald Kahn, C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The mammalian Sirtuin proteins contain seven family members that are homologous to yeast Sir2. Here we show that Sirt2, a cytoplasmic sirtuin, is the most abundant sirtuin in adipocytes, its expression is down regulated during preadipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Over-expression of Sirt2 inhibits differentiation, whereas reducing Sirt2 expression promotes adipogenesis. Both effects are accompanied by corresponding changes in the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and genes marking terminal adipocyte differentiation, such as Glut4, aP2, and fatty acid synthase. At the molecular level, reducing Sirt2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes acts by promoting acetylation of FoxO1. This occurs as the result of direct interaction between Sirt2 and FoxO1, and enhances insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1, which in turn regulates FoxO1 nuclear and cytosolic localization. Thus, Sirt2 acts as an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation through control of FoxO1 acetylation/phosphorylation and activity and may contribute to control adipose tissue mass and function. PMID:17681146

  4. Cyclic restricted feeding enhances lipid storage in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Endo, Yuriko

    2013-05-24

    People who skip breakfast have more visceral fat than those who eat breakfast; however, the mechanism underlying this difference is unclear. In this study, we examined 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and assessed 1) whether restricted feeding (i.e., "breakfast skipping") alters the cyclic expression of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and lipogenic proteins and 2) whether repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increases de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. Differentiated adipocytes were divided into two groups: a control group and a restricted feeding group, for which incubation with growth medium from ZT 9 to ZT 12 was withheld. A bout of restricted feeding disrupted the cyclic expression of BMAL1 protein and increased the expression of lipogenic proteins, such as fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes. Furthermore, the repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. These findings suggest that direct disruption of intracellular molecular clock systems by breakfast skipping and the concurrent changes in the daily cycle of lipogenic proteins in adipocytes, as a consequence of repeated nutrition at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals, would result in increased lipogenesis and lipid storage. These alterations are important molecular mechanisms underlying augmented adiposity induced by breakfast skipping.

  5. Lipid droplets hypertrophy: a crucial determining factor in insulin regulation by adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjabi, Bahram; Dashty, Monireh; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; van Rooij, Felix; Al-Lahham, Saad; Sheedfar, Fareeba; van Kooten, Theo G.; Spek, C. Arnold; Rowshani, Ajda T.; van der Want, Johannes; Klaassen, Rene; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. Insulin concentrations and release are fat mass- and LDs-dependent respectively. Fat reduction mediated by bariatric surgery repairs obesity-associated T2D. The expression of genes, like PCSK1 (proinsulin conversion enzyme), GCG (Glucagon), GPLD1, CD38 and NNAT, involved in insulin regulation/release were differentially expressed in pancreas and adipose tissue (AT). INS (insulin) and GCG expression reduced in human AT-T2D as compared to AT-control, but remained unchanged in pancreas in either state. Insulin levels (mRNA/protein) were higher in AT derived from prediabetes BB rats with destructed pancreatic β-cells and controls than pancreas derived from the same rats respectively. Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic insulin-producing cells. The data suggest a crosstalk between AT and pancreas to fine-tune energy metabolic system or may minimize the metabolic damage during diabetes. This study opens new avenues towards T2D therapy with a great impact on public health.

  6. Adipocytes secrete leukotrienes: contribution to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Filloux, Chantal; Amghar, Hind; Pons, Catherine; Bourlier, Virginie; Galitzky, Jean; Grimaldi, Paul A; Féral, Chloé C; Bouloumié, Anne; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Neels, Jaap G

    2012-09-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators, and many important aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses are regulated by LTs. Key members of the LT synthesis pathway are overexpressed in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity, resulting in increased LT levels in this tissue. We observed that several mouse adipocyte cell lines and primary adipocytes from mice and humans both can secrete large amounts of LTs. Furthermore, this production increases with a high-fat diet (HFD) and positively correlates with adipocyte size. LTs produced by adipocytes play an important role in attracting macrophages and T cells in in vitro chemotaxis assays. Mice that are deficient for the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and therefore lack LTs, exhibit a decrease in HFD-induced AT macrophage and T-cell infiltration and are partially protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Similarly, treatment of HFD-fed wild-type mice with the 5-LO inhibitor Zileuton also results in a reduction of AT macrophages and T cells, accompanied by a decrease in insulin resistance. Together, these findings suggest that LTs represent a novel target in the prevention or treatment of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance.

  7. Classical and alternative NF-κB signaling cooperate in regulating adipocyte differentiation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, A.; Lovas, A.; Rauch, A.

    2016-01-01

    R)-mediated alternative NF-κB signaling in adipocytes and to reveal its effects on body weight and insulin sensitivity in vivo.Methods:RelB FatKO mice and littermate controls were treated with LTβR agonistic antibody (α-LTβR) or a LTβR antagonist (LTβR:Ig fusion protein) after feeding a high-fat diet or standard diet...... to adipocytes. The molecular mechanism was elucidated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and combinatorial treatment with α-LTβR and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).Results:RelB FatKO mice showed improved insulin sensitivity despite increased adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. LTβR-induced activation of p52-Rel......B in 3T3-L1 cells attenuated adipogenesis and modulated adipocyte functions via transcriptional downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). This LTβR-mediated pathway was synergistically regulated via a TNF-induced increase in p100 and RelB expression and nuclear translocation...

  8. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR’s Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

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    Luca Vanella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape, isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration.

  9. Is adipose tissue a place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence?

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    Olivier Neyrolles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long periods of time. However, little is known about the location of the bacilli in latently infected individuals. Long-term mycobacterial persistence in the lungs has been reported, but this may not sufficiently account for strictly extra-pulmonary TB, which represents 10-15% of the reactivation cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied in situ and conventional PCR to sections of adipose tissue samples of various anatomical origins from 19 individuals from Mexico and 20 from France who had died from causes other than TB. M. tuberculosis DNA could be detected by either or both techniques in fat tissue surrounding the kidneys, the stomach, the lymph nodes, the heart and the skin in 9/57 Mexican samples (6/19 individuals, and in 8/26 French samples (6/20 individuals. In addition, mycobacteria could be immuno-detected in perinodal adipose tissue of 1 out of 3 biopsy samples from individuals with active TB. In vitro, using a combination of adipose cell models, including the widely used murine adipose cell line 3T3-L1, as well as primary human adipocytes, we show that after binding to scavenger receptors, M. tuberculosis can enter within adipocytes, where it accumulates intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions and survives in a non-replicating state that is insensitive to the major anti-mycobacterial drug isoniazid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the abundance and the wide distribution of the adipose tissue throughout the body, our results suggest that this tissue, among others, might constitute a vast reservoir where the tubercle bacillus could persist for long periods of time, and avoid both killing by antimicrobials and recognition by the host immune system. In addition, M. tuberculosis-infected adipocytes might provide a new model to investigate dormancy and to evaluate new drugs for the treatment of

  10. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

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    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  11. Regulation of adipocyte autophagy — The potential anti-obesity mechanism of high density lipoprotein and ApolipoproteinA-I

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    Wang Shuai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is reaching epidemic worldwide and is risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I are inversely correlated to obesity, whether HDLs have anti-obesity effect remains unclear until a recent study reporting the direct anti-obesity effect of apoA-I and its mimetic peptide. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. Increasing adipose energy expenditure through attainment of brown adipocyte phenotype in white adipose tissue is considered a potential strategy to combat obesity. Specific inhibition of autophagy in adipose tissue is associated with reduced adiposity which is attributed to the attainment of brown adipocyte phenotype in white adipose tissue and the increased energy expenditure. HDL and apoA-I could activate PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling which negatively regulates autophagy. The links between HDL/apoA-I and autophagy brings a new understanding on the anti-obesity effect of HDL and apoA-I.

  12. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Regulation of visceral and epicardial adipose tissue for preventing cardiovascular injuries associated to obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, N; Moreno-Villegas, Z; González-Bris, A; Egido, J; Lorenzo, Ó

    2017-04-04

    Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, this depot may be also related to epicardial fat accumulation through secretion of lipids, adipokines, and pro-inflammatory and oxidative factors from adipocytes. Thus, visceral adiposity and its white single-lipid-like adipocytes, are risk factors for different forms of heart disease and heart failure, mainly in higher degree obese subjects. However, under specific stimuli, some of these adipocytes can transdifferentiate to brown multi-mitochondrial-like adipocytes with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic proprieties. Accordingly, in order to improve potential cardiovascular abnormalities in obese and T2DM patients, several therapeutic strategies have been addressed to modulate the visceral and epicardial fat volume and phenotypes. In addition to lifestyle modifications, specific genetic manipulations in adipose tissue and administration of PPARγ agonists or statins, have improved fat volume and phenotype, and cardiovascular failures. Furthermore, incretin stimulation reduced visceral and epicardial fat thickness whereas increased formation of brown adipocytes, alleviating insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular pathologies.

  14. Regulation of Autophagy-Related Protein and Cell Differentiation by High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in Adipocytes

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    Huanhuan Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1 is a molecule related to the development of inflammation. Autophagy is vital to maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against inflammation of adipocyte injury. Our recent work focused on the relationship of HMGB1 and autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells. In vivo experimental results showed that, compared with the normal-diet group, the high-fat diet mice displayed an increase in adipocyte size in the epididymal adipose tissues. The expression levels of HMGB1 and LC3II also increased in epididymal adipose tissues in high-fat diet group compared to the normal-diet mice. The in vitro results indicated that HMGB1 protein treatment increased LC3II formation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in contrast to that in the control group. Furthermore, LC3II formation was inhibited through HMGB1 knockdown by siRNA. Treatment with the HMGB1 protein enhanced LC3II expression after 2 and 4 days but decreased the expression after 8 and 10 days among various differentiation stages of adipocytes. By contrast, FABP4 expression decreased on the fourth day and increased on the eighth day. Hence, the HMGB1 protein modulated autophagy-related proteins and lipid-metabolism-related genes in adipocytes and could be a new target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  15. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

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    Suriya Kumari Ramiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil (CON, (ii basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA, and (iii basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA.The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P<0.05 than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption.

  16. The Gustatory Signaling Pathway and Bitter Taste Receptors Affect the Development of Obesity and Adipocyte Metabolism in Mice.

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    Bert Avau

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory signaling pathways involving the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, and bitter taste receptors (TAS2R have been implicated in gut hormone release. Alterations in gut hormone profiles may contribute to the success of bariatric surgery. This study investigated the involvement of the gustatory signaling pathway in the development of diet-induced obesity and the therapeutic potential of targeting TAS2Rs to induce body weight loss. α-gustducin-deficient (α-gust-/- mice became less obese than wild type (WT mice when fed a high-fat diet (HFD. White adipose tissue (WAT mass was lower in α-gust-/- mice due to increased heat production as a result of increases in brown adipose tissue (BAT thermogenic activity, involving increased protein expression of uncoupling protein 1. Intra-gastric treatment of obese WT and α-gust-/- mice with the bitter agonists denatonium benzoate (DB or quinine (Q during 4 weeks resulted in an α-gustducin-dependent decrease in body weight gain associated with a decrease in food intake (DB, but not involving major changes in gut peptide release. Both WAT and 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes express TAS2Rs. Treatment of pre-adipocytes with DB or Q decreased differentiation into mature adipocytes. In conclusion, interfering with the gustatory signaling pathway protects against the development of HFD-induced obesity presumably through promoting BAT activity. Intra-gastric bitter treatment inhibits weight gain, possibly by directly affecting adipocyte metabolism.

  17. Relieving idiopathic dental pain without drugs

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    Haryono Utomo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth are commonly obvious source of orofacial pain. Sometimes the pain source is undetectable, thus called as idiopathic dental pain. Since dentist wants to alleviate or eliminate the pains with every effort in their mind, a lot of drugs could be prescribed. Moreover, it is make sense that endodontic treatment or even tooth extraction will be done. Unfortunately, endodontic treatment may also initiate neuropathic tooth pain that is caused by nerve extirpation, thus worsen the pain. Therefore, another cause of dental pain such as referred pain, periodontal disease, or stress which related to psychoneuroimmunology should be considered. In order to prevent from unnecessary drugs or invasive treatment such as root canal treatment and extraction, correct diagnosis and preliminary non-invasive therapies should be done. Purpose: This review elucidates several therapies that could be done by dentists for relieving idiopathic dental pain which includes massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, modulation of psychoneuroimmunologic status and dietary omega-3. Reviews: Understanding the basic pathogenesis of pain may help in elucidating the effects of non-drug pain therapy such as muscle massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, omega-3 and psychological stress relieving. These measures are accounted for eliminating referred pain, reducing proinflammatory mediators and relieving unwanted stress reactions consecutively. Psychological stress increases proinflammatory cytokines and thus lowered pain threshold. Conclusion: As an individual treatment, this non-drug therapy is useful in relieving idiopathic dental pain; nevertheless, if they work together the result could be more superior.Latar belakang: Gigi adalah suatu penyebab umum dari nyeri orofasial. Kadang kala penyebab nyeri tidak dapat ditemukan, sehingga disebut sebagai nyeri gigi idiopatik. Karena dokter gigi berupaya untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan nyeri dengan segala cara

  18. Knockdown of NPY expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes development of brown adipocytes and prevents diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Yang, Liang; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in control of energy balance, but the physiological importance of NPY in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) remains unclear. Here we report that knockdown of NPY expression in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated RNAi reduced fat depots in rats fed regular chow and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. DMH NPY knockdown resulted in development of brown adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue through the sympa...

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake in a thyroid adenoma with diffuse adipose metaplassia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Gaetano; Giovanella, Luca [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT CentreOncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mazzucchelli, Luca [Institute of Pathology, Locarno (Switzerland); Peloni, Guiseppe; Fasolini, Fabrizio [Dept. of SurgeryBeata Vergine Hospital, Mendrisio (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    A 71-year-old female underwent a (99m)Tc-MIBI scan to characterize a cold nodule (30 mm) of the left thyroid lobe. The nodule showed diffuse uptake and retention of the radiotracer. After resection, histological examination demonstrated a microfollicular adenoma with diffuse white adipose metaplasia. Although mitochondria in brown adipose tissue have been widely studied, we have only a limited understanding of the relevance of mitochondria in white adipose tissue. Active mitochondria are present in white adipocytes, and this may account for the MIBI uptake, mimicking a hyperproliferation pattern, in our patient.

  20. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress via the CYP2E1 pathway disrupts adiponectin secretion from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Sebastian, Becky M; Axhemi, Armend; Chen, Xiaocong; Hillian, Antoinette D; Jacobsen, Donald W; Nagy, Laura E

    2012-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an important target for ethanol action. One important effect of ethanol is to reduce the secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes; this decrease is associated with lowered circulating adiponectin in rodent models of chronic ethanol feeding. Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory adipokine; decreased adiponectin activity may contribute to tissue injury in response to chronic ethanol. Here, we investigated the role of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and oxidative stress in the mechanism for impaired adiponectin secretion from adipocytes in response to ethanol. Male Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing ethanol as 36% of calories or pair-fed a control diet for 4 weeks. 3T3-L1 adipocyte cultures, expressing CYP2E1 or not, were exposed to ethanol or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Chronic ethanol feeding to rats suppressed the secretion of adiponectin from isolated epididymal adipocytes. Ethanol feeding induced the expression of CYP2E1 in adipocytes and increased markers of oxidative stress, including 4-HNE and protein carbonyls. Because adiponectin is posttranslationally processed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, we investigated the impact of ethanol on the redox status of high-density microsomes. Chronic ethanol decreased the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (4.6:1, pair-fed; 2.9:1, ethanol-fed) in high-density microsomes isolated from rat epididymal adipose tissue. We next utilized the 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cell model to interrogate the mechanisms for impaired adiponectin secretion. Culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes overexpressing exogenous CYP2E1, but not those overexpressing antisense CYP2E1, with ethanol increased oxidative stress and impaired adiponectin secretion from intracellular pools. Consistent with a role of oxidative stress in impaired adiponectin secretion, challenge of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 4-HNE also reduced adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion, without affecting intracellular adiponectin