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Sample records for adipocyte inflammatory mediators

  1. In vitro study of the effect of diesterified alkoxyglycerols with conjugated linoleic acid on adipocyte inflammatory mediators

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    Reglero Guillermo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocytes contribute to inflammation and the innate immune response through expression of inflammatory mediators. High levels of these mediators have been related to chronic inflammation state and insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2, among other disorders. 3-octadecylglycerol (batyl alcohol has been described as an inflammatory agent, whereas Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA is considered effective against obesity. In this study we examined the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of modified alkoxyglycerols. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α activated mature adipocytes were used as cellular model of inflammation. Secreted levels and gene expressions of some inflammatory mediators, such as the adipokines, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10; and the levels of leptin and adiponectin hormones were quantified in presence and absence of alkoxyglycerols and when human adipocyte cells were or not activated by TNF-α. The aim of this study is to describe the effects of nonesterified alkoxyglycerols, CLA and diesterified alkoxyglycerols with CLA (DEA-CLA and check if they present beneficial properties using an in vitro model of some chronic diseases related to the inflammatory process, such as obesity, using human mature adipocytes activated with TNF-α. Results Our data suggest that DEA-CLA, product of the esterification between the CLA and batyl alcohol, present beneficial effects on adipocytes close to observed and described for CLA (i.e. decrease of IL-1β and no adverse effects as observed for batyl alcohol (i.e. decrease of IL-10. In addition, DEA-CLA presented similar activity to CLA showing a trend to increase the secreted levels of adiponectin and decreasing the secreted levels of leptin. Conclusions CLA and DEA-CLA modify adipocyte inflammatory mediators and also could play a role on energy homeostasis through depletion of leptin levels.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid decreases pro-inflammatory mediators in an in vitro murine adipocyte macrophage co-culture model.

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    Anna A De Boer

    Full Text Available Paracrine interactions between adipocytes and macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. Dietary strategies to mitigate such inflammation include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids, which act through PPARγ-dependent and independent pathways. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model designed to mimic the ratio of macrophages:adipocytes in obese adipose tissue, whereby murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophages in direct contact, or separated by a trans-well membrane (contact-independent mechanism, with 125 µM of albumin-complexed DHA, EPA, palmitic acid (PA, or albumin alone (control. Thus, we studied the effect of physical cell contact versus the presence of soluble factors, with or without a PPARγ antagonist (T0070907 in order to elucidate putative mechanisms. After 12 hr, DHA was the most anti-inflammatory, decreasing MCP1 and IL-6 secretion in the contact system (-57%, -63%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05 with similar effects in the trans-well system. The trans-well system allowed for isolation of cell types for inflammatory mediator analysis. DHA decreased mRNA expression (p<0.05 of Mcp1 (-7.1 fold and increased expression of the negative regulator, Mcp1-IP (+1.5 fold. In macrophages, DHA decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1 polarization markers (p ≤ 0.05, Nos2 (iNOS; -7 fold, Tnfα (-4.2 fold and Nfκb (-2.3 fold, while increasing anti-inflammatory Tgfβ1 (+1.7 fold. Interestingly, the PPARγ antagonist co-administered with DHA or EPA in co-culture reduced (p ≤ 0.05 adiponectin cellular protein, without modulating other cytokines (protein or mRNA. Overall, our findings suggest that DHA may lessen the degree of MCP1 and IL-6 secreted from adipocytes, and may reduce the degree of M1 polarization of macrophages recruited to adipose tissue, thereby decreasing the intensity of pro-inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes

  3. The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by berberine is not mediated by leptin signaling

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    Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kim, Yu-Hee; Ahn, In-Sook; Ha, Jung-Heun; Byun, Jae-Min; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we have shown that berberine has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect is due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors. Here we focused more on anti-inflammatory effect of berberine using real time RT-PCR and found it changes expressions of adipokines. We hypothesized that anti-adipogenicity of berberine mediates anti-inflammtory effect and explored leptin as a candidate medi...

  4. The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by berberine is not mediated by leptin signaling.

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    Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kim, Yu-Hee; Ahn, In-Sook; Ha, Jung-Heun; Byun, Jae-Min; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we have shown that berberine has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect is due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors. Here we focused more on anti-inflammatory effect of berberine using real time RT-PCR and found it changes expressions of adipokines. We hypothesized that anti-adipogenicity of berberine mediates anti-inflammtory effect and explored leptin as a candidate mediator of this signaling. We studied this hypothesis by western blot analysis, but our results showed that berberine has no effect on the phosphorylations of STAT-3 and ERK which have important roles on leptin signaling. These results led us to conclude that the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine is not mediated by the inhibition of leptin signal transduction. Moreover, we have found that berberine down-regulates NF-kappaB signaling, one of the inflammation-related signaling pathway, through western blot analysis. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine is not mediated by leptin, and berberine induces anti-inflammatory effect independent of leptin signaling.

  5. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

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    Taylor, Cormac T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Silke, E-mail: silke.ryan@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  6. Both inflammatory and classical lipolytic pathways are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced lipolysis in human adipocytes.

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    Grisouard, Jean; Bouillet, Elisa; Timper, Katharina; Radimerski, Tanja; Dembinski, Kaethi; Frey, Daniel M; Peterli, Ralph; Zulewski, Henryk; Keller, Ulrich; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-02-01

    High fat diet-induced endotoxaemia triggers low-grade inflammation and lipid release from adipose tissue. This study aims to unravel the cellular mechanisms leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects in human adipocytes. Subcutaneous pre-adipocytes surgically isolated from patients were differentiated into mature adipocytes in vitro. Lipolysis was assessed by measurement of glycerol release and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by real-time PCR. Treatment with LPS for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. At 1 µg/ml LPS, IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to 19.5 ± 1.8-fold and 662.7 ± 91.5-fold (P < 0.01 vs basal), respectively. From 100 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml, LPS-induced lipolysis increased to a plateau of 3.1-fold above basal level (P < 0.001 vs basal). Co-treatment with inhibitors of inhibitory kappa B kinase kinase beta (IKKβ) or NF-κB inhibited LPS-induced glycerol release. Co-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, the lipase inhibitor orlistat or the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) inhibitor CAY10499 abolished the lipolytic effects of LPS. Co-treatment with the MAPK inhibitor, U0126 also reduced LPS-induced glycerol release. Inhibition of lipolysis by orlistat or CAY10499 reduced LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Induction of lipolysis by the synthetic catecholamine isoproterenol or the phosphodiesterase type III inhibitor milrinone did not alter basal IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression after 24 treatments whereas these compounds enhanced LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Both the inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB pathway and the lipolytic PKA/HSL pathways mediate LPS-induced lipolysis. In turn, LPS-induced lipolysis reinforces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, thereby, triggers its own lipolytic activity.

  7. Inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion mediates fisetin-exerted prevention of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

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    Lee, Youngyi; Bae, Eun Ju

    2013-11-01

    Adipocytes are the key player in adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance and its development involves complex process of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Fistein, a polyphenol flavonoid, is known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and its mechanism of action. We found that fisetin inhibits adipocyte differentiation in a concentration dependent manner, which were evidenced by Oil Red O staining and the protein expression of mature adipocyte marker genes fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Moreover, the proliferation of preadipocytes was also markedly suppressed by treatment of fisetin for 24 and 48 h in the differentiation medium. We also found that fisetin inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was largely due to the effect on mitotic clonal expansion. Fisetin suppression of preadipocyte proliferation at early stage of differentiation was accompanied by the changes of expression of a series of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Altogether, our results suggest that the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by fisetin may be at least in part mediated by cell cycle arrest during adipogenesis.

  8. Susceptibility of brown adipocytes to pro-inflammatory cytokine toxicity and reactive oxygen species.

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    Rebiger, Lars; Lenzen, Sigurd; Mehmeti, Ilir

    2016-01-21

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) cells have a very high oxidative capacity. On the other hand, in obesity and obesity-related diabetes, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated, which might promote BAT dysfunction and consequently impair carbohydrate metabolism and thereby exacerbate cellular dysfunction and promote diabetes progression. Therefore, the antioxidative enzyme status of a brown adipocyte cell line and its susceptibility towards pro-inflammatory cytokines, which participate in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed. Mature brown adipocytes exhibited significantly higher levels of expression of mitochondrially and peroxisomally located antioxidative enzymes compared with non-differentiated brown adipocytes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced a significant decrease in the viability of differentiated brown adipocytes, which was accompanied by a massive ROS production and down-regulation of BAT-specific markers, such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and β-Klotho. Taken together, the results strongly indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause brown adipocyte dysfunction and death through suppression of BAT-specific proteins, especially of UCP-1 and β-Klotho, and consequently increased oxidative stress.

  9. TLR4-dependant pro-inflammatory effects of HMGB1 on human adipocyte.

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    Gunasekaran, Manoj Kumar; Virama-Latchoumy, Anne-Laurence; Girard, Anne-Claire; Planesse, Cynthia; Guérin-Dubourg, Alexis; Ottosson, Lars; Andersson, Ulf; Césari, Maya; Roche, Régis; Hoareau, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation is one of the major metabolic disorders in case of obesity and associated pathologies. By its important secretion function, the role of adipose tissue in this metabolic low grade inflammation is well known. Recently, it was demonstrated that the alarmin high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is involved in obesity-related pathologies by its increased serum levels in obese compared to normal weight individuals, and by its pro-inflammatory effects. However, the role of HMGB1 on adipocytes inflammation is poorly documented and we propose to investigate this point. Primary culture of human subcutaneous adipocytes were performed from human adipose tissue samples. Cells were treated with recombinant HMGB1 with/without anti-TLR4 antibody and inhibitors of NF-κB and P38 MAPK. Supernatants were collected for IL-6 and MCP-1 ELISA. HMGB1 initiates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent activation of inflammation through the downstream NF-κB and P38 MAPK signaling pathway to upregulate the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. HMGB1 has pro-inflammatory effects on adipocytes. This reinforces the role of TLR4 in adipose tissue inflammation and antagonizing the HMGB1 inflammatory pathway could bring on new therapeutic targets to counteract obesity-associated pathologies.

  10. Phenotypic shift of adipocytes by cholecalciferol and 1α,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in relation to inflammatory status and calcium content.

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    Zoico, Elena; Franceschetti, Guido; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Rossi, Andrea P; Mazzali, Gloria; Rizzatti, Vanni; Budui, Simona; Zamboni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in optical density (OD) of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presents anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the

  11. Control of lipid metabolism by adipocyte FGFR1-mediated adipohepatic communication during hepatic stress

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    Yang Chaofeng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 exert their effects on metabolic homeostasis through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR and co-factor betaKlotho (KLB. Ileal FGF19 regulates bile acid metabolism through specifically FGFR4-KLB in hepatocytes where FGFR1 is not significant. Both FGF19 and FGF21 activate FGFR1-KLB whose function predominates in adipocytes. Recent studies using administration of FGF19 and FGF21 and genetic ablation of KLB or adipocyte FGFR1 indicate that FGFR1-KLB mediates the response of adipocytes to both FGF21 and FGF19. Here we show that adipose FGFR1 regulates lipid metabolism through direct effect on adipose tissue and indirect effects on liver under starvation conditions that cause hepatic stress. Methods We employed adipocyte-specific ablations of FGFR1 and FGFR2 genes in mice, and analyzed metabolic consequences in adipose tissue, liver and systemic parameters under normal, fasting and starvation conditions. Results Under normal conditions, the ablation of adipose FGFR1 had little effect on adipocytes, but caused shifts in expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Starvation conditions precipitated a concurrent elevation of serum triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and increased hepatic steatosis and adipose lipolysis in the FGFR1-deficient mice. Little effect on glucose or ketone bodies due to the FGFR1 deficiency was observed. Conclusions Our results suggest an adipocyte-hepatocyte communication network mediated by adipocyte FGFR1 that concurrently dampens hepatic lipogenesis and adipocyte lipolysis. We propose that this serves overall to mete out and extend lipid reserves for neural fuels (glucose and ketone bodies, while at the same time governing extent of hepatosteatosis during metabolic extremes and other conditions causing hepatic stress.

  12. Perilipin Promotes HSL-Mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis via Phosphorylation-dependent and Independent Mechanisms

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    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the predominant lipase effector of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL-dependent lipolysis, in response to catecholamines, is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of perilipin A (Peri A), an essential lipid droplet (LD)-ass...

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Spirulina platensis in Macrophages Is Beneficial for Adipocyte Differentiation and Maturation by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

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    Pham, Tho X; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    We previously showed that the organic extract of a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis (SPE), had potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. As the interplay between macrophages and adipocytes is critical for adipocyte functions, we investigated the contribution of the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 10% conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages (CMC) or LPS-stimulated, but SPE-pretreated, macrophages (CMS) at different stages of adipocyte differentiation. The expression of adipocyte differentiation markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and perilipin, was significantly repressed by CMC when added on day 3, while the repression was attenuated by CMS. Oil Red O staining confirmed that adipocyte maturation in CMS-treated cells, but not in CMC-treated cells, was equivalent to that of control cells. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by CMS compared to CMC. In lipid-laden adipocytes, CMC promoted the loss of lipid droplets, while CMS had minimal effects. Histone deacetylase 9 mRNA and protein levels were increased during adipocyte maturation, which were decreased by CMC. In conclusion, by cross-talking with adipocytes, the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages promoted adipocyte differentiation/maturation, at least in part, by repressing the activation of NF-κB inflammatory pathways, which otherwise can be compromised in inflammatory conditions.

  14. Effect of the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 antagonist SR141716A on human adipocyte inflammatory profile and differentiation

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    Murumalla Ravi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is characterized by inflammation, caused by increase in proinflammatory cytokines, a key factor for the development of insulin resistance. SR141716A, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 antagonist, shows significant improvement in clinical status of obese/diabetic patients. Therefore, we studied the effect of SR141716A on human adipocyte inflammatory profile and differentiation. Methods Adipocytes were obtained from liposuction. Stromal vascular cells were extracted and differentiated into adipocytes. Media and cells were collected for secretory (ELISA and expression analysis (qPCR. Triglyceride accumulation was observed using oil red-O staining. Cholesterol was assayed by a fluorometric method. 2-AG and anandamide were quantified using isotope dilution LC-MS. TLR-binding experiments have been conducted in HEK-Blue cells. Results In LPS-treated mature adipocytes, SR141716A was able to decrease the expression and secretion of TNF-a. This molecule has the same effect in LPS-induced IL-6 secretion, while IL-6 expression is not changed. Concerning MCP-1, the basal level is down-regulated by SR141716A, but not the LPS-induced level. This effect is not caused by a binding of the molecule to TLR4 (LPS receptor. Moreover, SR141716A restored adiponectin secretion to normal levels after LPS treatment. Lastly, no effect of SR141716A was detected on human pre-adipocyte differentiation, although the compound enhanced adiponectin gene expression, but not secretion, in differentiated pre-adipocytes. Conclusion We show for the first time that some clinical effects of SR141716A are probably directly related to its anti-inflammatory effect on mature adipocytes. This fact reinforces that adipose tissue is an important target in the development of tools to treat the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Advanced application of porcine intramuscular adipocytes for evaluating anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of immunobiotics.

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    Masahiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available We previously established a clonal porcine intramuscular preadipocyte (PIP line and we were able to establish a protocol to obtain functional mature adipocytes from PIP cells. We hypothesized that both PIP cells and mature adipocytes are likely to be useful in vitro tools for increasing our understanding of immunobiology of adipose tissue, and for the selection and study of immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics able to modulate adipocytes immune responses. In this study, we investigated the immunobiology of PIP cells and mature adipocytes in relation to their response to TNF-α stimulation. In addition, we evaluated the possibility that immunobiotic microorganisms modify adipogenesis and immune functions of porcine adipose tissue through Peyer's patches (PPs immune-competent cells. We treated the porcine PPs immune cells with different probiotic strains; and we evaluated the effect of conditioned media from probiotic-stimulated immune cells in PIP cells and mature adipocytes. The Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 showed remarkable effects, and were able to significantly reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and negative regulators (A20, Bcl-3, and MKP-1 in adipocytes challenged with TNF-α. The results of this study demonstrated that the evaluation of IL-6, and MCP-1 production, and A20 and Bcl-3 down-regulation in TNF-α-challenged adipocytes could function as biomarkers to screen and select potential immunobiotic strains. Taking into consideration that several in vivo and in vitro studies clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 in adipose inflammation, the results presented in this work indicate that the PIP cells and porcine adipocytes could be used for the screening and the selection of new immunobiotic strains with the potential to functionally modulate adipose inflammation when orally administered.

  16. Loganin inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse 3T3L1 adipocytes and mouse model.

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    Li, Yang; Li, Zheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Chenxu; Shen, Bingyu; Tian, Ye; Feng, Haihua

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular walls. ApoCIII is an independent factor which promotes atherosclerotic processes. This study aimed to investigate whether Loganin administration inhibits the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. In the apoCIII-induced mouse adipocytes, the levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and their gene expressions were measured through RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. Our results showed that Loganin markedly decreased TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 concentrations as well as their gene expressions. Western blotting analysis indicated that Loganin suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. In the Tyloxapol-treated mouse model, Loganin reduced the contents of TC and TG in mouse serum. The results of Oil Red-O Staining showed that Loganin reduced the production of lipid droplets. So it is suggested that Loganin might be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing the inflammation stress in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin by GIP in adipocytes - A role for the transcription factor NFAT and phosphodiesterase 3B

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    Omar, Bilal [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Banke, Elin, E-mail: elin.banke@med.lu.se [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Guirguis, Emilia [Cardiovascular Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Aakesson, Lina [Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Manganiello, Vincent [Cardiovascular Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif [Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Gomez, Maria F. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Vascular ET Coupling, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Degerman, Eva [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP-induced osteopontin expression is NFAT-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is PDE3-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is increased in PDE3B KO mice. -- Abstract: The incretin - glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) - and the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin are known to have important roles in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. In this work we show that GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. The GIP-induced increase in osteopontin expression was inhibited by the NFAT (the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells) inhibitor A-285222. Also, the NFAT kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 was upregulated by GIP. To test whether cAMP might be involved in GIP-mediated effects on osteopontin a number of strategies were used. Thus, the {beta}3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 stimulated osteopontin expression, an effects which was mimicked by OPC3911, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3. Furthermore, treatment of phosphodiesterase 3B knock-out mice with CL316,243 resulted in a dramatic upregulation of osteopontin in adipose tissue which was not the case in wild-type mice. In summary, we delineate mechanisms by which GIP stimulates osteopontin in adipocytes. Given the established link between osteopontin and insulin resistance, our data suggest that GIP by stimulating osteopontin expression, also could promote insulin resistance in adipocytes.

  18. Adipocyte JAK2 mediates growth hormone–induced hepatic insulin resistance

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    Corbit, Kevin C.; Camporez, João Paulo G.; Tran, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Camella G.; Lowe, Dylan A.; Nordstrom, Sarah M.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Perry, Rachel J.; Weiss, Ethan J.

    2017-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, growth hormone (GH) has been known to affect insulin sensitivity and risk of diabetes. However, the tissue governing the effects of GH signaling on insulin and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Excess GH reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, GH insensitivity (GHI) is associated with increased adiposity, augmented insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Here, we induce adipocyte-specific GHI through conditional deletion of Jak2 (JAK2A), an obligate transducer of GH signaling. Similar to whole-body GHI, JAK2A mice had increased adiposity and extreme insulin sensitivity. Loss of adipocyte Jak2 augmented hepatic insulin sensitivity and conferred resistance to diet-induced metabolic stress without overt changes in circulating fatty acids. While GH injections induced hepatic insulin resistance in control mice, the diabetogenic action was absent in JAK2A mice. Adipocyte GH signaling directly impinged on both adipose and hepatic insulin signal transduction. Collectively, our results show that adipose tissue governs the effects of GH on insulin and glucose homeostasis. Further, we show that JAK2 mediates liver insulin sensitivity via an extrahepatic, adipose tissue–dependent mechanism. PMID:28194444

  19. MDM2 facilitates adipocyte differentiation through CRTC-mediated activation of STAT3

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    Hallenborg, P.; Siersbæk, M.; Barrio-Hernandez, I.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is best known for balancing the activity of the tumor suppressor p53. We have previously shown that MDM2 is vital for adipocyte conversion through controlling Cebpd expression in a p53-independent manner. Here, we show that the proadipogenic effect of MDM2 relies...... on activation of the STAT family of transcription factors. Their activation was required for the cAMP-mediated induction of target genes. Interestingly, rather than influencing all cAMP-stimulated genes, inhibition of the kinases directly responsible for STAT activation, namely JAKs, or ablation of MDM2, each...

  20. Berberine activates GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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    Kim, So Hui; Shin, Eun-Jung; Kim, Eun-Do; Bayaraa, Tsenguun; Frost, Susan Cooke; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2007-11-01

    It has recently been known that berberine, an alkaloid of medicinal plants, has anti-hyperglycemic effects. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes for analyzing the signaling pathways that contribute to glucose transport. Treatment of berberine to 3T3-L1 adipocytes for 6 h enhanced basal glucose uptake both in normal and in insulin-resistant state, but the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was not augmented significantly. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) by wortmannin did not affect the berberine effect on basal glucose uptake. Berberine did not augment tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1. Further, berberine had no effect on the activity of the insulin-sensitive downstream kinase, atypical protein kinase C (PKCzeta/lambda). However, interestingly, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), which have been known to be responsible for the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT)1, were significantly activated in berberine-treated 3T3-L1 cells. As expected, the level of GLUT1 protein was increased both in normal and insulin-resistant cells in response to berberine. But berberine affected the expression of GLUT4 neither in normal nor in insulin-resistant cells. In addition, berberine treatment increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in 3T3-L1 cells, which has been reported to be associated with GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake. Together, we concluded that berberine increases glucose transport activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by enhancing GLUT1 expression and also stimulates the GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake by activating GLUT1, a result of AMPK stimulation.

  1. Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator

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    Ken-ichiro Inoue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of MT, a highly conserved, low molecular weight, cystein-rich metalloprotein, on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, this molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in various organs/tissues can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, implicating in inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions.

  2. CD1d-mediated Presentation of Endogenous Lipid Antigens by Adipocytes Requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M. W.; Siersbæk, Rasmus; Broekema, Marjoleine F.; de Haar, Colin; Schipper, Henk S.; Boes, Marianne; Mandrup, Susanne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and –δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis. PMID:24966328

  3. CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M W; Siersbæk, Rasmus; Broekema, Marjoleine F; de Haar, Colin; Schipper, Henk S; Boes, Marianne; Mandrup, Susanne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-08-08

    Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and -δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis.

  4. A-FABP mediates adaptive thermogenesis by promoting intracellular activation of thyroid hormones in brown adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lingling; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Wu, Xiaoping; Pan, Yong; Lee, Ida P. C.; Cheong, Lai Yee; Bornstein, Stefan R; Rong, Xianglu; Guo, Jiao; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP. Mechanistically, A-FABP induces the expression of type-II iodothyronine deiodinase in BAT via inhibition of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor α, thereby leading to the conversion of thyroid hormone from its inactive form T4 to active T3. The thermogenic responses to T4 are abrogated in A-FABP KO mice, but enhanced by A-FABP. Thus, A-FABP acts as a physiological stimulator of BAT-mediated adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:28128199

  5. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  6. Differential association of S100A9, an inflammatory marker, and p53, a cell cycle marker, expression with epicardial adipocyte size in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Rosa María; Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Sierra, Juan; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Eiras, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    S100A9 (calgranulin B) has inflammatory and oxidative stress properties and was found to be associated with atherosclerosis and obesity. One of the proteins that can regulate S100A9 transcription is p53, which is involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and adipogenesis. Thus, it triggers adipocyte enlargement and finally obesity. Because epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and thickness is related to coronary artery disease (CAD), we studied the gene expression of this pathway in patients with cardiovascular disease and its association with obesity. Adipocytes and stromal cells from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from 48 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve replacement were obtained after collagenase digestion and differential centrifugation. The expression levels of the involved genes on adipogenesis and cell cycle like fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4, retinol-binding protein (RBP)4, p53 and S100A9 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Adipocyte diameter was measured by optical microscopy. We found that epicardial adipocytes expressed significantly lower levels of adipogenic genes (FABP4 and RBP4) and cell cycle-related genes (S100A9 and p53) than subcutaneous adipocytes. However, in obese patients, upregulation of adipogenic and cell cycle-related genes in subcutaneous and epicardial adipocytes, respectively, was observed. The enlargement of adipocyte size was related to FABP4, S100A9 and p53 expression levels in stromal cells. But only the p53 association was maintained in epicardial stromal cells from obese patients (p=0.003). The expression of p53, but not S100A9, in epicardial stromal cells is related to adipocyte enlargement in obese patients with cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest new mechanisms for understanding the relationship between epicardial fat thickness, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  7. The Dietary Isoflavone Daidzein Reduces Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes through PPARα/γ and JNK Pathways in Adipocyte and Macrophage Co-Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammation caused by adipocyte-macrophage interactions plays a critical role in developing insulin resistance, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs regulate inflammatory gene expression in these cells. Recently, the soy isoflavone daidzein was reported to act as a PPAR activator. We examined whether daidzein affected adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk via the regulation of PPARs. Co-cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages, or palmitate-stimulated RAW264 macrophages were treated with daidzein in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors for PPARs: GW6471 (a PPARα antagonist, and GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist. Inflammatory gene expression was then determined. Daidzein significantly decreased chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2, known in humans as monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP1 and interleukin 6 (Il6 mRNA levels induced by co-culture. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, daidzein inversed the attenuation of adiponectin gene expression by co-culture, and these effects were inhibited by the PPAR-γ specific inhibitor. Daidzein also decreased Ccl2 and Il6 mRNA levels in RAW264 macrophages stimulated with palmitate or conditioned medium (CM from hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This inhibitory effect on Il6 expression was abrogated by a PPAR-α inhibitor. Additionally, we examined the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways and found that daidzein significantly inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Our data suggest that daidzein regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression by activating PPAR-α and -γ and inhibiting the JNK pathway in adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures. These effects might be favorable in improving adipose inflammation, thus, treatment of daidzein may be a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.

  8. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  9. Neuroprotection from complement-mediated inflammatory damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amod P; Kellaway, Laurie A; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Kotwal, Girish J

    2004-12-01

    Several neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, are associated with inflammatory damage. The complex process of neuroinflammation involves various components of the immune system and the central nervous system. Particularly, brain astrocytes and microglial cells generate several inflammatory mediators like cytokines, leukotrienes, superoxide radicals, eicasonoids, and the components of the complement cascade. Complement plays an important role in the etiology of most of the neuroinflammatory disorders. To prevent long-term dysfunction inflammation in the central nervous system must be modulated with neuroprotective agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, phenolic thiazoles, nitrones, catechins, nitric oxide synthetase inhibitors, flavonoids, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Few drugs are found to be effective and their therapeutic benefit is hampered by side effects. Most of the neuroprotective agents are free radical scavengers and many inhibit only one or two aspects of inflammation. The complement inhibitory activity of most of these agents is either unknown or not established. Thus, there is doubt regarding their therapeutic value in most of the inflammatory disorders in which complement plays a major role. In this context the role of a multifunctional protein, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), is quite significant as it may play a pivotal role in the treatment of several neuroinflammatory disorders. VCP is known to inhibit both complement pathways involved in inflammation. It is also known to inhibit cytokines and chemokines in inflammation. Our recent studies on rats demonstrate that VCP administration inhibits macrophage infiltration, reduces spinal cord destruction, and improves motor skills associated with spinal cord injury, establishing VCP as a strong candidate for neuroprotection. Thus, complement inhibitors such as VCP can serve as neuroprotective

  10. Glutamine synthetase desensitizes differentiated adipocytes to proinflammatory stimuli by raising intracellular glutamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Erika Mariana; Spera, Iolanda; Menga, Alessio; Infantino, Vittoria; Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra

    2014-12-20

    The role of glutamine synthetase (GS) during adipocyte differentiation is unclear. Here, we assess the impact of GS on the adipocytic response to a proinflammatory challenge at different differentiation stages. GS expression at the late stages of differentiation desensitized mature adipocytes to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by increasing intracellular glutamine levels. Furthermore, LPS-activated mature adipocytes were unable to produce inflammatory mediators; LPS sensitivity was rescued following GS inhibition and the associated drop in intracellular glutamine levels. The ability of adipocytes to differentially respond to LPS during differentiation negatively correlates to GS expression and intracellular glutamine levels. Hence, modulation of intracellular glutamine levels by GS expression represents an endogenous mechanism through which mature adipocytes control the inflammatory response.

  11. MDM2 facilitates adipocyte differentiation through CRTC-mediated activation of STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenborg, P; Siersbæk, M; Barrio-Hernandez, I; Nielsen, R; Kristiansen, K; Mandrup, S; Grøntved, L; Blagoev, B

    2016-06-30

    The ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is best known for balancing the activity of the tumor suppressor p53. We have previously shown that MDM2 is vital for adipocyte conversion through controlling Cebpd expression in a p53-independent manner. Here, we show that the proadipogenic effect of MDM2 relies on activation of the STAT family of transcription factors. Their activation was required for the cAMP-mediated induction of target genes. Interestingly, rather than influencing all cAMP-stimulated genes, inhibition of the kinases directly responsible for STAT activation, namely JAKs, or ablation of MDM2, each resulted in abolished induction of a subset of cAMP-stimulated genes, with Cebpd being among the most affected. Moreover, STATs were able to interact with the transcriptional cofactors CRTC2 and CRTC3, hitherto only reported to associate with the cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB. Last but not least, the binding of CRTC2 to a transcriptional enhancer that interacts with the Cebpd promoter was dramatically decreased upon JAK inhibition. Our data reveal the existence of an unusual functional interplay between STATs and CREB at the onset of adipogenesis through shared CRTC cofactors.

  12. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-05-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  13. Berberine reduces the expression of adipogenic enzymes and inflammatory molecules of 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Ahn, In-Sook; Kim, Yu-Hee; Park, Ji-Won; Lee, So-Young; Hyun, Chang-Kee; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2006-12-31

    Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological effects, yet its exact mechanism is unknown. In order to understand the anti-adipogenic effect of BBR, we studied the change of expression of several adipogenic enzymes of 3T3-L1 cells by BBR treatment. First, we measured the change of leptin and glycerol in the medium of 3T3-L1 cells treated with 1 micrometer, 5 micrometer and 10 micrometer concentrations of BBR. We also measured the changes of adipogenic and lipolytic factors of 3T3-L1. In 3T3-L1 cells, both leptin and adipogenic factors (SREBP-1c, C/EBP-alpha, PPAR-gamma, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, acyl-CoA synthase and lipoprotein lipase) were reduced by BBR treatment. Glycerol secretion was increased, whereas expression of lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin) mRNA was slightly decreased. Next, we measured the change of inflammation markers of 3T3-L1 cells by BBR treatment. This resulted in the down-regulation of mRNA level of inflammation markers such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, C- reactive protein and haptoglobin. Taken together, our data shows that BBR has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect seems to be due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors.

  14. Adipocytes from New Zealand Obese Mice Exhibit Aberrant Proinflammatory Reactivity to the Stress Signal Heat Shock Protein 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Märker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocytes release immune mediators that contribute to diabetes-associated inflammatory processes. As the stress protein heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60 induces proinflammatory adipocyte activities, we hypothesized that adipocytes of diabetes-predisposed mice exhibit an increased proinflammatory reactivity to Hsp60. Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from nonobese diabetic (NOD, New Zealand obese (NZO, and C57BL/6J mice were analyzed for Hsp60 binding, Hsp60-activated signaling pathways, and Hsp60-induced release of the chemokine CXCL-1 (KC, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Hsp60 showed specific binding to (pre-adipocytes of NOD, NZO, and C57BL/6J mice. Hsp60 binding involved conserved binding structure(s and Hsp60 epitopes and was strongest to NZO mouse-derived mature adipocytes. Hsp60 exposure induced KC, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from (pre-adipocytes of all mouse strains with a pronounced increase of IL-6 release from NZO mouse-derived adipocytes. Compared to NOD and C57BL/6J mouse derived cells, Hsp60-induced formation of IL-6, KC, and MCP-1 from NZO mouse-derived (pre-adipocytes strongly depended on NFκB-activation. Increased Hsp60 binding and Hsp60-induced IL-6 release by mature adipocytes of NZO mice suggest that enhanced adipocyte reactivity to the stress signal Hsp60 contributes to inflammatory processes underlying diabetes associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  15. Myostatin inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of Smad3-mediated β-catenin stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Kon; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Sung Goo; Ko, Yong; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul

    2012-02-01

    Brown adipocytes play an important role in regulating energy balance, and there is a good correlation between obesity and the amount of brown adipose tissue. Although the molecular mechanism of white adipocyte differentiation has been well characterized, brown adipogenesis has not been studied extensively. Moreover, extracellular factors that regulate brown adipogenic differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the mechanism of the regulatory action of myostatin in brown adipogenic differentiation using primary brown preadipocytes. Our results clearly showed that differentiation of brown adipocytes was significantly inhibited by myostatin treatment. In addition, myostatin-induced suppression of brown adipogenesis was observed during the early phase of differentiation. Myostatin induced the phosphorylation of Smad3, which led to increased β-catenin stabilization. These effects were blocked by treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor. Expression of brown adipocyte-related genes, such as PPAR-γ, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and PRDM16, were dramatically down-regulated by treatment with myostatin, and further down-regulated by co-treatment with a β-catenin activator. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that myostatin is a potent negative regulator of brown adipogenic differentiation by modulation of Smad3-induced β-catenin stabilization. Our findings suggest that myostatin could be used as an extracellular factor in the control of brown adipocyte differentiation.

  16. Bisphenol-A impairs insulin action and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in human subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Rossella; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Passaretti, Federica; Liotti, Antonietta; Cabaro, Serena; Longo, Michele; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Oriente, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that chemical pollutants may interfere with the homeostatic control of nutrient metabolism, thereby contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a lipophilic compound contained in plastic which is considered a candidate for impairing energy and glucose metabolism. We have investigated the impact of low doses of BPA on adipocyte metabolic functions. Human adipocytes derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with BPA, in order to evaluate the effect on glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity and cytokine secretion. Treatment with 1 nM BPA significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, without grossly interfering with adipocyte differentiation. Accordingly, mRNA levels of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and GLUT4 were unchanged upon BPA exposure. BPA treatment also impaired insulin-activated receptor phosphorylation and signaling. Moreover, adipocyte incubation with BPA was accompanied by increased release of IL-6 and IFN-γ, as assessed by multiplex ELISA assays, and by activation of JNK, STAT3 and NFkB pathways. Treatment of the cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 almost fully reverted BPA effect on insulin signaling and glucose utilization. In conclusion, low doses of BPA interfere with inflammatory/insulin signaling pathways, leading to impairment of adipose cell function.

  17. Bisphenol-A impairs insulin action and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in human subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Valentino

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that chemical pollutants may interfere with the homeostatic control of nutrient metabolism, thereby contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a lipophilic compound contained in plastic which is considered a candidate for impairing energy and glucose metabolism. We have investigated the impact of low doses of BPA on adipocyte metabolic functions. Human adipocytes derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with BPA, in order to evaluate the effect on glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity and cytokine secretion. Treatment with 1 nM BPA significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, without grossly interfering with adipocyte differentiation. Accordingly, mRNA levels of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and GLUT4 were unchanged upon BPA exposure. BPA treatment also impaired insulin-activated receptor phosphorylation and signaling. Moreover, adipocyte incubation with BPA was accompanied by increased release of IL-6 and IFN-γ, as assessed by multiplex ELISA assays, and by activation of JNK, STAT3 and NFkB pathways. Treatment of the cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 almost fully reverted BPA effect on insulin signaling and glucose utilization. In conclusion, low doses of BPA interfere with inflammatory/insulin signaling pathways, leading to impairment of adipose cell function.

  18. Insulin like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Nøhr, Jane; Jensen, Charlotte Harken;

    2003-01-01

    of Pref-1/FA1 in 3T3-L1 or 3T3-F442A cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation when insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was omitted from the differentiation mixture. We demonstrate that the level of the mature form of the IGF-1 receptor is reduced and that IGF-1-dependent activation of p42/p44......, and adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Jun-6......Pref-1 is a highly glycosylated Delta-like transmembrane protein containing six epidermal growth factor-like repeats in the extracellular domain. Pref-1 is abundantly expressed in preadipocytes, but expression is down-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. Forced expression of Pref-1 in 3T3-L1...

  19. Nanoparticle-mediated treatment for inflammatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides nanoparticles for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The nanoparticles preferably comprise chitosan and a siRNA targeting a mRNA encoding a pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as e.g. tnf-alfa. A preferred route of administration of the nanoparticles is by injection...

  20. Characterization of murine melanocortin receptors mediating adipocyte lipolysis and examination of signalling pathways involved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cathrine Laustrup; Raun, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Marianne Lambert

    2011-01-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) belong to the G-protein coupled receptors (family A). So far, 5 different subtypes have been described (MC1R-MC5R) and of these MC2R and MC5R have been proposed to act directly in adipocytes and regulate lipolysis in rodents. Using ACTH and a-melanocyte stimulating...

  1. beta-adrenoceptors mediate inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Obels, PP; Van Den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    2002-01-01

    The regulation of triglyceride mobilization by catecholamines was investigated in the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) in vivo and in vitro. In vitro experiments were carried out with adipocytes that were isolated for the first time from fish adipose tissue. For the in vivo experiments

  2. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 reduces diet-induced obesity by enhancing AMPK-mediated thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Rodrigues, Ana; Gao, Su; Asterian, Alice; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Barrow, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 (AdKO) enhanced thermogenic EE, which protected mice from high-fat diet–induced weight gain at ambient temperature (23°C), but not at thermoneutral temperature (30°C). AdKO-induced increases in thermogenesis also protected mice from cold-induced decreases in body temperature. UCP1, PGC1α, and other markers of browning and thermogenesis were elevated in IWAT and RWAT of AdKO mice. Cold-induced activation of sympathetic signaling was unaltered, whereas AMPK was enhanced, in AdKO IWAT. Moreover, beige adipocytes from AdKO IWAT displayed enhanced browning, which was diminished by AMPK depletion. Furthermore, we determined that IP6 and IP6K1 differentially regulate upstream kinase-mediated AMPK stimulatory phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, treating mildly obese mice with the IP6K inhibitor TNP enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited progression of DIO. Thus, IP6K1 regulates energy metabolism via a mechanism that could potentially be targeted in obesity. PMID:27701146

  3. Nuclear factor-κB is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. • NF-κB stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. • Recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. • An NF-κB inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the 5′-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-κB subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-κB inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism

  4. 6-Gingerol Suppresses Adipocyte-Derived Mediators of Inflammation In Vitro and in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Zebra Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Byung-Hak; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-02-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism of 6-gingerol on adipocyte-mediated systemic inflammation in vitro and in high-fat diet-induced obese zebra fish. 6-Gingerol decreased adipogenesis due to the suppression of adipocyte differentiation markers, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAATT enhancer binding protein α, and adipocyte protein 2, and triglyceride synthesis enzymes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, and acyl-coA : diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, in 3T3-L1. A coculture insert system using 3T3-L1 with RAW 264.7 (coculture insert system using fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages) revealed that 6-gingerol increased anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. The expression of TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 were decreased in the coculture insert system using fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 6-gingerol. Moreover, the coculture insert system using fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 6-gingerol inhibited the protein expression of TNFα and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in RAW 264.7. 6-Gingerol decreased c-JUN N-terminal kinase and I kappa B kinase beta and its downstream target AP-1 expression in the coculture insert system using fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 6-gingerol decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase stimulated by the coculture insert system using fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages in RAW 264.7 and attenuated nitric oxide production in diet-induced obese zebra fish. Our results suggest that 6-gingerol suppresses inflammation through the regulation of the c-JUN N-terminal kinase-I kappa B kinase beta and its downstream targets.

  5. Functional Roles of Syk in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a series of complex biological responses to protect the host from pathogen invasion. Chronic inflammation is considered a major cause of diseases, such as various types of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and cancers. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk was initially found to be highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been known to play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have reported that Syk is also involved in other biological functions, especially in innate immune responses. Although Syk has been extensively studied in adaptive immune responses, numerous studies have recently presented evidence that Syk has critical functions in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and is closely related to innate immune response. This review describes the characteristics of Syk-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes the recent findings supporting the crucial roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and diseases, and discusses Syk-targeted drug development for the therapy of inflammatory diseases.

  6. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu; Ueguri, Kei; Yee, Karen Kar Lye; Yanase, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue.

  7. Platelets as Central Mediators of Systemic Inflammatory Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tammy L; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses are associated with high morbidity and mortality and represent a diverse and clinically challenging group of diseases. Platelets are increasingly linked to inflammation, in addition to their well-known roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. There is agreement that traditional functions of platelets, including adherence, aggregation, and secretion of preformed mediators, contribute to systemic inflammatory responses. However, emerging evidence indicates that platel...

  8. Pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis is mediated in part via Toll-like receptor 2-induced inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chie; Madrigal, Andres G; Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Goswami, Sulip; Gudino, Cynthia V; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline A

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans have established that polymorphisms in genes encoding the innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with inflammatory atherosclerosis. In hyperlipidemic mice, TLR2 and TLR4 have been reported to contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Human and mouse studies support a role for the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in atherosclerosis, although the mechanisms by which this pathogen stimulates inflammatory atherosclerosis via innate immune system activation is not known. Using a genetically defined apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model we demonstrate that pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis occurs via both TLR2-dependent and TLR2-independent mechanisms. P. gingivalis infection in mice possessing functional TLR2 induced the accumulation of macrophages as well as inflammatory mediators including CD40, IFN-gamma and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in atherosclerotic lesions. The expression of these inflammatory mediators was reduced in atherosclerotic lesions from P. gingivalis-infected TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice. These studies provide a mechanistic link between an innate immune receptor and pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis by a clinically and biologically relevant bacterial pathogen.

  9. Involvement of a cGMP-dependent pathway in the natriuretic peptide-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengenes, Coralie; Bouloumie, Anne; Hauner, Hans; Berlan, Michel; Busse, Rudi; Lafontan, Max; Galitzky, Jean

    2003-12-05

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that natriuretic peptides (NPs), peptide hormones with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilating properties, exert a potent control on the lipolysis in human adipocytes via the activation of the type A guanylyl cyclase receptor (1, 2). In the current study we investigated the intracellular mechanisms involved in the NP-stimulated lipolytic effect in human preadipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that the atrial NP (ANP)-induced lipolysis in human adipocytes was associated with an enhanced serine phosphorylation of the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Both ANP-mediated lipolysis and HSL phosphorylation were inhibited in the presence of increasing concentrations of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY-83583. ANP did not modulate the activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Moreover, H-89, a PKA inhibitor, did not affect the ANP-induced lipolysis. On primary cultures of human preadipocytes, the ANP-mediated lipolytic effect was dependent on the differentiation process. On differentiated human preadipocytes, ANP-mediated lipolysis, associated with an increased phosphorylation of HSL and of perilipin A, was strongly decreased by treatment with the inhibitor of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI), Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS. Thus, ANP-induced lipolysis in human adipocytes is a cGMP-dependent pathway that induces the phosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A via the activation of cGKI. The present study shows that lipolysis in human adipocytes can be controlled by an independent cGKI-mediated signaling as well as by the classical cAMP/PKA pathway.

  10. Effects of Wnt signaling on brown adipocyte differentiation and metabolism mediated by PGC-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Sona; Bajnok, Laszlo; Longo, Kenneth A;

    2005-01-01

    expression of PGC-1alpha is required for activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Wnt10b blocks brown adipose tissue development and expression of UCP1 when expressed from the fatty acid binding protein 4 promoter, even when mice are administered a beta3-agonist. In differentiated brown adipocytes......Activation of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits brown adipogenesis of cultured cells by impeding induction of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. Although enforced expression of these adipogenic transcription factors restores lipid accumulation and expression of FABP4 in Wnt-expressing cells, additional......, activation of Wnt signaling suppresses expression of UCP1 through repression of PGC-1alpha. Consistent with these in vitro observations, UCP1-Wnt10b transgenic mice, which express Wnt10b in interscapular tissue, lack functional brown adipose tissue. While interscapular tissue of UCP1-Wnt10b mice lacks...

  11. High-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I inhibit palmitate-induced translocation of toll-like receptor 4 into lipid rafts and inflammatory cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hodaka; Umemoto, Tomio; Kawano, Mikihiko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Kakei, Masafumi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, San-E; Hara, Kazuo

    2017-03-04

    Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) activate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction in macrophages and are involved in the chronic inflammation accompanying obesity. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) produce anti-inflammatory effects via reverse cholesterol transport. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammatory responses in adipocytes remain to be determined. Here we examined whether palmitate increases the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and whether HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammation in adipocytes. Palmitate exposure (250 μM, 24 h) increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expressions and translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pretreatment with HDL and apoA-I (50 μg/mL, 6 h) suppressed palmitate-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. Moreover, HDL and apoA-I inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B. HDL showed an anti-inflammatory effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 1, whereas apoA-I showed an effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. These results demonstrated that HDL and apoA-I reduced palmitate-potentiated TLR4 trafficking into lipid rafts and its related inflammation in adipocytes via these specific transporters.

  12. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.

  13. Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, D M; Caldas, A P; Oliveira, L L; Bressan, J; Hermsdorff, H H

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate infection-induced inflammation and sterile inflammation by endogenous molecules. Among the TLR family, TLR4 is the best understood. However, while its downstream signaling pathways have been well defined, not all ligands of TLR4 are currently known. Current evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids (SFA) act as non-microbial TLR4 agonists, and trigger its inflammatory response. Thus, our present review provides a new perspective on the potential mechanism by which SFAs could modulate TLR4-induced inflammatory responses: (1) SFAs can be recognized by CD14-TLR4-MD2 complex and trigger inflammatory pathways, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (2) SFAs lead to modification of gut microbiota with an overproduction of LPS after a high-fat intake, enhancing this natural TLR4 ligand. (3) In addition, this metabolic endotoxemia leads to an oxidative stress thereby producing atherogenic lipids - oxLDL and oxidized phospholipids - which trigger CD36-TLR4-TLR6 inflammatory response. (4) Also, the high SFA consumption increases the lipemia and the mmLDL and oxLDL formation through oxidative modifications of LDL. The mmLDL, unlike oxLDL, is involved in activation of the CD14-TLR4-MD2 inflammatory pathway. Those molecules can induce TLR4 inflammatory response by MyD88-dependent and/or MyD88-independent pathways that, in turn, promotes the expression of proinflammatory transcript factors such as factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), which plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, or costimulatory molecules) implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  14. Urine metabolome profiling of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Arnald; Julià, Antonio; Vinaixa, Maria; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D.; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; Gisbert, Javier P; Nos, Pilar; Casbas, Ana Gutiérrez; Puig, Lluís; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Pinto-Tasende, José A.; Blanco, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are a group of complex and prevalent diseases where disease diagnostic and activity monitoring is highly challenging. The determination of the metabolite profiles of biological samples is becoming a powerful approach to identify new biomarkers of clinical utility. In order to identify new metabolite biomarkers of diagnosis and disease activity, we have performed the first large-scale profiling of the urine metabolome of the six most pre...

  15. Messengers without borders: mediators of systemic inflammatory response in AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Brian B; Rabadi, May M; Vasko, Radovan; Yasuda, Kaoru; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The list of signals sent by an injured organ to systemic circulation, so-called danger signals, is growing to include multiple metabolites and secreted moieties, thus revealing a highly complex and integrated network of interlinked systemic proinflammatory and proregenerative messages. Emerging new data indicate that, apart from the well established local inflammatory response to AKI, danger signaling unleashes a cascade of precisely timed, interdependent, and intensity-gradated mediators responsible for development of the systemic inflammatory response. This fledgling realization of the importance of the systemic inflammatory response to the localized injury and inflammation is at the core of this brief overview. It has a potential to explain the additive effects of concomitant diseases or preexisting chronic conditions that can prime the systemic inflammatory response and exacerbate it out of proportion to the actual degree of acute kidney damage. Although therapies for ameliorating AKI per se remain limited, a potentially powerful strategy that could reap significant benefits in the future is to modulate the intensity of danger signals and consequently the systemic inflammatory response, while preserving its intrinsic proregenerative stimuli.

  16. Classical and alternative NF-κB signaling cooperate in regulating adipocyte differentiation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, A.; Lovas, A.; Rauch, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective:Inflammation of adipose tissue (AT) is a central mediator of insulin resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by inflammatory cells are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolic functions of lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβ...... to adipocytes. The molecular mechanism was elucidated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and combinatorial treatment with α-LTβR and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).Results:RelB FatKO mice showed improved insulin sensitivity despite increased adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. LTβR-induced activation of p52-Rel.......Conclusions:Our data describe an anti-adipogenic action of LTβR signaling and a novel synergism of alternative and classical NF-κB signaling in the regulation of adipocytes. In conclusion, this strong synergism between the two NF-κB pathways shows a method to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and to improve insulin...

  17. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  18. CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M W; Siersbæk, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , CD1d-restricted invariant (i)Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d...... presenting cells (APCs), which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis.......-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are upregulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally...

  19. Influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Rui Kang; Jia-Li Xie; Ya-Ni Xue

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein and anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods:A total of 54 patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from April 2014 to May 2015 were selected as the study object, and they were randomly divided into control group (conventional treatment of severe pneumonia group) and observation group (conventional treatment and ulinastatin group), with 27 cases in each group. Then the serum levels of pulmonary surfactant protein,anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before and after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were compared. Results:The serum level of pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before treatment had no significant differences, all P>0.05, and those serum indexes in observation group after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were all significantly better than those of the control group, all P<0.05. Conclusions:The ulinastatin can effectively improve the pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with severe pneumonia, and its improvement role for various of severe pneumonia are obvious.

  20. Inflammatory Signals Enhance Piezo2-Mediated Mechanosensitive Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne E. Dubin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heightened nociceptor function caused by inflammatory mediators such as bradykinin (BK contributes to increased pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. Although it is known that sensitization of the heat transducer TRPV1 largely subserves thermal hyperalgesia, the cellular mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia have been elusive. The role of the mechanically activated (MA channel piezo2 (known as FAM38B present in mammalian sensory neurons is unknown. We test the hypothesis that piezo2 activity is enhanced by BK, an algogenic peptide that induces mechanical hyperalgesia within minutes. Piezo2 current amplitude is increased and inactivation is slowed by bradykinin receptor beta 2 (BDKRB2 activation in heterologous expression systems. Protein kinase A (PKA and protein kinase C (PKC agonists enhance piezo2 activity. BDKRB2-mediated effects are abolished by PKA and PKC inhibitors. Finally, piezo2-dependent MA currents in a class of native sensory neurons are enhanced 8-fold by BK via PKA and PKC. Thus, piezo2 sensitization may contribute to PKA- and PKC-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Autoimmune or Immune-mediated Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Wen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, is still unclear, but both autoimmune and immune-mediated phenomena are involved. Autoimmune phenomena include the presence of serum and mucosal autoantibodies against intestinal epithelial cells in either form of IBD, and against human tropomyosin fraction five selectively in UC. In addition, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA are common in UC, whereas antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA are frequently found in CD. Immune-mediate phenomena include a variety of abnormalities of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and a generalized enhanced reactivity against intestinal bacterial antigens in both CD and UC. It is currently believed that loss of tolerance against the indigenous enteric flora is the central event in IBD pathogenesis. Various complementary factors probably contribute to the loss of tolerance to commensal bacteria in IBD. They include defects in regulatory T-cell function, excessive stimulation of mucosal dendritic cells, infections or variants of proteins critically involved in bacterial antigen recognition, such as the products of CD-associated NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

  2. SMRT-GPS2 corepressor pathway dysregulation coincides with obesity-linked adipocyte inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Amine; Clément, Karine; Fan, Rongrong; Ancel, Patricia; Pelloux, Veronique; Rouault, Christine; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hartemann, Agnes; Treuter, Eckardt; Venteclef, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function. Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the transcriptional corepressor complex subunits GPS2 and SMRT was significantly reduced in obese adipose tissue, inversely correlated to inflammatory status, and was restored upon gastric bypass surgery–induced weight loss in morbid obesity. These alterations correlated with reduced occupancy of the corepressor complex at inflammatory promoters, providing a mechanistic explanation for elevated inflammatory transcription. In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, we identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes. These findings were clinically relevant, because treatment of diabetic obese patients with pioglitazone, an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory PPARγ agonist, restored expression of TWIST1, GPS2, and SMRT in adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity. PMID:23221346

  3. Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Robert A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that activate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. To address this gap in knowledge, we have measured the effect of reducing adipocyte LPL expression on intracellular lipid accumulation using a well-established cultured model of adipocyte differentiation. Methods siRNA specific for mouse LPL was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of LPL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric detection following substrate (p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis. Apolipoprotein CII and CIII expression ratios were also measured by qRT-PCR. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by Nile Red staining. Results During differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, LPL mRNA expression increases 6-fold resulting in a 2-fold increase in cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity. Parallel to this increase in LPL expression, we found that intracellular lipids increased ~10-fold demonstrating a direct correlation between adipocyte-derived LPL expression and lipid storage. We next reduced LPL expression in adipocytes using siRNA transfections to directly quantify the contributions of adipocyte-derived LPL to lipid storage, This treatment reduced LPL mRNA expression and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity to ~50% of non-treated controls while intracellular lipid levels were reduced by 80%. Exogenous addition of purified LPL (to restore extracellular lipolytic activity or palmitate (as a source of free fatty acids to siRNA-treated cells restored intracellular lipid levels to those measured for non

  4. Tear film inflammatory mediators in patients with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Rana; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Taheri, Nazli; Ahoor, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-08-01

    To determine the concentration of inflammatory mediators in the tear film of patients with keratoconus. Basal tears from patients with keratoconus and from normal controls were collected using a capillary tube. Patients with keratoconus were examined in a routine fashion, and keratometric readings were also taken from corneal topographic maps .The concentration of cytokines including Interleukin 6,10,1b and Interferon-γ was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in the study including 42 patients with keratoconus and 30 normals. Patients with keratoconus had significantly higher levels of Interlukin 6,1b and Interferon-γ (17.49 ± 1.92 pg/ml), (8.58 ± 1.15 pg/ml), and (33.33 ± 7.57 pg/ml) compared with control subjects (13.81 ± 1.71 pg/ml), (4.98 ± 0.52 pg/ml), and (22.99 ± 4.68 pg/ml), (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001). But the level of Interlukin-10 in keratoconus patients was significantly lower (6.07 ± 1.35 pg/ml) than controls (8.99 ± 0.70 pg/ml) (P = 0.0001). We realized that the proinflammatory markers (Interlukin-6,1-b and Interferon-γ) are over expressed, whereas the anti-inflammatory marker (Interlukin-10) is under expressed, indicating that the pathogenesis of keratoconus may involve complex chronic inflammatory events. Additional future studies will reveal the exact molecular and biochemical mechanisms that are required to better manage the disease and halt its progression.

  5. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  6. AMPK is Involved in Mediation of Erythropoietin Influence on Metabolic Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in White Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Di, Lijun; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin, discovered for its indispensable role during erythropoiesis, has been used in the therapy for selected red blood cell disorders in erythropoietin-deficient patients. The biological activities of erythropoietin have been found to extend to non-erythroid tissues due to the expression of erythropoietin receptor. We previously demonstrated that erythropoietin promotes metabolic activity and white adipocytes browning to increase mitochondrial function and energy expenditure via per...

  7. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  8. Inflammatory mediators and cytotoxins in cardiac allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, R.P.; Powell, W.S.; Blais, D.; Marghesco, D.

    1986-03-01

    Though organ allograft rejection in rats has been linked to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) the pathogenesis of DTH induced tissue injury is uncertain. Accordingly, the authors have undertaken to identify the following inflammatory mediators/cytotoxins in rejecting rat cardiac allografts (WF ..-->.. LEW, day 5): phospholipase A/sub 2/(PLA/sub 2/ in cardiac homogenates assessed using /sup 14/C oleate labelled E Coli), PAF in lipid extracts of grafts measured by aggregation of rabbit platelets, arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (HPLC analysis of products released from isolated perfused hearts and slices prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA), lymphotoxin and/or tumor necrosis factor (LT/TNF release in vitro from infiltrating mononuclear cells assayed using cell line varies as L929. Briefly, aliquots of homogenates (10ml) of rejecting grafts demonstrated PLA/sub 2/ activity as evidenced by liberation of FFA from bacterial phospholipids (baseline 3%, 1 ..mu..1 4%, 25 ..mu..l 24%, 100 /sup +/l 29%, 200 ..mu..l 39%; control hearts, 200 ..mu..l 5%). Rejecting cardiac allografts contained approximately 10 ng PAF while PAF recovered from syngeneic grafts was less than or equal to 5 ng. Observed changes in eicosanoid biosynthesis with rejection were limited to a decrement in 6 oxo PGF/sub /sub 1/..cap alpha../ release. Infiltrating mononuclear cells recovered from rejecting grafts released greater than or equal to 64 units of cytotoxin (LT and/or TNF). The author present results, documenting a decrement in prostacyclin release by rejecting heart grafts, the presence of PLA/sub 2/ and PAF and the release of cytotoxins (LT and/or TNF) by infiltrating mononuclear cells are compatible with the thesis that allograft rejection must be viewed as a complex immune/inflammatory process. Additional studies are clearly required to define roles of these and other soluble factors in homograft destruction.

  9. Enhanced Differentiation of Three-Gene-Reprogrammed Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Adipocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated PGC-1α Overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells formed by the introduction of only three factors, Oct4/Sox2/Klf4 (3-gene iPSCs, may provide a safer option for stem cell-based therapy than iPSCs conventionally introduced with four-gene iPSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α plays an important role during brown fat development. However, the potential roles of PGC-1α in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and the differentiation of iPSCs are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated PGC-1α overexpression in 3-gene iPSCs. PGC-1α overexpression resulted in increased mitochondrial mass, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen consumption. Microarray-based bioinformatics showed that the gene expression pattern of PGC-1α-overexpressing 3-gene iPSCs resembled the expression pattern observed in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGC-1α overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation and the expression of several brown fat markers, including uncoupling protein-1, cytochrome C, and nuclear respiratory factor-1, whereas it inhibited the expression of the white fat marker uncoupling protein-2. Furthermore, PGC-1α overexpression significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate that PGC-1α directs the differentiation of 3-gene iPSCs into adipocyte-like cells with features of brown fat cells. This may provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders and obesity.

  10. EFFECTS OF FILTER MEMBRANES ADSORBING INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS IN HEMOFILTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋红利; 薛武军; 尹爱萍; 李大庆; 鞠峰炽; 孔澍

    2004-01-01

    Objective In this study, an in vitro hemofiltration model was set up to investigate adsorptive saturation time of different membrane under different blood flow rate (QB)and filtrate rate(QF). Methods Anticoagulated cattle blood (2000mL per bag) was stimulated with 1μg*mL-1 endotoxin to induce inflammatory mediators before hemofiltration (HF) using AN69, PS and PMMA filters in vitro. Adsorptive saturation time of membrane was observed using data bridge in different QB and different QF. TNF was measured by radioimmunoassays. Results Before the resistance level reached the peak value in the same group, resistance level increased significantly (P0.05). It was suggested that the resistance level reached plateau at 150,120,90,120, and150 minutes in QF of 100mL*minute-1, 200mL*minute-1, 300mL*minute-1, respectively and in QF of 1L*hour-1, 2L*hour-1, 4L*hour-1, respectively. And with the QB and QF increasing, resistance level increased significantly (P<0.01) among different groups at the same time point in A, B, C, D and E group. Conclusion Membrane resistance level online measured by Data Bridge can instantly reflect the degree of membrane adsorption. Adsorptive saturation time of filter membrane in different filtration flow rate and blood flow rate are different.

  11. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Neal X., E-mail: xuechen@iupui.edu [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Moe, Sharon M. [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  12. NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in adipocytes regulates adipose tissue function and multi-organ insulin sensitivity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsdorfer, Kelly L.; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Yoon, Myeong Jin; Moseley, Anna C.; Franczyk, Michael P.; Kelly, Shannon C.; Qi, Nathan; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Yoshino, Jun

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and multi-organ insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms of such obesity-associated systemic metabolic complications are not clear. Here, we characterized mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a rate-limiting NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme known to decrease in adipose tissue of obese and aged rodents and people. We found that adipocyte-specific Nampt knockout mice had severe insulin resistance in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue dysfunction, manifested by increased plasma free fatty acids concentrations and decreased plasma concentrations of a major insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. Loss of Nampt increased phosphorylation of CDK5 and PPARγ (serine-273) and decreased gene expression of obesity-linked phosphorylated PPARγ targets in adipose tissue. Remarkably, these deleterious alterations were normalized by administering rosiglitazone or a key NAD+ intermediate, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Collectively, our results provide important mechanistic and therapeutic insights into obesity-associated systemic metabolic derangements, particularly multi-organ insulin resistance. PMID:27498863

  13. Reduced phosphorylation of AS160 contributes to glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake in human and murine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Sherry; Barry, Janelle B; Nisbet, Janelle C; Prins, Johannes B; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2009-04-10

    Excess glucocorticoids induce insulin resistance and reduce glucose uptake although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we demonstrate that Dex (1 microM for 24h) inhibits basal and insulin (1 nM) stimulated glucose uptake in human and murine adipocytes by 50% with a concomitant reduction in the levels of GLUT1/4 at the plasma membrane but no change in total GLUT1/4 levels. Expression and phosphorylation of proximal insulin signalling molecules (IRS1, PI3K, AKT) was unaffected by Dex as was phosphorylation of mTOR and FOXO1. In contrast, phosphorylation of AKT substrate 160kDa (AS160) at T642, which is essential for 14-3-3 recruitment and GLUT4 translocation, was reduced by 50% in basal and insulin-stimulated cells and this was mirrored by decreased 14-3-3 association. Co-treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 (10 microM) abrogated the Dex effect on AS160-T642 phosphorylation and restored glucose uptake by 80%. These data suggest Dex inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes, at least in part, by reducing AS160 phosphorylation and interaction with 14-3-3.

  14. Adipocyte-specific IKKβ signaling suppresses adipose tissue inflammation through an IL-13-dependent paracrine feedback pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyokjoon; Laurent, Sarnia; Tang, Yan; Zong, Haihong; Vemulapalli, Pratibha; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2014-12-11

    Adipose tissue inflammation is one pathway shown to mediate insulin resistance in obese humans and rodents. Obesity induces dynamic cellular changes in adipose tissue to increase proinflammatory cytokines and diminish anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, we have found that anti-inflammatory interleukin-13 (IL-13) is unexpectedly induced in adipose tissue of obese humans and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and the source of IL-13 is primarily the adipocyte. Moreover, HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β mediate IL-13 production in adipocytes in an IKKβ-dependent manner. In contrast, adipocyte-specific IKKβ-deficient mice show diminished IL-13 expression and enhanced inflammation after HFD feeding, resulting in a worsening of the insulin-resistant state. Together these data demonstrate that although IKKβ activates the expression of proinflammatory mediators, in adipocytes, IKKβ signaling also induces the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13, which plays a unique protective role by limiting adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.; Rand, J.; Kiang, C.L.; Stump, D.; Berk, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of (/sup 3/H)-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound (/sup 3/H)oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation of the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 ..mu..g/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10/sup 4/ adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut.

  16. PERK Utilizes Intrinsic Lipid Kinase Activity To Generate Phosphatidic Acid, Mediate Akt Activation, and Promote Adipocyte Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J.; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A.; Witze, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought. PMID:22493067

  17. PERK utilizes intrinsic lipid kinase activity to generate phosphatidic acid, mediate Akt activation, and promote adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A; Witze, Eric S; Diehl, J Alan

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought.

  18. Hesperetin inhibit adipocyte differentiation and enhance Bax- and p21-mediated adipolysis in human mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to explore the antiadipogenic and adipolysis effect of hesperetin in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)-induced adipogenesis. IC50 value of hesperetin was higher for hMSCs such as 149.2 ± 13.2 μmol for 24 h and 89.4 ± 11.4 μmol in 48 h, whereas in preadipocytes was 87.6 ± 9.5 μmol and 72.4 ± 5.6 μmol in 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Hesperetin treatment (5, 10, and 20 μmol) to adipogenesis-induced hMSCs (Group 1) and preadipocytes (Group 2) resulted in a significantly (p p21 expression in Group 2 compared to untreated preadipocytes. hMSCs cultured in adipogenic medium along with hesperetin significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and increased the proapoptotic gene expression levels in preadipocyte. Our result indicates the antiadipogenic and adipolysis effects of hesperetin.

  19. Inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules as indicators of severity of atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); M.L. Bots (Michiel); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractInflammatory mediators and soluble cell adhesion molecules predict cardiovascular events. It is not clear whether they reflect the severity of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Within the Rotterdam Study, we investigated the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), i

  20. Synergistic effects of polyphenols and methylxanthines with Leucine on AMPK/Sirtuin-mediated metabolism in muscle cells and adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    Full Text Available The AMPK-Sirt1 pathway is an important regulator of energy metabolism and therefore a potential target for prevention and therapy of metabolic diseases. We recently demonstrated leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB to synergize with low-dose resveratrol (200 nM to activate sirtuin signaling and stimulate energy metabolism. Here we show that leucine exerts a direct effect on Sirt1 kinetics, reducing its Km for NAD(+ by >50% and enabling low doses of resveratrol to further activate the enzyme (p = 0.012. To test which structure elements of resveratrol are necessary for synergy, we assessed potential synergy of structurally similar and dissimilar polyphenols as well as other compounds converging on the same pathways with leucine using fatty acid oxidation (FAO as screening tool. Dose-response curves for FAO were constructed and the highest non-effective dose (typically 1-10 nM was used with either leucine (0.5 mM or HMB (5 µM to treat adipocytes and myotubes for 24 h. Significant synergy was detected for stilbenes with FAO increase in adipocytes by 60-70% (p2000% (p1 µM and exhibited little or no synergy. Thus, the six-carbon ring structure bound to a carboxylic group seems to be a necessary element for leucine/HMB synergy with other stilbenes and hydroxycinnamic acids to stimulate AMPK/Sirt1 dependent FAO; these effects occur at concentrations that produce no independent effects and are readily achievable via oral administration.

  1. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  2. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  3. Inflammatory Mediators of Leprosy Reactional Episodes and Dental Infections: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortela, D. C. B.; de Souza Junior, A. L.; Virmond, M. C. L.; Ignotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactional episodes in leprosy are a result of complex interactions between the immune system, Mycobacterium leprae, and predisposing factors, including dental infections. To determine the main inflammatory mediators in the immunopathological process of dental infections and leprosy reactions, we conducted a systematic review of primary literature published between 1996 and 2013. A three-stage literature search was performed (Stage I, “leprosy reactions” and “inflammatory mediators”; Stage II, “dental infections” and “inflammatory mediators”; and Stage III, “leprosy reactions,” “dental infections,” and “inflammatory mediators”). Of the 911 eligible publications, 10 were selected in Stage I, 68 in Stage II, and 1 in Stage III. Of the 27 studied inflammatory mediators, the main proinflammatory mediators were IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17; the main anti-inflammatory mediators were IL-10 and IL-4. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were significant during periodontal and reactional lesion evolution; IFN-γ and IL-1β were associated with types 1 and 2 reactions and chronic periodontal disease. The proinflammatory mediators in dental infections and leprosy reactions, especially IL-6 and TNF-α, were similar across studies, regardless of the laboratory technique and sample type. IFN-γ and IL-1β were significant for leprosy reactions and periodontal diseases. This pattern was maintained in serum. PMID:26339136

  4. St. John's wort promotes adipocyte differentiation and modulates NF-κB activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Tomoko; Sameshima, Yuka; Kawabata, Mami; Yamada, Shizuo; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Mizuno, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW), or Hypericum perforatum, is a perennial herb that has been used in the treatment of depression in several countries. Though its therapeutic effect on depression has been extensively studied, its influence on metabolic syndrome is yet to be fully characterized. Therefore, we investigated the effect of SJW extract on adipocyte differentiation and its anti-inflammatory effects by using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil Red O staining indicated that SJW promotes adipocyte differentiation, while immunoblots indicated that SJW increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor regulating adipocyte differentiation, and adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of SJW was demonstrated by its inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inflammatory transcription factor. Stimulation of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased the expression of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, and increased its phosphorylation. Treatment with SJW further decreased the TNF-α-induced perturbation in IκBα expression and phosphorylation, which indicated that SJW mediated the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, SJW decreased the TNF-α-induced increase in the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Collectively, our results indicate that SJW treatment could promote adipocyte differentiation probably through its anti-inflammatory activity, which in turn suggests that SJW has the potential to minimize the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  6. Atherosclerosis: a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Pio; Shaik-Dasthagirisaeb, Yazdami

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a process that plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and immune disease, involving multiple cell types, including macrophages, T-lymphocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mast cells. The fundamental damage of atherosclerosis is the atheromatous or fibro-fatty plaque which is a lesion that causes several diseases. In atherosclerosis the innate immune response, which involves macrophages, is initiated by the arterial endothelial cells which respond to modified lipoproteins and lead to Th1 cell subset activation and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines. Other immune cells, such as CD4+ T inflammatory cells, which play a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and regulatory T cells [Treg], which have a protective effect on the development of atherosclerosis are involved. Considerable evidence indicates that mast cells and their products play a key role in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Activated mast cells can have detrimental effects, provoking matrix degradation, apoptosis, and enhancement as well as recruitment of inflammatory cells, which actively contributes to atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Here we discuss the relationship between atherosclerosis, inflammation and mast cells.

  7. Inflammatory Mediators of Leprosy Reactional Episodes and Dental Infections: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cortela, D. C. B.; de Souza Junior, A. L.; M. C. L. Virmond; E. Ignotti

    2015-01-01

    Reactional episodes in leprosy are a result of complex interactions between the immune system, Mycobacterium leprae, and predisposing factors, including dental infections. To determine the main inflammatory mediators in the immunopathological process of dental infections and leprosy reactions, we conducted a systematic review of primary literature published between 1996 and 2013. A three-stage literature search was performed (Stage I, “leprosy reactions” and “inflammatory mediators”; Stage II...

  8. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  9. Production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages obtained from ascites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Pruimboom (Wanda); A.P.J. van Dijk (Arie); C.J.A.M. Tak (Corné); I.L. Bonta; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAscites is a readily available source of human macrophages (Mø), which can be used to study Mø functions in vitro. We characterized the mediators of inflammation produced by human peritoneal Mø (hp-Mø) obtained from patients with portal hypertension and ascites. The production of the cy

  10. Morphological and inflammatory changes in visceral adipose tissue during obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelo, Xavier S; Luck, Helen; Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a major health burden worldwide and is a major factor in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic complications such as type II diabetes. Chronic nutrient excess leads to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expansion and dysfunction in an active process that involves the adipocytes, their supporting matrix, and immune cell infiltrates. These changes contribute to adipose tissue hypoxia, adipocyte cell stress, and ultimately cell death. Accumulation of lymphocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells around dying adipocytes forms the so-called "crown-like structure", a histological hallmark of VAT in obesity. Cross talk between immune cells in adipose tissue dictates the overall inflammatory response, ultimately leading to the production of pro-inflammatory mediators which directly induce insulin resistance in VAT. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the dramatic changes that occur in visceral adipose tissue during obesity leading to low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic disease.

  11. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  12. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  13. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in BMP7-Treated Brown Adipocytes, Due to Increased CPT1- and CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Kristy L; An, Ding; Lynes, Matthew D.; Huang, Tian Lian; Zhang, Hongbin; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine...

  14. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methods: Methanolic extracts (80% of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50 were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. Results: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01, PGE2 (P < 0.05, TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001 release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. Conclusion: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. TRAF-mediated regulation of immune and inflammatory responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family consists of six mammalian members,and is shown to participate in signal transduction of a large number of receptor families including TNF receptor family (TNFR) and Toll-like receptors-interleukin-1 receptors (TLR-IL-1R) family.Upon receptor activation,TRAFs are directly or indirectly recruited to the intracellular domains of these receptors.They subsequently engage other signaling proteins to activate inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) complex,TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and inducible I κB kinase (IKK-i) (also known as IKKε),ultimately leading to activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) to induce immune and inflammatory responses.

  16. CD163-L1 is an endocytic macrophage protein strongly regulated by mediators in the inflammatory response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper B; Nielsen, Marianne J; Reichhardt, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    -phase mediator IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 but is suppressed by the proinflammatory mediators IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α, and LPS/IFN-γ. Furthermore, we show that CD163-L1 is an endocytic receptor, which internalizes independently of cross-linking through a clathrin-mediated pathway. Two cytoplasmic...

  17. Autoimmunity : Break-through in the diagnosis and treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Frans G. M.; Baeten, Dominique; Huizinga, Tom W. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of fundamental mechanisms of autoimmunity has been instrumental to clinical progress in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Dutch immunology has made major contributions to these developments, ranging from fundamental studies on immune cells, a

  18. A concise synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-ETE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyagi, Rahul; Shimpukade, Bharat; Blättermann, Stefanie;

    2012-01-01

    A concise and practical method for synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE, 1) from arachidonic acid in four steps and 70% overall yield is reported. Stability studies indicate that 1 can be safely handled without rigorous precautions...

  19. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...

  20. Early intervention in psoriasis and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A hypothesis paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolomoni, G.; Griffiths, C.E.; Krueger, J.; Nestle, F.O.; Nicolas, J.F.; Prinz, J.C.; Puig, L.; Stahle, M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Allez, M.; Emery, P.; Paul, C.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) which may have a major impact on a patient's life, especially when the disease is moderate to severe. There is evidence that treatment of psoriasis during the first years is conservative and frequently based on topical agents which rarely c

  1. Mapping inflammation onto mood: Inflammatory mediators of anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swardfager, Walter; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Benlamri, Meriem; McIntyre, Roger S

    2016-05-01

    Evidence supports inflammatory involvement in mood and cognitive symptoms across psychiatric, neurological and medical disorders; however, inflammation is not a sensitive or specific characteristic of these diagnoses. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) ask for a shift away from symptom-based diagnoses toward a transdiagnostic neurobiological focus in the study of brain illnesses. The RDoC matrix may provide a useful framework for integrating the effects of inflammation on brain function. Based on preclinical and clinical findings, relevant relationships span negative and positive valence systems, cognitive systems, systems for social processes and arousal/regulatory systems. As an exemplar, we consider the psychopathological domain of anhedonia, conceptualizing the relevance of inflammation (e.g., cellular immunity) and downstream processes (e.g., indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation and oxidative inactivation of tetrahydrobiopterin) across RDoC units of analysis (e.g., catecholamine neurotransmitter molecules, nucleus accumbens medium spiny neuronal cells, dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical reward circuits, animal paradigms, etc.). We discuss implications across illnesses affecting the brain, including infection, major depressive disorder, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Neural stimulation does not mediate attenuated vascular response in ACL-deficient knees: potential role of local inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel; Salo, Paul; Hart, David A; Leonard, Catherine; Mammoto, Takeo; Bray, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (OA) alters normal responses and modifies the functionality of the articular vasculature. Altered responsiveness of the vasculature may be due to excessive neural activity associated with chronic pain and inflammation, or from the production of inflammatory mediators which induce vasodilation. Using laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI), blood flow to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of adult rabbits was measured in denervated ACL transected knees (n = 6) and compared to unoperated control (n = 6) and 6-week anterial cruciate ligament (ACL)-transected knees (n = 6). Phenylephrine and neuropeptide Y were applied to the MCL vasculature in topical boluses of 100 microL (dose range 10(-14) to 10(-8) mol and 10(-14) to 10(-9) mol, respectively). Denervation diminished vasoconstrictive responsiveness to phenylephrine compared to both control and ACL-transected knees. Denervation minimally enhanced vascular responses to neuropeptide Y (NPY) compared to ACL deficiency alone, which nevertheless remained significantly diminished from control responses. To evaluate the potential role of inflammatory dilators in the diminished contractile responses, phenylephrine was coadministered with histamine, substance P, and prostaglandin E(2). High-dose histamine, and low-dose substance P and PGE(2) were able to inhibit contractile responses in the MCL of control knees. Excessive neural input does not mediate diminished vasoconstrictive responses in the ACL transected knee; inflammatory mediators may play a role in the deficient vascular responsiveness of the ACL transected knee.

  3. Soluble Mediators in Platelet Concentrates Modulate Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Responses in an Experimental Model of Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Alexis J; Christensen, Anne-Marie; Flower, Robert L; Dean, Melinda M

    2015-10-01

    The transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs) is widely used to treat thrombocytopenia and severe trauma. Ex vivo storage of PCs is associated with a storage lesion characterized by partial platelet activation and the release of soluble mediators, such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), RANTES, and interleukin (IL)-8. An in vitro whole blood culture transfusion model was employed to assess whether mediators present in PC supernatants (PC-SNs) modulated dendritic cell (DC)-specific inflammatory responses (intracellular staining) and the overall inflammatory response (cytometric bead array). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was included in parallel cultures to model the impact of PC-SNs on cell responses following toll-like receptor-mediated pathogen recognition. The impact of both the PC dose (10%, 25%) and ex vivo storage period was investigated [day 2 (D2), day 5 (D5), day 7 (D7)]. PC-SNs alone had minimal impact on DC-specific inflammatory responses and the overall inflammatory response. However, in the presence of LPS, exposure to PC-SNs resulted in a significant dose-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-12, IL-6, IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β and storage-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-8. For the overall inflammatory response, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and inflammatory protein (IP)-10 were significantly suppressed and IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1β significantly increased following exposure to PC-SNs in the presence of LPS. These data suggest that soluble mediators present in PCs significantly suppress DC function and modulate the overall inflammatory response, particularly in the presence of an infectious stimulus. Given the central role of DCs in the initiation and regulation of the immune response, these results suggest that modulation of the DC inflammatory profile is a probable mechanism contributing to transfusion-related complications.

  4. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  5. PPARα agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weirong [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lin, Qinqin [Physical Education College, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Lin, Rong, E-mail: linrong63@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Jiye [Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2013-06-10

    The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPARα in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPARα agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPARα antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-κB p65 (Ac-NF-κB p65) in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPARα agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. -- Highlights: • Fenofibrate up-regulates SIRT1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression through SIRT1 in adipocytes. • The effects of fenofibrate on CD40 and SIRT1 expressions are dependent on PPARα. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression via SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of NF-κB. • Fenofibrate increases SIRT1 expression through PPARα and AMPK in adipocytes.

  6. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine-Mediated Anemia: Regarding Molecular Mechanisms of Erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Morceau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases is a frequent complication affecting quality of life. For cancer patients it represents a particularly bad prognostic. Low level of erythropoietin is considered as one of the causes of anemia in these pathologies. The deficiency in erythropoietin production results from pro-inflammatory cytokines effect. However, few data is available concerning molecular mechanisms involved in cytokine-mediated anemia. Some recent publications have demonstrated the direct effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on cell differentiation towards erythroid pathway, without erythropoietin defect. This suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated signaling pathways affect erythropoietin activity. They could interfere with erythropoietin-mediated signaling pathways, inducing early apoptosis and perturbing the expression and regulation of specific transcription factors involved in the control of erythroid differentiation. In this review we summarize the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, and interferon (IFN-γ on erythropoiesis with a particular interest for molecular feature.

  7. Inflammatory mediators generated at the site of inoculation of Loxosceles gaucho spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Katia C; Lira, Marcela S; Araújo, Claudia A; Pareja-Santos, Alessandra; Távora, Bianca C L F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Kimura, Louise F; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2010-11-01

    Patients bitten by Loxosceles spiders generally manifest marked local inflammatory reaction and dermonecrosis. This report evaluated edema formation, leukocyte infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators at the injection site of Loxosceles gaucho venom. BALB/c mice were i.d. injected with venom and thereafter paws were disrupted and homogenized to obtain differential counts of migrated cells, as well to assay the levels of cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Increased footpad thickness was detected as soon as 30 min after venom injection, and 24h later was similar to that of the control group. Loxosceles venom mildly augmented the recruitment of leukocytes to the footpad in comparison with PBS-injected mice. Moreover, it stimulated the release of IL-6, MCP-1 and KC at 2 and 24h after venom injection. In addition, higher levels of PGE(2) were detected 30 min after venom injection in comparison with control group. However, the venom failed to increase levels of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, TXB(2) and LTB(4). Our results demonstrate that L. gaucho venom evokes an early complex inflammatory reaction, stimulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators (PGE(2)), and recruiting leukocytes to the footpad which contribute to the local reaction induced by L. gaucho venom.

  8. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated stimulation of adipocyte differentiation requires the synergistic action of Epac- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller;

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent processes are pivotal during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. We show that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, was required for cAMP-dependent ......Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent processes are pivotal during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. We show that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, was required for c......AMP-dependent stimulation of adipocyte differentiation. Epac, working via Rap, acted synergistically with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) to promote adipogenesis. The major role of PKA was to down-regulate Rho and Rho-kinase activity, rather than to enhance CREB phosphorylation. Suppression of Rho...

  9. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  10. Inhibitory effects of harpagoside on TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory adipokine expression through PPAR-γ activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kon; Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is closely associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, which contribute to chronic and low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, has been reported to show anti-inflammatory activities by suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of harpagoside on both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced inflammatory adipokine expression and its underlying signaling pathways in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Harpagoside significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced mRNA synthesis and protein production of the atherogenic adipokines including IL-6, PAI-1, and MCP-1. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with harpagoside activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. These findings suggest that the clinical application of medicinal plants which contain harpagoside may lead to a partial prevention of obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating inflammatory responses.

  11. Bioactive extract from moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Tangestani Fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E 2 , tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-1b. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders.

  12. Modeling the effects of systemic mediators on the inflammatory phase of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Racheal L; Segal, Rebecca A; Diegelmann, Robert F; Reynolds, Angela M

    2015-02-21

    The normal wound healing response is characterized by a progression from clot formation, to an inflammatory phase, to a repair phase, and finally, to remodeling. In many chronic wounds there is an extended inflammatory phase that stops this progression. In order to understand the inflammatory phase in more detail, we developed an ordinary differential equation model that accounts for two systemic mediators that are known to modulate this phase, estrogen (a protective hormone during wound healing) and cortisol (a hormone elevated after trauma that slows healing). This model describes the interactions in the wound between wound debris, pathogens, neutrophils and macrophages and the modulation of these interactions by estrogen and cortisol. A collection of parameter sets, which qualitatively match published data on the dynamics of wound healing, was chosen using Latin Hypercube Sampling. This collection of parameter sets represents normal healing in the population as a whole better than one single parameter set. Including the effects of estrogen and cortisol is a necessary step to creating a patient specific model that accounts for gender and trauma. Utilization of math modeling techniques to better understand the wound healing inflammatory phase could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic wounds. This inflammatory phase model will later become the inflammatory subsystem of our full wound healing model, which includes fibroblast activity, collagen accumulation and remodeling.

  13. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  14. Inflammatory Mediators and Angiogenic Factors in Choroidal Neovascularization: Pathogenetic Interactions and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Campa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a common and severe complication in heterogeneous diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye, the most frequent being represented by age-related macular degeneration. Although the term may suggest just a vascular pathological condition, CNV is more properly definable as an aberrant tissue invasion of endothelial and inflammatory cells, in which both angiogenesis and inflammation are involved. Experimental and clinical evidences show that vascular endothelial growth factor is a key signal in promoting angiogenesis. However, many other molecules, distinctive of the inflammatory response, act as neovascular activators in CNV. These include fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, and complement. This paper reviews the role of inflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors in the development of CNV, proposing pathogenetic assumptions of mutual interaction. As an extension of this concept, new therapeutic approaches geared to have an effect on both the vascular and the extravascular components of CNV are discussed.

  15. Mediators, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McDonald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat allergic diseases including both intermittent rhinitis and persistent rhinitis. Besides the research on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment for allergic rhinitis, research has also investigated how acupuncture might modulate immune function to exert anti-inflammatory effects. A proposed model has previously hypothesized that acupuncture might downregulate proinflammatory neuropeptides, proinflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophins, modulating transient receptor potential vallinoid (TRPV1, a G-protein coupled receptor which plays a central role in allergic rhinitis. Recent research has been largely supportive of this model. New advances in research include the discovery of a novel cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activated by acupuncture. A chemokine-mediated proliferation of opioid-containing macrophages in inflamed tissues, in response to acupuncture, has also been demonstrated for the first time. Further research on the complex cross talk between receptors during inflammation is also helping to elucidate the mediators and signalling pathways activated by acupuncture.

  16. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  17. The effects of natalizumab on inflammatory mediators in multiple sclerosis: prospects for treatment-sensitive biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademi, M.; Bornsen, L.; Rafatnia, F.;

    2009-01-01

    increased production of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10. The increased systemic cytokines may impede the improvement of certain clinical measures like fatigue. The affected mediators seem to be sensitive to an immune-modifying treatment which could be used as biomarkers for this therapy Udgivelsesdato......BACKGROUND: Natalizumab affects systemic cytokine expressions and clinical course in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We analyzed levels of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP......)-9 and osteopontin (OPN) in CSF, and clinical outcome measures in 22 natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. METHODS: mRNA levels of cytokines in cells were detected with real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of OPN and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Natalizumab reduced CSF cell counts (P

  18. Surfactant protein A regulates IgG-mediated phagocytosis in inflammatory neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Jessica A; Wright, Jo Rae

    2007-12-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D have been shown to affect the functions of a variety of innate immune cells and to interact with various immune proteins such as complement and immunoglobulins. The goal of the current study is to test the hypothesis that SP-A regulates IgG-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils, which are major effector cells of the innate immune response that remove invading pathogens by phagocytosis and by extracellular killing mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen. We have previously shown that SP-A stimulates chemotaxis by inflammatory, but not peripheral, neutrophils. To evaluate the ability of SP-A to modulate IgG-mediated phagocytosis, polystyrene beads were coated with BSA and treated with anti-BSA IgG. SP-A significantly and specifically enhanced IgG-mediated phagocytosis by inflammatory neutrophils, but it had no effect on beads not treated with IgG. SP-A bound to IgG-coated beads and enhanced their uptake via direct interactions with the beads as well as direct interactions with the neutrophils. SP-A did not affect reactive oxygen production or binding of IgG to neutrophils and had modest effects on polymerization of actin. These data suggest that SP-A plays an important role in mediating the phagocytic response of neutrophils to IgG-opsonized particles.

  19. Inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from microglia can treat ischemic/hypoxic brain injury★

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaibo; Guo, Weitao; Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Rong; Lu, Mingnan; Chen, Ziqiu; Xiao, Qixian

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β aggravate neuronal injury by mediating the inflammatory reaction following ischemic/hypoxic brain injury. It remains unclear whether interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β are released by microglia or astrocytes. This study prepared hippocampal slices that were subsequently subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining verified that neurons exhibited hypoxic changes. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found that interleukin-1α a...

  20. Spent coffee grounds, an innovative source of colonic fermentable compounds, inhibit inflammatory mediators in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrera, Dunia Maria; Vázquez-Sánchez, Kenia; Loarca-Piña, Ma Guadalupe Flavia; Campos-Vega, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), rich in dietary fiber can be fermented by colon microbiota producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with the ability to prevent inflammation. We investigated SCG anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating its composition, phenolic compounds, and fermentability by the human gut flora, SCFAs production, nitric oxide and cytokine expression of the human gut fermented-unabsorbed-SCG (hgf-NDSCG) fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCG had higher total fiber content compared with coffee beans. Roasting level/intensity reduced total phenolic contents of SCG that influenced its colonic fermentation. Medium roasted hgf-NDSCG produced elevated SCFAs (61:22:17, acetate, propionate and butyrate) after prolonged (24h) fermentation, suppressed NO production (55%) in macrophages primarily by modulating IL-10, CCL-17, CXCL9, IL-1β, and IL-5 cytokines. SCG exerts anti-inflammatory activity, mediated by SCFAs production from its dietary fiber, by reducing the release of inflammatory mediators, providing the basis for SCG use in the control/regulation of inflammatory disorders. The results support the use of SGC in the food industry as dietary fiber source with health benefits.

  1. Piperine mediates LPS induced inflammatory and catabolic effects in rat intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Kang; Hu, Yiqin; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is an exact of the active phenolic component from Black pepper. It has been reported to have many biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease closely relate to inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of piperine in rat intervertebral disc using in vitro and ex vivo analyzes. We demonstrated that piperine could inhibit LPS induced expression and production of inflammatory factors and catabolic proteases in NP cells culture model. It significantly inhibited multiple inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-associated genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS), MMPs (MMP-3, MMP-13), ADAMTS (ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5) mRNA expression and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, piperine could reverse the LPS-induced inhibition of gene expression of aggrecan and collagen-II. Histologic and dimethylmethylene blue analysis indicated piperine could also against LPS induced proteoglycan (PG) depletion in a rat intervertebral disc culture model. Western blot results showed that piperine inhibited the LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK and activation of NF-κB. Finally, our results demonstrated the ability of piperine to antagonize LPS-mediated inflammation of NP cells and suppression of PG in rat intervertebral disc, suggesting a potential agent for treatment of IDD in future.

  2. Aucubin, a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of NF-κB activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is closely associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is chronically elevated in adipose tissues of obese rodents and humans. Increased levels of TNF-α are implicated in the induction of atherogenic adipokines, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside existing in medicinal plants, has been reported to show an anti-inflammatory activity by suppression of TNF-α production in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of aucubin on TNF-α-induced atherogenic changes of the adipokines in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Aucubin significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced secretion and mRNA synthesis of the atherogenic adipokines including PAI-1, MCP-1, and IL-6. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with aucubin suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation, and subsequent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. These findings suggest that aucubin may improve obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses.

  3. Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixin; Zhong, Aiqin; Bu, Xiaokun; Ma, Huining; Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a hydrophilic component isolated from the Chinese herb Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been used clinically for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Platelets-mediated vascular inflammatory response contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, we focus on the modulating effects of SAB on the inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells triggered by activated platelets. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were pretreated with SAB followed by co-culture with ADP-activated platelets. Adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells was observed by amorphological method. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B was evaluated by NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and the protein phosphorylation. A determination of the pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) mRNA and protein were also conducted. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SAB on platelets activation were also evaluated using a platelet aggregation assay and assessing the release level of soluble P-selectin. The results showed that SAB dose-dependently inhibited ADP- or α-thrombin-induced human platelets aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples, and significantly decreased soluble P-selectin release from both agonists stimulated washed platelets. It was also found that pre-treatment with SAB reduced adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to EA.hy926 cells and inhibited NF-κB activation. In addition, SAB significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators mRNA and protein in EA.hy926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on platelets activation, SAB was able to attenuate platelets-mediated inflammatory responses in endothelial cells even if the platelets had already been activated. This anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that SAB may be a potential

  4. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  5. Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines.

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    Bao G Vu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human adipocytes may have significant functions in wound healing and the development of diabetes through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation by gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. Diabetic foot ulcers are most often associated with staphylococcal infections. Adipocyte responses in the area of the wound may play a role in persistence and pathology. We studied the effect of staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs on immortalized human adipocytes, alone and in the presence of bacterial endotoxin or staphylococcal α-toxin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary non-diabetic and diabetic human preadipocytes were immortalized by the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase (TERT and the E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus. The immortal cells were demonstrated to have properties of non-immortalized pre-adipocytes and could be differentiated into mature and functional adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes exposed to staphylococcal SAgs produced robust levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but there were no significant differences in levels between the non-diabetic and diabetic cells. Cytokine production was increased by co-incubation of adipocytes with SAgs and endotoxin together. In contrast, α-toxin alone was cytotoxic at high concentrations, but, at sub-cytotoxic doses, did not stimulate production of IL-6 and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endotoxin has been proposed to contribute to diabetes through enhanced insulin resistance after chronic exposure and stimulation of adipocytes to produce cytokines. Our data indicate staphylococcal SAgs TSST-1 and SEB alone and in combination with bacterial endotoxin also stimulate adipocytes to produce cytokines and thus may contribute to the inflammatory response found in chronic diabetic ulcers and in the systemic inflammation that is associated with the development and persistence of diabetes. The immortal human pre-adipocytes reported here will be useful for studies to

  6. Astaxanthin Inhibits Expression of Retinal Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mediators in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ting Yeh

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether orally administered astaxanthin (AST protects against oxidative damage in the ocular tissues of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Fifty 6-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive an injection of STZ to induce diabetes (n = 40 or to remain uninduced (n = 10. The diabetic rats were randomly selected into four groups and they were separately administered normal saline, 0.6 mg/kg AST, 3 mg/kg AST, or 0.5 mg/kg lutein daily for eight weeks. Retinal functions of each group were evaluated by electroretinography. The expression of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in the ocular tissues was then assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, ELISA, RT-PCR, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Retinal functions were preserved by AST and lutein in different levels. Ocular tissues from AST- and lutein-treated rats had significantly reduced levels of oxidative stress mediators (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, nitrotyrosine, and acrolein and inflammatory mediators (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fractalkine, increased levels of antioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin, and reduced activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB.The xanthophyll carotenoids AST and lutein have neuroprotective effects and reduce ocular oxidative stress, and inflammation in the STZ diabetic rat model, which may be mediated by downregulation of NF-κB activity.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Apigenin on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and AP-1 Factors in Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is one of the plant flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables, acting as an important nutraceutical component. It is recognized as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory molecule. In the present study, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and activator protein-1 (AP-1) factors in human lung A549 cells was investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammation was determined by analyzing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and different AP-1 factors. Apigenin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α), and AP-1 proteins (c-Jun, c-Fos, and JunB) including nitric oxide production. Study confirms the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory mediators and AP-1 factors involved in the inflammation and its importance in the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases.

  8. BMPRII influences the response of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells to inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengethasamy, Leanda; Hautefort, Aurélie; Tielemans, Birger; Belge, Catharina; Perros, Frédéric; Verleden, Stijn; Fadel, Elie; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Delcroix, Marion; Quarck, Rozenn

    2016-11-01

    Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR2) gene have been observed in 70 % of patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and in 11-40 % with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). However, carriers of a BMPR2 mutation have only 20 % risk of developing PAH. Since inflammatory mediators are increased and predict survival in PAH, they could act as a second hit inducing the development of pulmonary hypertension in BMPR2 mutation carriers. Our specific aim was to determine whether inflammatory mediators could contribute to pulmonary vascular cell dysfunction in PAH patients with and without a BMPR2 mutation. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC) and arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) were isolated from lung parenchyma of transplanted PAH patients, carriers of a BMPR2 mutation or not, and from lobectomy patients or lung donors. The effects of CRP and TNFα on mitogenic activity, adhesiveness capacity, and expression of adhesion molecules were investigated in PMECs and PASMCs. PMECs from BMPR2 mutation carriers induced an increase in PASMC mitogenic activity; moreover, endothelin-1 secretion by PMECs from carriers was higher than by PMECs from non-carriers. Recruitment of monocytes by PMECs isolated from carriers was higher compared to PMECs from non-carriers and from controls, with an elevated ICAM-1 expression. CRP increased adhesion of monocytes to PMECs in carriers and non-carriers, and TNFα only in carriers. PMEC from BMPR2 mutation carriers have enhanced adhesiveness for monocytes in response to inflammatory mediators, suggesting that BMPR2 mutation could generate susceptibility to an inflammatory insult in PAH.

  9. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

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    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  10. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  11. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Su

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  12. Change of serum, ear effusion inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of patients with secretory otitis media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Chang-Hua Zhou; Hong-Quan Xiong; Si-Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the change state of serum, ear effusion inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of patients with secretory otitis media.Methods:A total of 70 patients with secretory otitis media in our hospital from January 2014 to August 2015 were selected as the observation group and 70 healthy persons in the same period were selected as the control group. Then, the serum, ear effusion inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of observation group and the blood indexes of control group were detected, and the serum inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of two groups were compared and the detection results of observation group with different classification and effusion property patients were compared too.Results: The serum inflammatory mediators of observation group were all higher than those of control group and the blood immune indexes were all worse than those of control group. While the serum and ear effusion inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of observation group with different classification and effusion property patients all had significant differences.Conclusions: The serum, ear effusion inflammatory mediators and blood immune indexes of patients with secretory otitis media show abnormal state, and the differences of those indexes of patients with different classification and effusion property have significant differences. So the detection values of those indexes in the patients are higher.

  13. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J triggers caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response in chick livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-lan; Shan, Wen-jie; Jia, Li-juan; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Jin-jing; Wu, Ya-rong; Xu, Fa-zhi; Li, Jin-nian

    2016-04-02

    Many pathogens trigger caspase-1-mediated innate immune responses. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious immunosuppression and diverse tumors in chicks. The caspase-1 inflammasome mechanism of response to ALV-J invading remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression of caspase-1, the inflammasome adaptor NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in response to ALV-J infection in the liver of chick. We found caspase-1 mRNA expression was elevated at 5 dpi and peaked at 7 dpi in ALV-J infected animals. Corresponding to this, the expressions of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased at 5 or 7 dpi. In addition, caspase-1 protein expression and inflammatory cell infiltration were induced after virus infection. These results indicated that ALV-J infection could trigger the caspase-1- mediated inflammatory response in chicks. Thus, an understanding of the inflammatory responses can provide a better insight into the pathogenicity of ALV-J and a possible anti-virus target for ALV-J infection.

  14. Therapeutic advances and future prospects in immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2008-11-01

    THE INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES INCLUDE THREE DISTINCT ENTITIES: polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). A T-cell-mediated cytotoxic process in PM and IBM and a complement-mediated microangiopathy in DM are the hallmarks of the underlying autoimmune processes. The most consistent therapeutic problem remains the distinction of PM from the difficult-to-treat mimics such as s-IBM, necrotizing myopathies and inflammatory dystrophies. This review provides a step-by-step approach to the treatment of inflammatory myopathies, highlights the common pitfalls and mistakes in therapy, and identifies the emerging new therapies. In uncontrolled studies, PM and DM respond to prednisone to some degree and for some period of time, while a combination with one immu-nosuppressive drug (azathioprine, cyclosporine, mycophenolate, methotrexate) offers additional benefit or steroid-sparing effect. In contrast, IBM is resistant to most of these therapies, most of the time. Controlled studies have shown that IVIg is effective and safe for the treatment of DM, where is used as a second, and at times first, line therapy. IVIg seems to be also effective in the majority of patients with PM based on uncontrolled series, but it offers transient help to a small number of patients with IBM especially those with dysphagia. Bona fide patients with PM and DM who become resistant to the aforementioned therapies, may respond to rituximab, tacrolimus or rarely to an tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. For IBM patients, experience with alemtuzumab, a T-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, is encouraging.

  15. TLR4-mediated blunting of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; De Paz, José A; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway after acute eccentric exercise before and after an eccentric training program in women. Twenty women performed two acute eccentric bouts using a squat machine over a ~9 week interval. The training group (TG) carried out an eccentric training program during 6 weeks, while the control group (CG) did not follow any training. Protein content of markers involved in the TLR4-mediated activation of several nuclear transcription factors, such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3), was analyzed. The inflammatory response after the first acute bout was similar between TG and CG, showing an upregulation of all the markers analyzed, with the exception of IRF3. After the second bout, the upregulation of TLR4 signaling pathway was blunted in TG, but not in CG, through both the myeloid differentiation factor 88- and toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter inducing interferon-β-dependent pathways. These results highlight the role of the TLR4 in controlling the exercise-induced inflammatory response in young women. More importantly, these data suggest eccentric training may help to prevent TLR4 activation principally through NF-κB, and perhaps IRF3, downstream signaling in this population.

  16. Fibrosis Related Inflammatory Mediators: Role of the IL-10 Cytokine Family

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    Erna Sziksz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of chronic fibroproliferative diseases (FDs including pulmonary fibrosis, chronic kidney diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular or liver fibrosis is rapidly increasing and they have become a major public health problem. According to some estimates about 45% of all deaths are attributed to FDs in the developed world. Independently of their etiology the common hallmark of FDs is chronic inflammation. Infiltrating immune cells, endothelial, epithelial, and other resident cells of the injured organ release an orchestra of inflammatory mediators, which stimulate the proliferation and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM production of myofibroblasts, the effector cells of organ fibrosis. Abnormal amount of ECM disturbs the original organ architecture leading to the decline of function. Although our knowledge is rapidly expanding, we still have neither a diagnostic tool to detect nor a drug to specifically target fibrosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the more comprehensive understanding of the pathomechanism of fibrosis and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the present review we provide an overview of the common key mediators of organ fibrosis highlighting the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokine family members (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26, which recently came into focus as tissue remodeling-related inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunying Jin

    Full Text Available Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2, GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting

  18. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; McLeish, Kenneth R; Lederer, Eleanor D; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T; Lentsch, Alex B; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B; Rane, Madhavi J

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a

  19. 4-Methoxycarbonyl Curcumin: A Unique Inhibitor of Both Inflammatory Mediators and Periodontal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis have been associated with increased risk for various medical conditions including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, derived from gram-negative periodonto-pathogens, can induce the local accumulation of mononuclear cells in the inflammatory lesion, increasing proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. This ultimately results in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues including alveolar bone. Curcumin is the principal dyestuff in the popular Indian spice turmeric and has significant regulatory effects on inflammatory mediators but is characterized by poor solubility and low bioactivity. Recently, we developed a series of chemically modified curcumins (CMCs with increased solubility and zinc-binding activity, while retaining, or further enhancing, their therapeutic effects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a novel CMC (CMC 2.5: 4-methoxycarbonyl curcumin has significant inhibitory effects, better than the parent compound curcumin, on proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs in in vitro, in cell culture, and in an animal model of periodontal inflammation. The therapeutic potential of CMC 2.5 and its congeners may help to prevent tissue damage during various chronic inflammatory diseases including periodontitis and may reduce the risks of systemic diseases associated with this local disorder.

  20. 4-methoxycarbonyl curcumin: a unique inhibitor of both inflammatory mediators and periodontal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Napolitano, Nicole; Clemens, McKenzie; Zhang, Yazhou; Sorsa, Timo; Zhang, Yu; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis have been associated with increased risk for various medical conditions including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), derived from gram-negative periodonto-pathogens, can induce the local accumulation of mononuclear cells in the inflammatory lesion, increasing proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This ultimately results in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues including alveolar bone. Curcumin is the principal dyestuff in the popular Indian spice turmeric and has significant regulatory effects on inflammatory mediators but is characterized by poor solubility and low bioactivity. Recently, we developed a series of chemically modified curcumins (CMCs) with increased solubility and zinc-binding activity, while retaining, or further enhancing, their therapeutic effects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a novel CMC (CMC 2.5: 4-methoxycarbonyl curcumin) has significant inhibitory effects, better than the parent compound curcumin, on proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs in in vitro, in cell culture, and in an animal model of periodontal inflammation. The therapeutic potential of CMC 2.5 and its congeners may help to prevent tissue damage during various chronic inflammatory diseases including periodontitis and may reduce the risks of systemic diseases associated with this local disorder.

  1. The role of inflammatory and immunological mediators in periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardin, E

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontitis (PD) as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persistent infections such as periodontitis induce inflammatory and immune responses which may contribute to coronary atherogenesis, and, in conjunction with other risk factors, may lead to coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, mechanisms are described that may help explain the association between periodontal infections and CHD. Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections associated with bacteremia, inflammation, and a strong immune response, all of which may represent significant risk factors for the development of atherogenesis, CHD, and myocardial infarction (MI). Several mechanisms may participate in this association, including those induced by oral organisms, and those associated with host response factors. This review will focus on host factors. Oral pathogens and inflammatory mediators (such as interleukin [IL]-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) from periodontal lesions intermittently reach the bloodstream inducing systemic inflammatory reactants such as acute-phase proteins, and immune effectors including systemic antibodies to periodontal bacteria. This review will describe the potential role of various inflammatory as well as immunologic factors that may play a role in periodontitis as a possible risk factor for CHD.

  2. Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Obesity: Role of Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR. The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs, which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  3. Piperine inhibits IL-β induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Chen, Xiaowei; Cheng, Shaowen; Shen, Yue; Peng, Lei; Xu, Hua Zi

    2013-10-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to assess the effects of piperine, the active phenolic component in black pepper extract, on human OA chondrocytes. In this study, human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with piperine at 10, 50 or 100μg/ml and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β (5ng/ml) for 24h. Production of PGE2 and NO was evaluated by the Griess reaction and an ELISA. Gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 was measured by real-time PCR. MMP-3 and MMP-13 proteins in culture medium were determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the iNOS and COX-2 protein production in the culture medium. The regulation of NF-kB activity and the degradation of IkB were explored using luciferase and Western immunoblotting, respectively. We found that piperine inhibited the production of PGE2 and NO induced by IL-1β. Piperine significantly decreased the IL-1β-stimulated gene expression and production of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine inhibited the IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein IκBα in the cytoplasm. The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine can effectively abrogate the IL-1β-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA.

  4. Prolonged insulin stimulation down-regulates GLUT4 through oxidative stress-mediated retromer inhibition by a protein kinase CK2-dependent mechanism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinhui; Nakagawa, Yuko; Kojima, Itaru; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-03

    Although insulin acutely stimulates glucose uptake by promotion of GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscles, long term insulin stimulation causes GLUT4 depletion that is particularly prominent in the insulin-responsive GLUT4 storage compartment. This effect is caused mainly by accelerated lysosomal degradation of GLUT4, although the mechanism is not fully defined. Here we show that insulin acutely induced dissociation of retromer components from the low density microsomal membranes of 3T3-L1 adipocytes that was accompanied by disruption of the interaction of Vps35 with sortilin. This insulin effect was dependent on the activity of protein kinase CK2 but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Knockdown of Vps26 decreased GLUT4 to a level comparable with that with insulin stimulation for 4 h. Vps35 with a mutation in the CK2 phosphorylation motif (Vps35-S7A) was resistant to insulin-induced dissociation from the low density microsomal membrane, and its overexpression attenuated GLUT4 down-regulation with insulin. Furthermore, insulin-generated hydrogen peroxide was an upstream mediator of the insulin action on retromer and GLUT4. These results suggested that insulin-generated oxidative stress switches the GLUT4 sorting direction to lysosomes through inhibition of the retromer function in a CK2-dependent manner.

  5. Impaired response of mature adipocytes of diabetic mice to hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seok Jong, E-mail: seok-hong@northwestern.edu; Jin, Da P.; Buck, Donald W.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A., E-mail: tmustoe@nmh.org

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue contains various cells such as infiltrated monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes. Adipocytes have an endocrine function by secreting adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin. Dysregulation of adipokines in adipose tissues leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation which could result in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. A sustained inflammatory state, which is characterized by prolonged persistence of macrophages and neutrophils, is found in diabetic wounds. In addition, subcutaneous adipocytes are enormously increased in amount clinically in type 2 diabetes. However, the function of subcutaneous adipocytes, which play an important role in injured tissue subjected to hypoxia, has not been well characterized in vitro due to the difficulty of maintaining mature adipocytes in culture using conventional methods because of their buoyancy. In this study, we established a novel in vitro culture method of mature adipocytes by enclosing them in a hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogel to study their role in response to stress such as hypoxia. BrdU labeling and Ki67 immunostaining experiments showed that hydrogel enclosed mature adipocytes proliferate in vitro. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses for hypoxia regulated genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), showed that mature adipocytes of wild type mice respond to hypoxia. In contrast, mature adipocytes of diabetic db/db and TallyHo mice did not efficiently respond to hypoxia. Our studies suggest that mature adipocytes are functionally active cells, and their abnormal function to hypoxia can be one of underlining mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

  6. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators in children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria with respiratory distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awandare, Gordon A; Goka, Bamenla; Boeuf, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    circulating levels of mediators of inflammation--including the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha and interleukin (IL)-10; the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha , MIP-1 beta , and IL-8; and the immune activation marker neopterin--in children with RD, severe malarial anemia......BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress (RD), a symptom of underlying metabolic acidosis, has been identified as a major risk factor for mortality in children with severe malaria in Africa, yet the molecular mediators involved in the pathogenesis of RD have not been identified. METHODS: We studied...... (SMA), cerebral malaria (CM), and uncomplicated malaria (UM). RESULTS: Children with RD had significantly higher plasma levels of TNF- alpha , IL-10, and neopterin and a significantly higher TNF- alpha : IL-10 ratio than those without RD. In addition, the results demonstrated that, relative to UM, CM...

  7. Metabolic programming of a beige adipocyte phenotype by genistein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sadat A.; Wakeling, Luisa A.; Miwa, Satomi; Alberdi, Goiuri; Hesketh, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Scope Promoting the development of brown or beige adipose tissue may protect against obesity and related metabolic features, and potentially underlies protective effects of genistein in mice. Methods and results We observed that application of genistein to 3T3‐L1 adipocytes changed the lipid distribution from large droplets to a multilocular distribution, reduced mRNAs indicative of white adipocytes (ACC, Fasn, Fabp4, HSL, chemerin, and resistin) and increased mRNAs that are a characteristic feature of brown/beige adipocytes (CD‐137 and UCP1). Transcripts with a role in adipocyte differentiation (Cebpβ, Pgc1α, Sirt1) peaked at different times after application of genistein. These responses were not affected by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant, revealing that this action of genistein is not through the classical ER pathway. The Sirt1 inhibitor Ex‐527 curtailed the genistein‐mediated increase in UCP1 and Cebpβ mRNA, revealing a role for Sirt1 in mediating the effect. Baseline oxygen consumption and the proportional contribution of proton leak to maximal respiratory capacity was greater for cells exposed to genistein, demonstrating greater mitochondrial uncoupling. Conclusions We conclude that genistein acts directly on adipocytes or on adipocyte progenitor cells to programme the cells metabolically to adopt features of beige adipocytes. Thus, this natural dietary agent may protect against obesity and related metabolic disease. PMID:27670404

  8. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is a mediator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx in ocular bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernacki, K A; Barrett, R P; Hobden, J A; Hazlett, L D

    2000-01-15

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cornea are required to clear bacteria from affected tissue, yet their persistence may contribute to irreversible tissue destruction. This study examined the role of C-X-C chemokines in PMN infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected cornea and the contribution of these mediators to disease pathology. After P. aeruginosa challenge, corneal PMN number and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC levels were compared in mice that are susceptible (cornea perforates) or resistant (cornea heals) to P. aeruginosa infection. While corneal PMN myeloperoxidase activity (indicator of PMN number) was similar in both groups of mice at 1 and 3 days postinfection, by 5-7 days postinfection corneas of susceptible mice contained a significantly greater number of inflammatory cells. Corneal MIP-2, but not KC, levels correlated with persistence of PMN in the cornea of susceptible mice. To test the biological relevance of these data, resistant mice were treated systemically with rMIP-2. This treatment resulted in increased corneal PMN number and significantly exacerbated corneal disease. Conversely, administration of neutralizing MIP-2 pAb to susceptible mice reduced both PMN infiltration and corneal destruction. Collectively, these findings support an important role for MIP-2 in recruitment of PMN to P. aeruginosa-infected cornea. These data also strongly suggest that a timely down-regulation of the host inflammatory response is critical for resolution of infection.

  9. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators: role of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, Vijayan; Helen, Antony

    2011-10-01

    Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is a renowned plant in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study seeks to identify the anti-inflammatory activity of two fractions from the methanolic extract of Bacopa, viz. the triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions. The ability of these two fractions to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 was tested using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal exudate cells in vitro. We found that triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions significantly inhibited LPS-activated TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrite production in mononuclear cells. Significant antioxidant activity was exhibited by the bacoside enriched fraction compared to the triterpenoid fraction. Carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema assay revealed that triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions exerted anti-oedematogenic effect, while in the arthritis model only the triterpenoid fraction exerted an anti-arthritic potential. The present study provides an insight into the ability of Bacopa monniera to inhibit inflammation through modulation of pro-inflammatory mediator release.

  10. Obesity and coronary microvascular disease - implications for adipose tissue-mediated remote inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Zsolt; Broskova, Zuzana; Feher, Attila

    2014-05-01

    It is believed that obesity has detrimental effects on the coronary circulation. These include immediate changes in coronary arterial vasomotor responsiveness and the development of occlusive large coronary artery disease. Despite its critical role in regulating myocardial perfusion, the altered behavior of coronary resistance arteries, which gives rise to coronary microvascular disease (CMD) is poorly understood in obesity. A chronic, low-grade vascular inflammation has been long considered as one of the main underlying pathology behind CMD. The expanded adipose tissue and the infiltrating macrophages are the major sources of pro-inflammatory mediators that have been implicated in causing inadequate myocardial perfusion and, in a long term, development of heart failure in obese patients. Much less is known the mechanisms regulating the release of these cytokines into the circulation that enable them to exert their remote effects in the coronary microcirculation. This mini review aims to examine recent studies describing alterations in the vasomotor function of coronary resistance arteries and the role of adipose tissue-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in contributing to CMD in obesity. We provide examples of regulatory mechanisms by which adipokines are released from adipose tissue to exert their remote inflammatory effects on coronary microvessels. We identify some of the important challenges and opportunities going forward.

  11. Inflammatory cytokines promote inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated DNA damage in hamster gallbladder epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the link between chronic biliary inflammation and carcinogenesis using hamster gallbladder epithelial cells.METHODS: Gallbladder epithelial cells were isolated from hamsters and cultured with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and DNA damage were evaluated.RESULTS: NO generation was increased significantly following cytokine stimulation, and suppressed by an iNOS inhibitor. iNOS mRNA expression was demonstrated in the gallbladder epithelial cells during exposure to inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, NO-dependent DNA damage, estimated by the comet assay, was significantly increased by cytokines, and decreased to control levels by an iNOS inhibitor.CONCLUSION: Cytokine stimulation induced iNOS expression and NO generation in normal hamster gallbladder epithelial cells, which was sufficient to cause DNA damage. These results indicate that NO-mediated genotoxicity induced by inflammatory cytokines through activation of iNOS may be involved in the process of biliary carcinogenesis in response to chronic inflammation of the biliary tree.

  12. Micro-RNA dysregulation in multiple sclerosis favours pro-inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Smith, Kristen M; Godlewski, Jakub; Liu, Yue; Winger, Ryan; Lawler, Sean E; Whitacre, Caroline C; Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2011-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory T cells mediate autoimmune demyelination in multiple sclerosis. However, the factors driving their development and multiple sclerosis susceptibility are incompletely understood. We investigated how micro-RNAs, newly described as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, contribute to pathogenic T-cell differentiation in multiple sclerosis. miR-128 and miR-27b were increased in naïve and miR-340 in memory CD4(+) T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis, inhibiting Th2 cell development and favouring pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. These effects were mediated by direct suppression of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) and interleukin-4 (IL4) expression, resulting in decreased GATA3 levels, and a Th2 to Th1 cytokine shift. Gain-of-function experiments with these micro-RNAs enhanced the encephalitogenic potential of myelin-specific T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, treatment of multiple sclerosis patient T cells with oligonucleotide micro-RNA inhibitors led to the restoration of Th2 responses. These data illustrate the biological significance and therapeutic potential of these micro-RNAs in regulating T-cell phenotypes in multiple sclerosis.

  13. In vivo rectal inflammatory mediator changes with radiotherapy to the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, A.T.; Hawkey, C.J. (Nottingham University Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Therapeutics); Slater, K.; Sokal, M. (General Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    In vivo changes in the rectal values of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators induced by pelvic radiotherapy were measured to study the pathophysiology of the early radiation bowel reaction. Ten patients having pelvic radiotherapy, aged 57 to 78, had rectal dialysis. Values of the eicosanoids leukotriene B[sub 4] (LTB[sub 4]), thromboxane B[sub 2] (TXB[sub 2]), and prostaglandin E[sub 2] (PGE[sub 2]) were measured before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy, and at least four weeks after radiotherapy. Values of LTB[sub 4] rose with radiotherapy from 0.21 ng.ml[sup -1] (median) to 1.14 ng.ml[sup -1], PGE[sub 2] rose from 0.60 ng.ml[sup -1] to 1.58 ng.ml[sup -1] and TXB[sub 2] rose from 0.365 ng.ml[sup -1] to 1.6 nm.ml[sup -1]. The rise in eicosanoid inflammatory mediators may have an important role in the pathophysiology of the early radiation bowel reaction. (Author).

  14. Quercetin Impacts Expression of Metabolism- and Obesity-Associated Genes in SGBS Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiherer, Andreas; Stoemmer, Kathrin; Muendlein, Axel; Saely, Christoph H; Kinz, Elena; Brandtner, Eva M; Fraunberger, Peter; Drexel, Heinz

    2016-05-12

    Obesity is characterized by the rapid expansion of visceral adipose tissue, resulting in a hypoxic environment in adipose tissue which leads to a profound change of gene expression in adipocytes. As a consequence, there is a dysregulation of metabolism and adipokine secretion in adipose tissue leading to the development of systemic inflammation and finally resulting in the onset of metabolic diseases. The flavonoid quercetin as well as other secondary plant metabolites also referred to as phytochemicals have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects known to be protective in view of obesity-related-diseases. Nevertheless, its underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and thus the focus of this study was to explore the influence of quercetin on human SGBS (Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome) adipocytes' gene expression. We revealed for the first time that quercetin significantly changed expression of adipokine (Angptl4, adipsin, irisin and PAI-1) and glycolysis-involved (ENO2, PFKP and PFKFB4) genes, and that this effect not only antagonized but in part even overcompensated the effect mediated by hypoxia in adipocytes. Thus, these results are explained by the recently proposed hypothesis that the protective effect of quercetin is not solely due to its free radical-scavenging activity but also to a direct effect on mitochondrial processes, and they demonstrate that quercetin might have the potential to counteract the development of obesity-associated complications.

  15. N-Butanol Extract from Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb Affects Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines and Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb is a traditional medicinal plant for treating inflammation-related disease. This explores the inner anti-inflammatory mechanism of n-butanol extract from M. suaveolens Ledeb. Inflammatory cellular model was established by lipopolysaccharide intervention on RAW264.7 cell line. Levels of secreted cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and IL-10 in supernatant, mRNA expression of TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS and HO-1, protein expression of COX-2 and HO-1, activation of NF-κB and ingredients in the extract were assayed by ELISA, real time quantitative PCR, western blot, immunocytochemical test and HPLC fingerprint test, respectively. As a result, the extract could not only markedly reduce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators to different extents by blocking NF-κB activation but also promote the release of anti-inflammatory mediator HO-1 significantly. Each 1 g extract contained 0.023531 mg coumarin and another two high polar ingredients, probably saponins. It can be concluded that the extract has similar effects on antagonizing pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines like Dexamethasone, and has effects on promoting the production of anti-inflammatory mediators.

  16. NG2, a member of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family mediates the inflammatory response of activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Lu, J; Huo, Y; Baby, N; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2010-01-20

    Activation of microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS causes neurotoxicity through the release of a wide array of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the expression of NG2 (also known as CSPG4), one of the members of transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family, in microglial cells and its role on inflammatory reaction of microglia by analyzing the expression of the proinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), chemokines (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NG2 expression was not detectable in microglial cells expressing OX-42 in the brains of 1-day old postnatal rat pups and adult rats; it was, however, induced in activated microglial cells in pups and adult rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro analysis further confirmed that LPS induced the expression of NG2 in primary microglial cells and this was inhibited by dexamethasone. It has been well demonstrated that LPS induces the expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. However in this study, LPS did not induce the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines including IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells transfected with CSPG4 siRNA. On the contrary, mRNA expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) was significantly increased in LPS-activated microglial cells after CSPG4 siRNA transfection in comparison with the control. The above results indicate that NG2 mediates the induction of iNOS and inflammatory cytokine expression, but not the chemokine expression in activated microglia.

  17. Interaction between inflammatory mediators and miRNAs in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Biselli-Périco, Joice Matos; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Severino, Fábio Eduardo; Reis, Patricia P; Cordeiro, José Antonio; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori cause chronic inflammation favouring gastric carcinogenesis, and its eradication may prevent malignant transformation. We evaluated whether H. pylori infection and its eradication modify the expression of inflammatory mediators in patients with chronic gastritis. Furthermore, we assessed whether microRNAs modulate inflammatory pathways induced by H. pylori and identified miRNA-gene interaction networks. mRNA and protein expression of TNFA, IL6, IL1B, IL12A, IL2 and TGFBRII and miRNAs miR-103a-3p, miR-181c-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-375 and miR-223-3p were evaluated in tissue samples from 20 patients with chronic gastritis H. pylori negative (Hp-) and 31 H. pylori positive (Hp+), before and three months after bacterium eradication therapy, in comparison with a pool of Hp- normal gastric mucosa. Our results showed that H. pylori infection leads to up-regulation of TNFA, IL6, IL12A and IL2 and down-regulation of miRNAs. Bacterium eradication reduces the expression of TNFA and IL6 and up-regulates TGFBRII and all investigated miRNAs, except miR-223-3p. Moreover, transcriptional profiles of inflammatory mediators and miRNAs after eradication are different from the non-infected group. Deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were observed in the Hp+ group before and after eradication. Therefore, miRNAs modulated cytokine expression in the presence of H. pylori and after its eradication, suggesting that miRNAs participate in the pathological process triggered by H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.

  18. Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibi

    2015-01-01

    by the pathogen could be reduced by the inhibiting the production of ROS and inflammatory mediators TNF-α and exposes new frontiers on the antiacne activities of Chlorella lipid extracts.

  19. Role of Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Primary and Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagistan, Yasar; Cukur, Selma; Dagistan, Emine; Gezici, Ali Riza

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess role of some inflammatory mediators in patients with primary and recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Expression of IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) have been shown to be more intense in the primary group than the recurrent goup, but this mediators may be important aspects prognostic. Methods 19 patients underwent primary and revision operations between June 1, 2009 and June 1, 2014, and they were included in this study. The 19 patients’ intervertebral disc specimens obtained from the primary procedures and reoperations were evaluated. Expression of IL-6, TGF-1, IGF-1, and BAX were examined immunohistochemically in the 38 biopsy tissues obtained from the primary and recurrent herniated intervertebral discs during the operation. Results For IL-6 expression in the intervertebral disc specimens, there was no difference between the groups. The immunohistochemical study showed that the intervertebral disc specimens in the primary group were stained intensely by TGF-1 compared with the recurrent group. Expression of IGF-1 in the primary group was found moderate. In contrast, in the recurrent group of patients was mild expression of IGF-1. The primary group intervertebral disc specimens were stained moderately by BAX compared with the recurrent group. Conclusion The results of our prognostic evaluation of patients in the recurrent group who were operated due to disc herniation suggest that mediators may be important parameters. PMID:28061491

  20. Association of calprotectin with leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Arun; Slusher, Aaron L; Zourdos, Michael C; Whitehurst, Michael; Fico, Brandon G; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether acute aerobic exercise-mediated calprotectin in plasma would be associated with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in healthy individuals. Eleven healthy participants, aged 18 to 30 years, were recruited to perform a 30-min bout of aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen uptake. Acute aerobic exercise elicited a significant elevation across time in plasma calprotectin, MCP-1, MPO, and IL-6. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with calprotectin area-under-the-curve with "respect to increase" (AUCi) and IL-6 AUCi. Furthermore, calprotectin AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi and MPO AUCi, even after controlling for BMI. Although MPO AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi, this relationship no longer existed after controlling for BMI. These results suggest that acute aerobic exercise could mediate innate immune response associated with calprotectin and its related leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators, especially in individuals with elevated BMI.

  1. Inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from microglia can treat ischemic/hypoxic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaibo Wang; Weitao Guo; Hongliang Liu; Rong Zeng; Mingnan Lu; Ziqiu Chen; Qixian Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β aggravate neuronal injury by mediating the inflammatory reaction following ischemic/hypoxic brain injury. It remains unclear whether interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β are released by microglia or astrocytes. This study prepared hippocampal slices that were subsequently subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining verified that neurons exhibited hypoxic changes. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found that interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β participated in this hypoxic process. Moreover, when hypoxic injury occurred in the hippocampus, the release of interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β was mediated by the P2X4 receptor and P2X7 receptor. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that during ischemia/hypoxia, the P2X4 receptor, P2X7 receptor, interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β expression was detectable in rat hippocampal microglia, but only P2X4 receptor and P2X7 receptor expression was detected in astrocytes. Results suggested that the P2X4 receptor and P2X7 receptor, respectively, mediated interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β released by microglia, resulting in hippocampal ischemic/hypoxic injury. Astrocytes were activated, but did not synthesize or release interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β.

  2. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  3. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the mil...

  4. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  5. Phosphatidic acid signaling mediates lung cytokine expression and lung inflammatory injury after hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, E; Bursten, S; Shenkar, R; Allbee, J; Tuder, R; Woodson, P; Guidot, D M; Rice, G; Singer, J W; Repine, J E

    1995-02-01

    Because phosphatidic acid (PA) pathway signaling may mediate many basic reactions involving cytokine-dependent responses, we investigated the effects of CT1501R, a functional inhibitor of the enzyme lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) which converts lysophosphatidic acid (Lyso-PA) to PA. We found that CT1501R treatment not only prevented hypoxia-induced PA increases and lyso-PA consumption in human neutrophils, but also prevented neutrophil chemotaxis and adherence in vitro, and lung injury and lung neutrophil accumulation in mice subjected to hemorrhage and resuscitation. In addition, CT1501R treatment prevented increases in mRNA levels and protein production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines in multiple lung cell populations after blood loss and resuscitation. Our results indicate the fundamental role of PA metabolism in the development of acute inflammatory lung injury after blood loss.

  6. Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Nguyen, Kim Y.; Grant, Ryan W.; Goldberg, Emily L.; Bodogai, Monica; Kim, Dongin; D'Agostino, Dominic; Planavsky, Noah; Lupfer, Christopher; Kanneganti, Thirumala D.; Kang, Seokwon; Horvath, Tamas L.; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Crawford, Peter A.; Biragyn, Arya; Alnemri, Emad; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2015-01-01

    Ketone bodies , β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative source of ATP1. BHB levels are elevated during starvation, high-intensity exercise or by the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet2. Prolonged caloric restriction or fasting reduces inflammation as immune system adapts to low glucose supply and energy metabolism switches towards mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and ketolysis2-6. However, role of ketones bodies in regulation of innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither acetoacetate nor structurally-related short chain fatty acids, butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to several structurally unrelated NLRP3 activators, without impacting NLRC4, AIM2 or non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, BHB inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by preventing K+ efflux and reducing ASC oligomerization and speck formation. The inhibitory effects of BHB on NLRP3 were not dependent on chirality or classical starvation regulated mechanisms like AMPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy or glycolytic inhibition. BHB blocked NLRP3 inflammasome without undergoing oxidation in TCA cycle, independently of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), Sirt2, receptor Gpr109a and inhibition of NLRP3 did not correlate with magnitude of histone acetylation in macrophages. BHB reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytes. In vivo, BHB attenuates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in mouse models of NLRP3-mediated diseases like Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), Familial Cold Autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and urate crystal induce body cavity inflammation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be mechanistically linked to BHB-mediated inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and point to the potential

  7. Modulation of interleukin-1beta mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes by flavonoids: implications in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Mishra, Mamata; Ghosh, Soumya; Tewari, Richa; Basu, Anirban; Seth, Pankaj; Sen, Ellora

    2007-06-15

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) contributes to inflammation and neuronal death in CNS injuries and neurodegenerative pathologies, and astrocytes have been implicated as the primary mediators of IL-1beta induced neuronal death. As astrocytes play an important role in supporting the survival and functions of neurons, we investigated the effect of plant flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, with known anti-inflammatory properties in modulating the response of human astrocytes to IL-1beta for therapeutic intervention. Flavonoids significantly decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from astrocytes stimulated with IL-1beta. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and thioredoxin (TRX1)-mediators associated with protection against oxidative stress. Flavonoids not only modulated the expression of astrocytes specific molecules such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), and ceruloplasmin (CP) both in the presence and absence of IL-1beta but also decreased the elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-inducible protein (IP-10), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES from IL-1beta activated astrocytes. Significant decrease in neuronal apoptosis was observed in neurons cultured in conditioned medium obtained from astrocytes treated with a combination of IL-1beta and flavonoids as compared to that treated with IL-1beta alone. Our result suggests that by (i) enhancing the potential of activated astrocytes to detoxify free radical, (ii) reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (iii) modulating expression of mediators associated with enhanced physiological activity of astrocyte in response to injury, flavonoids confer (iv) protection against IL-1beta induced astrocyte mediated neuronal damage.

  8. Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy can enhance chemotherapy in inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Brittany L; Melamed, Jilian R; Day, Emily S

    2015-01-01

    Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) is currently being investigated as a standalone therapy for the treatment of cancer. The cellular effects of PTT include loss of membrane integrity, so we hypothesized that nanoshell-mediated PTT could potentiate the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy by improving drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this work, we validated our hypothesis using doxorubicin as a model drug and SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells as a model cancer subtype. In initial studies, SUM149 cells were exposed to nano-shells and near-infrared light and then stained with ethidium homodimer-1, which is excluded from cells with an intact plasma membrane. The results confirmed that nanoshell-mediated PTT could increase membrane permeability in SUM149 cells. In complementary experiments, SUM149 cells treated with nanoshells, near-infrared light, or a combination of the two to yield low-dose PTT were exposed to fluorescent rhodamine 123. Analyzing rhodamine 123 fluorescence in cells via flow cytometry confirmed that increased membrane permeability caused by PTT could enhance drug accumulation in cells. This was validated using fluorescence microscopy to assess intracellular distribution of doxorubicin. In succeeding experiments, SUM149 cells were exposed to subtherapeutic levels of doxorubicin, low-dose PTT, or a combination of the two treatments to determine whether the additional drug uptake induced by PTT is sufficient to enhance cell death. Analysis revealed minimal loss of viability relative to controls in cells exposed to subtherapeutic levels of doxorubicin, 15% loss of viability in cells exposed to low-dose PTT, and 35% loss of viability in cells exposed to combination therapy. These data indicate that nanoshell-mediated PTT is a viable strategy to potentiate the effects of chemotherapy and warrant further investigation of this approach using other drugs and cancer subtypes.

  9. Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy can enhance chemotherapy in inflammatory breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay BL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brittany L Fay, Jilian R Melamed, Emily S Day Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Abstract: Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT is currently being investigated as a standalone therapy for the treatment of cancer. The cellular effects of PTT include loss of membrane integrity, so we hypothesized that nanoshell-mediated PTT could potentiate the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy by improving drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this work, we validated our hypothesis using doxorubicin as a model drug and SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells as a model cancer subtype. In initial studies, SUM149 cells were exposed to nanoshells and near-infrared light and then stained with ethidium homodimer-1, which is excluded from cells with an intact plasma membrane. The results confirmed that nanoshell-mediated PTT could increase membrane permeability in SUM149 cells. In complementary experiments, SUM149 cells treated with nanoshells, near-infrared light, or a combination of the two to yield low-dose PTT were exposed to fluorescent rhodamine 123. Analyzing rhodamine 123 fluorescence in cells via flow cytometry confirmed that increased membrane permeability caused by PTT could enhance drug accumulation in cells. This was validated using fluorescence microscopy to assess intracellular distribution of doxorubicin. In succeeding experiments, SUM149 cells were exposed to subtherapeutic levels of doxorubicin, low-dose PTT, or a combination of the two treatments to determine whether the additional drug uptake induced by PTT is sufficient to enhance cell death. Analysis revealed minimal loss of viability relative to controls in cells exposed to subtherapeutic levels of doxorubicin, 15% loss of viability in cells exposed to low-dose PTT, and 35% loss of viability in cells exposed to combination therapy. These data indicate that nanoshell-mediated PTT is a viable strategy to potentiate the effects of chemotherapy and warrant further

  10. Effect of hyaluronic acid on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, V; Bornhardt, T; Manterola, C; Brebi, P

    2017-05-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent pathologies affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). There is evidence that the use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) for the treatment of this disorder achieves positive effects through a reduction in inflammatory mediators. A systematic review of the available evidence regarding the regulation of inflammatory mediators when applying HA in osteoarthritis of the TMJ in humans was performed. The Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and LILACS databases, SciELO library, and search engine Trip Database were searched systematically. Two thousand eight hundred and sixty-three related articles were found, of which only two met the selection criteria (both were clinical trials and evidence level 2b for treatment studies). These two articles represented a population of 87 patients. Both articles reported that the application of HA had a positive effect on the regulation of inflammatory mediators; the mediators studied were those of the plasminogen activator system and levels of nitric oxide. The limited evidence available suggests that the application of HA regulates various inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritic processes in the TMJ. Nevertheless, further evidence in this regard is required, through the study of specific pathologies of the TMJ, complementing the assessment of clinical parameters with molecular studies, and generating good quality clinical studies with larger sample sizes.

  11. Citral and eugenol modulate DNA damage and pro-inflammatory mediator genes in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marilia de Paula; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Luperini, Bruno Cesar Ottoboni; Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Castro Marcondes, João Paulo; Sforcin, José Maurício; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2014-11-01

    Citral and eugenol have been broadly studied because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiparasitic potentials. In this study, the effects of citral (25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) and eugenol (0.31, 0.62, 1.24 and 2.48 µg/mL) on the expression (RT-PCR) of the pro-inflammatory mediator genes NF-κB1, COX-2 and TNF-α were evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages with or without activation by a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, the genotoxic potentials of two compounds and their capacities to modulate the DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) were investigated using the comet assay. The data revealed that neither citral nor eugenol changed COX-2, NF-κB1 or TNF-α expression in resting macrophages. However, in LPS-activated cells, citral induced the hypoexpression of COX-2 (100 µg/mL) and TNF-α (50 and 100 µg/mL). Hypoexpression of TNF-α was also detected after cellular exposure to eugenol at the highest concentration (2.48 µg/mL). Both compounds exhibited genotoxic potential (citral at 50 and 100 µg/mL and eugenol at all concentrations) but also showed chemopreventive effects, in various treatment protocols. Both citral and eugenol might modulate inflammatory processes and DXR-induced DNA damage, but the use of these compounds must be viewed with caution because they are also able to induce primary DNA lesions.

  12. Effect of Perfusion Fluids on Recovery of Inflammatory Mediators in Microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F; Pharo, A; Lindstad, J K; Mollnes, T E; Tønnessen, T I; Pischke, S E

    2015-11-01

    Microdialysis is an excellent tool to assess tissue inflammation in patients, but in vitro systems to evaluate recovery of inflammatory mediators have not been standardized. We aimed to develop a reference plasma preparation and evaluate different perfusion fluids with respect to recovery of metabolic and inflammatory markers. The reference preparation was produced by incubation of human blood with lipopolysaccharide and cobra venom factor to generate cytokines and activate complement, respectively. Microdialysis with 100 kDa catheters was performed using different colloid and crystalloid perfusion fluids (hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4, HES 200/0.5, hyperosmolar HES 200/0.5, albumin 200 g/l, T1 perfusion fluid and Ringer's acetate) compared to today's recommended dextran 60 solution. Recovery of glucose, glycerol and pyruvate was not significantly different between the perfusion fluids, whereas lactate had lower recovery in HES 200/0.5 and albumin perfusion fluids. Recovery rates for the inflammatory proteins in comparison with the concentration in the reference preparation differed substantially: IL-6 = 9%, IL-1β = 18%, TNF = 0.3%, MCP-1 = 45%, IL-8 = 48%, MIG = 48%, IP-10 = 25%, C3a = 53% and C5a = 12%. IL-10 was not detectable in microdialysis dialysate. HES 130/0.4 and HES 200/0.5 yielded a recovery not significantly different from dextran 60. Hyperosmolar HES 200/0.5 and albumin showed significantly different pattern of recovery with increased concentration of MIG, IP-10, C3a and C5a and decreased concentration of IL-1β, TNF, MCP-1 and IL-8 in comparison with dextran 60. In conclusion, microdialysis perfusion fluid dextran 60 can be replaced by the commonly used HES 130/0.4, whereas albumin might be used if specific immunological variables are in focus. The present reference plasma preparation is suitable for in vitro evaluation of microdialysis systems.

  13. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkahwaji JE

    2012-12-01

    area, trying to understand the etiology of prostatic inflammation and its signaling pathway may help to identify new therapeutic targets and novel preventive strategies for reducing the risk of developing benign and malignant tumors of the prostate.Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, chronic inflammation, inflammatory mediators

  14. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects.

  15. The cells that mediate innate immune memory and their functional significance in inflammatory and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Clair M; Mills, Kingston H G

    2016-08-01

    Immunological memory mediated by antigen-specific T and B cells is the foundation of adaptive immunity and is fundamental to the heightened and rapid protective immune response induced by vaccination or following re-infection with the same pathogen. While the innate immune system has classically been considered to be non-specific and devoid of memory, it now appears that it can be trained following exposure to microbes or their products and that this may confer a form of memory on innate immune cells. The evidence for immunological memory outside of T and B cells has been best established for natural killer (NK) cells, where it has been known for decades that NK cells have heighten responses following immunological re-challenge. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that monocyte/macrophages, and probably dendritic cells, can be re-programmed through epigenetic modification, following exposure to pathogens or their products, resulting in heighted responses following a second stimulation. Unlike antigen-specific memory of the adaptive immune system, the second stimulation does not have to be with the same pathogen or antigen. Indirect evidence for this comes from reports on the non-specific beneficial effect of certain live vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) against unrelated childhood infectious diseases. It also appears that certain pathogen or pathogen-derived molecules can prime immune cells, especially macrophages, to secrete more anti-inflammatory and less pro-inflammatory cyokines, thus opening up the possibility of exploiting innate immune training as a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.

  16. Glia and mast cells as targets for palmitoylethanolamide, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective lipid mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Giusti, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Glia are key players in a number of nervous system disorders. Besides releasing glial and neuronal signaling molecules directed to cellular homeostasis, glia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from immune-related cells, with the mast cell being of particular interest. A proposed mast cell-glia communication may open new perspectives for designing therapies to target neuroinflammation by differentially modulating activation of non-neuronal cells normally controlling neuronal sensitization-both peripherally and centrally. Mast cells and glia possess endogenous homeostatic mechanisms/molecules that can be upregulated as a result of tissue damage or stimulation of inflammatory responses. Such molecules include the N-acylethanolamines, whose principal family members are the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), and its congeners N-stearoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA). A key role of PEA may be to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with external stressors provoking, for example, inflammation: PEA is produced and hydrolyzed by microglia, it downmodulates mast cell activation, it increases in glutamate-treated neocortical neurons ex vivo and in injured cortex, and PEA levels increase in the spinal cord of mice with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Applied exogenously, PEA has proven efficacious in mast cell-mediated experimental models of acute and neurogenic inflammation. This fatty acid amide possesses also neuroprotective effects, for example, in a model of spinal cord trauma, in a delayed post-glutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death, and against amyloid β-peptide-induced learning and memory impairment in mice. These actions may be mediated by PEA acting through "receptor pleiotropism," i.e., both direct and indirect interactions of PEA with different receptor targets, e.g., cannabinoid CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha.

  17. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Zhang, Howard H.; Borek, Izabela; Wolf, Peter; Hedrick, Michael N.; Singh, Satya P.; Kelsall, Brian L.; Clausen, Bjorn E.; Farber, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6Chi blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Moreover, we find that IL-23-induced inflammation requires expression of CCR6 by DCs or their precursors, and that CCR6 mediates monocyte trafficking into inflamed skin. Collectively, our results imply that monocyte-derived cells are critical contributors to psoriasis through production of inflammatory cytokines that augment the activation of skin T cells. PMID:27982014

  18. Blockade of microglial KATP -channel abrogates suppression of inflammatory-mediated inhibition of neural precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco J; Vukovic, Jana; Rodríguez, Manuel J; Bartlett, Perry F

    2014-02-01

    Microglia positively affect neural progenitor cell physiology through the release of inflammatory mediators or trophic factors. We demonstrated previously that reactive microglia foster K(ATP) -channel expression and that blocking this channel using glibenclamide administration enhances striatal neurogenesis after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the microglial K(ATP) -channel directly influences the activation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone using transgenic Csf1r-GFP mice. In vitro exposure of NPCs to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma resulted in a significant decrease in precursor cell number. The complete removal of microglia from the culture or exposure to enriched microglia culture also decreased the precursor cell number. The addition of glibenclamide rescued the negative effects of enriched microglia on neurosphere formation and promoted a ∼20% improvement in precursor cell number. Similar results were found using microglial-conditioned media from isolated microglia. Using primary mixed glial and pure microglial cultures, glibenclamide specifically targeted reactive microglia to restore neurogenesis and increased the microglial production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). These findings provide the first direct evidence that the microglial K(ATP) -channel is a regulator of the proliferation of NPCs under inflammatory conditions.

  19. Thrombocytopenia in Dengue: Interrelationship between Virus and the Imbalance between Coagulation and Fibrinolysis and Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Monteiro, Robson Q; de-Oliveira Pinto, Luzia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). In general, dengue is a self-limiting acute febrile illness followed by a phase of critical defervescence, in which patients may improve or progress to a severe form. Severe illness is characterized by hemodynamic disturbances, increased vascular permeability, hypovolemia, hypotension, and shock. Thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction are common in both cases and are related to the clinical outcome. Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain DENV-associated thrombocytopenia, including the suppression of bone marrow and the peripheral destruction of platelets. Studies have shown DENV-infected hematopoietic progenitors or bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, anti-platelet antibodies would be involved in peripheral platelet destruction as platelets interact with endothelial cells, immune cells, and/or DENV. It is not yet clear whether platelets play a role in the viral spread. Here, we focus on the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction in DENV infection. Because platelets participate in the inflammatory and immune response by promoting cytokine, chemokine, and inflammatory mediator secretion, their relevance as "immune-like effector cells" will be discussed. Finally, an implication for platelets in plasma leakage will be also regarded, as thrombocytopenia is associated with clinical outcome and higher mortality.

  20. Pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in asymptomatic neonates stimulates topical inflammatory mediator release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Schjørring, Susanne; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2013-01-01

    by a multivariate approach for pattern identification. Measurements and Main Results: Colonization with M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae induced a mixed T helper cell (Th) type 1/Th2/Th17 response with high levels of IL-1 beta (M. catarrhalis, P = 2.2 x 10(-12); H. influenzae, P = 7.1 X 10(-10)), TNF-alpha (M...... colonization was not significantly associated with any of the mediators. Conclusions: M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae colonization of the airways of asymptomatic neonates is associated with an inflammatory immune response of the airway mucosa, which may result in chronic inflammation........ catarrhalis, P = 1.5 x 10(-9); H. influenzae, P = 5.9 x 10(-7)), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (M. catarrhalis, P = 1.6 X 10(-11); H. influenzae, P = 2.7 x 10(-7)). S. aureus colonization demonstrated a Th17-promoting profile with elevated IL-17 levels (P = 1.6 x 10(-24)). S. pneumoniae...

  1. The nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway is disrupted in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, JingWei; Plank, Terra-Dawn; Su, Fang; Shi, XiuJuan; Liu, Chen; Ji, Yuan; Li, ShuaiJun; Huynh, Andrew; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Bo; Yang, Guang; Wu, YanMing; Wilkinson, Miles F; Lu, YanJun

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are characterized by myofibroblast proliferation and an inflammatory cell infiltrate. Little is known about the molecular pathways that precipitate IMT formation. Here, we report the identification of somatic mutations in UPF1, a gene that encodes an essential component of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway, in 13 of 15 pulmonary IMT samples. The majority of mutations occurred in a specific region of UPF1 and triggered UPF1 alternative splicing. Several mRNA targets of the NMD pathway were upregulated in IMT samples, indicating that the UPF1 mutations led to reduced NMD magnitude. These upregulated NMD targets included NIK mRNA, which encodes a potent activator of NF-κB. In human lung cells, UPF1 depletion increased expression of chemokine-encoding genes in a NIK-dependent manner. Elevated chemokines and IgE class switching events were observed in IMT samples, consistent with NIK upregulation in these tumors. Together, these results support a model in which UPF1 mutations downregulate NMD, leading to NIK-dependent NF-κB induction, which contributes to the immune infiltration that is characteristic of IMTs. The molecular link between the NMD pathway and IMTs has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors.

  2. Thrombocytopenia in Dengue: Interrelationship between Virus and the Imbalance between Coagulation and Fibrinolysis and Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV. In general, dengue is a self-limiting acute febrile illness followed by a phase of critical defervescence, in which patients may improve or progress to a severe form. Severe illness is characterized by hemodynamic disturbances, increased vascular permeability, hypovolemia, hypotension, and shock. Thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction are common in both cases and are related to the clinical outcome. Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain DENV-associated thrombocytopenia, including the suppression of bone marrow and the peripheral destruction of platelets. Studies have shown DENV-infected hematopoietic progenitors or bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, anti-platelet antibodies would be involved in peripheral platelet destruction as platelets interact with endothelial cells, immune cells, and/or DENV. It is not yet clear whether platelets play a role in the viral spread. Here, we focus on the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction in DENV infection. Because platelets participate in the inflammatory and immune response by promoting cytokine, chemokine, and inflammatory mediator secretion, their relevance as “immune-like effector cells” will be discussed. Finally, an implication for platelets in plasma leakage will be also regarded, as thrombocytopenia is associated with clinical outcome and higher mortality.

  3. Fisetin Suppresses Lipid Accumulation in Mouse Adipocytic 3T3-L1 Cells by Repressing GLUT4-Mediated Glucose Uptake through Inhibition of mTOR-C/EBPα Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Marina; Hisatake, Mitsuhiro; Fujimori, Ko

    2015-05-27

    3,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin) is a flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits having broad biological activities. Here the effects of fisetin on adipogenesis and its regulatory mechanism in mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells are studied. Fisetin inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and lowered the expression of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (aP2) during adipogenesis. Moreover, the mRNA levels of genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis (lipogenesis) were reduced by the treatment with fisetin. The expression level of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene was also decreased by fisetin, resulting in down-regulation of glucose uptake. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and that of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, a target of the mTOR complex, the inhibition of which was followed by a decreased mRNA level of the C/EBPα gene. The results obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the ability of C/EBPα to bind to the GLUT4 gene promoter was reduced by the treatment with fisetin, which agreed well with those obtained when 3T3-L1 cells were allowed to differentiate into adipocytes in medium in the presence of rapamycin, an inhibitor for mTOR. These results indicate that fisetin suppressed the accumulation of intracellular lipids by inhibiting GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake through inhibition of the mTOR-C/EBPα signaling in 3T3-L1 cells.

  4. Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Lei, XiaoFeng [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Takenobu [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} We focused on the interaction between SR-A and TLR4 signaling in this study. {yields} SR-A deletion promoted NF{kappa}B activation in macrophages in septic model mouse. {yields} SR-A suppresses both MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling in vitro. {yields} SR-A clears LPS binding to TLR4 which resulting in the suppression of TLR4 signals. -- Abstract: The class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, CD204), one of the principal receptors expressed on macrophages, has been found to regulate inflammatory response and attenuate septic endotoxemia. However, the detailed mechanism of this process has not yet been well characterized. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation by SR-A, we evaluated the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling molecules in SR-A-deficient (SR-A{sup -/-}) macrophages. In a septic shock model, the blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-{beta} were significantly increased in SR-A{sup -/-} mice compared to wild-type mice, and elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation was detected in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. SR-A deletion increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF{kappa}B in vitro. SR-A deletion also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3. In addition, a competitive binding assay with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, an SR-A-specific ligand, and anti-SR-A antibody induced significant activation of TLR4-mediated signaling molecules in wild-type macrophages but not in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. These results suggest that SR-A suppresses the macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 in a competitive manner and it plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  5. IL-17A mediates inflammatory and tissue remodelling events in early human tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Neal L.; Akbar, Moeed; Campbell, Abigail L.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; McLean, Michael; Frleta-Gilchrist, Marina; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Leach, William J.; Rooney, Brian P.; Crowe, Lindsay A. N.; Murrell, George A. C.; McInnes, Iain B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, inflammatory mediators are considered crucial to the onset and perpetuation of tendinopathy. We sought evidence of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) expression in early human tendinopathy and thereafter, explored mechanisms whereby IL-17A mediated inflammation and tissue remodeling in human tenocytes. Torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing ‘early pathology’) along with control biopsies were collected from patients undergoing shoulder surgery. Markers of inflammation and IL-17A were quantified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Human tendon cells were derived from hamstring tendon obtained during ACL reconstruction. In vitro effects of IL-17A upon tenocytes were measured using RT-PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V FACS staining. Increased expression of IL-17A was detected in ‘early tendinopathy’ compared to both matched samples and non-matched control samples (p tendinopathy processes thus providing novel therapeutic approaches in the management of tendon disorders. PMID:27263531

  6. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  7. The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Nguyen, Kim Y; Grant, Ryan W; Goldberg, Emily L; Bodogai, Monica; Kim, Dongin; D'Agostino, Dominic; Planavsky, Noah; Lupfer, Christopher; Kanneganti, Thirumala D; Kang, Seokwon; Horvath, Tamas L; Fahmy, Tarek M; Crawford, Peter A; Biragyn, Arya; Alnemri, Emad; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2015-03-01

    The ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative sources of ATP. BHB levels are elevated by starvation, caloric restriction, high-intensity exercise, or the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Prolonged fasting reduces inflammation; however, the impact that ketones and other alternative metabolic fuels produced during energy deficits have on the innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither AcAc nor the structurally related short-chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to urate crystals, ATP and lipotoxic fatty acids. BHB did not inhibit caspase-1 activation in response to pathogens that activate the NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome and did not affect non-canonical caspase-11, inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, BHB inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome by preventing K(+) efflux and reducing ASC oligomerization and speck formation. The inhibitory effects of BHB on NLRP3 are not dependent on chirality or starvation-regulated mechanisms like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy or glycolytic inhibition. BHB blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome without undergoing oxidation in the TCA cycle, and independently of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), sirtuin-2 (SIRT2), the G protein-coupled receptor GPR109A or hydrocaboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2). BHB reduces NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytes. In vivo, BHB or a ketogenic diet attenuates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in mouse models of NLRP3-mediated diseases such as Muckle-Wells syndrome, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and urate crystal-induced peritonitis. Our findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be linked to BHB-mediated

  8. Study on the influence of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv-Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study and observe the influence situation of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia. Methods: 60 children with severe pneumonia in our hospital from February 2013 to January 2015 were selected as study object,and they were randomly divided into control group (routine treatment group) 30 cases and observation group (routine treatment and puerarin injection group) 30 cases, then the serum pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of two groups before the treatment and at different time after the treatment were respectively detected and compared. Results: The serum ulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of observation group at third,fifth and tenth day after the treatment were all obviously lower than those of control group, all P<0.05, the comparison indexes after the treatment all had significant differences. Conclusions: The influence of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia are great, and it can effectively improve the disease state of children with severe pneumonia.

  9. Study on the influence of ambroxol for serum inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzyme spectrum and pulmonary function of newborns with pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Zhen Liu; De-Run Zeng; Xiao-Hui Xu; Hong-Ying Ma; Xiao-Hong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and study the influence status of ambroxol for serum inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzyme spectrum and pulmonary function of newborns with pneumonia. Methods:A total of 80 newborns with pneumonia in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2015 were randomly divided into control group and observation group. The 40 cases of control group received the conventional pneumonia treatment, and the 40 cases of observation group received the treatment of ambroxol based on conventional treatment, then the serum inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzyme spectrum and pulmonary function indexes of two groups at first, third and seventh day before and after the treatment were respectively compared. Results:The serum inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzyme spectrum and pulmonary function indexes of two groups before the treatment all had no obvious differences, while these items of observation group at first, third and seventh day after the treatment were all significantly better than those of control group. The items′differences of two groups after the treatment were all significant. Conclusion:The ambroxol can effectively improve the serum inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzyme spectrum and pulmonary function state of newborns with pneumonia, and it has improvement role for the disease of newborns with pneumonia, so its application value is higher.

  10. Metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys isolates from water-damaged buildings and their induction of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxicity in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Huttunen, K.; Hyvarinen, A.

    2002-01-01

    The metabolite profiles of 20 Stachybotrys spp. isolates from Finnish water-damaged buildings were compared with their biological activities. Effects of purified compounds on cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-6 and TNFalpha in murine RAW264.7 macrophage...... cells were studied. The 11 isolates belonging to the satratoxin-producing chemotype were highly cytotoxic to the macrophages. The isolates inducing inflammatory mediators all belonged to the atranone-producing chemotype, but pure atranones B, and D did not elicit a response in the bioassay. Altogether......, cytotoxicity of Stachybotrys sp. isolates appear to be related to satratoxin production whereas the specific component inducing inflammatory responses in atranone-producing isolates remains obscure....

  11. Comparative Expression Analyses of Pro- versus Anti-Inflammatory Mediators within Synovium of Patients with Joint Trauma, Osteoarthritis, and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqura, Mohammed; John, Thilo; Likar, Rudolf; Ebied, Reham Said; Schäfer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Synovial injury and healing are complex processes including catabolic effects by proinflammatory cytokines and anabolic processes by anti-inflammatory mediators. Here we examined the expression of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators in synovium of patients with diagnostic arthroscopy (control), joint trauma (JT), osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial samples from these patients were subjected to RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as immune cell markers. Interestingly, pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were expressed predominantly in granulocytes in patients with JT and in macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells in patients with OA and RA. Interestingly, parallel to the severity of inflammation, proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, and 5-LOX specific mRNA as well as immunoreactive (IR) cells were significantly more abundant in patients with RA and JT than in those with OA. However, anti-inflammatory mediators 15-LOX, FPR2, and IL-10 specific mRNA as well as IR cells were significantly more abundant in patients with OA than in those with JT and RA. These findings show that upregulation of proinflammatory mediators contributes to the predominantly catabolic inflammatory process in JT and RA synovium, whereas upregulation of anabolic anti-inflammatory mediators counteracts inflammation resulting in the inferior inflammatory process in OA synovium.

  12. MMP1 bimodal expression and differential response to inflammatory mediators is linked to promoter polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Print Cristin G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the functional importance of the millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human genome is a difficult challenge. Therefore, a reverse strategy, which identifies functionally important SNPs by virtue of the bimodal abundance across the human population of the SNP-related mRNAs will be useful. Those mRNA transcripts that are expressed at two distinct abundances in proportion to SNP allele frequency may warrant further study. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1 is important in both normal development and in numerous pathologies. Although much research has been conducted to investigate the expression of MMP1 in many different cell types and conditions, the regulation of its expression is still not fully understood. Results In this study, we used a novel but straightforward method based on agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify bimodally expressed transcripts in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC microarray data from 15 individuals. We found that MMP1 mRNA abundance was bimodally distributed in un-treated HUVECs and showed a bimodal response to inflammatory mediator treatment. RT-PCR and MMP1 activity assays confirmed the bimodal regulation and DNA sequencing of 69 individuals identified an MMP1 gene promoter polymorphism that segregated precisely with the MMP1 bimodal expression. Chromatin immunoprecipation (ChIP experiments indicated that the transcription factors (TFs ETS1, ETS2 and GATA3, bind to the MMP1 promoter in the region of this polymorphism and may contribute to the bimodal expression. Conclusions We describe a simple method to identify putative bimodally expressed RNAs from transcriptome data that is effective yet easy for non-statisticans to understand and use. This method identified bimodal endothelial cell expression of MMP1, which appears to be biologically significant with implications for inflammatory disease. (271 Words

  13. Ultrasonic incisions produce less inflammatory mediator response during early healing than electrosurgical incisions.

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    Bindu Nanduri

    Full Text Available As the use of laparoscopic surgery has become more widespread in recent years, the need has increased for minimally-invasive surgical devices that effectively cut and coagulate tissue with reduced tissue trauma. Although electrosurgery (ES has been used for many generations, newly-developed ultrasonic devices (HARMONIC® Blade, HB have been shown at a macroscopic level to offer better coagulation with less thermally-induced tissue damage. We sought to understand the differences between ES and HB at a microscopic level by comparing mRNA transcript and protein responses at the 3-day timepoint to incisions made by the devices in subcutaneous fat tissue in a porcine model. Samples were also assessed via histological examination. ES-incised tissue had more than twice as many differentially-expressed genes as HB (2,548 vs 1,264 respectively, and more differentially-expressed proteins (508 vs 432 compared to control (untreated tissue. Evaluation of molecular functions using Gene Ontology showed that gene expression changes for the energized devices reflected the start of wound healing, including immune response and inflammation, while protein expression showed a slightly earlier stage, with some remnants of hemostasis. For both transcripts and proteins, ES exhibited a greater response than HB, especially in inflammatory mediators. These findings were in qualitative agreement with histological results. This study has shown that transcriptomics and proteomics can monitor the wound healing response following surgery and can differentiate between surgical devices. In agreement with clinical observations, electrosurgery was shown to incur a greater inflammatory immune response than an ultrasonic device during initial iatrogenic wound healing.

  14. Effect of Sfrp5 on cytokine release and insulin action in primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells.

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    Maren Carstensen

    Full Text Available Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5 is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties in mice. However, the mechanism of Sfrp5 action, especially in humans, is largely unknown. Therefore, cytokine release and insulin signaling were analyzed to investigate the impact of Sfrp5 on inflammation and insulin signaling in primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC. Sfrp5 neither affected interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and adiponectin release from human adipocytes, nor IL-6 and IL-8 release from hSkMC. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF α-treated adipocytes, Sfrp5 reduced IL-6 release by 49% (p<0.05, but did not affect MCP-1 and adiponectin release. In MCP-1-treated hSkMC, Sfrp5 did not affect cytokine secretion. In untreated adipocytes, Sfrp5 decreased the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt-Ser473, Akt-Thr308, GSK3α-Ser21 and PRAS40-Thr246 by 34% (p<0.01, 31% (p<0.05, 37% (p<0.05 and 34% (p<0.01, respectively, and the stimulation of glucose uptake by 25% (p<0.05. Incubation with TNFα increased the phosphorylation of JNK and NFκB, and impaired insulin signaling. When Sfrp5 and TNFα were combined, there was no additional effect on insulin signaling and JNK phosphorylation, but phosphorylation of NFκB was reversed to basal levels. Sfrp5 had no effect on insulin signaling in untreated or in MCP-1 treated hSkMC. Thus, Sfrp5 lowered IL-6 release and NFκB phosphorylation in cytokine-treated human adipocytes, but not under normal conditions, and decreased insulin signaling in untreated human adipocytes. Sfrp5 did not act on hSkMC. Therefore, the cellular actions of Sfrp5 seem to depend on the type of tissue as well as its inflammatory and metabolic state.

  15. Effect of Sfrp5 on Cytokine Release and Insulin Action in Primary Human Adipocytes and Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Karin; Fahlbusch, Pia; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian; Ouwens, D. Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties in mice. However, the mechanism of Sfrp5 action, especially in humans, is largely unknown. Therefore, cytokine release and insulin signaling were analyzed to investigate the impact of Sfrp5 on inflammation and insulin signaling in primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC). Sfrp5 neither affected interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and adiponectin release from human adipocytes, nor IL-6 and IL-8 release from hSkMC. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-treated adipocytes, Sfrp5 reduced IL-6 release by 49% (p<0.05), but did not affect MCP-1 and adiponectin release. In MCP-1-treated hSkMC, Sfrp5 did not affect cytokine secretion. In untreated adipocytes, Sfrp5 decreased the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt-Ser473, Akt-Thr308, GSK3α-Ser21 and PRAS40-Thr246 by 34% (p<0.01), 31% (p<0.05), 37% (p<0.05) and 34% (p<0.01), respectively, and the stimulation of glucose uptake by 25% (p<0.05). Incubation with TNFα increased the phosphorylation of JNK and NFκB, and impaired insulin signaling. When Sfrp5 and TNFα were combined, there was no additional effect on insulin signaling and JNK phosphorylation, but phosphorylation of NFκB was reversed to basal levels. Sfrp5 had no effect on insulin signaling in untreated or in MCP-1 treated hSkMC. Thus, Sfrp5 lowered IL-6 release and NFκB phosphorylation in cytokine-treated human adipocytes, but not under normal conditions, and decreased insulin signaling in untreated human adipocytes. Sfrp5 did not act on hSkMC. Therefore, the cellular actions of Sfrp5 seem to depend on the type of tissue as well as its inflammatory and metabolic state. PMID:24465779

  16. Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Inflammatory Mediators in Pediatric Asthma

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    Hui Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the effects of empirical prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM on inflammatory mediators in pediatric asthma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism in the treatment of asthma. Methods. A total of 182 children with asthma were randomly placed into either the TCM group (n=97 or the salbutamol and montelukast (SM group (n=85. Patients in the TCM group were treated with a series of empirical prescriptions of TCM, while those in the SM group received salbutamol and montelukast. Both groups received their respective treatment for 12 weeks. There were 35 patients in TCM group and 34 patients in SM group providing venous blood. Real-time PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of interleukin- (IL- 10, IL-17, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of IL-10, IL-17, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 in peripheral blood before and after treatment. Results. The mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in the SM group was downregulated (P=0.00 after treatment. No significant differences were found between the TCM group and the SM group after treatment (P>0.05. In the TCM group, the levels of IL-10, IL-17, and MMP-9 significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.01, 0.04, and 0.03, resp.. In the SM group, IL-17, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 levels significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.00, 0.03, and 0.00, resp.. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the levels of IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β1, and MMP-9 (P>0.05. The difference of the level of IL-17 was negatively correlated with the change of C-ACT score in TCM group and SM group. Conclusion. TCM has a regulatory effect on the balance of some inflammatory mediators in pediatric asthma.

  17. Pseudomonas-derived ceramidase induces production of inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes via sphingosine-1-phosphate.

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    Ami Oizumi

    Full Text Available Ceramide is important for water retention and permeability barrier functions in the stratum corneum, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived neutral ceramidase (PaCDase isolated from a patient with AD was shown to effectively degrade ceramide in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipids or neutral detergents. However, the effect of ceramide metabolites on the functions of differentiating keratinocytes is poorly understood. We found that the ceramide metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P stimulated the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-8 from three-dimensionally cultured human primary keratinocytes (termed "3D keratinocytes", which form a stratum corneum. PaCDase alone did not affect TNF-α gene expression in 3D keratinocytes. In the presence of the detergent Triton X-100, which damages stratum corneum structure, PaCDase, but not heat-inactivated PaCDase or PaCDase-inactive mutant, induced the production of TNF-α, endothelin-1, and IL-8, indicating that this production was dependent on ceramidase activity. Among various ceramide metabolites, sphingosine and S1P enhanced the gene expression of TNF-α, endothelin-1, and IL-8. The PaCDase-enhanced expression of these genes was inhibited by a sphingosine kinase inhibitor and by an S1P receptor antagonist VPC 23019. The TNF-α-binding antibody infliximab suppressed the PaCDase-induced upregulation of IL-8, but not TNF-α, mRNA. PaCDase induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation. The NF-κB inhibitor curcumin significantly inhibited PaCDase-induced expression of IL-8 and endothelin-1. VPC 23019 and infliximab inhibited PaCDase-induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and reduction in the protein level of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Collectively, these findings suggest that (i 3D keratinocytes produce S1P from sphingosine, which is produced through the hydrolysis of ceramide by PaCDase, (ii S1P induces the production

  18. Serum Inflammatory Mediators in Pregnancy: Changes Following Periodontal Treatment and Association with Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowicz, Bryan S.; Novak, M. John; Hodges, James S.; DiAngelis, Anthony; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N.; Mitchell, Dennis A.; Ferguson, James E.; Lupo, Virginia; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Steffen, Michelle; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine: 1) if periodontal treatment in pregnant women before 21 weeks of gestation alters levels of inflammatory mediators in serum; and 2) if changes in these mediators are associated with birth outcomes. Methods 823 pregnant women with periodontitis were randomly assigned to receive scaling and root planing before 21 weeks of gestation or after delivery. Serum obtained between 13 weeks and 16 weeks 6 days (study baseline) and 29–32 weeks gestation was analyzed for C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, fibrinogen, endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Cox regression, multiple linear regression, t-tests, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to examine associations between the biomarkers, periodontal treatment, and gestational age at delivery and birthweight. Results 796 women had baseline serum data; 620 had baseline and follow-up serum and birth data. Periodontal treatment did not significantly alter the level of any biomarker (P>0.05). Neither baseline levels nor change from baseline in any biomarker was significantly associated with preterm birth or infant birthweight (P>0.05). In treatment subjects, change in endotoxin was negatively associated with change in probing depth (P<0.05). Conclusions Non-surgical mechanical periodontal treatment in pregnant women delivered before 21 weeks of gestation did not reduce systemic (serum) markers of inflammation. In pregnant women with periodontitis, levels of these markers at 13–17 weeks and 29–32 weeks gestation were not associated with risk for preterm birth or with infant birthweight. PMID:19905943

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol is mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway suppression1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung Hun KIM; Jae Youl CHO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of honokiol on various inflammatory events mediated by monocytes/macrophages (U937/RAW264.7 cells)and lymphocytes (splenic lymphocytes and CTLL-2 cells) and their putative ac-tion mechanism. Methods: In order to investigate the regulatory effects, various cell lines and primary cells (U937, RAW264.7, CTLL-2 cells, and splenic lymphocytes) were employed and various inflammatory events, such as the pro-duction of inflammatory mediators, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and the early signaling cascade, were chosen. Results: Honokiol strongly inhibited various inflammatory responses, such as: (ⅰ) the upregulation of nitric oxide (NO), pros-taglandin.E2 and TNF-α production and costimulatory molecule CD80 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (ⅱ) the functional activation of β1-integrin (CD29) as-sessed by U937 cell-cell and cell-fibronectin adhesions; (ⅲ) the enhancement of lymphocytes and CD8+CTLL-2 cell proliferation stimulated by LPS, phytohemaglutinin A (PHA), and concanavalin A or interleukin (IL)-2; and (ⅳ) the transcriptional upregulation of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. These anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol seem to be mediated by interrupting the early activated intra-cellular signaling molecule phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, but not Src, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38, according to pharmacological, biochemical, and functional analyses. Conclusion: These results suggest that honokiol may act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent with multipotential activities due to an inhibitory effect on the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  20. Interactions between inflammatory mediators in expression of antitumor cytostatic activity of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Bonta; S. Ben-Efraim

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Antitumor properties and participation in inflammatory events are important characteristics of activated macrophages. We show here that both antitumor cytostatic function of macrophages and participation of these cells at inflammatory sites are controlled by two main group

  1. Effects of Acute Lithium Treatment on Brain Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Poststroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Few therapeutic options with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of this disabling disease. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder. Moreover, lithium has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects and therapeutic efficacy as a treatment of other neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium on brain inflammatory mediators levels, fever, and mortality in postischemic stroke rats. Ischemic stroke was induced by occlusion of the mid cerebral artery (MCAO. Pretreatment with a single dose of lithium at 2 hours before MCAO induction significantly reduced the elevation in interleukin- (IL- 6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in brain of post-MCAO rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. On the other hand, lithium did not affect the elevation in IL-1α, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in brain of post-MCAO rats. Moreover, pretreatment with lithium did not alter post-MCAO fever and mortality. These results suggest that acute pretreatment with a single dose of lithium did not markedly affect post-MCAO morbidity and mortality in rats.

  2. Nandinine, a Derivative of Berberine, Inhibits Inflammation and Reduces Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes via Regulation of AMP-Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwen; Ge, Haixia; Liu, Kang; Chen, Xiuping; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Baolin

    2017-02-01

    Nandinine is a derivative of berberine that has high efficacy for treating cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effects of berberine and nandinine on the regulation of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. Through treatment with macrophage-derived conditioned medium in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, dysregulation of adipokine production and activation of the IκB kinase β/nuclear factor-kappa B pathway was induced. However, these phenomena were effectively reversed by berberine, nandinine, and salicylate pretreatments. Furthermore, both berberine and nandinine inhibited serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 induced by IκB kinase β and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 to activate the PI3K/Akt pathway, which finally led to insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In addition, berberine and nandinine significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity, thereby contributing to their anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting IκB kinase β activation. Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated that both berberine (100 or 200 mg/kg) and nandinine (100 or 200 mg/kg) effectively ameliorated glucose intolerance and induced the insulin sensitivity index in mice. In conclusion, berberine and nandinine attenuated insulin resistance in adipocytes by inhibiting inflammation in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent manner. Berberine and nandinine may be used as dietary supplements and nandinine is a new candidate for obesity treatment.

  3. Notch pathway is dispensable for adipocyte specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Amy M; Pan, Yonghua; Herreman, An; Hadland, Brandon K; De Strooper, Bart; Kopan, Raphael; Huppert, Stacey S

    2004-09-01

    In the past decade we have witnessed an epidemic of obesity in developed countries. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in regulation of body weight is becoming an increasingly important goal shared by the public and the scientific community. The key to fat deposition is the adipocyte, a specialized cell that plays a critical role in energy balance and appetite regulation. Much of our knowledge of adipogenesis comes from studies using preadipocytic cell lines that have provided important information regarding molecular control of adipocyte differentiation. However, they fall short of revealing how naive cells acquire competence for adipogenesis. Studies in preadipocytes indicate that the Notch pathway plays a role in regulating adipogenesis (Garces et al.: J Biol Chem 272:29729-29734, 1997). Given the known biological functions of Notch in mediating cell fate decisions (Artavanis-Tsakonas et al.: Science 284:770-776, 1999), we wished to test the hypothesis that the Notch pathway is required for this cellular program by examining adipogenesis in several genetic loss-of-function models that encompass the entire pathway. We conclude that the "canonical" Notch signaling pathway is dispensable for adipocyte specification and differentiation from either mesenchymal or epithelial progenitors.

  4. Defining Therapeutic Targets by Using Adenovirus: Blocking NF-kappa B Inhibits Both Inflammatory and Destructive Mechanisms in Rheumatoid Synovium but Spares Anti-Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondeson, Jan; Foxwell, Brian; Brennan, Fionula; Feldmann, Marc

    1999-05-01

    The role of the transcription factor NF-kappa B in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has long been a subject of controversy. We used an adenoviral technique of blocking NF-kappa B through overexpression of the inhibitory subunit Ikappa Bα , which has the advantage that it can be used in the diseased tissue itself, with >90% of the synovial macrophages, fibroblasts, and T cells infected. We found that the spontaneous production of tumor necrosis factor α and other pro-inflammatory cytokines is NF-kappa B-dependent in rheumatoid synovial tissue, in contrast to the main anti-inflammatory mediators, like IL-10 and -11, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist. Of even more interest, Ikappa Bα overexpression inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 while not affecting their tissue inhibitor. Blocking NF-kappa B in the rheumatoid joint thus has a very beneficial profile, reducing both the inflammatory response and the tissue destruction. The adenoviral technique described here has widespread applicability, allowing rapid testing of the effects of blocking a potential therapeutic target in either cultures of normal cells or in the diseased tissue itself.

  5. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  6. Differentiation of chronical rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis on basis of symptomatology, course of disease, inflammatory mediators and comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Traser, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    Recent cytokine and chemokine research has rapidly expanded our understanding of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and underlined that it is necessary to divide this disease into subgroups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the differentiation of CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyposis on basis of symptomatology, course of disease, inflammatory mediators and comorbidity. Nasal Polyps (n=16), tissue samples taken from the paranasal sinuses (n=32) and ...

  7. Pivotal Role of PGE2 and IL-10 in the Cross-Regulation of Dendritic Cell-Derived Inflammatory Mediators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hedi Harizi; Norbert Gualde

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to pathogens induces antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) to produce various endogenous mediators, including arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO). Many secreted products of activated APC can act by themselves in an autocrine manner and modulate their function. Moreover, the cross-interaction between endogenous bioactive molecules regulates the function of professional APC with important consequences for their ability to activate and sustain immune and inflammatory responses, and to regulate immune homeostasis. Although neglected for many years when compared to their role in cardiovascular homeostasis, cancer and inflammation, the importance of eicosanoids in immunology is becoming more defined. The role of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2), one of the best known and most well studied eicosanoids,is of particular interest. It modulates the activities of professional DC by acting on their differentiation, maturation and their ability to secrete cytokines. Uniquely among haematopoietic cytokines, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic molecule that displays both immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory activities. IL-10 has attached much attention because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It modulates expression of cytokines, soluble mediators and cell surface molecules by cells of myeloid origin, particularly macrophages and DC. We previously reported that PGE2 is a potent inducer of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC), and PGE2-induced IL-10 is a key regulator of the BM-DC pro-inflammatory phenotype. BM-DC may be considered as an important model to study complex interactions between endogenous mediators, and autocrine IL-10 plays a pivotal role in the crossregulation of AA-derived lipid mediators, cytokines, and NO, with critical effects on immune and inflammatory responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):271-277.

  8. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 5 binds integrin on colonic cells and stimulates NFkappaB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongzhong; Mortimer, Leanne; Chadee, Kris

    2010-11-12

    Integrins are important mammalian receptors involved in normal cellular functions and the pathogenesis of inflammation and disease. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that colonizes the gut, and in 10% of infected individuals, causes amebic colitis and liver abscess resulting in 10(5) deaths/year. E. histolytica-induced host inflammatory responses are critical in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet the host and parasite factors involved in disease are poorly defined. Here we show that pro-mature cysteine proteinase 5 (PCP5), a major virulent factor that is abundantly secreted and/or present on the surface of ameba, binds via its RGD motif to α(V)β(3) integrin on Caco-2 colonic cells and stimulates NFκB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. PCP5 RGD binding to α(V)β(3) integrin triggered integrin-linked kinase(ILK)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt-473 that bound and induced the ubiquitination of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). As NEMO is required for activation of the IKKα-IKKβ complex and NFκB signaling, these events markedly up-regulated pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in colonic loop studies in wild-type and Muc2(-/-) mice lacking an intact protective mucus barrier. These results have revealed that EhPCP5 RGD motif is a ligand for α(V)β(3) integrin-mediated adhesion on colonic cells and represents a novel mechanism that E. histolytica trophozoites use to trigger an inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis.

  9. Soluble CD163 masks fibronectin-binding protein A-mediated inflammatory activation of Staphylococcus aureus infected monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneidl, Jessica; Mysore, Vijayashree; Geraci, Jennifer; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Löffler, Bettina; Holzinger, Dirk; Roth, Johannes; Barczyk-Kahlert, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    Binding to fibronectin (FN) is a crucial pathogenic factor of Staphylococcus aureus mediated by fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBP-A) and extracellular adherence protein (Eap). Recently, we have shown that binding of soluble CD163 (sCD163) to FN linked to these molecules exhibits anti-microbial effects by enhancing phagocytosis and killing activity of S. aureus-infected monocytes. However, it remained unclear whether sCD163 also influences the monocytic activation status. Using genetically modified staphylococcal strains we now identified FnBP-A, but not Eap, as activator of the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection. FnBP-A-mediated inflammatory activation was masked by sCD163 binding to S. aureus promoting efficient pathogen elimination. Thus, sCD163 protects monocytes from overwhelming activation upon staphylococcal infection by dampening the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 and DAMP molecule MRP8/14. Moreover, sCD163 limited expression of pro-apoptotic transcription factor NR4A1 induced during S. aureus infection and inhibited induction of chemokine CXCL2promoting survival of staphylococci in vivo. sCD163-mediated effects were not due to general immunosuppression since MAP kinase activation and ROS production were unaltered during infection of monocytes with sCD163-bound bacteria. Thus, sCD163 promotes a specific defence of the immune system against FnBP-A-mediated inflammatory activation enabling successful pathogen elimination, tissue recovery and resolution of inflammation.

  10. Treatment of chronic immune-mediated neuropathies: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederholm, Benson H

    2010-09-01

    Current treatment approaches for the management of chronic immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies are reviewed, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS). A summary of existing evidence for commonly used treatment modalities, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange is provided. Evidence for the use of additional immunosuppressant and immunomodulatory agents is also reviewed.

  11. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  12. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan N Cohen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1, a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction.

  13. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  14. Exploring the activated adipogenic niche: interactions of macrophages and adipocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Thacker, Robert I; Hall, Brian Eric; Kong, Raymond; Granneman, James G

    2014-01-01

    Adult adipose tissue contains a large supply of progenitors that can renew fat cells for homeostatic tissue maintenance and adaptive growth or regeneration in response to external challenges. However, the in vivo mechanisms that control adipocyte progenitor behavior are poorly characterized. We recently demonstrated that recruitment of adipocyte progenitors by macrophages is a central feature of adipose tissue remodeling under various adipogenic conditions. Catabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation requires anti-inflammatory M2-polarized macrophages to clear dying adipocytes and to recruit new brown adipocytes from progenitors. In this Extra Views article, we discuss in greater detail the cellular elements of adipogenic niches and report a strategy to isolate and characterize the subpopulations of macrophages and adipocyte progenitors that actively participate in adrenergic tissue remodeling. Further characterization of these subpopulations may facilitate identification of new cellular targets to improve metabolic and immune function of adipose tissue.

  15. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: A critical review of the state-of-the-art, current prospects, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Maryam; Mobasheri, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been defined as a prototypical non-inflammatory arthropathy, but today there is compelling evidence to suggest that it has an inflammatory component. Many recent studies have shown the presence of synovitis in a large number of patients with OA and demonstrated a direct association between joint inflammation and the progression of OA. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, matrix degrading enzymes and biomechanical stress are major factors responsible for the progression of OA in synovial joints. The aim of this review is to discuss the significance of a wide range of implicated inflammatory mediators and their contribution to the progression of OA. We also discuss some of the currently available guidelines, practices, and prospects. In addition, this review argues for new innovation in methodologies and instrumentation for the non-invasive detection of inflammation in OA by modern imaging techniques. We propose that identifying early inflammatory events and targeting these alterations will help to ameliorate the major symptoms such as inflammation and pain in OA patients.

  16. The eicosapentaenoic acid metabolite 15-deoxy-δ(12,14-prostaglandin J3 increases adiponectin secretion by adipocytes partly via a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lefils-Lacourtablaise

    Full Text Available The intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, which are abundant in marine fish meat and oil, has been shown to exert many beneficial effects. The mechanisms behind those effects are numerous, including interference with the arachidonic acid cascade that produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, formation of novel bioactive lipid mediators, and change in the pattern of secreted adipocytokines. In our study, we show that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA increases secreted adiponectin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in plasma of mice as early as 4 days after initiation of an EPA-rich diet. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we report for the first time that 15-deoxy-δ(12,14-PGJ3 (15d-PGJ3, a product of EPA, also increases the secretion of adiponectin. We demonstrate that the increased adiponectin secretion induced by 15d-PGJ3 is partially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ-mediated. Finally, we show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can synthesize 15d-PGJ3 from EPA. 15d-PGJ3 was also detected in adipose tissue from EPA-fed mice. Thus, these studies provide a novel mechanism(s for the therapeutic benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids dietary supplementation.

  17. Adipocyte differentiation and leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Loftus, T M; Mandrup, S

    1997-01-01

    , most notably those of the C/EBP and PPAR families, which combine to regulate each other and to control the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. One such gene, i.e. the obese gene, was recently identified and found to encode a hormone, referred to as leptin, that plays a major role in the regulation...... of energy intake and expenditure. The hormonal and transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation is discussed, as is the role of leptin and other factors secreted by the adipocyte that participate in the regulation of adipose homeostasis....

  18. Effects of Baicalin on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in rats with sever acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhang xiping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.
    • METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (I group, model control group (II group, Baicalin treated group (III group and Octreotide treated group (IV group. Each group was also divided into subgroup of 3, 6 and 12 h (n = 15. The mortality rate, ascites/body weight ratio as well as the level of endotoxin, NO and ET-1 in blood were measured. The pathological severity score of pancreas, apoptotic indexes, and expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in each group were investigated.
    • RESULTS: The survival rate of III and IV group has a significant difference compared with II group (P12 h < 0.05. The ascites volume, contents of inflammatory mediators in blood and pathological severity score of pancreas of III and IV group declined at different degrees compared to II group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001. Apoptotic index in III group was significantly higher than that in II group at 3 and 6 h (P3, 6 h < 0.05. Apoptotic index in IV group was significantly higher than that in II group at pancreatic tail at 6 h (P6 h < 0.05. Expression level of Bax in III group was significantly higher than that in II group (pancreatic head P3 h,6 h < 0.01, pancreatic tail P3 h < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Octreotide in the treatment of SAP, the protective mechanisms of Baicalin include reducing the excessive inflammatory mediators’ release, inducing the pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis.
    • KEY WORDS: Severe acute pancreatitis, baicalin, octreotide, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, tissue microarrays.

  19. Quercetin Impacts Expression of Metabolism- and Obesity-Associated Genes in SGBS Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leiherer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the rapid expansion of visceral adipose tissue, resulting in a hypoxic environment in adipose tissue which leads to a profound change of gene expression in adipocytes. As a consequence, there is a dysregulation of metabolism and adipokine secretion in adipose tissue leading to the development of systemic inflammation and finally resulting in the onset of metabolic diseases. The flavonoid quercetin as well as other secondary plant metabolites also referred to as phytochemicals have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects known to be protective in view of obesity-related-diseases. Nevertheless, its underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and thus the focus of this study was to explore the influence of quercetin on human SGBS (Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome adipocytes’ gene expression. We revealed for the first time that quercetin significantly changed expression of adipokine (Angptl4, adipsin, irisin and PAI-1 and glycolysis-involved (ENO2, PFKP and PFKFB4 genes, and that this effect not only antagonized but in part even overcompensated the effect mediated by hypoxia in adipocytes. Thus, these results are explained by the recently proposed hypothesis that the protective effect of quercetin is not solely due to its free radical-scavenging activity but also to a direct effect on mitochondrial processes, and they demonstrate that quercetin might have the potential to counteract the development of obesity-associated complications.

  20. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  1. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calderon-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  2. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  3. Targeted adenovirus mediated inhibition of NF-kappa B-dependent inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuldo, J. M.; Asgeirsdottir, S. A.; Zwiers, P. J.; Bellu, A. R.; Rots, M. G.; Schalk, J. A. C.; Ogawara, K. I.; Trautwein, C.; Banas, B.; Haisma, H. J.; Molema, G.; Kamps, J. A. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory diseases the endothelium expresses mediators responsible for harmful leukocyte infiltration. We investigated whether targeted delivery of a therapeutic transgene that inhibits nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction could silence the proinflammatory activation status of en

  4. Ratio of pro-resolving and pro-inflammatory lipid mediator precursors as potential markers for aggressive periodontitis.

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    Hager R Zein Elabdeen

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis (AgP is a rapidly progressing type of periodontal disease in otherwise healthy individuals which causes destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The disease is initiated by pathogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, and the severity of inflammation and attachment loss varies with the host response. Recently, there has been an increased interest in determining the role of lipid mediators in inflammatory events and the concept of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators has been brought into focus also in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to determine the profile of omega-3 or n3- as well as omega-6 or n6- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and PUFA-metabolites of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, saliva and serum in AgP patients and healthy controls. In total, 60 selected n3- and n6-PUFAs and various PUFA metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS. Of these, 51 could be quantified in this study. The concentrations of the majority were low in saliva samples compared with serum and GCF, but were mainly higher in AgP patients compared with healthy controls in all three kinds of sample. Ratios of n3- to n6-PUFAs (DHA + EPA/AA were significantly lower in the GCF of AgP patients than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, various ratios of the direct precursors of the pro-resolution lipid mediators (precursors of resolvins and protectins were calculated against the precursors of mainly pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. These ratios were mainly lower in GCF and saliva of AgP patients, compared with healthy controls, but only reached significance in GCF (P<0.05. To conclude, the ratios of precursors of pro-resolution/pro-inflammatory lipid mediators seem to be more relevant for describing the disease status of Ag

  5. Involvement of IGF-1 and MEOX2 in PI3K/Akt1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways mediated proliferation and differentiation of perivascular adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ping, E-mail: lping@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, No. 247, Beiyuan Road, Shandong, Jinan 250033 (China); Kong, Feng; Wang, Jue [Central Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250033 (China); Lu, Qinghua [Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, No. 247, Beiyuan Road, Shandong, Jinan 250033 (China); Xu, Haijia [Department of Cardiology, Wendeng Central Hospital of Weihai City, Shandong, Weihai 264400 (China); Qi, Tonggang [Central Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250033 (China); Meng, Juan [Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, No. 247, Beiyuan Road, Shandong, Jinan 250033 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Perivascular adipocyte (PVAC) proliferation and differentiation were closely involved in cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways enhance PVAC functions activated by insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and suppressed by mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2). In this study, PVACs from primary culture were cultured and induced to differentiate. Cell viability assays demonstrated that IGF-1 promoted PVAC proliferation and differentiation. However MEOX2 counteracted these IGF-1-mediated actions. Flow Cytometry revealed that IGF-1 increased S phase cells and decreased apoptosis; however, MEOX2 decreased S phase cells, increased G0–G1 phase cells, and promoted apoptosis. During PVAC proliferation and differentiation, IGF-1 activated PI3K/Akt1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, upregulated the expression of these signaling proteins and FAS, and increased PVAC lipid content. In contrast, MEOX2 constrained the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt1/2 protein, down-regulated these signaling molecules and FAS, and decreased PVAC lipid content. Instead, MEOX2 knockdown enhanced the ERK1/2 and Akt1/2 phosphorylation, augmented the expression of these signaling molecules and FAS, and increased PVAC lipid content. Our findings suggested that PI3K/Akt1/2 and ERK1/2 activation mediated by IGF-1 is essential for PVAC proliferation and differentiation, and MEOX2 is a promising therapeutic gene to intervene in the signaling pathways and inhibit PVAC functions. - Highlights: • IGF-1 activated PI3K/Akt2 and ERK1/2 pathways to mediate PVAC proliferation and differentiation. • The expression of ERK1, ERK 2, PI3K, Akt1 and Akt2 showed different change trends between PVAC proliferation and differentiation. • MEOX2 effectively expressed in PVAC, increased early and late cellular apoptosis, and inhibited its proliferation. • MEOX2 depressed PVAC differentiation and FAS expression

  6. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Flavonoid myricetin inhibits TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Chung Soo

    2016-08-05

    Flavonoid myricetin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the effect of myricetin on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we examined the effect of myricetin on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in relation to the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulate the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. TNF-α stimulated production of the inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes, and activation of the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways in HaCaT cells and primary keratinocytes. Myricetin, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085 (an inhibitor of NF-κB activation), rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) and N-acetylcysteine attenuated TNF-α-induced activation of Akt, mTOR and NF-κB. Myricetin and N-acetylcysteine attenuated the TNF-α-stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The results show that myricetin may reduce TNF-α-stimulated inflammatory mediator production in keratinocytes by suppressing the activation of the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways. The effect of myricetin appears to be associated with inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Further, myricetin appears to attenuate the proinflammatory mediator-induced inflammatory skin diseases.

  8. Effects of obesity on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Chinkwo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is influenced by environmental factors and obesity, which triggers inflammatory processes that affect airways and give rise to asthmatic condition. Obesity is been associated with low-grade inflammation with the potential of developing several complications including asthma. The origins of asthma and obesity are complex with genetics and environmental factors and among others implicated. The main constituent of obese tissue comprises fat which is chiefly adipocytes. Reactive adipocytes trigger inflammation that has an adverse effect on lung function. Consequently, airways are clogged with inflammatory components leading to asthma. The inflammatory state cause's macrophages to produce cytokines such as TNF- and #945; which subsequently affect lung function, trigger insulin resistant diabetes and other cardio vascular complications. The mechanism by which the lung changes are characterized by the inflammatory components which triggers oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. The presence of high oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory products exacerbates asthmatic condition. Therefore asthma and obesity result in inflammation that gives rise to oxidative stress, thus these four pathophysiological phenomena are interrelated. This paper reviews the complex relationship between oxidative stress markers and inflammatory markers, especially with regard to evaluation and monitory of respiratory diseases by laboratory methods. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1794-1801

  9. Can the TLR-4-Mediated Signaling Pathway Be “A Key Inflammatory Promoter for Sporadic TAA”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ruvolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aorta shows with advancing age various changes and a progressive deterioration in structure and function. As a result, vascular remodeling (VR and medial degeneration (MD occur as pathological entities responsible principally for the sporadic TAA onset. Little is known about their genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Recent evidence is proposing the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in their evocation and progression. Thus, we evaluated the potential role of Toll like receptor- (TLR- 4-mediated signaling pathway and its polymorphisms in sporadic TAA. Genetic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were assessed. Interestingly, the rs4986790 TLR4 polymorphism confers a higher susceptibility for sporadic TAA (OR=14.4, P=0.0008 and it represents, together with rs1799752 ACE, rs3918242 MMP-9, and rs2285053 MMP-2 SNPs, an independent sporadic TAA risk factor. In consistency with these data, a significant association was observed between their combined risk genotype and sporadic TAA. Cases bearing this risk genotype showed higher systemic inflammatory mediator levels, significant inflammatory/immune infiltrate, a typical MD phenotype, lower telomere length, and positive correlations with histopatological abnormalities, hypertension, smoking, and ageing. Thus, TLR4 pathway should seem to have a key role in sporadic TAA. It might represent a potential useful tool for preventing and monitoring sporadic TAA and developing personalized treatments.

  10. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is a receptor for human resistin and mediates inflammatory actions of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sahmin; Lee, Hyun-Chae; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Lee, Sang Eun; Cho, Youngjin; Kim, Joonoh; Lee, Soobeom; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Jaewon; Yang, Han-Mo; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Nam, Ky-Youb; Chung, Junho; Lazar, Mitchell A; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-03-04

    Human resistin is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes. Resistin-mediated chronic inflammation can lead to obesity, atherosclerosis, and other cardiometabolic diseases. Nevertheless, the receptor for human resistin has not been clarified. Here, we identified adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) as a functional receptor for human resistin and clarified its intracellular signaling pathway to modulate inflammatory action of monocytes. We found that human resistin directly binds to CAP1 in monocytes and upregulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and NF-κB-related transcription of inflammatory cytokines. Overexpression of CAP1 in monocytes enhanced the resistin-induced increased activity of the cAMP-dependent signaling. Moreover, CAP1-overexpressed monocytes aggravated adipose tissue inflammation in transgenic mice that express human resistin from their monocytes. In contrast, suppression of CAP1 expression abrogated the resistin-mediated inflammatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CAP1 is the bona fide receptor for resistin leading to inflammation in humans.

  11. Antagonizing arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids reduces inflammatory Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated inflammation and colitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Turk, Harmony F; Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Weeks, Brad; Yang, Peiying; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA-) derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23), decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  12. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  13. Grape polyphenols and propolis mixture inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human leukocytes and reduces clinical scores in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossalayi, M D; Rambert, J; Renouf, E; Micouleau, M; Mérillon, J M

    2014-02-15

    Polyphenols from red fruits and bee-derived propolis (PR) are bioactive natural products in various in vitro and in vivo models. The present study shows that hematotoxicity-free doses of grape polyphenols (GPE) and PR differentially decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated human peripheral blood leucocytes. While GPE inhibited the monocytes/macrophage response, propolis decreased both monokines and interferon γ (IFNγ) production. When used together, their distinct effects lead to the attenuation of all inflammatory mediators, as supported by a significant modulation of the transcriptomic profile of pro-inflammatory genes in human leukocytes. To enforce in vitro data, GPE+PR were tested for their ability to improve clinical scores and cachexia in chronic rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Extracts significantly reduced arthritis scores and cachexia, and this effect was more significant in animals receiving continuous low doses compared to those receiving five different high doses. Animals treated daily had significantly better clinical scores than corticoid-treated rats. Together, these findings indicate that the GPE+PR combination induces potent anti-inflammatory activity due to their complementary immune cell modulation.

  14. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  15. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory cytokine secretion in smooth muscle cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in SMCs both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of TLR4, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression were increased in the SMCs of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with femoral artery stenosis. In cultured primary arterial SMCs from wild type mice, oxLDL caused dose- and time-dependent increase in the expression levels of TLR4 and cytokines. These effects were significantly weakened in arterial SMCs derived from TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4-/-. Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was blocked by TLR4-specific antibodies in primary SMCs. Ox-LDL induced activation of p38 and NFκB was also inhibited in TLR4-/- primary SMCs or when treated with TLR4-specific antibodies. These results demonstrated that TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFκB activation.

  16. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  17. Fisetin Suppresses Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Blockade of Src and Syk

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, such as fisetin (3,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone), are plant secondary metabolites. It has been reported that fisetin is able to perform numerous pharmacological roles including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities; however, the exact anti-inflammatory mechanism of fisetin is not understood. In this study, the pharmacological action modes of fisetin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-like cells were elucidated by using immunoblotting analysis,...

  18. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Madera; Anna Greenshields; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated...

  19. Viral mediated redirection of NEMO/IKKγ to autophagosomes curtails the inflammatory cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Fliss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The early host response to viral infections involves transient activation of pattern recognition receptors leading to an induction of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα. Subsequent activation of cytokine receptors in an autocrine and paracrine manner results in an inflammatory cascade. The precise mechanisms by which viruses avert an inflammatory cascade are incompletely understood. Nuclear factor (NF-κB is a central regulator of the inflammatory signaling cascade that is controlled by inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB proteins and the IκB kinase (IKK complex. In this study we show that murine cytomegalovirus inhibits the inflammatory cascade by blocking Toll-like receptor (TLR and IL-1 receptor-dependent NF-κB activation. Inhibition occurs through an interaction of the viral M45 protein with the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. M45 induces proteasome-independent degradation of NEMO by targeting NEMO to autophagosomes for subsequent degradation in lysosomes. We propose that the selective and irreversible degradation of a central regulatory protein by autophagy represents a new viral strategy to dampen the inflammatory response.

  20. MFG-E8 regulates the immunogenic potential of dendritic cells primed with necrotic cell-mediated inflammatory signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Baghdadi

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC manipulate tissue homeostasis by recognizing dying cells and controlling immune functions. However, the precise mechanisms by which DC recognize different types of dying cells and devise distinct immunologic consequences remain largely obscure. Herein, we demonstrate that Milk-fat globule-EGF VIII (MFG-E8 is a critical mediator controlling DC immunogenicity in inflammatory microenvironments. MFG-E8 restrains DC-mediated uptake and recognition of necrotic cells. The MFG-E8-mediated suppression of necrotic cell uptake by DC resulted in the decreased proinflammatory cytokines production and activated signal components such as STAT3 and A20, which are critical to maintain tolerogenic properties of DC. Furthermore, the DC-derived MFG-E8 negatively regulates the cross-priming and effector functions of antigen-specific T cells upon recognition of necrotic cells. MFG-E8 deficiency enhances an ability of necrotic cell-primed DC to stimulate antitumor immune responses against established tumors. Our findings define what we believe to a novel mechanism whereby MFG-E8 regulates the immunogenicity of DC by modulating the modes of recognition of dying cells. Manipulating MFG-E8 levels in DC may serve as a useful strategy for controlling inflammatory microenvironments caused by various pathological conditions including cancer and autoimmunity.

  1. Induced Treg Cells Augment the Th17-Mediated Intestinal Inflammatory Response in a CTLA4-Dependent Manner.

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    Nobumasa Watanabe

    Full Text Available Th17 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are thought to promote and suppress inflammatory responses, respectively. However, whether they counteract each other or synergize in regulating immune reactions remains controversial. To determine their interactions, we describe the results of experiments employing mouse models of intestinal inflammation by transferring antigen-specific Th cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiated in vitro followed by the administration of the cognate antigen via enema. We show that cotransfer of induced Tregs (iTregs suppressed Th1- and Th2-mediated colon inflammation. In contrast, colon inflammation induced by transfer of Th17 cells, was augmented by the cotransfer of iTregs. Furthermore, oral delivery of antigen potentiated Th17-mediated colon inflammation. Administration of a blocking antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4 abrogated the effects of cotransfer of iTregs, while the injection of a soluble recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig fusion protein, CTLA4-Ig substituted for the cotransfer of iTregs. These results suggest that antigen-specific activation of iTregs in a local environment stimulates the Th17-mediated inflammatory response in a CTLA4-dependent manner.

  2. Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Inflammatory Mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6) in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Hong Zhou; Jie-Ping Yu; Yi-Fei Liu; Xiao-Jun Teng; Mei Ming; Peng Lv; Ping An; Shi-Quan Liu; Hong-Gang Yu

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a criticial role in ulcerative colitis immune and inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on inflammatory mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6) in TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg). EGB in doses of (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks to protect colitis. The results showed that ...

  3. Inflammatory Mediators in Tracheal Aspirates of Preterm Infants Participating in a Randomized Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Elena; Uhlig, Ulrike; Yang, Yang; Fuchs, Hans W.; Zemlin, Michael; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Maier, Rolf F.; Hummler, Helmut D.; Uhlig, Stefan; Thome, Ulrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ventilated preterm infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators in their tracheal aspirates (TA). In animal models of BPD, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation, but data for human preterm infants is missing. Methods Within a European multicenter trial of NO inhalation for preterm infants to prevent BPD (EUNO), TA was collected to determine the effects of iNO on pulmonary inflammation. TA was collected from 43 premature infants randomly assigned to receive either iNO or placebo gas (birth weight 530–1230 g, median 800 g, gestational age 24 to 28 2/7 weeks, median 26 weeks). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), neuropeptide Y and leukotriene B4 were measured in serial TA samples from postnatal day 2 to 14. Furthermore, TA levels of nitrotyrosine and nitrite were determined under iNO therapy. Results The TA levels of IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-1β, ASM and albumin increased with advancing postnatal age in critically ill preterm infants, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels declined in both, iNO-treated and placebo-treated infants. The iNO treatment generally increased nitrite TA levels, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels were not affected by iNO treatment. Furthermore, iNO treatment transiently reduced early inflammatory and fibrotic markers associated with BPD development including TGF-β1, IP-10 and IL-8, but induced a delayed increase of ASM TA levels. Conclusion Treatment with iNO may have played a role in reducing several inflammatory and fibrotic mediators in TA of preterm infants compared to placebo-treated infants. However, survival without BPD was not affected in the main EUNO trial. Trial registration NCT00551642 PMID:28046032

  4. Quercetin-3-O-(2″-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside inhibits TNF-α-activated NF-κB-induced inflammatory mediator production by suppressing ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Soo; Jeong, Eun Byul; Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Min Sung; Seo, Seong Jun; Park, Kwan Hee; Lee, Min Won

    2013-08-01

    Quercetin and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, the effect of quercetin-3-O-(2″-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (QGR), a new quercetin derivative, on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes is unclear. In addition, the effect of QGR on the ERK and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory process has not been studied. In human keratinocyte HaCat cells, we investigated the effect of QGR on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in relation to the nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which regulates the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. QGR inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines in HaCaT cells. QGR, dexamethasone, cyclosporine A, Bay 11-7085 (an inhibitor of NF-κB activation) and cell signaling ERK inhibitor attenuated the TNF-α-induced formation of inflammatory mediators and activation of the NF-κB and ERK. Unlike other compounds, dexamethasone and cyclosporine A did not reduce formation of reactive oxygen species. The results show that QGR may attenuate TNF-α-stimulated inflammatory mediator production in HaCaT cells by suppressing the activation of the ERK-mediated NF-κB pathway that is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Additionally, QGR may exhibit a preventive effect against the proinflammatory mediator-induced skin diseases by inhibiting the activation of the ERK and NF-κB pathways.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl pyruvate in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wang

    Full Text Available Ethyl pyruvate (EP is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-α treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8 production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-α also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK. EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS.

  6. Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in sensory neurons generate slow resurgent currents that are enhanced by inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Yong; Piekarz, Andrew D; Priest, Birgit T; Knopp, Kelly L; Krajewski, Jeffrey L; McDermott, Jeff S; Nisenbaum, Eric S; Cummins, Theodore R

    2014-05-21

    Resurgent sodium currents contribute to the regeneration of action potentials and enhanced neuronal excitability. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) resurgent currents have been described in many different neuron populations, including cerebellar and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In most cases, sodium channel Nav1.6 is the major contributor to these TTX-S resurgent currents. Here we report a novel TTX-resistant (TTX-R) resurgent current recorded from rat DRG neurons. The TTX-R resurgent currents are similar to classic TTX-S resurgent currents in many respects, but not all. As with TTX-S resurgent currents, they are activated by membrane repolarization, inhibited by lidocaine, and enhanced by a peptide-mimetic of the β4 sodium channel subunit intracellular domain. However, the TTX-R resurgent currents exhibit much slower kinetics, occur at more depolarized voltages, and are sensitive to the Nav1.8 blocker A803467. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation experiments from rat DRG lysates indicate the endogenous sodium channel β4 subunits associate with Nav1.8 in DRG neurons. These results suggest that slow TTX-R resurgent currents in DRG neurons are mediated by Nav1.8 and are generated by the same mechanism underlying TTX-S resurgent currents. We also show that both TTX-S and TTX-R resurgent currents in DRG neurons are enhanced by inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the β4 peptide increased excitability of small DRG neurons in the presence of TTX. We propose that these slow TTX-R resurgent currents contribute to the membrane excitability of nociceptive DRG neurons under normal conditions and that enhancement of both types of resurgent currents by inflammatory mediators could contribute to sensory neuronal hyperexcitability associated with inflammatory pain.

  7. TNFR1 and TNFR2 differentially mediate TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Xiao, Weiguo

    2017-04-01

    TNF-α has long been implicated in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, how the receptors of TNF-α, namely TNFR1 and TNFR2, mediate TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in RA has not been elucidated. In the present study, primary FLS cells were isolated from RA patients and treated with TNF-α in vitro. The exogenous TNF-α induced the expression and release of endogenous TNF-α in FLS. In addition, TNF-α led to gradual downregulation of TNFR1 following 1 h treatment. By contrast, the expression of TNFR2 was markedly upregulated after 12 h treatment with TNF-α. Moreover, following TNF-α treatment, the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-8 was gradually increased with time, but their mRNA levels dropped significantly at 48 h. We further investigated the differential functions of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in FLS by conducting siRNA-mediated knockdown. The TNF-α autocrine was inhibited to a greater extent in TNFR1-silenced FLS compared with TNFR2-silenced FLS. Silencing of TNFR1, not TNFR2, activated intrinsic apoptosis and inhibited TNF-α-induced cytokine production in FLS. These results suggest that TNFR1 is the major pro-inflammatory mediator of TNF-α in FLS, whereas TNFR2, which is upregulated in response to prolonged TNF-α stimulation, may act as an immunosuppressor in FLS for the prevention of overwhelming inflammatory reactions.

  8. Significance of Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Autoantibodies in Immune-mediated Inflammatory Skin Disorders with and without Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Chander; Kashyap, Bineeta; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Dhawan, Amit; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) are autoantibodies directed against citrullinated peptides. Rheumatoid factor (RF), an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG, is known to form immune complexes and contribute to the etiopathogenesis of various skin disorders. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, increases following secretion of interleukin-6 from macrophages and T cells. Anti-CCP, RF, and CRP are well-established immune-markers, their diagnostic potential in immune-mediated skin disorders remains less widely studied. Aims and Objectives: To determine the correlation between anti-CCP, RF, and CRP in immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. Materials and Methods: About 61 clinically diagnosed cases of various immune-mediated skin diseases (psoriasis [n = 38], connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis [n = 14], and immunobullous disorders including pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus [n = 9]) were included in the study. These patients were subclassified on the basis of presence or absence of arthritis. Arthritis was present in nine cases of psoriasis and seven connective tissue disorder patients. Detection of serum anti-CCP was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas CRP and RF levels were detected using latex agglutination technique. Results: Of the 61 specimens, 14.75% had elevated serum anti-CCP levels. RF and CRP levels were elevated in 18.03% and 39.34% specimens, respectively. RF was elevated in 13.16% of inflammatory and 42.88% of connective tissue disorders, whereas anti-CCP was raised in 10.53% of inflammatory and 35.71% of connective tissue disorders. CRP positivity was highest in connective tissue disorders (50%), followed by 39.47% in inflammatory and 22.22% in immunobullous conditions. In none of the immunobullous patients, anti-CCP or RF levels were found to be elevated. Association of the presence of arthritis with elevated anti-CCP was found to be

  9. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  10. Phosphoproteomics Identifies CK2 as a Negative Regulator of Beige Adipocyte Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Ohyama, Kana; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Ayaka; Hong, Haemin; Hosono, Takashi; Sharp, Louis Z; Scheel, David W; Graham, Mark; Ishihama, Yasushi; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-12-01

    Catecholamines promote lipolysis both in brown and white adipocytes, whereas the same stimuli preferentially activate thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Molecular mechanisms for the adipose-selective activation of thermogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to map global and temporal phosphorylation profiles in brown, beige, and white adipocytes under β3-adrenenoceptor activation and identified kinases responsible for the adipose-selective phosphorylation profiles. We found that casein kinase2 (CK2) activity is preferentially higher in white adipocytes than brown/beige adipocytes. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of CK2 in white adipocytes activates the thermogenic program in response to cAMP stimuli. Such activation is largely through reduced CK2-mediated phosphorylation of class I HDACs. Notably, inhibition of CK2 promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and leads to an increase in whole-body energy expenditure and ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that CK2 is a plausible target to rewire the β3-adrenenoceptor signaling cascade that promotes thermogenesis in adipocytes.

  11. Chlorin e6-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Suppresses P. acnes-Induced Inflammatory Response via NFκB and MAPKs Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yoon-Young; Ryu, A-Reum; Jin, Solee; Jeon, Yu-Mi; Lee, Mi-Young

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), consisting of photosensitizer, light, and oxygen has been used for the treatment of various diseases including cancers, microbial infections and skin disorders. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of chlorin e6-mediated PDT in P. acnes-infected HaCaT cells using photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and halogen light. The live and heat-killed P. acnes triggered an upregulation of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS, NO, and inflammatory cytokine in HaCaT cells and mouse model. Ce6-mediated PDT notably downregulated the expression of these inflammatory molecules in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, chlorin e6-mediated PDT was capable of regulating inflammatory response in both live and heat killed S. epidermidis exposed HaCaT cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK were reduced by Ce6-mediated PDT. Ce6-mediated PDT also reduced the phosphorylation of IKKα/β, IĸBα and NFκB p65 in P. acnes-stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, the dramatic increase in the nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 observed upon stimulation with P. acnes was markedly impaired by Ce6-based PDT. This is the first suggestion that Ce6-mediated PDT suppresses P. acnes-induced inflammation through modulating NFκB and MAPKs signaling pathways. PMID:28118375

  12. Observational Study of the Genetic Architecture of Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis

  13. Clinical and experimental studies on inflammatory mediators during AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of the alveolar epithelium was observed in PCP but not for other HIV related lung diseases. By determining concentrations of soluble markers of immune activation we found that anti-microbial therapy exacerbated an ongoing inflammatory reaction. Adjuvant glucocorticosteroids suppressed levels of soluble immune....... This thesis has attempted to delineate important mechanisms of the inflammatory cascade, and to determine how inflammation is initiated during PCP. In histopathological studies of lung specimens it was shown that PCP caused significant inflammation and destruction of tissue. Specific pathological changes...

  14. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  15. Ultrafine particles affect the balance of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in the lung: in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck-Speier Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ultrafine particles exerts diverse harmful effects including aggravation of pulmonary diseases like asthma. Recently we demonstrated in a mouse model for allergic airway inflammation that particle-derived oxidative stress plays a crucial role during augmentation of allergen-induced lung inflammation by ultrafine carbon particle (UfCP inhalation. The mechanisms how particle inhalation might change the inflammatory balance in the lungs, leading to accelerated inflammatory reactions, remain unclear. Lipid mediators, known to be immediately generated in response to tissue injury, might be strong candidates for priming this particle-triggered change of the inflammatory balance. Methods We hypothesize that inhalation of UfCP may disturb the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in: i a model for acute allergic pulmonary inflammation, exposing mice for 24 h before allergen challenge to UfCP inhalation (51.7 nm, 507 μg/m3, and ii an in-vitro model with primary rat alveolar macrophages (AM incubated with UfCP (10 μg/1 x 106 cells/ml for 1 h. Lungs and AM were analysed for pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators, namely leukotriene B4 (LTB4, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 15(S-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15(S-HETE, lipoxin A4 (LXA4 and oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane by enzyme immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. Results In non-sensitized mice UfCP exposure induced a light non-significant increase of all lipid mediators. Similarly but significantly in rat AM all lipid mediators were induced already within 1 h of UfCP stimulation. Also sensitized and challenge mice exposed to filtered air showed a partially significant increase in all lipid mediators. In sensitized and challenged mice UfCP exposure induced highest significant levels of all lipid mediators in the lungs together with the peak of allergic airway inflammation on day 7 after UfCP inhalation. The levels of LTB4, 8-isoprostane and PGE2 were

  16. Mangiferin antagonizes TNF-α-mediated inflammatory reaction and protects against dermatitis in a mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Wang, Wenhan; Wu, Xihai; Ma, Xiaoqian; Qu, Ruize; Chen, Xiaomin; Liu, Chenghao; Liu, Yaoge; Wang, Xiaokai; Yan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Jingrui; Li, Weiwei

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether mangiferin played a protective role in a well-established dermatitis mouse model and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease in the clinic, while its underlying mechanism still remains to be elucidated. Mangiferin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-d-glucoside (C-glucosyl xanthone), a natural antioxidant that was reported to inhibit inflammatory reactions, has been recently proved to be a potential therapy for inflammation. As a result, the oxazolone-induced dermatitis mice models were established to explore whether mangiferin has an anti-inflammatory role in vivo. The phosphate-buffered saline treatment groups showed emblematic skin inflammation, whereas the administration of mangiferin obviously inhibited dermatitis in the mice models. Furthermore, exogenous mangiferin alleviated the inflammatory reaction in TNF-α-induced macrophages by suppressing the production of inflammation- and oxidative stress-associated molecules. Also, mangiferin treatment repressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway. To sum up, mangiferin could provide a new target for the therapy and prevention of skin inflammation.

  17. The tyrosine kinase BMX is an essential mediator of inflammatory arthritis in a kinase-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottar-Guillier, Marie; Dodeller, Francis; Huesken, Dieter; Iourgenko, Vadim; Mickanin, Craig; Labow, Mark; Gaveriaux, Samuel; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias; Alitalo, Kari; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Cenni, Bruno

    2011-05-15

    Inflammatory cytokines like TNF play a central role in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. We identified the tyrosine kinase bone marrow kinase on chromosome X (BMX) as an essential component of a shared inflammatory signaling pathway. Transient depletion of BMX strongly reduced secretion of IL-8 in cell lines and primary human cells stimulated by TNF, IL-1β, or TLR agonists. BMX was required for phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, as well as activation of NF-κB. The following epistasis analysis indicated that BMX acts downstream of or at the same level as the complex TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-TAK1 binding protein. At the cellular level, regulation of the IL-8 promoter required the pleckstrin homology domain of BMX, which could be replaced by an ectopic myristylation signal, indicating a requirement for BMX membrane association. In addition, activation of the IL-8 promoter by in vitro BMX overexpression required its catalytic activity. Genetic ablation of BMX conferred protection in the mouse arthritis model of passive K/BxN serum transfer, confirming that BMX is an essential mediator of inflammation in vivo. However, genetic replacement with a catalytically inactive BMX allele was not protective in the same arthritis animal model. We conclude that BMX is an essential component of inflammatory cytokine signaling and that catalytic, as well as noncatalytic functions of BMX are involved.

  18. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation.

  19. Fractalkine Mediates Communication between Pathogenic Proteins and Microglia: Implications of Anti-Inflammatory Treatments in Different Stages of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Desforges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases has been widely demonstrated. Intraneuronal protein accumulation may regulate microglial activity via the fractalkine (CX3CL1 signaling pathway that provides a mechanism through which neurons communicate with microglia. CX3CL1 levels fluctuate in different stages of neurodegenerative diseases and in various animal models, warranting further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microglial response to pathogenic proteins, including Tau, β-amyloid (Aβ, and α-synuclein. The temporal relationship between microglial activity and localization of pathogenic proteins (intra- versus extracellular likely determines whether neuroinflammation mitigates or exacerbates disease progression. Evidence in transgenic models suggests a beneficial effect of microglial activity on clearance of proteins like Aβ and a detrimental effect on Tau modification, but the role of CX3CL1 signaling in α-synucleinopathies is less clear. Here we review the nature of fractalkine-mediated neuronmicroglia interaction, which has significant implications for the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments during different stages of neurodegenerative pathology. Specifically, it is likely that anti-inflammatory treatment in early stages of disease during intraneuronal accumulation of proteins could be beneficial, while anti-inflammatory treatment in later stages when proteins are secreted to the extracellular space could exacerbate disease progression.

  20. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-04-24

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors.

  1. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Meshel, Tsipi [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rotter, Varda [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ben-Baruch, Adit, E-mail: aditbb@tauex.tau.ac.il [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-01-20

    Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of Ras{sup High}/p53{sup Low}-modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFα and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout.

  2. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Choul Ryu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.

  3. Effect of calcium dobesilate combined with irbesartan therapy on proteinuria and serum inflammatory mediator levels in early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of calcium dobesilate combined with irbesartan therapy on proteinuria and serum inflammatory mediator levels in early diabetic nephropathy.Methods:A total of 74 patients with early diabetic nephropathy who received inpatient treatment in our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were included in the study and divided into observation group and control group (n=37) according to random number table. Control group received routine therapy, observation group received additional calcium dobesilate combined with irbesartan therapy, and then differences in proteinuria, hemorheology, renal blood flow parameters, serum inflammatory mediator levels and so on were compared between two groups.Results: Urine microalbumin, UAER value, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and Hct levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; color Doppler Vs max and Vd min values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while PI and RI values were lower than those of control group; sICAM-1, MCP-1 and NLR values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Calcium dobesilate combined with irbesartan therapy can significantly inhibit the progression of early diabetic nephropathy and improve renal blood supply, and it has positive clinical significance.

  4. Macrophage-specific TLR2 signaling mediates pathogen-induced TNF-dependent inflammatory oral bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, George; Weinberg, Ellen O; Massari, Paola; Gibson, Frank C; Wetzler, Lee M; Morgan, Elise F; Genco, Caroline A

    2013-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary etiological agent of chronic periodontal disease, an infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease that leads to the resorption of tooth-supporting alveolar bone. We previously reported that TLR2 is required for P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo, and our in vitro work implicated TNF as a key downstream mediator. In this study, we show that TNF-deficient (Tnf(-/-)) mice are resistant to alveolar bone loss following oral infection with P. gingivalis, and thus establish a central role for TNF in experimental periodontal disease. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type and gene-specific knockout mice, we demonstrate that the initial inflammatory response to P. gingivalis in naive macrophages is MyD88 dependent and requires cooperative signaling of TLR2 and TLR4. The ability of P. gingivalis to activate cells via TLR2 or TLR4 was confirmed in TLR2- or TLR4-transformed human embryonic kidney cells. Additional studies using bacterial mutants demonstrated a role for fimbriae in the modulation of TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB. Whereas both TLR2 and TLR4 contributed to TNF production in naive macrophages, P. gingivalis preferentially exploited TLR2 in endotoxin-tolerant BMDM to trigger excessive TNF production. We found that TNF induced surface TLR2 expression and augmented TLR-induced cytokine production in P. gingivalis-stimulated BMDM, establishing a previously unidentified TNF-dependent feedback loop. Adoptive transfer of TLR2-expressing macrophages to TLR2-deficient mice restored the ability of P. gingivalis to induce alveolar bone loss in vivo. Collectively, our results identify a TLR2- and TNF-dependent macrophage-specific mechanism underlying pathogen-induced inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

  5. Effect of TNF-Alpha on Caveolin-1 Expression and Insulin Signaling During Adipocyte Differentiation and in Mature Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palacios-Ortega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is the central component of adipocyte caveolae and has an essential role in the regulation of insulin signaling. The effects of TNF-α on Cav-1 expression and insulin signaling during adipocyte differentiation and in mature adipocytes were studied. Methods: 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated (21 days in the presence TNF-α (10 ng/mL and mature adipocytes were also treated with TNF-α for 48 hours. Cav-1 and insulin receptor (IR gene methylation were determined as well as Cav-1, IR, PKB/AKT-2 and Glut-4 expression and activation by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Baseline and insulin-induced glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[C14]-deoxyglucose uptake assay. Results: TNF-α slowed down the differentiation program, hindering the expression of some insulin signaling intermediates without fully eliminating insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In mature adipocytes, TNF-α did not compromise lipid-storage capacity, but downregulated the expression of the insulin signaling intermediates, totally blocking insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity correlated with the level of activated phospho-Cav-1 in both situations, strongly suggesting the direct contribution of Cav-1 to the maintenance of this physiological response. Conclusion: Cav-1 activation by phosphorylation seems to be essential for the maintenance of an active and insulin-sensitive glucose uptake.

  6. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91{sup st} day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E{sub max} of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic

  7. Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy can enhance chemotherapy in inflammatory breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fay BL; Melamed JR; Day ES

    2015-01-01

    Brittany L Fay, Jilian R Melamed, Emily S Day Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Abstract: Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) is currently being investigated as a standalone therapy for the treatment of cancer. The cellular effects of PTT include loss of membrane integrity, so we hypothesized that nanoshell-mediated PTT could potentiate the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy by improving drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this work, we validated our hypo...

  8. Presenting Twins Are Exposed to Higher Levels of Inflammatory Mediators than Nonpresenting Twins as Early as the Midtrimester of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Presenting twins are less likely to develop respiratory complications than non-presenting twins. The precise reason for this difference is not well understood, although it is known that the presence of inflammation reduces the risk of respiratory morbidity at birth. To further investigate this association, we compared the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in mid-trimester amniotic fluid (AF of asymptomatic twin pairs.The study population consisted of women with twin pregnancies who underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis (15-20 weeks for routine clinical indications and delivered at term. AF was analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and chemokines (Complement Factor D/Adipsin, Serpin E1/PAI-1, Adiponectin/Acrp30, CRP, CCL2/MCP-1, Leptin, Resistin using Luminex Performance Assay multiplex kits. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test.A total of 82 twin pairs were enrolled. Mid-trimester AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, CRP, MCP-1, leptin, and resistin were significantly higher in the presenting twin compared with the non-presenting twin (p<0.05 for each. Differences in AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP persisted after adjustment for the fetal growth restriction at the time of birth and chorionicity.These data suggest that, as early as the mid-trimester, the presenting fetus in an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy is exposed to higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (especially IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP than its non-presenting co-twin. Whether this pro-inflammatory milieu reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity at birth or has other functional implications needs to be further evaluated.

  9. Effects of realgar on stress proteins, inflammatory mediators, and complement in brain tissue and serum of rats with inflammatory brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yishan Tang; Ningsheng Wang; Yinqing Zhang; Shaomei Ye; Weiping Ou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chinese herbal compound realgar exerts detoxification effects as an adjuvant. It is suggested that realgar exerts detoxification via the following pathways: in the pathological state, realgar corrects the oxidative stress state by increasing stress levels, activating some endogenous protective factors and antagonizing the excessive release of inflammatory factors, as well as inhibiting complement activation.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in stress proteins, inflammatory mediators, and complement in the brain tissue and serum of rats with inflammatory brain injury, which have been treated with thc Chinese herbal compound Angong Niuhuang, and to compare the efficacy of Angong Niuhuang with that of realgar,to verify the mechanism of action of realgar.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, cytological experiment, performed in the Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in March 2006.MATERIALS: Thirty-six healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats received 250 U/kg Bordetella pertussis via the common carotid artery within 15 seconds to induce inflammatory brain injury. Reagents and kits were as follows: Realgar and Angong Niuhuang powder (Foshan Second Pharmaceutical Factory, China), Bordetella pertussis diagnostic antigen (National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products,China), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Stressgen, USA),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ELISA kit (Biosource, USA), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) kit,Coomassie brilliant blue protein kit (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd., China), and complements C3 and C4 (Shanghai Kehua Dongling Diagnositic Products Co.,Ltd., China),METHODS: Thirty-six rats were randomly and evenly divided into the following six groups: normal control,model, high-, middle-, and low-dose realgar-treated, and Angong Niuhuang-treated groups. At one hour prior to establishing the model

  10. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  11. Modulation of Cholinergic Pathways and Inflammatory Mediators in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation including cross-talk between central and peripheral immune systems is considered to be a primary event after blast exposure...cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been proposed as a link in neuroimmunomodulation, especially during stress con- ditions [8–11]. Neuroinflammation is...BINT) elicits early complement activation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release in a rat brain, J. Neurol. Sci. 318 (2012) 146–154. [8

  12. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin M. Shivkar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation.

  13. Microbiota and epigenetic regulation of inflammatory mediators in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remely, M; Aumueller, E; Jahn, D; Hippe, B; Brath, H; Haslberger, A G

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of the gut microbiota leading to low-grade inflammatory responses. An increased penetration of the impaired gut membrane by bacterial components is believed to induce this inflammation, possibly involving epigenetic alteration of inflammatory molecules such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We evaluated changes of the gut microbiota and epigenetic DNA methylation of TLR2 and TLR4 in three groups of subjects: type 2 diabetics under glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist therapy, obese individuals without established insulin resistance, and a lean control group. Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium cluster XIVa, lactic acid bacteria, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroidetes abundances were analysed by PCR and 454 high-throughput sequencing. The epigenetic methylation in the regulatory region of TLR4 and TLR2 was analysed using bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing. We observed a significantly higher ratio of Firmicutes/ Bacteroidetes in type 2 diabetics compared to lean controls and obese. Major differences were shown in lactic acid bacteria, with the highest abundance in type 2 diabetics, followed by obese and lean participants. In comparison, F. prausnitzii was least abundant in type 2 diabetics, and most abundant in lean controls. Methylation analysis of four CpGs in the first exon of TLR4 showed significantly lower methylation in obese individuals, but no significant difference between type 2 diabetics and lean controls. Methylation of seven CpGs in the promoter region of TLR2 was significantly lower in type 2 diabetics compared to obese subjects and lean controls. The methylation levels of both TLRs were significantly correlated with body mass index. Our data suggest that changes in gut microbiota and thus cell wall components are involved in the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory reactions. An improved diet targeted to induce gut microbial balance and in the following even epigenetic changes of

  14. Differential Regulation of Eicosanoid and Endocannabinoid Production by Inflammatory Mediators in Human Choriodecidua

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, M D; Rice, G E; Vaswani, K; Kvaskoff, D.; H N Peiris

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intrauterine prostaglandin production is critical for the onset and progression of labor in women and indeed all mammalian species studied. Endocannabinoids can act as substrates for enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathways and can be utilized to generate other related compounds such as prostamides. The end products are indistinguishable by radioimmunoassay. We have separated such compounds by mass spectrometry. We now show that inflammatory stimuli such as LPS and pr...

  15. Fisetin Suppresses Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Blockade of Src and Syk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids, such as fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), are plant secondary metabolites. It has been reported that fisetin is able to perform numerous pharmacological roles including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities; however, the exact anti-inflammatory mechanism of fisetin is not understood. In this study, the pharmacological action modes of fisetin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-like cells were elucidated by using immunoblotting analysis, kinase assays, and an overexpression strategy. Fisetin diminished the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reduced the mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. This compound also blocked the nuclear translocation of p65/nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In agreement, the upstream phosphorylation events for NF-κB activation, composed of Src, Syk, and IκBα, were also reduced by fisetin. The phospho-Src level, triggered by overexpression of wild-type Src, was also inhibited by fisetin. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that fisetin can be considered a bioactive immunomodulatory compound with anti-inflammatory properties through suppression of Src and Syk activities.

  16. Anti-TNF-Mediated Modulation of Prohepcidin Improves Iron Availability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in an IL-6-Mediated Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Flaminia; Duca, Lorena; Pisani, Laura Francesca; Rigolini, Roberta; Spina, Luisa; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Munizio, Nadia; Costa, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), frequently resulting from a combination of iron deficiency and of anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). ACD is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin is the master inducer of iron accumulation during ACD, and its production is mainly regulated by IL-6 and the novel erythroid hormone erythroferrone (ERFE). This study evaluates whether anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies therapy modurates hepcidin production and the levels of its main regulators, leading to a restoration of iron homeostasis. Methods. Sera were collected from 21 IBD patients, before each anti-TNF administration, for the first 6 weeks of therapy. Prohepcidin, erythropoietin, erythroferrone, C reactive protein, interleukin-6, iron markers, and haemoglobin levels were measured and clinical activity indexes were evaluated. Results. Serum prohepcidin, IL-6, CRP, and ferritin were significantly reduced after 6-week treatment; an increase in serum iron and total transferrin was observed. No changes in the EPO-ERFE axis were found. Remarkably, haemoglobin was significantly increased. Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy improves iron metabolism and, subsequently, anaemia in IBD. This effect appears to be related to the modulation of the cytokine network and specifically IL-6 leading to a relevant decrease of hepcidin, a master regulator of ACD.

  17. Anti-TNF-Mediated Modulation of Prohepcidin Improves Iron Availability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in an IL-6-Mediated Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Lorena; Rigolini, Roberta; Spina, Luisa; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Munizio, Nadia; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2017-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), frequently resulting from a combination of iron deficiency and of anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). ACD is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin is the master inducer of iron accumulation during ACD, and its production is mainly regulated by IL-6 and the novel erythroid hormone erythroferrone (ERFE). This study evaluates whether anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies therapy modurates hepcidin production and the levels of its main regulators, leading to a restoration of iron homeostasis. Methods. Sera were collected from 21 IBD patients, before each anti-TNF administration, for the first 6 weeks of therapy. Prohepcidin, erythropoietin, erythroferrone, C reactive protein, interleukin-6, iron markers, and haemoglobin levels were measured and clinical activity indexes were evaluated. Results. Serum prohepcidin, IL-6, CRP, and ferritin were significantly reduced after 6-week treatment; an increase in serum iron and total transferrin was observed. No changes in the EPO-ERFE axis were found. Remarkably, haemoglobin was significantly increased. Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy improves iron metabolism and, subsequently, anaemia in IBD. This effect appears to be related to the modulation of the cytokine network and specifically IL-6 leading to a relevant decrease of hepcidin, a master regulator of ACD. PMID:28191453

  18. Long-term exposure to IL-1beta enhances Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signaling in murine airway hyperresponsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Cang-Bao; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Toll-interleukin-1 (Toll-IL-1) receptor signaling may play a key role in the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Previously, we have demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin......-time PCR-based cDNA array. The key gene expressions that were altered were verified by immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy. Tracheal ring segment contractile responsiveness to the inflammatory mediator bradykinin was monitored using a sensitive myograph system. The results showed that after......-1beta (IL-1beta), induce AHR. However, the underlying intracellular signaling mechanisms that lead to AHR remain elusive. In order to see if the Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signal pathways are involved in the development of AHR, the present study was designed to use a real-time PCR...

  19. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  20. Gender and the treatment of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesuis Nienke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and psoriasis are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with similarities in pathophysiology, and all can be treated with similar biological agents. Previous studies have shown that there are gender differences with regard to disease characteristics in RA and IBD, with women generally having worse scores on pain and quality of life measurements. The relationship is less clear for psoriasis. Because treatment differences between men and women could explain the dissimilarities, we investigated gender differences in the disease characteristics before treatment initiation and in the biologic treatment prescribed. Methods Data on patients with RA or IBD were collected from two registries in which patients treated with biologic medication were enrolled. Basic demographic data and disease activity parameters were collected from a time point just before the initiation of the biologic treatment. For patients with psoriasis, the data were taken from the 2010 annual report of the Swedish Psoriasis Register for systemic treatment, which included also non-biologic treatment. For all three diseases, the prescribed treatment and disease characteristics were compared between men and women. Results In total, 4493 adult patients were included in the study (1912 with RA, 131 with IBD, and 2450 with psoriasis. Most of the treated patients with RA were women, whereas most of the patients with IBD or psoriasis were men. There were no significant differences between men and women in the choice of biologics. At treatment start, significant gender differences were seen in the subjective disease measurements for both RA and psoriasis, with women having higher (that is, worse scores than men. No differences in objective measurements were found for RA, but for psoriasis men had higher (that is, worse scores for objective disease activity measures. A similar trend to RA was seen in IBD

  1. CLA reduces inflammatory mediators from A427 human lung cancer cells and A427 conditioned medium promotes differentiation of C2C12 murine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraldi, Manuela; Maggiora, Marina; Paiuzzi, Elena; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is thought to have anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cancer cachexia is unknown. Two effects were here investigated: that of CLA on inflammatory mediator production in human lung cancer cells, and that of reduced mediators on the myogenic differentiation of murine muscle C2C12 cells. The latter cells were grown in medium conditioned by human lung cancer A427 cells, with or without CLA, to mimic only the effect of molecules released from the tumor "in vivo", excluding the effect of host-produced cachectic factors. The results obtained show that CLA was found to reduce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but had no effect on IL-6 production. The mechanisms underlying the effect of CLA on cytokine or PGE2 release in A427 cells are probably mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, which increased at 24 h CLA treatment. In turn, the reduced content of inflammatory mediators in medium conditioned by A427 cells, in the presence of CLA, allowed muscle cells to proliferate, again by inducing PPAR. The involvement of PPARα was demonstrated by treatment with the antagonist MK-886. The findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and myogenic action of CLA and point to its possible application as a novel dietary supplement and therapeutic agent in inflammatory disease states, such as cachexia.

  2. α-Naphthoflavone Increases Lipid Accumulation in Mature Adipocytes and Enhances Adipocyte-Stimulated Endothelial Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lin Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated factor that regulates biological effects associated with obesity. The AhR agonists, such as environmental contaminants 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF, inhibit preadipocyte differentiation and interfere with the functions of adipose tissue, whereas the antagonist may have opposite or protective effects in obesity. This study investigated the effects of α-naphthoflavone (α-NF, an AhR antagonist, on adipogenesis- and angiogenesis-associated factors in mature adipocytes and on cross-talk of mature adipocytes with endothelial cells (ECs. Besides, the roles of the AhR on lipid accumulation and on secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were also determined by introducing siRNA of AhR. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF (1–5 μM for 16 h. Lipid accumulation and the expressions of AhR-associated factors in the cells were determined. The interaction between adipocytes and ECs was investigated by cultivating ECs with conditioned medium (CM from α-NF-treated mature adipocytes, followed by the determination of endothelial tube formation. The results showed that α-NF significantly increased triglyceride (TG accumulation in mature adipocytes, which was associated with increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, estrogen receptor (ER, as well as decreased expression of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT, cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1, and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (NRF-2 proteins. In addition, CM stimulated formation of tube-like structures in ECs, and α-NF further enhanced such stimulation in association with modulated the secretions of various angiogenic mediators by mature adipocytes. Similarly, increased TG accumulation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion were observed in AhR-knockout cells. In conclusion, α-NF increased TG accumulation in mature adipocytes and

  3. Transcriptional networks controlling adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, R; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a complex cascade of signals that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of the fibroblastic precursors. Genome-wide analyses of chromatin accessibility and binding of adipogenic transcription factors make it possible to generate "snapshots" of the trans...

  4. Macrophages polarization is mediated by the combination of PRR ligands and distinct inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Cao, Xixi; Fang, Jie; Li, Yuhong; Fan, Mingwen

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages recognize microbes through Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), and then release pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have highlighted that collaboration between different PRRs. However, these studies have neglected the crosstalk between various PRRs on macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the interplay of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2) and TLRs (TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) in terms of macrophage activation, the expression and production of cytokines. The macrophages were stimulated with a single PRR ligand or a combination of TLR and NOD ligands. After 8 h of incubation, the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-13, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was evaluated. The production of these cytokines was also measured. NOD2 synergized with TLR3 agonists on enhancement of IL-10 release. However, the combination of NOD1 with TLR3 ligands showed little effect on IL-10 production. Moreover, NOD2 inhibited the percentages of CD11b + F4/80 + cells activated by TLR3 agonist.

  5. Immunoglobulin G–mediated Inflammatory Responses Develop Normally in Complement-deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Diana; Clynes, Raphael; Ma, Minga; Warren, Henry; Carroll, Michael C.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    1996-01-01

    The role of complement in immunoglobulin G–triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement components C3 and C4. Using the reverse passive Arthus reaction and experimental models of immune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia, we show that these mice have types II and III inflammatory responses that are indistinguishable from those of wild-type animals. Complement-deficient and wild-type animals exhibit comparable levels of erythrophagocytosis and platelet clearance in response to cytotoxic anti–red blood cell and antiplatelet antibodies. Furthermore, in the reverse passive Arthus reaction, soluble immune complexes induce equivalent levels of hemmorhage, edema, and neutrophillic infiltration in complement-deficient and wild-type animals. In contrast, mice that are genetically deficient in the expression of Fc receptors exhibit grossly diminished reactions by both cytotoxic antibodies and soluble immune complexes. These studies provide strong evidence that the activation of cell-based FcγR receptors, but not complement, are required for antibody-triggered murine inflammatory responses. PMID:8976192

  6. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTiON: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the hind paw of rats by injecting different doses of dried latex (DL) of C. procera. The inhibitory effect of phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, celecoxib, cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and compound 48/80 on edema volume was evaluated and compared with that against carrageenan. The histamine content of DL was measured fluorometrically. RESULTS: DL produced dose-dependent inflammation of the rat paw. Cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine effectively inhibited DL-induced inflammation (90%; p phenylbutazone, dexamethasone and celecoxib were more effective against carrageenan-induced inflammation. Depletion of mast cell histamine by compound 48/80 produced a significant decrease in DL-induced inflammation as compared with carrageenan (500% versus 25%). DL was also found to contain about 6 microg/g of histamine. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our study shows that the biogenic amines play a significant role in C. procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex. PMID:14760937

  7. Celastrol Attenuates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Mediated by Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2

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    Longhe Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (thunder god vine, has exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunosuppression. In the present study, we used animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, generated by carrageenan injection and spared nerve injury (SNI, respectively, to evaluate the effect of celastrol and to address the mechanisms underlying pain processing. Intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of celastrol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis showed that celastrol (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, in carrageenan-injected mice. In SNI mice, pain behavior studies showed that celastrol (1 mg/kg, i.p. effectively prevented the hypersensitivity of mechanical nociceptive response on the third day post-surgery and the seventh day post-surgery. Furthermore, the anti-hyperalgesic effects of celastrol in carrageenan-injected mice and SNI mice were reversed by SR144528 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2 receptor antagonist, but not by SR141716 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1 receptor antagonist. Taken together, our results demonstrate the analgesia effects of celastrol through CB2 signaling and propose the potential of exploiting celastrol as a novel candidate for pain relief.

  8. Effect of Acupuncture on Body Weight Reduction and Inflammatory Mediators in Egyptian Obese Patients

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    Laila Ahmed Abou Ismail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, routine laboratory tests and pro-inflammatory markers. METHODOLOGY: The study was performed on eighty obese patients. They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index. Subjects received acupuncture for three- six months in combination with a low-calorie diet. They were assessed pre and post acupuncture, by anthropometric measurement, routine laboratory tests and, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α, interleukin- 6 (IL-6, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels in serum. RESULTS: The pre-acupuncture results showed significant difference between the three grades of obesity and the controls regarding TNFα, IL-6 and hsCRP. We found significant reduction in anthropometric measurement of adiposity after acupuncture. In comparing the pre &post acupuncture results of TNF-α, IL-6 and hsCRP showed high significant reduction after acupuncture. There are highly significant decrease in kidney function (creatinine and uric acid and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides and fasting blood glucose, but there was no significant difference in urea, SGPT, SGOT, HDL and LDL. CONCLUSION: Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was found to be effective for weight loss and also reduction of the inflammatory reactions. Acupuncture could be used as a synergistic treatment option for obesity control.

  9. The effect of epidermal levels of urocanic acid on 25-hydroxyvitamin D synthesis and inflammatory mediators upon narrowband UVB irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landeck, Lilla; Jakasa, Ivone; Dapic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Urocanic acid (UCA) absorbs ultraviolet (UV)B radiation in the epidermis which may interfere with phototherapy. Therefore, the influence of individual levels of UCA on immune reactivity and vitamin D synthesis induced by narrowband UVB radiation was assessed. METHODS: 28 subje...... levels of trans-UCA affect vitamin D synthesis, but not cutaneous immune reactivity upon repeated exposure to suberythemal doses of narrowband UVB radiation. However, this requires further exploration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL4/MIP-1β, and the IL-1RA/IL-1α ratio. The levels of IL-1α and CXCL9/MIG showed a trend toward increase. The changes in the levels of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators did not depend on baseline levels of trans-UCA. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that epidermal...

  10. Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Potentiates Toxic Lipids-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Macrophages via Inhibition of Janus Kinase 2-dependent Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Shu, Lingling; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Wu, Xiaoping; Liao, Boya; Wu, Donghai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages. Over-expression of A-FABP impaired PA-induced autophagy associating with enhanced ER stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP reversed the conditions. PA-induced expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 was attenuated in A-FABP over-expressed macrophages, but was elevated in A-FABP-deficient macrophages. Mechanistically, A-FABP potentiated the effects of PA by inhibition of Janus Kinase (JAK)2 activity, thus diminished PA-induced Atg7 expression contributing to impaired autophagy and further augmentation of ER stress. These findings suggest that A-FABP acts as autophagy inhibitor to instigate toxic lipids-induced ER stress through inhibition of JAK2-dependent autophagy, which in turn triggers inflammatory responses in macrophages. A-FABP-JAK2 axis may represent an important pathological pathway contributing to obesity-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:28094778

  11. Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.

  12. ATF3 inhibits PPARγ-stimulated transactivation in adipocyte cells

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    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • ATF3 inhibits PPARγ-stimulated transcriptional activation. • ATF3 interacts with PPARγ. • ATF3 suppresses p300-mediated transcriptional coactivation. • ATF3 decreases the binding of PPARγ and recruitment of p300 to PPRE. - Abstract: Previously, we reported that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) downregulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) gene expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we investigated another role of ATF3 on the regulation of PPARγ activity. ATF3 inhibited PPARγ-stimulated transactivation of PPARγ responsive element (PPRE)-containing reporter or GAL4/PPARγ chimeric reporter. Thus, ATF3 effectively repressed rosiglitazone-stimulated expression of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), PPARγ target gene, in 3T3-L1 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST pulldown assay demonstrated that ATF3 interacted with PPARγ. Accordingly, ATF3 prevented PPARγ from binding to PPRE on the aP2 promoter. Furthermore, ATF3 suppressed p300-mediated transcriptional coactivation of PPRE-containing reporter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that overexpression of ATF3 blocked both binding of PPARγ and recruitment of p300 to PPRE on aP2 promoter induced by rosiglitazone treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF3 interacts with PPARγ and represses PPARγ-mediated transactivation through suppression of p300-stimulated coactivation in 3T3-L1 cells, which may play a role in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

  13. The effect of obesity and tobacco smoke exposure on inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Ana Laura; Pérez-Ramos, J; Cisneros, J; Herrera, I; Rivera-Rosales, R; Montaño, M; Ramos, C

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy of adipose tissue and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by lung damage; both diseases are associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. There are no animal models combining obesity and COPD; therefore, these diseases were induced simultaneously in rats to analyze their effects on the expression of inflammatory mediators and enzymes involved in lung tissue remodeling. Obesity was induced with sucrose (30%) for 4 months concomitant with tobacco smoke exposure (20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/wk) for the last 2 months. Were evaluated: body weight, abdominal fat, dyslipidemia, glucose tolerance test (GTT), histology, inflammatory mediators with qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 through qRT-PCR, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography. The rats on a sucrose diet exhibited increased body weight, abdominal fat, triglycerides, GTT, and plasma levels of insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IFN-γ, upregulated lung IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ, showing hyperplastic bronchial and alveolar epithelium. The animals exposed to sucrose and tobacco smoke exhibited decreased body weight, abdominal fat and plasma levels of leptin, resistin, IL-1β and IFN-γ, reducing inflammation but showing emphysematous lesions. Expression of gelatinases and MMP-12 augmented in the rats exposed to tobacco smoke alone or combined with sucrose. Zymography showed prominent gelatinases activity in all the experimental groups. These results suggest that simultaneous exposure to sucrose and tobacco smoke decreases inflammation but results in emphysematous lesions similar to those observed with tobacco smoke exposure, suggesting that obesity does not confer any protective effect against lung damage.

  14. Desoxyrhapontigenin up-regulates Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression in macrophages and inflammatory lung injury

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    Ran Joo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an important anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and cytoprotective enzyme that is regulated by the activation of the major transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. In the present study, six stilbene derivatives isolated from Rheum undulatum L. were assessed for their antioxidative potential. In the tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, desoxyrhapontigenin was the most potent component that reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite. In response to desoxyrhapontigenin, the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA confirmed that desoxyrhapontigenin promoted the DNA binding of Nrf2 and increased the expression of antioxidant proteins and enzymes regulated by Nrf2. Further investigation utilizing specific inhibitors of Akt, p38, JNK and ERK demonstrated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway mediates HO-1 expression. Moreover, the increase in Nrf2 expression mediated by treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin was reversed by Nrf2 or Akt gene knock-down. In the LPS-induced in vivo lung inflammation model, pretreatment with desoxyrhapontigenin markedly ameliorated LPS-induced lung inflammation and histological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2, HO-1 and p65 was conducted and confirmed that treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin induced Nrf2 and HO-1 expression but reduced p65 expression. These findings suggest that desoxyrhapontigenin may be a potential therapeutic candidate as an antioxidant or an anti-inflammatory agent.

  15. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients' blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients' blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: "Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize". Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be promising

  16. Inflammatory mediators alter the astrocyte transcriptome and calcium signaling elicited by multiple G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Mary E; Coppola, Giovanni; Ao, Yan; Geschwind, Daniel H; Khakh, Baljit S; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2012-10-17

    Inflammation features in CNS disorders such as stroke, trauma, neurodegeneration, infection, and autoimmunity in which astrocytes play critical roles. To elucidate how inflammatory mediators alter astrocyte functions, we examined effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interferon-gamma (IFNγ), alone and in combination, on purified, mouse primary cortical astrocyte cultures. We used microarrays to conduct whole-genome expression profiling, and measured calcium signaling, which is implicated in mediating dynamic astrocyte functions. Combinatorial exposure to TGF-β1, LPS, and IFNγ significantly modulated astrocyte expression of >6800 gene probes, including >380 synergistic changes not predicted by summing individual treatment effects. Bioinformatic analyses revealed significantly and markedly upregulated molecular networks and pathways associated in particular with immune signaling and regulation of cell injury, death, growth, and proliferation. Highly regulated genes included chemokines, growth factors, enzymes, channels, transporters, and intercellular and intracellular signal transducers. Notably, numerous genes for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and G-protein effectors involved in calcium signaling were significantly regulated, mostly down (for example, Cxcr4, Adra2a, Ednra, P2ry1, Gnao1, Gng7), but some up (for example, P2ry14, P2ry6, Ccrl2, Gnb4). We tested selected cases and found that changes in GPCR gene expression were accompanied by significant, parallel changes in astrocyte calcium signaling evoked by corresponding GPCR-specific ligands. These findings identify pronounced changes in the astrocyte transcriptome induced by TGF-β1, LPS, and IFNγ, and show that these inflammatory stimuli upregulate astrocyte molecular networks associated with immune- and injury-related functions and significantly alter astrocyte calcium signaling stimulated by multiple GPCRs.

  17. Chlamydial Lipoproteins Stimulate Toll-Like Receptors 1/2 Mediated Inflammatory Responses through MyD88-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Ding; Guan, Jie; Ma, Linghui; Zhong, Guangming; Shu, Hengping; Wu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydiae are very important pathogens which could cause several types of diseases in human, but little is known about its pathogenic mechanism. In order to elucidate host inflammatory response and the signal pathway induced by Chlamydial lipoproteins, the predicted lipoproteins of Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for their ability to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines by mouse macrophages or human TLR (Toll-Like Receptor) expressing cell lines. The results showed that recombinant proteins of C. trachomatis D381, D541, D067, and D775 displayed a strong ability to induce the release of IL-8 in TLR expressing cell line. The signal pathways involved TLR1/2 and TLR2/CD14 but not TLR4. Moreover, except D067, the proinflammatory cytokine induction by D381, D541, and D775 required the thioacylation site (cysteine) for lipid modification and the induction was through MyD88-mediated pathway. Our data supported that lipoproteins played a vital role in pathogenesis of C. trachomatis-induced inflammatory responses via TLR pathway. It was the first study to characterize other chlamydial lipoproteins after identifying the role of MIP (D541) on pathogenesis of Chlamydial diseases. PMID:28184217

  18. Metabonomics reveals drastic changes in anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving polyunsaturated fatty acids-derived lipid mediators in leprosy disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Amaral

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients before and immediately after the conclusion of multidrug therapy (MDT were subjected to high-throughput metabolic profiling. Our results show marked metabolic alterations during leprosy that subside at the conclusion of MDT. Pathways showing the highest modulation were related to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA metabolism, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving omega-3 fatty acids. These results were confirmed by eicosanoid measurements through enzyme-linked immunoassays. Corroborating the repertoire of metabolites altered in sera, metabonomic analysis of skin specimens revealed alterations in the levels of lipids derived from lipase activity, including PUFAs, suggesting a high lipid turnover in highly-infected lesions. Our data suggest that omega-6 and omega-3, PUFA-derived, pro-resolving lipid mediators contribute to reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden during leprosy disease. Our results demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive metabonomic approach for identifying potential contributors to disease pathology that may facilitate the development of more targeted treatments for leprosy and other inflammatory diseases.

  19. Metabonomics Reveals Drastic Changes in Anti-Inflammatory/Pro-Resolving Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-Derived Lipid Mediators in Leprosy Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Julio J.; Antunes, Luis Caetano M.; de Macedo, Cristiana S.; Mattos, Katherine A.; Han, Jun; Pan, Jingxi; Candéa, André L. P.; Henriques, Maria das Graças M. O.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Borchers, Christoph H.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Finlay, B. Brett; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients before and immediately after the conclusion of multidrug therapy (MDT) were subjected to high-throughput metabolic profiling. Our results show marked metabolic alterations during leprosy that subside at the conclusion of MDT. Pathways showing the highest modulation were related to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving omega-3 fatty acids. These results were confirmed by eicosanoid measurements through enzyme-linked immunoassays. Corroborating the repertoire of metabolites altered in sera, metabonomic analysis of skin specimens revealed alterations in the levels of lipids derived from lipase activity, including PUFAs, suggesting a high lipid turnover in highly-infected lesions. Our data suggest that omega-6 and omega-3, PUFA-derived, pro-resolving lipid mediators contribute to reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden during leprosy disease. Our results demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive metabonomic approach for identifying potential contributors to disease pathology that may facilitate the development of more targeted treatments for leprosy and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23967366

  20. The Inhibitory Effect of PIK-75 on Inflammatory Mediator Response Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Feline Esophageal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yeong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoform-selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K activation have an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing proinflammatory cytokines. Cultured feline esophageal epithelial cells (EEC of passages 3~4 were treated with hydrogen peroxide and PIK-75. The cell viability was measured by a MTT incorporation assay. The distribution of PI3K isoforms, p-Akt, IL-1β, and IL-8 was inferred from Western blots. The release of IL-6 was determined by ELISA. The cell morphology was not considerably different from nontreated cells if the cells were pretreated with PIK-75 and treated with 300 μM hydrogen peroxide. The density of p110α of PI3K was increased, but that of other types was not affected after the treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The density of p-Akt, when the cells were exposed to PIK-75 and hydrogen peroxide, was diminished dose dependently more than that of hydrogen peroxide treatment only. The decrease of p-Akt showed an inhibition of PI3K by PIK-75. PIK-75 dose dependently reduced the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, and the level of IL-6 compared with hydrogen peroxide treatment only. These results suggest evidence that p110α mediates esophageal inflammation and that PIK-75 has an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing proinflammatory cytokines on feline esophageal epithelial cultured cells.

  1. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated inflammatory response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally A Nicholas; Vadim V Sumbayev

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8 are crucial in host defence against single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Such viruses cause severe illnesses, which remain a serious medical burden in both industrialised and developing countries. TLR7/8 downstream signaling leads to a dramatic cellular stress associated with energy consumption. However, the molecular mechanisms of cell survival and adaptation to TLR7/8-induced stress, which give the cells an opportunity to initiate proper inflammatory reactions, are not clear at all. Here we report for the first time that ligand-induced ac-tivation of TLR7/8 leads to the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein in THP-1 human myeloid macrophages via redox-and reactive nitrogen species-dependent mechanisms. MAP kinases and phosphoi-nositol-3K are not involved in TLR7/8-mediated HIF-1α accumulation. Experiments with HIF-la knockdown THP-1 cells have clearly demonstrated that HIF-1α is important for the protection of these cells against TLR7/8-induced depletion of ATP. Thus, HIF-1α might support both cell survival and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon TLR7/8 activation.

  2. Monoacylglycerol lipase promotes Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in microglia but does not regulate LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Zen

    2015-08-21

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is important for neuroinflammation. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying its expression and function remain unknown. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment post-translationally upregulated MAGL expression, whereas it downregulated MAGL transcription through a Stat6-mediated mechanism in microglia. Neither MAGL knockdown nor JZL-184, a selective MAGL inhibitor, suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Moreover, exogenous expression of MAGL in BV-2 microglial cell line, which lacks endogenous MAGL, did not promote the induction of inflammatory cytokines by LPS treatment. Interestingly, MAGL knockdown reduced Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in primary microglia, and introduction of MAGL into the BV-2 cells increased Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Collectively, these results suggest that MAGL regulates phagocytosis, but not LPS-mediated cytokine induction in microglia.

  3. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  4. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokender Kumar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  5. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.

  6. Synovial explant inflammatory mediator production corresponds to rheumatoid arthritis imaging hallmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Boesen, Mikael; Ellegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    (BME), synovitis and erosion scores were estimated on the basis of the rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS). Mixed models were used for the statistical analyses. Parsimony was achieved by omitting covariates with P > 0.1 from the statistical model. RESULTS: Tissue samples from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasound for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity, little is known regarding the association of imaging-detected activity and synovial pathology. The purpose of this study...... procedure of the hand joints. The synovial tissue specimens were incubated for 72 hours, and spontaneous release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β) and IL-8 was measured by performing multiplex immunoassays. Bone marrow oedema...

  7. Interferon-γ and other inflammatory mediators in cardiomyocyte signaling during Chagas disease cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludmila; Rodrigues; Pinto; Ferreira; Amanda; Farage; Frade; Monique; Andrade; Baron; Isabela; Cunha; Navarro; Jorge; Kalil; Christophe; Chevillard; Edecio; Cunha-Neto

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease cardiomyopathy(CCC), the main consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi(T.cruzi) infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy that develops in up to 30% of infected individuals. The heart inflammation in CCC patients is characterized by a Th1 T cell-rich myocarditis with increased production of interferon(IFN)-γ, produced by the CCC myocardial infiltrate and detected at high levels in the periphery. IFN-γ has a central role in the cardiomyocyte signaling during both acute and chronic phases of T.cruzi infection. In this review, we have chosen to focus in its pleiotropic mode of action during CCC, which may ultimately be the strongest driver towards pathological remodeling and heart failure. We describe here the antiparasitic protective and pathogenic dual role of IFN-γ in Chagas disease.

  8. Differential Regulation of Eicosanoid and Endocannabinoid Production by Inflammatory Mediators in Human Choriodecidua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mitchell

    Full Text Available An increase in intrauterine prostaglandin production is critical for the onset and progression of labor in women and indeed all mammalian species studied. Endocannabinoids can act as substrates for enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathways and can be utilized to generate other related compounds such as prostamides. The end products are indistinguishable by radioimmunoassay. We have separated such compounds by mass spectrometry. We now show that inflammatory stimuli such as LPS and proinflammatory cytokines act differentially on these pathways in human choriodecidua and preferentially create drive through to prostaglandin end products. These findings create doubt about the interpretation of data on prostaglandin biosynthesis in intrauterine tissues from pregnant women especially in the presence of an infection. The possibility is raised that separation of these products might reduce variability in results and lead to potential uses for their measurement in the diagnosis of preterm labor.

  9. Differential Regulation of Eicosanoid and Endocannabinoid Production by Inflammatory Mediators in Human Choriodecidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M D; Rice, G E; Vaswani, K; Kvaskoff, D; Peiris, H N

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intrauterine prostaglandin production is critical for the onset and progression of labor in women and indeed all mammalian species studied. Endocannabinoids can act as substrates for enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathways and can be utilized to generate other related compounds such as prostamides. The end products are indistinguishable by radioimmunoassay. We have separated such compounds by mass spectrometry. We now show that inflammatory stimuli such as LPS and proinflammatory cytokines act differentially on these pathways in human choriodecidua and preferentially create drive through to prostaglandin end products. These findings create doubt about the interpretation of data on prostaglandin biosynthesis in intrauterine tissues from pregnant women especially in the presence of an infection. The possibility is raised that separation of these products might reduce variability in results and lead to potential uses for their measurement in the diagnosis of preterm labor.

  10. Enteric neural pathways mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; Wallace, Laurie E; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    or colitis was induced in rats by injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), or colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. Subsets of animals received (1-33)-GLP-2 (50 mug/kg sc bid) either immediately or 2 days after the establishment of inflammation...... until inflammation was established, resulted in significant improvements in animal weights, mucosal inflammation indices (myeloperoxidase levels, histological mucosal scores), and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and inducible nitric oxide synthase......, with increased levels of IL-10 in TNBS ileitis and DSS colitis. Reduced rates of crypt cell proliferation and of apoptosis within crypts in inflamed tissues were also noted with GLP-2 treatment. These effects were abolished with coadministration of GLP-2 and the VIP antagonist. GLP-2 was shown to activate...

  11. The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bilski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed and analyzed the relationship between physical exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD which covers a group of chronic, relapsing, and remitting intestinal disorders including Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The etiology of IBD likely involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Physical training has been suggested to be protective against the onset of IBD, but there are inconsistencies in the findings of the published literature. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT is recognized as a characteristic feature of CD, but its importance for the perpetuation of onset of this intestinal disease is unknown. Adipocytes synthesize proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Hypertrophy of mWAT could play a role as a barrier to the inflammatory process, but recent data suggest that deregulation of adipokine secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Adipocytokines and macrophage mediators perpetuate the intestinal inflammatory process, leading to mucosal ulcerations along the mesenteric border, a typical feature of CD. Contracting skeletal muscles release biologically active myokines, known to exert the direct anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit the release of proinflammatory mediators from visceral fat. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish exercise regimes for IBD patients.

  12. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toluene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDI as antigen)-induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDI control/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10% TDI to induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF proportional, variant, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDI control rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDI controls. TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDI controls, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a

  13. Inhibition of Age-Related Cytokines Production by ATGL: A Mechanism Linked to the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lettieri Barbato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is characterized by the expansion and the decreased vascularization of visceral adipose tissue (vAT, disruption of metabolic activities, and decline of the function of the immune system, leading to chronic inflammatory states. We previously demonstrated that, in vAT of mice at early state of ageing, adipocytes mount a stress resistance response consisting in the upregulation of ATGL, which is functional in restraining the production of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we found that, in the late phase of ageing, such an adaptive response is impaired. In particular, 24-months-old mice and aged 3T3-L1 adipocytes display affected expression of ATGL and its downstream PPARα-mediated lipid signalling pathway, leading to upregulation of TNFα and IL-6 production. We show that the natural polyphenol compound resveratrol (RSV efficiently suppresses the expression of TNFα and IL-6 in an ATGL/PPARα dependent manner. Actually, adipocytes downregulating ATGL do not show a restored PPARα expression and display elevated cytokines production. Overall the results obtained highlight a crucial function of ATGL in inhibiting age-related inflammation and reinforce the idea that RSV could represent a valid natural compound to limit the onset and/or the exacerbation of the age-related inflammatory states.

  14. Effects of the Monoclonal Antibody against Porcine 40 kDa Adipocyte-specific Plasma Membrane Protein on Adipocytes and Carcass Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizheng GAO; Changrong GE; Xi ZHANG; Yonggang LIU

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the mouse monoclonal antibody against 40 kDa adipocyte-specific plasma membrane protein on porcine adipocytes and carcass composition were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Results revealed that the in vitro complement-mediated cytotoxicity of this monoclonal antibody can lead to adipocyte lysis, remarkable reduction of adipocyte lipid accumulation (P<0.01), and significant decrease of well-differentiated fat cells (P<0.01). Treatment of adipocytes with this antibody alone in vitro did not induce cell lysis, but could lead to noticeable reduction of well-differentiated cells and lipid accumulation (P<0.05) at the pre-adipocyte stage. In vivo, pigs injected with 0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg of antibody showed smaller adipocyte sizes (P<0.01) and reduced lipid accumulation of adipocytes (P<0.01). Our results also indicated that pigs intraperitoneally or subcutaneously immunized with 0.5 mg/kg of monoclonal antibody at 15 kg or 1.0 mg/kg antibody at 60 kg had a higher lean meat percentage (P<0.05), larger loin eye area (P<0.05), lower fat meat percentage (P<0.05), less backfat thickness (P<0.05) and smaller leaf fat weight (P<0.05) than the control pigs, but other carcass traits such as caul fat weight, heart weight, liver weight, spleen weight,kidney weight, lung weight, and dressing percentage were not significantly affected. These results suggested that this monoclonal antibody could be applied to restrain excessive fat deposition in porcine production.

  15. Expression of pro-inflammatory mediators is inhibited by an avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by inflammation, joint immobility, and pain. Non-pharmacologic agents modulating pro-inflammatory mediator expression offer considerable promise as safe and effective treatments for OA. We previously determined the anti-inflammatory effect of an avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) combination on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASU + EGCG on pro-inflammatory gene expression. Findings Articular chondrocytes from carpal joints of mature horses were pre-incubated for 24 hours with control media alone or ASU (8.3 μg/mL) + EGCG (40 ng/mL), followed by one hour activation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, 10 ng/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, 1 ng/mL). Total cellular RNA was isolated and real-time PCR performed to measure IL-1β, TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression. Intracellular localization of NF-κB was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Pre-treatment with ASU + EGCG significantly (P < 0.001) decreased gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, and IL-8 in cytokine-activated chondrocytes. Western blot and immunostaining confirmed NF-κB translocation inhibition. Conclusions We demonstrate that ASU + EGCG inhibits cytokine-induced gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, and IL-8 through modulation of NF-κB. Our results indicate that the activity of ASU + EGCG affects a wide array of inflammatory molecules in addition to decreasing PGE2 synthesis in activated chondrocytes. The responsiveness of chondrocytes to this combination supports its potential utility for the inhibition of joint inflammation. PMID:24678847

  16. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  17. Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Inflammatory Mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6 in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mediators play a criticial role in ulcerative colitis immune and inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on inflammatory mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6 in TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg. EGB in doses of (50, 100, 200 mg/kg was administered for 4 weeks to protect colitis. The results showed that EGB could significantly ameliorate macroscopic and histological damage, evidently elevate the activities of SOD and reduce the contents of MDA, inhibit the protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, NF-κBp65, and IL-6 in the colon tissues of experimental colitis in a dose-dependent manner compared with the model group. We concluded that the probable mechanisms of EGB ameliorated inflammatory injury in TNBS-induced colitis in rats by its modulation of inflammatory mediators and antioxidation.

  18. Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice (Agt(aP2)). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24-hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agt(fl/fl) compared with Agt(aP2) mice (124 ± 3 versus 128 ± 3 mm Hg, respectively). In Agt(fl/fl) mice, high-fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hours; 134 ± 2 mm Hg; Pobesity hypertension.

  19. Aquaporin-10 represents an alternative pathway for glycerol efflux from human adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Laforenza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol outflow from adipocytes has been considered for a decade to be mediated by aquaporin-7, an aquaglyceroporin highly expressed in the adipose tissue. Its involvement in glycerol metabolism has been widely studied also in humans. Recent studies in different aquaporin-7 KO mice models pose two different questions 1 the exact localization of aquaporin-7 in human white adipose tissue; 2 the existence of other aquaglyceroporins that work with aquaporin-7 to guarantee glycerol efflux and thus a normal adiposity in humans. To this purpose we investigated the expression, the localization and the functioning of aquaglyceroporin-10 in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, in isolated and cultured differentiated adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aquaporin-7 and -10 were expressed in the white adipose tissue both at mRNA and at protein level. Immunofluorescence revealed aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling in the human adipose tissue both to the plasma membrane and to a thin rim of cytoplasm of adipocytes. Aquaporin-7, but not aquaporin-10, colocalized with the endothelial marker CD34. Human cultured differentiated adipocytes showed an aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling mainly in the cytoplasm and in the lipid droplets with insulin reinforcing the lipid droplets staining and isoproterenol inducing its translocation to the plasma membrane compartment. Water and glycerol permeability measurements using adipocytes and adipose membrane vesicles confirmed the presence of functioning aquaglyceroporins. Aquaporin-10 silencing in human differentiated adipocytes resulted in a 50% decrease of glycerol and osmotic water permeability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that aquaporin-7, differently from mice, is present in both adipocyte and capillary plasma membranes of human adipose tissue. Aquaporin-10, on the contrary, is expressed exclusively in the adipocytes. The expression of two aquaglyceroporins in human adipose tissue is

  20. Effects of Berberine on Inflammatory Factors, Adipokines and Fatty Acid Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes%小檗碱对3T3-L1脂肪细胞炎症因子、脂肪因子及脂肪酸代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 岳晶晶; 张达; 牛文彦; 何庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of berberine on inflammatory factors, adipokines and fatty acid metabo-lism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying berberine’s role of improving insulin re-sistance. Methods mRNA level of inflammatory molecules, adipokines, key enzymes and protein in fatty acid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after cells were treated with different concentrations of berberine (0, 5, 10, 20, 40μmol/L) for 24 hours and with 10μmol/L berberine at different du-rations (0,4,8,24,48 h). These factors mainly included interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), leptin, adipo-nectin, visfatin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (AFABP). Results In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, transcription level of IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, FAS, AT-GL, AFABP reduced with addition of berberine dosage at 10~40μmol/L(P0.05). Tran-scription level of IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, AFABP, ATGL, FAS decreased with time after 10μmol/L berberine intervention (8-48 h) compared with the control group(P 0.05). Conclusion mRNA level of inflammatory factors, adipokines, key enzymes and protein in fatty acid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can be affected by berberine and this effect depend on its dose and time . This might be the mechanisms underlying berber- ine to improve insulin resistance.%目的:观察小檗碱对3T3-L1脂肪细胞炎症因子、脂肪因子及脂肪酸代谢的影响,探讨小檗碱改善胰岛素抵抗的分子机制。方法3T3-L1脂肪细胞经不同浓度小檗碱(0、5、10、20和40μmol/L)处理24 h后,采用qRT-PCR技术检测相关因子mRNA表达水平,包括白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、瘦素、脂联素和内脂素以及脂肪酸合酶(FAS)、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)、脂肪组织甘油三酯

  1. Lung hyperinflation stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators in spontaneously breathing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.S. Malbouisson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung hyperinflation up to vital capacity is used to re-expand collapsed lung areas and to improve gas exchange during general anesthesia. However, it may induce inflammation in normal lungs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a lung hyperinflation maneuver (LHM on plasma cytokine release in 10 healthy subjects (age: 26.1 ± 1.2 years, BMI: 23.8 ± 3.6 kg/m². LHM was performed applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP with a face mask, increased by 3-cmH2O steps up to 20 cmH2O every 5 breaths. At CPAP 20 cmH2O, an inspiratory pressure of 20 cmH2O above CPAP was applied, reaching an airway pressure of 40 cmH2O for 10 breaths. CPAP was then decreased stepwise. Blood samples were collected before and 2 and 12 h after LHM. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by flow cytometry. Lung hyperinflation significantly increased (P < 0.05 all measured cytokines (TNF-α: 1.2 ± 3.8 vs 6.4 ± 8.6 pg/mL; IL-1β: 4.9 ± 15.6 vs 22.4 ± 28.4 pg/mL; IL-6: 1.4 ± 3.3 vs 6.5 ± 5.6 pg/mL; IL-8: 13.2 ± 8.8 vs 33.4 ± 26.4 pg/mL; IL-10: 3.3 ± 3.3 vs 7.7 ± 6.5 pg/mL, and IL-12: 3.1 ± 7.9 vs 9 ± 11.4 pg/mL, which returned to basal levels 12 h later. A significant correlation was found between changes in pro- (IL-6 and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines (r = 0.89, P = 0.004. LHM-induced lung stretching was associated with an early inflammatory response in healthy spontaneously breathing subjects.

  2. Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, Roberto; Currò, Monica; Cirmi, Santa; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Campiglia, Pietro; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Plant polyphenols exert anti-inflammatory activity through both anti-oxidant effects and modulation of pivotal pro-inflammatory genes. Recently, Citrus bergamia has been studied as a natural source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant activity, but few studies have focused on molecular mechanisms underlying their potential beneficial effects. Several findings have suggested that polyphenols could influence cellular function by acting as activators of SIRT1, a nuclear histone deacetylase, involved in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. On the basis of these observations we studied the anti-inflammatory effects produced by the flavonoid fraction of the bergamot juice (BJe) in a model of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cell line, focusing on SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition. We demonstrated that BJe inhibited both gene expression and secretion of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) by a mechanism involving the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, we showed that BJe treatment reversed the LPS-enhanced acetylation of p65 in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of Sirtinol were able to suppress the inhibitory effect of BJe via p65 acetylation, underscoring that NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cytokine production may be directly linked to SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that BJe may be useful for the development of alternative pharmacological strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory process.

  3. Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Risitano

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols exert anti-inflammatory activity through both anti-oxidant effects and modulation of pivotal pro-inflammatory genes. Recently, Citrus bergamia has been studied as a natural source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant activity, but few studies have focused on molecular mechanisms underlying their potential beneficial effects. Several findings have suggested that polyphenols could influence cellular function by acting as activators of SIRT1, a nuclear histone deacetylase, involved in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. On the basis of these observations we studied the anti-inflammatory effects produced by the flavonoid fraction of the bergamot juice (BJe in a model of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cell line, focusing on SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition. We demonstrated that BJe inhibited both gene expression and secretion of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α by a mechanism involving the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, we showed that BJe treatment reversed the LPS-enhanced acetylation of p65 in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of Sirtinol were able to suppress the inhibitory effect of BJe via p65 acetylation, underscoring that NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cytokine production may be directly linked to SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that BJe may be useful for the development of alternative pharmacological strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory process.

  4. Effects of RWJ 67657, a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, on the production of inflammatory mediators by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J; Limburg, PC; de Boer, Peter; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase ( MAPK) inhibitor RWJ 67657 on inflammatory mediator production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). Methods: RSF were pretreated with RWJ 67657 and stimulated with TNFalpha and/or IL-1beta. Protein levels and mRNA

  5. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...

  6. Lung hyperinflation stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators in spontaneously breathing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbouisson, L M S; Szeles, T F; Barbalho, L; Massoco, C O; Carmona, M J C; Carvalho, C R R; Pelosi, P; Auler, J O C

    2010-02-01

    Lung hyperinflation up to vital capacity is used to re-expand collapsed lung areas and to improve gas exchange during general anesthesia. However, it may induce inflammation in normal lungs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a lung hyperinflation maneuver (LHM) on plasma cytokine release in 10 healthy subjects (age: 26.1 +/- 1.2 years, BMI: 23.8 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2)). LHM was performed applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a face mask, increased by 3-cmH(2)O steps up to 20 cmH(2)O every 5 breaths. At CPAP 20 cmH(2)O, an inspiratory pressure of 20 cmH(2)O above CPAP was applied, reaching an airway pressure of 40 cmH(2)O for 10 breaths. CPAP was then decreased stepwise. Blood samples were collected before and 2 and 12 h after LHM. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by flow cytometry. Lung hyperinflation significantly increased (P lung stretching was associated with an early inflammatory response in healthy spontaneously breathing subjects.

  7. Resveratrol inhibits rhinovirus replication and expression of inflammatory mediators in nasal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Cannata, Federica; Nardis, Chiara; Mattia, Elena; De Leo, Alessandra; Restignoli, Rossella; Francioso, Antonio; Mosca, Luciana

    2015-11-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the cause of common colds, are the most frequent precipitants of acute exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as causes of other serious respiratory diseases. No vaccine or antiviral agents are available for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. Resveratrol exerts antiviral effect against different DNA and RNA viruses. The antiviral effect of a new resveratrol formulation containing carboxymethylated glucan was analyzed in H1HeLa cell monolayers and ex vivo nasal epithelia infected with HRV-16. Virus yield was evaluated by plaque assay and expression of viral capsid proteins by Western blot. IL-10, IFN-β, IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES levels were evaluated by ELISA assay. ICAM-1 was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Resveratrol exerted a high, dose-dependent, antiviral activity against HRV-16 replication and reduced virus-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES to levels similar to that of uninfected nasal epithelia. Basal levels of IL-6 and RANTES were also significantly reduced in uninfected epithelia confirming an anti-inflammatory effect of the compound. HRV-induced expression of ICAM-1 was reversed by resveratrol. Resveratrol may be useful for a therapeutic approach to reduce HRV replication and virus-induced cytokine/chemokine production.

  8. Alterations in junctional proteins, inflammatory mediators and extracellular matrix molecules in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange M; Al-Tawil, Youhanna; Gyftopoulos, Alex A; Brown, Karen L; Hansen, Molly; Butcher, Kathy F; Eidelwein, Alexandra P; Noel, Robert A; Rabon, Edd; Posta, Allison; Nakhoul, Nazih L

    2013-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an inflammatory atopic disease of the esophagus, causes massive eosinophil infiltration, basal cell hyperplasia, and sub-epithelial fibrosis. To elucidate cellular and molecular factors involved in esophageal tissue damage and remodeling, we examined pinch biopsies from EoE and normal pediatric patients. An inflammation gene array confirmed that eotaxin-3, its receptor CCR3 and interleukins IL-13 and IL-5 were upregulated. An extracellular matrix (ECM) gene array revealed upregulation of CD44 & CD54, and of ECM proteases (ADAMTS1 & MMP14). A cytokine antibody array showed a marked decrease in IL-1α and IL-1 receptor antagonist and an increase in eotaxin-2 and epidermal growth factor. Western analysis indicated reduced expression of intercellular junction proteins, E-cadherin and claudin-1 and increased expression of occludin and vimentin. We have identified a number of novel genes and proteins whose expression is altered in EoE. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease.

  9. Sphingolipids as Mediators in the Crosstalk between Microbiota and Intestinal Cells: Implications for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Phillips-Farfán; Edgar Alejandro, Medina-Torres; Sara Elva, Espinosa-Padilla; Gemma, Fabrias

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes different illnesses characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the pathogenic mechanisms leading to IBD are poorly understood, immune system disturbances likely underlie its development. Sphingolipids (SLs) have been identified as important players and promising therapeutic targets to control inflammation in IBD. Interestingly, it seems that microorganisms of the normal gut microbiota and probiotics are involved in sphingolipid function. However, there is a great need to investigate the role of SLs as intermediates in the crosstalk between intestinal immunity and microorganisms. This review focuses on recent investigations that describe some mechanisms involved in the regulation of cytokine profiles by SLs. We also describe the importance of gut microbiota in providing signaling molecules that favor the communication between resident bacteria and intestinal cells. This, in turn, modulates the immune response in the bowel and likely in other peripheral organs. The potential of SLs and gut microbiota as targets or therapeutic agents for IBD is also discussed. PMID:27656050

  10. Inhibition of Rgs10 Expression Prevents Immune Cell Infiltration in Bacteria-induced Inflammatory Lesions and Osteoclast-mediated Bone Destruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sen Yang; Yi-Ping Li; Wei Chen; Liang Hao; Matthew McConnell; Xuedong Zhou; Min Wang; Yan Zhang; John D. Mountz; Michael Reddy; Paul D. Eleazer

    2013-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein Signaling 10 (Rgs10) plays an important function in osteoclast differentiation. However, the role of Rgs10 in immune cells and inflammatory responses, which activate osteoclasts in inflam-matory lesions, such as bacteria-induced periodontal disease lesions, remains largely unknown. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV-) mediated RNAi (AAV-shRNA-Rgs10) knockdown approach to study Rgs10’s function in immune cells and osteoclasts in bacteria-induced inflammatory lesions in a mouse model of periodontal disease. We found that AAV-shRNA-Rgs10 mediated Rgs10 knockdown impaired osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, local injection of AAV-shRNA-Rgs10 into the periodontal tissues in the bacteria-induced inflammatory lesion greatly decreased the number of dendritic cells, T-cells and osteoclasts, and protected the periodontal tissues from local inflammatory damage and bone destruction. Importantly, AAV-mediated Rgs10 knockdown also reduced local expression of osteoclast markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results demonstrate that AAV-shRNA-Rgs10 knockdown in periodontal disease tissues can prevent bone resorption and inflammation simultaneously. Our data indicate that Rgs10 may regulate dendritic cell proliferation and maturation, as well as the subsequent stimulation of T-cell proliferation and maturation, and osteoclast differentiation and acti-vation. Our study suggests that AAV-shRNA-Rgs10 can be useful as a therapeutic treatment of periodontal disease.

  11. Nociceptive and Inflammatory Mediator Upregulation in a Mouse Model of Chronic Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Erica S.; Xie, Amy; La, Jun-Ho; Gebhart, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, characterized by genitourinary pain in the pelvic region in the absence of an identifiable cause, is common in adult males. Surprisingly, the sensory innervation of the prostate and mediators that sensitize its innervation have received little attention. We thus characterized a mouse model of chronic prostatitis, focusing on the prostate innervation and how organ inflammation affects gene expression of putative nociceptive markers in prostate afferent somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mediators in the prostate. Retrograde tracing (fast blue, FB) from the prostate revealed that thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) DRG are the principal sources of somata of prostate afferents. Nociceptive markers (e.g., TRP, TREK and P2X channels) were upregulated in FB-labeled TL and LS somata for up to four weeks after inflaming the prostate (intra-prostate injection of zymosan). Prostatic inflammation was evident histologically, by monocyte infiltration and a significant increase in mast cell tryptase activity 14, 21 and 28 days after zymosan injection. Interleukin-10 and NGF were also significantly upregulated in the prostate throughout the four weeks of inflammation. Open field pain-related behaviors (e.g., rearing) were unchanged in prostate-inflamed mice, suggesting the absence of ongoing nociception, but withdrawal thresholds to lower abdominal pressure were significantly reduced. The increases in IL-10, mast cell tryptase and NGF in the inflamed prostate were cotemporaneous with reduced thresholds to probing of the abdomen and upregulation of nociceptive markers in DRG somata innervating the prostate. The results provide insight and direction for study of mechanisms underlying pain in chronic prostatitis. PMID:25915147

  12. Mouse mannose-binding lectin-A and ficolin-A inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated pro-inflammatory responses on mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2013-01-01

    against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine productions on mBMMCs obtained from Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4)-deficient mice, TLR2-defficient mice, and their wildtype, were specifically attenuated by the addition of either mouse MBL-A or ficolin-A in a dose...... cytokine production by LPS-mediated TLR4 in mBMMCs appears to be down-regulated, indicating that mouse MBL and ficolin may have an inhibitory function toward mouse TLR4-mediated excessive inflammation on the mast cells....

  13. Accelerated fat cell aging links oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adipocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finny Monickaraj; Sankaramoorthy Aravind; Pichamoorthy Nandhini; Paramasivam Prabu; Chandrakumar Sathishkumar; Viswanathan Mohan; Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam

    2013-03-01

    Telomere shortening is emerging as a biological indicator of accelerated aging and aging-related diseases including type 2 diabetes. While telomere length measurements were largely done in white blood cells, there is lack of studies on telomere length in relation to oxidative stress in target tissues affected in diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to induct oxidative stress in adipocytes and to test whether these adipocytes exhibit shortened telomeres, senescence and functional impairment. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were subjected to oxidative stress and senescence induction by a variety of means for 2 weeks (exogenous application of H2O2, glucose oxidase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and glucose oscillations). Cells were probed for reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), DNA damage, mRNA and protein expression of senescent and pro-inflammatory markers, telomere length and glucose uptake. Compared to untreated cells, both ROS generation and DNA damage were significantly higher in cells subjected to oxidative stress and senescence. Adipocytes subjected to oxidative stress also showed shortened telomeres and increased mRNA and protein expression of p53, p21, TNF and IL-6. Senescent cells were also characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin and impaired glucose uptake. Briefly, adipocytes under oxidative stress exhibited increased ROS generation, DNA damage, shortened telomeres and switched to senescent/pro-inflammatory phenotype with impaired glucose uptake.

  14. HIF-1 mediates pathogenic inflammatory responses to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Rena; Deitch, Edwin A; Watkins, Anthony C; Abungu, Billy; Colorado, Iriana; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Sheth, Sharvil U; Caputo, Francis J; Lu, Qi; Ramanathan, Madhuri; Attan, Shirhan; Badami, Chirag D; Doucet, Danielle; Barlos, Dimitrios; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Semenza, Gregg L; Xu, Da-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are major causes of death in trauma patients. Gut inflammation and loss of gut barrier function as a consequence of splanchnic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) have been implicated as the initial triggering events that contribute to the development of the systemic inflammatory response, ALI, and MODS. Since hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a key regulator of the physiological and pathophysiological response to hypoxia, we asked whether HIF-1 plays a proximal role in the induction of gut injury and subsequent lung injury. Utilizing partially HIF-1α-deficient mice in a global trauma hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) model, we found that HIF-1 activation was necessary for the development of gut injury and that the prevention of gut injury was associated with an abrogation of lung injury. Specifically, in vivo studies demonstrated that partial HIF-1α deficiency ameliorated T/HS-induced increases in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Lastly, partial HIF-1α deficiency reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in the ileal mucosa after T/HS whereas IL-1β mRNA levels were reduced in the lung after T/HS. This study indicates that prolonged intestinal HIF-1 activation is a proximal regulator of I/R-induced gut mucosal injury and gut-induced lung injury. Consequently, these results provide unique information on the initiating events in trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced ALI and MODS as well as potential therapeutic insights.

  15. Variation of inflammatory dynamics and mediators in primiparous cows after intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshki Adel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the current study was to investigate (i the outcome of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows during early lactation in relation with production of eicosanoids and inflammatory indicators, and (ii the validity of thermography to evaluate temperature changes on udder skin surface after experimentally induced E. coli mastitis. Nine primiparous Holstein Friesian cows were inoculated 24 ± 6 days (d after parturition in both left quarters with E. coli P4 serotype O32:H37. Blood and milk samples were collected before and after challenge with E. coli. The infrared images were taken from the caudal view of the udder following challenge with E. coli. No relationship was detected between severity of mastitis and changes of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4. However, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was related to systemic disease severity during E. coli mastitis. Moreover, reduced somatic cell count (SCC, fewer circulating basophils, increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and higher milk sodium and lower milk potassium concentrations were related to systemic disease severity. The thermal camera was capable of detecting 2-3°C temperature changes on udder skin surface of cows inoculated with E. coli. Peak of udder skin temperature occurred after peak of rectal temperature and appearance of local signs of induced E. coli mastitis. Although infrared thermography was a successful method for detecting the changes in udder skin surface temperature following intramammary challenge with E. coli, it did not show to be a promising tool for early detection of mastitis.

  16. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Iannitti

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10-5000 ng on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation.

  17. Magnolol attenuates sepsis-induced gastrointestinal dysmotility in rats by modulating inflammatory mediators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Cheng Yang; Shu-Wen Zhang; Li-Na Sun; Hong Wang; Ai-Min Ren

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of magnolol on sepsis-induced inflammation and intestinal dysmotility.METHODS:Sepsis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups:magnolol prior to LPS injection (LPS/Mag group);vehicle prior to LPS injection (LPS/Veh group);vehicle prior to injection of saline (Control/Veh).Intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity were assessed 12 h after LPS injection.Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),interleukin-10 (IL-10),monoo/te chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat ileum were studied by RT-PCR 2 h after LPS injection.Nuclear factor-KB (NF-Kβ) activity in the intestine was also investigated at this time using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.In addition,antioxidant activity was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the intestine 2 h after LPS injection.RESULTS:Magnolol significantly increased intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity in LPS-treated animals.TNF-α,MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in the small intestine were significantly reduced after magnolol treatment in LPS-induced septic animals,compared with untreated septic animals.Additionally,magnolol significantly increased IL-10 mRNA expression in septic rat ileum.Magnolol also significantly suppressed NF-kβ activity in septic rat intestine.In addition,magnolol significantly decreased MDA concentration and increased SOD activity in rat ileum.CONCLUSION:Magnolol prevents sepsis-induced suppression of intestinal motility in rats.The potential mechanism of this benefit of magnolol appears to be modulation of self-amplified inflammatory events and block of oxidative stress in the intestine.

  18. Morin, a Bioflavonoid Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Inflammatory Immune Response in RAW 264.7 Macrophages through the Inhibition of Inflammatory Mediators, Intracellular ROS Levels and NF-κB Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Dhanasekar

    Full Text Available Our previous studies had reported that morin, a bioflavanoid exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effect against adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In this current study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of morin against monosodium urate crystal (MSU-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, an in vitro model for acute gouty arthritis. For comparison purpose, colchicine was used as a reference drug. We have observed that morin (100-300 μM treatment significantly suppressed the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF, inflammatory mediators (NO and PEG2, and lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D in MSU-crystals stimulated macrophage cells. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κBp65 was found downregulated in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells by morin treatment, however, the mRNA expression of hypoxanthine phospho ribosyl transferse (HPRT was found to be increased. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that morin treatment decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells. The western blot analysis clearly showed that morin mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the MSU crystal-induced COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression through the inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells similar to that of BAY 11-7082 (IκB kinase inhibitor. Our results collectively suggest that morin can be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders like acute gouty arthritis.

  19. Association between inflammatory mediators and angiographic morphologic features indicating thrombus formation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-bao; HUA Qi; LIU Zhi; LI Jing; XU Li-qing; WANG Shan; JIN Wei-ying

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms had played an important role in the occurrence and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction,inflammatory mediators was associated with adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction.This study tested the hypothesis that in the acute phase of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation,neutrophil count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are predictive of angiographic morphologic features that indicate thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery.Methods This retrospective study included 182 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST-segment elevation.Patients were assigned to a thrombus-formation group(n=77)and a non-thrombus-formation group(n=106).All patients had a Killip's classification≤3 and onset<12 hours prior to presentation.All the cases were going to undergo coronary angiography,including primary percutaneous coronary intervention,simple coronary angiography,or thrombolysis in a coronary artery(or arteries)or coronary artery bypass graft(s).Blood samples for measurement of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and for routine blood laboratory studies were collected prior to coronary angiography.Results The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein,total leukocyte counts,neutrophil counts,and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were substantially higher in the thrombus-formation group than in the non-thrombus-formation group patients(for each,P<0.05).Stepwise Logistic regression analyses identified high-sensitivity C-reactive protein,neutrophil count,and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as independent predictors of thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery(for each,P<0.05).Conclusions In patients with acute myocardial infarction,higher neutrophil counts,neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio,and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are predictors to indicate thrombus formation.

  20. Effect of baicalin on toll-like receptor 4-mediated ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee, E-mail: sunmee@skku.edu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is susceptible to secondary stresses such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Baicalin is an active component extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is widely used in herbal preparations for treatment of hepatic diseases and inflammatory disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of baicalin on I/R injury in alcoholic fatty liver. Rats were fed an alcohol liquid diet or a control isocaloric diet for 5 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion. Baicalin (200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 24 and 1 h before ischemia. After reperfusion, baicalin attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in alcoholic fatty liver. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions increased after reperfusion, which were higher in ethanol-fed animals, were attenuated by baicalin. In ethanol-fed animals, baicalin attenuated the increases in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expressions and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after reperfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that baicalin ameliorates I/R-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver. -- Highlights: ► Baicalin attenuates hepatic I/R-induced inflammation in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin downregulates TLR4, MyD88 expression during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin attenuates NF-κB nuclear translocation during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver.

  1. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens more resistant to Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggerty, C L; McReynolds, J L; Byrd, J A; Pevzner, I Y; Duke, S E; Genovese, K J; He, H; Kogut, M H

    2016-02-01

    We developed a novel selection method based on an inherently high and low phenotype of pro-inflammatory mediators and produced "high" and "low" line chickens. We have shown high line birds are more resistant to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Eimeria tenella compared to the low line. Clostridium perfringens is the fourth leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illness, and is also an economically important poultry pathogen and known etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis (NE). The objective of this study was to determine if high line birds were also more resistant to NE than low line birds using an established model. Birds were reared in floor pens and challenges were conducted twice (high line = 25/trial, 50 birds total; low line = 26/trial, 52 birds total). Day-old chicks were provided a 55% wheat-corn-based un-medicated starter diet. A bursal disease vaccine was administered at 10× the recommended dose via the ocular route at 14-d-of-age. Birds were challenged daily for 3 d beginning at 16-d-of-age by oral gavage (3 mL) with 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of C. perfringens/mL then necropsied at 21-d-of-age. All birds had sections of the intestine examined and scored for lesions while the first 10 necropsied also had gut content collected for C. perfringens enumeration. Chickens from the high line were more resistant to C. perfringens-induced NE pathology compared to the low line, as indicated by reduced lesion scores. Ninety percent of the high line birds had lesions of zero or one compared to 67% of the low line birds. Wilcoxon rank sum test showed significantly higher lesion scores in the low line birds compared to the high line (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in the C. perfringens recovered (P = 0.83). These data provide additional validation and support selection based on elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens with increased resistance against foodborne and poultry pathogens.

  2. Chemerin Regulates Crosstalk Between Adipocytes and Vascular Cells Through Nox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Karla Bianca; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Rios, Francisco Jose; Anagnostopoulou, Aikaterini; Lobato, Nubia Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Tostes, Rita C; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-09-01

    Adipocytes produce adipokines, including chemerin, a chemoattractant that mediates effects through its ChemR23 receptor. Chemerin has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury in pathological conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive. Here we assessed whether chemerin through redox-sensitive signaling influences molecular processes associated with vascular growth, apoptosis, and inflammation. Human microvascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated with chemerin (50 ng/mL). Chemerin increased generation of reactive oxygen species and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, effects that were inhibited by ML171, GKT137831 (Nox inhibitors), and N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger). Chemerin increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators in vascular cells and increased monocyte-to-endothelial cell attachment. In human vascular smooth muscle cells, chemerin induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and stimulated proliferation (increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression [proliferation marker] and BrdU incorporation [proliferation assay]). Chemerin decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B activation and increased TUNEL-positive human vascular smooth muscle cells. In human microvascular endothelial cells, chemerin reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide production. Adipocyte-conditioned medium from obese/diabetic mice (db/db), which have elevated chemerin levels, increased reactive oxygen species generation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas adipocyte-conditioned medium from control mice had no effect. Chemerin actions were blocked by CCX 832, a ChemR23 inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that chemerin, through Nox activation and redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, exerts proapoptotic, proinflammatory, and

  3. Inflammatory mediators and immune response in Mexican adolescents Mediadores inflamatorios y respuesta inmunitaria en adolescentes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Pardo Morales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low-grade inflammation and increased immunity related to cardiovascular diseases have been described in children and adults, however, studies in Mexican adolescents are being done at present. Objective: To evaluate inflammatory proteins and indicators of immunity in adolescents by gender and body mass index. Material and methods: 115 Mexican adolescents, 15-18 years old (36 men, were divided into non-overweight, risk of overweight and overweight by CDC pediatric criteria by body mass index. Serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, C3 and C4 were quantified by nephelometry; IL-6 and TNF-α from stimulated supernatant were analyzed with Human Th1-Th2 cytokine CBA II kit (BD Biosciences Pharmigen, San Diego, CA, and detected by flow cytometry. Data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U. Results: Gender differences were found in C3 (men: median 118.8, mean rank: 41.0; women: median: 143.9, mean rank: 65.7, p = 0.001 and ceruloplasmin (men: median: 31.01, mean rank: 47.06; women: median: 31.0, mean rank: 62.9, p = 0.015. Differences by BMI were found in C3 (women non-overweight: median: 137.00 mena rank: 36.52; women with risk of overweight/overweight: median: 175.80, mean rank: 57.69, p = 0.002 and C4 (men non-overweight: median: 23.40, mean rank: 16.60; men with risk of overweight/overweight: median: 26.40, mean rank: 26.36, p = 0.028; women non-overweight: median: 24.25, mean rank: 37.16 and women with risk of overweight/overweight: median: 32.80, mean rank: 54.42, p = 0.013. Conclusion: Inflammatory proteins are increased in adolescents with risk of overweight and overweight, particularly in women.Introducción: La inflamación de bajo grado y el aumento en la inmunidad relaciondas con las enfermedades cardiovasculares se han descrito en niños y adultos, sin embargo, estudios en adolescentes mexicanos se están haciendo en la actualidad. Objetivo: Evaluar las proteínas inflamatorias e indicadores de la inmunidad en los adolescentes por g

  4. Botulinum neurotoxin type A induces TLR2-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A is the most potent protein toxin and causes fatal flaccid muscle paralysis by blocking neurotransmission. Application of BoNT/A has been extended to the fields of therapeutics and biodefense. Nevertheless, the global response of host immune cells to authentic BoNT/A has not been reported. Employing microarray analysis, we performed global transcriptional profiling of RAW264.7 cells, a murine alveolar macrophage cell line. We identified 70 genes that were modulated following 1 nM BoNT/A treatment. The altered genes were mainly involved in signal transduction, immunity and defense, protein metabolism and modification, neuronal activities, intracellular protein trafficking, and muscle contraction. Microarray data were validated with real-time RT-PCR for seven selected genes including tlr2, tnf, inos, ccl4, slpi, stx11, and irg1. Proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα were induced in a dose-dependent manner in BoNT/A-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Increased expression of these factors was inhibited by monoclonal anti-Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and inhibitors specific to intracellular proteins such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. BoNT/A also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced NO and TNFα production from RAW264.7 macrophages at the transcription level by blocking activation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK. As confirmed by TLR2-/- knock out experiments, these results suggest that BoNT/A induces global gene expression changes in host immune cells and that host responses to BoNT/A proceed through a TLR2-dependent pathway, which is modulated by JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK.

  5. Inflammatory and fibrotic mediator release by alveolar macrophages from coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, D.C.; Stauffer, J.L.; Gaydos, L.J.; Demers, L.M. [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Dept. of Pathology

    1995-09-01

    Eicosanoids and cytokines produced by alveolar macrophages (AM) are key mediators of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In order to determine if eicosanoid production and cytokine production are altered in AM obtained from coal miners, we compared production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE (2)), thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), leukotriene B-4 (LTB(4)), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) by cultured AM from normal human subjects and coal miners. The recovery of AM from miners` lungs by bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly greater than that from control subjects. Mean eicosanoid and cytokine production by AM from active miners was also increased compared to AM from control subjects, but this increase was not statistically significant. AM from control subjects produced significantly more TXA (2) and TNF alpha when exposed to lipopolysaccharide than did AM from miners. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor suprofen reduced PGE(2) and TXA(2) production and TNF alpha release but had no effect on LTB (4) production or IL-1 beta release by miners` AM. The lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated TNF alpha release, as well as that of LTB(4), but had no effect on IL-1 beta release. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase by UK 38,485 also reduced TNF alpha release by active miners` AM but had no effect on PGE(2), LTB(4) production, or IL-1 beta release. The results of these studies suggest that occupational inhalation of coal dust may increase total lung eicosanoid and cytokine levels and reduce the reactivity of AM to bacterial endotoxin. Furthermore, coal dust-induced changes in both eicosanoid and cytokine release may be subject to pharmacological modulation.

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 2 mediates in vivo pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and modulates autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia ePiermattei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll like receptor 2 (Tlr2, by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile. Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific pro-inflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participate directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and Cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted on severity, extent of remission and distribution of the lesions within the Central Nervous System of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses.

  7. Potent Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Actions of the Chloroform Extract of Dendropanax morbifera Mediated by the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Kyeong-A; Kim, Eun-Sun; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Chul Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera LEVEILLE (DP) has been used in traditional Korean medicines to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of this plant is understood, its in vivo efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We elucidated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of DP using in vitro and in vivo models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to analyze the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of DP extract and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In vivo animal models of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing response tests were used to analyze the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects and anti-nociceptive effects of DP extract, respectively. Methanolic extract of DP (DPME) significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Among the five sub-fractions, the chloroform fraction (DP-C) showed the most potent suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These effects were attributed to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation and to activation of NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling. DP-C exhibited strong protective in vivo effects in TPA-induced ear edema mouse model and acetic acid-induced writhing response test. Our data suggest that DP-C has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and may be a promising treatment against a variety of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  9. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qilu [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhao, Leping [Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Zhaoyu [Department of International High School, Shanghai Jiaotong University Nanyang Affiliated (Kunshan) School, Minhang District, Shanghai (China); Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Dan, E-mail: yqyyld@163.com [Department of Nephrology, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  10. Transcriptional and Linkage Analyses Identify Loci that Mediate the Differential Macrophage Response to Inflammatory Stimuli and Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Musa A.; Jensen, Kirk D.; Butty, Vincent; Hu, K.; Boedec, E.; Prins, J.C.P.; Saeij, J.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages display flexible activation states that range between pro-inflammatory (classical activation) and anti-inflammatory (alternative activation). These macrophage polarization states contribute to a variety of organismal phenotypes such as tissue remodeling and susceptibility to infectious a

  11. Maackiapterocarpan B from Sophora tonkinensis Suppresses Inflammatory Mediators via Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hee-Sung; Yoo, Hunseung; Choi, Young Hee; Choi, Won Jun; Chin, Young-Won

    2016-01-01

    Maackiapterocarpan B, one of the pterocarpan analogs found in Sophora tonkinensis, is known to display pharmacological activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of maackiapterocarpan B and its molecular mechanism have yet to be clearly elucidated. In the present study, the effects of maackiapterocarpan B on macrophage-mediated inflammation in vitro were assessed. Maackiapterocarpan B inhibited the production of nitric oxide, the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, colony stimulating factor 2, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. These observations suggest the potential of maackiapterocarpan B in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  12. Intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreases brain inflammatory mediators and provides neuroprotection after brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-11-01

    Brain injury due to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disabilities in newborns. We determined whether intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could provide neuroprotection in neonatal rats after brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain HI. They were then treated with intranasal PDTC. Neurological outcomes were evaluated 7 or 30 days after the brain HI. Brain tissues were harvested 6 or 24 h after the brain HI for biochemical analysis. Here, PDTC dose-dependently reduced brain HI-induced brain tissue loss with an effective dose (ED)50 at 27 mg/kg. PDTC needed to be applied within 45 min after the brain HI for this neuroprotection. This treatment reduced brain tissue loss and improved neurological and cognitive functions assessed 30 days after the HI. PDTC attenuated brain HI-induced lipid oxidative stress, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and various inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase after brain HI reduced brain tissue loss. Our results suggest that intranasal PDTC provides neuroprotection possibly via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Intranasal PDTC may have a potential to provide neuroprotection to human neonates after birth asphyxia.

  13. Nonimmune Cells Contribute to Crosstalk between Immune Cells and Inflammatory Mediators in the Innate Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Aoki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas myocarditis, which is caused by infection with the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the major infectious heart disease worldwide. Innate recognition through toll-like receptors (TLRs on immune cells has not only been revealed to be critical for defense against T. cruzi but has also been involved in triggering the pathology. Subsequent studies revealed that this parasite activates nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain- (NOD-like receptors and several particular transcription factors in TLR-independent manner. In addition to professional immune cells, T. cruzi infects and resides in different parenchyma cells. The innate receptors in nonimmune target tissues could also have an impact on host response. Thus, the outcome of the myocarditis or the inflamed liver relies on an intricate network of inflammatory mediators and signals given by immune and nonimmune cells. In this paper, we discuss the evidence of innate immunity to the parasite developed by the host, with emphasis on the crosstalk between immune and nonimmune cell responses.

  14. Profile of blood cells and inflammatory mediators in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Kelly L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to profile levels of blood cells and serum cytokines during afebrile and febrile phases of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA syndrome to advance pathophysiological understanding of this pediatric disease. Methods A cohort of patients with a median age of 4.9 years experiencing 'typical PFAPA' episodes participated in this study. Blood cells and serum cytokines were analyzed by CBC analysis and multiplex ELISA. Results Oscillations in the concentration of blood cells during the afebrile and febrile phases of typical PFAPA syndrome were observed; novel findings include increased monocytes and decreased eosinophils during a febrile episode and increased thrombocytes in the afebrile interval. Relatively modest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in sera. IFNγ-induced cytokine IP10/CXCL10 was increased after the onset of fever while T cell-associated cytokines IL7 and IL17 were suppressed during afebrile and febrile periods. Conclusions Identification of dysregulated blood cells and serum cytokines is an initial step towards the identification of biomarkers of PFAPA disease and/or players in disease pathogenesis. Future investigations are required to conclusively discern which mediators are associated specifically with PFAPA syndrome.

  15. Oxygenation and release of inflammatory mediators after off-pump compared with after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.S.; Laugesen, Helle; Sollid, J.

    2007-01-01

    the use of CPB (OPCAB) would affect post-operative oxygenation and release of inflammatory mediators less compared with CABG. Methods: Low-risk patients scheduled for elective coronary revascularization were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CABG, n = 17 or OPCAB, n = 18). Two parameters...... of oxygenation, shunt (%) and ventilation-perfusions mismatch, described as ΔPO2 (kPa), were estimated for up to 5 days post-operatively. Systemic release of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and -10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophils were measured in peripheral blood samples for up to 3 days post......-operatively. The lungs participation in the cytokine response was evaluated from mixed venous blood samples taken within the first 16 h post-operatively. Results: OPCAB was followed by a higher shunt (P = 0.047), with no difference (P = 0.47) in the deterioration of ΔPO2 between the groups. OPCAB was followed...

  16. Suppression of Inflammatory Mediators by Cruciferous Vegetable-Derived Indole-3-Carbinol and Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Ting Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C and β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, bioactive components present in cruciferous vegetable, on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Possible mechanisms of the NO-inhibitory effects were also explored. The results indicated that I3C and PEITC inhibited NO production, and this suppression was associated with decreased production of TNF-α and IL-10 by activated macrophages. In addition, I3C suppressed NO production even after the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein had been produced, but such an inhibitory effect was not observed in cells treated with PEITC. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the NO contents generated from an NO donor in a cell-free condition, suggesting that the increased NO clearance may have contributed to the NO-inhibitory effects. In summary, both I3C and PEITC possessed antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting the productions of NO, TNF-α, and IL-10, although the NO-inhibitory effects may have involved in different mechanisms.

  17. Octanoate and decanoate induce apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2009-10-01

    The effect of octanoate and decanoate, respectively, eight- and 10-carbon medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), on apoptotic signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of octanoate or decanoate. Cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were investigated. Results indicated that both octanoate and decanoate decreased viability, increased apoptosis, and increased reactive oxygen species production. Immunoblotting analysis showed an increase in the levels of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by octanoate and decanoate. Concomitantly, we observed that pro-caspase-3 was decreased, resulting in the induced accumulation of the cleaved form of caspase-3 by both octanoate and decanoate. In addition, both octanoate and decanoate increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax with an accompanied decrease of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These results show that octanoate and decanoate mediate adipocyte apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MCFAs thus decrease adipocyte number by initiating the apoptotic process in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  18. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Heeren, Joerg

    2008-02-15

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged withdrawal of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist rosiglitazone. Differentiated hMSC-Tert developed the characteristic monolocular phenotype of mature adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte specific markers was highly increased during differentiation. Most importantly, the presence of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone was not required for the stable expression of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and perilipin on mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin expression was post-transcriptionally down-regulated in the absence of rosiglitazone. Insulin sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPARgamma-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein uptake.

  19. Metformin limits the adipocyte tumor-promoting effect on ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Sarigiannis, Kalli; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-07-15

    Omental adipocytes promote ovarian cancer by secretion of adipokines, cytokines and growth factors, and acting as fuel depots. We investigated if metformin modulates the ovarian cancer promoting effects of adipocytes. Effect of conditioned media obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3L1 preadipoctes on the proliferation and migration of a mouse ovarian surface epithelium cancer cell line (ID8) was estimated. Conditioned media from differentiated adipocytes increased the proliferation and migration of ID8 cells, which was attenuated by metformin. Metformin inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of key adipogenesis regulating transcription factors (CEBPα, CEBPß, and SREBP1), and induced AMPK. A targeted Cancer Pathway Finder RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) based gene array revealed 20 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in ID8 cells exposed to adipocyte conditioned media, which were altered by metformin. Adipocyte conditioned media also induced bio-energetic changes in the ID8 cells by pushing them into a highly metabolically active state; these effects were reversed by metformin. Collectively, metformin treatment inhibited the adipocyte mediated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, expression of cancer associated genes and bio-energetic changes. Suggesting, that metformin could be a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer at an early stage, as it not only targets ovarian cancer, but also modulates the environmental milieu.

  20. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  1. Role of nuclear factor κB-mediated inflammatory pathways in cancer-related symptoms and their regulation by nutritional agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Reuter, Simone; Dougherty, Patrick M; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by dysregulation of multiple genes and is associated with symptoms such as cachexia, anorexia, fatigue, depression, neuropathic pain, anxiety, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders and delirium (acute confusion state) in medically ill patients. These symptoms are caused by either the cancer itself or the cancer treatment. During the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of inflammatory pathways contributes to the expression of these symptoms. Cancer patients have been found to have higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a major mediator of inflammatory pathways. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents that can modulate the NF-κB activation and inflammatory pathways may have potential in improving cancer-related symptoms in patients. Because of their multitargeting properties, low cost, low toxicity and immediate availability, natural agents have gained considerable attention for prevention and treatment of cancer-related symptoms. How NF-κB and inflammatory pathways contribute to cancer-related symptoms is the focus of this review. We will also discuss how nutritional agents such as curcumin, genistein, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene can modulate inflammatory pathways and thereby reduce cancer-related symptoms in patients.

  2. A pseudopterane diterpene isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa inhibits the inflammatory response mediated by TLR-ligands and TNF-alpha in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yisett; Doens, Deborah; Santamaría, Ricardo; Ramos, Marla; Restrepo, Carlos M; Barros de Arruda, Luciana; Lleonart, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Fernández, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Several diterpenoids isolated from terrestrial and marine environments have been identified as important anti-inflammatory agents. Although considerable progress has been made in the area of anti-inflammatory treatment, the search for more effective and safer compounds is a very active field of research. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a known pseudopterane diterpene (referred here as compound 1) isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa on the tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) and TLRs- induced response in macrophages. Compound 1 inhibited the expression and secretion of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), ciclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by LPS in primary murine macrophages. This effect was associated with the inhibition of IκBα degradation and subsequent activation of NFκB. Compound 1 also inhibited the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, which is a hallmark of macrophage activation and consequent initiation of an adaptive immune response. The anti-inflammatory effect was not exclusive to LPS because compound 1 also inhibited the response of macrophages to TNF-α and TLR2 and TLR3 ligands. Taken together, these results indicate that compound 1 is an anti-inflammatory molecule, which modulates a variety of processes occurring in macrophage activation.

  3. A pseudopterane diterpene isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa inhibits the inflammatory response mediated by TLR-ligands and TNF-alpha in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisett González

    Full Text Available Several diterpenoids isolated from terrestrial and marine environments have been identified as important anti-inflammatory agents. Although considerable progress has been made in the area of anti-inflammatory treatment, the search for more effective and safer compounds is a very active field of research. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a known pseudopterane diterpene (referred here as compound 1 isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa on the tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α and TLRs- induced response in macrophages. Compound 1 inhibited the expression and secretion of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, nitric oxide (NO, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, ciclooxygenase (COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 induced by LPS in primary murine macrophages. This effect was associated with the inhibition of IκBα degradation and subsequent activation of NFκB. Compound 1 also inhibited the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, which is a hallmark of macrophage activation and consequent initiation of an adaptive immune response. The anti-inflammatory effect was not exclusive to LPS because compound 1 also inhibited the response of macrophages to TNF-α and TLR2 and TLR3 ligands. Taken together, these results indicate that compound 1 is an anti-inflammatory molecule, which modulates a variety of processes occurring in macrophage activation.

  4. A Pseudopterane Diterpene Isolated From the Octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa Inhibits the Inflammatory Response Mediated by TLR-Ligands and TNF-Alpha in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yisett; Doens, Deborah; Santamaría, Ricardo; Ramos, Marla; Restrepo, Carlos M.; Barros de Arruda, Luciana; Lleonart, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Fernández, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Several diterpenoids isolated from terrestrial and marine environments have been identified as important anti-inflammatory agents. Although considerable progress has been made in the area of anti-inflammatory treatment, the search for more effective and safer compounds is a very active field of research. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a known pseudopterane diterpene (referred here as compound 1) isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa on the tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) and TLRs- induced response in macrophages. Compound 1 inhibited the expression and secretion of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), ciclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by LPS in primary murine macrophages. This effect was associated with the inhibition of IκBα degradation and subsequent activation of NFκB. Compound 1 also inhibited the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, which is a hallmark of macrophage activation and consequent initiation of an adaptive immune response. The anti-inflammatory effect was not exclusive to LPS because compound 1 also inhibited the response of macrophages to TNF-α and TLR2 and TLR3 ligands. Taken together, these results indicate that compound 1 is an anti-inflammatory molecule, which modulates a variety of processes occurring in macrophage activation. PMID:24358331

  5. Rapamycin Improves Palmitate-Induced ER Stress/NF κ B Pathways Associated with Stimulating Autophagy in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajing Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammation lead to adipocytes dysfunction. Autophagy helps to adapt to cellular stress and involves in regulating innate inflammatory response. In present study, we examined the activity of rapamycin, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, against endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in adipocytes. An in vitro model was used in which 3T3-L1 adipocytes were preloaded with palmitate (PA to generate artificial hypertrophy mature adipocytes. Elevated autophagy flux and increased number of autophagosomes were observed in response to PA and rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin attenuated PA-induced PERK and IRE1-associated UPR pathways, evidenced by decreased protein levels of eIF2α phosphorylation, ATF4, CHOP, and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine (CQ exacerbated these ER stress markers, indicating the role of autophagy in ameliorating ER stress. In addition, cotreatment of CQ abolished the anti-ER stress effects of rapamycin, which confirms the effect of rapamycin on ERs is autophagy-dependent. Furthermore, rapamycin decreased PA-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB P65 subunit, thereby NFκB-dependent inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IL-6 expression and secretion. In conclusion, rapamycin attenuated PA-induced ER stress/NFκB pathways to counterbalance adipocytes stress and inflammation. The beneficial of rapamycin in this context partly depends on autophagy. Stimulating autophagy may become a way to attenuate adipocytes dysfunction.

  6. Rapamycin improves palmitate-induced ER stress/NF κ B pathways associated with stimulating autophagy in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiajing; Gu, Liping; Wang, Yufan; Fan, Nengguang; Ma, Yuhang; Peng, Yongde

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation lead to adipocytes dysfunction. Autophagy helps to adapt to cellular stress and involves in regulating innate inflammatory response. In present study, we examined the activity of rapamycin, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, against endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in adipocytes. An in vitro model was used in which 3T3-L1 adipocytes were preloaded with palmitate (PA) to generate artificial hypertrophy mature adipocytes. Elevated autophagy flux and increased number of autophagosomes were observed in response to PA and rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin attenuated PA-induced PERK and IRE1-associated UPR pathways, evidenced by decreased protein levels of eIF2α phosphorylation, ATF4, CHOP, and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) exacerbated these ER stress markers, indicating the role of autophagy in ameliorating ER stress. In addition, cotreatment of CQ abolished the anti-ER stress effects of rapamycin, which confirms the effect of rapamycin on ERs is autophagy-dependent. Furthermore, rapamycin decreased PA-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB P65 subunit, thereby NFκB-dependent inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IL-6 expression and secretion. In conclusion, rapamycin attenuated PA-induced ER stress/NFκB pathways to counterbalance adipocytes stress and inflammation. The beneficial of rapamycin in this context partly depends on autophagy. Stimulating autophagy may become a way to attenuate adipocytes dysfunction.

  7. PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbaek, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is controlled by a tightly regulated transcriptional cascade in which PPARgamma and members of the C/EBP family are key players. Here we review the roles of PPARgamma and C/EBPs in adipocyte differentiation with emphasis on the recently published genome-wide binding prof...

  8. 平衡超滤能否有效滤除炎性介质%Balanced ultrafiltration: inflammatory mediator removal capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管玉龙; 郭建涛; 万彩红; 王仕刚; 孙鹏; 龙村

    2011-01-01

    目的 在体外循环模拟实验中,对平衡超滤的炎性介质滤除效果进行测定.方法 建立体外循环体外模拟环路,使用健康供体人血与乳酸林格液预充体外循环管路,最终红细胞比容控制于0.24~0.28.体外循环2 h后开始平衡超滤,超滤速度控制在12 ml/min.平衡超滤时间为45 min,每隔5 min取血样5 ml和超滤液60 ml,测定样本及超滤液中炎性介质浓度:包括白细胞介素(IL)-1、IL-6、IL-10、中性粒细胞弹性蛋白酶(NE)以及肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α.结果 超滤液中可以检测到所有类型的炎性介质,证实血液浓缩器可以滤除炎性介质.对炎性介质的动态检测发现,血液样本和超滤液中NE的浓度最高(P<0.001);血中IL-1浓度最低,而超滤液中TNF-α浓度低于其他类型的炎性介质(P<0.001).超滤液中的炎性介质浓度与血液样本中浓度并非呈现线性关系.综合考虑超滤液中炎性介质浓度以及超滤液体积提示,血液浓缩器对于炎性介质的滤除率不超过5%.结论 平衡超滤可以选择性地滤除血液中的炎性介质,综合超滤液中炎性介质浓度和体积显示,对于患者体内的炎性介质浓度及总量,平衡超滤作用有限.%Objective Ultrafiltration with hemoconcentrator may remove excess fluid load and alleviate tissue edema, and has been universally adopted in extracorporeal circulation ( ECC ) protocols during pediatric cardiac surgery. Balanced ultrafiltration is advocated to remove inflammatory mediators generated during surgery. However, whether balanced ultrafiltration could remove all or a portion of the inflammatory mediator load be remaining unclear. The inflammatory mediator removal capacity of zero - balanced ultrafiltration was measured during pediatric ECC in vitro. Methods ECC consisted of cardiotomy reservoir, membrane oxygenator and arterial filter. Hemoconcentrator BC 20 plus was placed between arterial purge line and oxygenator venous reservoir. Fresh

  9. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  10. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    from the mice in the Lut + ZnPP group was significantly increased following the suppression of HO-1 activity. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that luteolin protects mice from SAP by inducing HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, in association with the suppression of the activation of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:27878246

  11. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  12. Long-term exposure to IL-1beta enhances Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signaling in murine airway hyperresponsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Cang-Bao; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Toll-interleukin-1 (Toll-IL-1) receptor signaling may play a key role in the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Previously, we have demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin......RNA expression following IL-1beta treatment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that protein expression for CD14, RP105, MCP-1 and phosphorylated IkappaB-alpha were increased in both the airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. In order to link the activation of Toll-IL-1 receptor-mediated inflammatory signal...... airway to IL-1beta induces up- and down-regulation of mRNA expression for Toll-IL-1 receptor signal molecules, with a significant increase in the expression of 16 genes that contribute to the development of airway inflammation and AHR. Understanding cytokine-induced activation of the Toll-IL-1 receptor...

  13. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation in BMSCs. • High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced the proliferation of BMSCs but not adipocyte differentiation. • High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK in BMSCs. • Inhibition of ERK enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. • High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}-mediated suppression of ERK may be a new therapy target for anemia.

  14. Pro-inflammatory cytokines derived from West Nile virus (WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells mediate neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive and destructive whereas infection of non-neuronal brain cells is limited. However, the role of neurons and pathological consequences of pro-inflammatory cytokines released as a result of WNV infection is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of key cytokines secreted by WNV-infected neurons in mediating neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death. Methods A transformed human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was infected with WNV at multiplicity of infection (MOI-1 and -5, and WNV replication kinetics and expression profile of key pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and ELISA. Cell death was measured in SK-N-SH cell line in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against key pro-inflammatory cytokines using cell viability assay, TUNEL and flow cytometry. Further, naïve primary astrocytes were treated with UV-inactivated supernatant from mock- and WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line and the activation of astrocytes was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells induced the expression of IL-1β, -6, -8, and TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which coincided with increase in virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with anti-IL-1β or -TNF-α resulted in significant reduction of the neurotoxic effects of WNV. Furthermore treatment of naïve astrocytes with UV-inactivated supernatant from WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and key inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggest that neurons are one of the potential sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WNV-infected brain and these neuron-derived cytokines contribute to WNV

  15. miR-203 protects microglia mediated brain injury by regulating inflammatory responses via feedback to MyD88 in ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhong, Lina; Zhong, Shanchuan; Xian, Ronghua; Yuan, Bangqing

    2015-06-01

    Much evidence demonstrates that microglia mediated inflammatory responses play an important role in brain injury in ischemia. miRNA is the important factor in regulation of inflammation. However, the effect of miRNA in microglia mediated inflammatory responses has not been well studied. In the study, we demonstrate that miR-203 negatively regulates ischemia induced microglia activation by targeting MyD88, an important adapter protein involved in most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) pathways. Through negative feedback, enforced expression of miR-203 or MyD88 siRNA silencing inhibits downstream NF-κβ signaling and microglia activation, thereby alleviating neuronal injury. These findings reveal that miR-203 represents a novel target regulating neuroinflammation and brain injury, thus offering a new therapeutical strategy for cerebral hypoxic diseases.

  16. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  17. Perilipin1 promotes unilocular lipid droplet formation through the activation of Fsp27 in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiqi; Gong, Jingyi; Wu, Han; Xu, Wenyi; Wu, Lizhen; Xu, Dijin; Gao, Jinlan; Wu, Jia-Wei; Yang, Hongyuan; Yang, Maojun; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Mature white adipocytes contain a characteristic unilocular lipid droplet. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying unilocular lipid droplet formation are poorly understood. We previously showed that Fsp27, an adipocyte-specific lipid droplet-associated protein, promotes lipid droplet growth by initiating lipid exchange and transfer. Here, we identify Perilipin1 (Plin1), another adipocyte-specific lipid droplet-associated protein, as an Fsp27 activator. Plin1 interacts with the CIDE-N domain of Fsp27 and markedly increases Fsp27-mediated lipid exchange, lipid transfer and lipid droplet growth. Functional cooperation between Plin1 and Fsp27 is required for efficient lipid droplet growth in adipocytes, as depletion of either protein impairs lipid droplet growth. The CIDE-N domain of Fsp27 forms homodimers and disruption of CIDE-N homodimerization abolishes Fsp27-mediated lipid exchange and transfer. Interestingly, Plin1 can restore the activity of CIDE-N homodimerization-defective mutants of Fsp27. We thus uncover a novel mechanism underlying lipid droplet growth and unilocular lipid droplet formation that involves the cooperative action of Fsp27 and Plin1 in adipocytes.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  19. Modulatory effect of α-linolenic acid-rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil on inflammatory mediators in adult albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Bastihalli Tukaramrao; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2011-08-01

    Vegetable oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) have been shown to modulate the functions of immunocompetent cells. The aim of the present study was to understand the modulatory effect of ALA-rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil (GCO) on lipid composition, spleen lymphocyte (SL) proliferation and inflammatory mediator production by peritoneal macrophages (PMΦ) in rats. Female Wistar rats were fed diets containing either GCO (2·5, 5·0 and 10 %, w/w) or sunflower oil (SFO, 10 % w/w) for 8 weeks. Ex vivo proliferation of SL was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. IL-2 and TNF-α in SL and PMΦ were analysed by ELISA. Inflammatory mediators such as NO, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) and H(2)O(2) were measured in mitogen-activated PMΦ. GCO significantly increased the levels of ALA, EPA and DHA, but reduced linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in SL and PMΦ lipids. GCO (10 %) significantly decreased the concanavalin A (Con-A)- and phytohaemagglutinin-mediated proliferation of SL by 54 and 38 %, respectively, in comparison with SFO. A marginal decrease in IL-2 and TNF-α was observed in Con-A-stimulated SL and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PMΦ. LTB(4) levels in Ca ionophore-stimulated PMΦ were reduced by 40 % in GCO-fed rats. NO release in response to various stimuli was significantly decreased in PMΦ of GCO-fed rats. The present study is the first report on the modulatory efficacy of GCO on immunomediators in rats. GCO modulated inflammatory mediators such as NO and LTB(4), and thus may play a role in alleviating inflammatory conditions favourably.

  20. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus germ tube growth and not conidia ingestion induces expression of inflammatory mediator genes in the human lung epithelial cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Millon, Laurence; Khoufache, Khaled; Rivollet, Danièle; Bièche, Ivan; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Michel; Botterel, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of conidia is the main cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and the respiratory epithelium is the first line of defence. To explore the triggering factor for the inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the species mainly responsible for IPA, this study analysed the differential expression of three inflammatory genes in A549 cells after challenge with live and killed conidia. The influence of steroids, one of the main risk factors for developing IPA, was also investigated. Quantification of mRNAs of the inflammatory mediator genes encoding interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was carried out using real-time PCR. Ingestion rates were studied for the conidia of A. fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum using a fluorescence brightener. Similar results were obtained for both species, with ingestion rates ranging from 35 to 40 %. Exposure of A549 cells to live A. fumigatus conidia only induced a four- to fivefold increase in the mRNA levels of the three genes, starting 8 h after the initial contact. Both inactivation of live A. fumigatus conidia and treatment by dexamethasone (10(-7) M) prevented the overexpression of TNF-alpha, IL-8 and GM-CSF. Fungal growth, rather than conidia ingestion, appears to be the main stimulus for the production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells, and this production is inhibited by steroid therapy. These results underline the role that the epithelium plays in the innate response against IPA.

  2. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárvári, Anitta K., E-mail: anittasarvari@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Veréb, Zoltán, E-mail: jzvereb@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Uray, Iván P., E-mail: ipuray@mdanderson.org [Clinical Cancer Prevention Department, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Fésüs, László, E-mail: fesus@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA DE Apoptosis, Genomics and Stem Cell Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Balajthy, Zoltán, E-mail: balajthy@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin

  3. Effects of large dose of dexamethasone on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic cell apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of high dose of dexamethasone on inflammatory mediators and apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: SAP rats were randomly assigned to the model group and treatment group while the normal rats were assigned to the sham operation group. The mortality, ascite volumes, ascites/body weight ratio and pancreas pathological changes of all rats were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Their contents of amylase and endotoxin in plasma and contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IL-6 in serum were also determined. The microarray sections of their pancreatic tissues were prepared, terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed and apoptotic indexes were calculated. RESULTS: There was no marked difference between treatment group and model group in survival. The contents of amylase and endotoxin in plasma and contents of TNF-α, PLA2 and IL-6 in serum, ascite volumes, ascites/body weight ratio and pancreas pathological scores were all lower in treatment group than in model group to different extents at different time points [P < 0.05, 58.3 (26.4) ng/L vs 77.535 (42.157)ng/L in TNF-α content, 8.00 (2.00) points vs 9.00 (2.00)points in pathological score of pancreas respectively;P < 0.01, 0.042 (0.018) EU/mL vs 0.056 (0.0195) EU/mL in endotoxin content, 7791 (1863) U/L vs 9195 (1298)U/L in plasma amylase content, 1.53 (0.79) vs 2.38 (1.10) in ascites/body weight ratio, 8.00 (1.00) points vs 11.00 (1.50) points in pathological score of pancreas; P < 0.001, 3.36 (1.56) ng/L vs 5.65 (1.08) ng/L in IL-6 content, 4.50 (2.00) vs 7.20 (2.00), 4.20 (1.60) vs 6.40 (2.30), 3.40 (2.70) vs 7.90 (1.70) in ascite volumes,respectively]. The apoptotic indexes of pancreas head and pancreas tail were all higher in treatment group than in model group at 6 h[P < 0.01, 0.00 (2.00)% vs 0.00(0.00)%, 0.20 (1.80) vs 0.00 (0.00) in apoptosis indexes, respectively

  4. Higher Levels of Protective Parenting are Associated with Better Young Adult Health: Exploration of Mediation through Epigenetic Influences on Pro-Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. H. Beach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells. Supporting expectations, in a sample of 398 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from age 11 to age 19, parenting at ages 11-13 was associated with youth reports of better health at age 19. We found that parenting was associated with changes in TNF methylation as well as with changes in cell-type composition. However, whereas methylation of TNF was a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health, variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was not a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health. The current research suggests the potential value of examining the health-related effects of parenting in late childhood and early adolescence. Further examination of protection against pro-inflammatory tendencies conferred by parenting appears warranted.

  5. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  6. Targeting B cells in immune-mediated inflammatory disease: a comprehensive review of mechanisms of action and identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörner, Thomas; Kinnman, Nils; Tak, Paul P

    2010-03-01

    B cell-depletion therapy, particularly using anti-CD20 treatment, has provided proof of concept that targeting B cells and the humoral response may result in clinical improvements in immune-mediated inflammatory disease. In this review, the mechanisms of action of B cell-targeting drugs are investigated, and potential biomarkers associated with response to treatment in patients with autoimmune diseases are identified. Most available data relate to B cell depletion using anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment leads to significant clinical benefit, but apparently fails to deplete long-lived plasma cells, and discontinuation is associated with relapse. Biomarkers commonly used in studies of B cell-targeted therapies include rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies, and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. More recently, there has been interest in markers such as B cell phenotype analysis, and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)/a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), the latter particularly in studies of the IgG Fc-transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) fusion protein (atacicept) and anti-BLyS therapy (belimumab). Data from clinical trials of B cell-depleting agents in RA suggest that specific autoantibodies, BLyS, APRIL, and circulating and synovial B lineage cell levels may have potential as biomarkers predictive of response to treatment. Further trials validating these markers against clinical outcomes in RA are required. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Fc receptors and levels of circulating immune cells (including B cells and natural killer cells) may be relevant markers.

  7. Treadmill exercise promotes neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury via downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-12-01

    ischemia–reperfusion injury via the downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Keywords: rehabilitation, cytokine, chemokine, stroke, rat model 

  8. Inflammatory processes enhance cAMP-mediated uterus relaxation in the pregnant rat: the role of TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukovits, Anna; Márki, Arpád; Páldy, Eszter; Benyhe, Sándor; Gálik, Márta; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Róbert

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro uterus relaxing potency of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) agonists in pregnant rats after in utero administration of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). The LPS (100 microg/kg) was injected into the uterine lumen on day 16 of pregnancy. The effects of beta(2)-AR agonist terbutaline was tested in vitro, in isolated uterine rings precontracted by electric field stimulation. Uterine beta(2)-AR densities were detected by radioligand binding assay, the activated G-protein levels were investigated by a radiolabelled GTP binding assay. Uterine cAMP accumulation and the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The endotoxin-evoked preterm delivery occurred on day 21. Higher pD(2) values of terbutaline (p 0.05) in LPS-treated vs. control animals. Serum TNF-alpha level rose threefold after LPS treatment, but this rise was abolished by thalidomide. In LPS + thalidomide-treated rats, the effect of terbutaline became similar to that in sham-operated controls. By the measurement of myometrial cAMP levels, we documented that the concentration-response curve of terbutaline on cAMP accumulation was shifted to the left in the LPS-treated rats, with a significant rise in the pD(2). We concluded that in the case of uterine inflammation, the in vitro uterus-relaxing potency of beta(2)-agonists enhances, which is possibly mediated by TNF-alpha and uterine cAMP levels and that may serve as a rationale for the use of beta(2)-AR agonists in the attenuation of preterm uterine contractions on an inflammatory basis.

  9. Airborne agricultural particulate matter induces inflammatory cytokine secretion by respiratory epithelial cells: mechanisms of regulation by eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malireddy, Smitha; Lawson, Courtney; Steinhour, Emily; Hart, Judy; Kotha, Sainath R; Patel, Rishi B; Zhao, Lingying; Wilkins, John R; Marsh, Clay B; Magalang, Ulysses J; Romberger, Debra; Wewers, Mark D; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the airborne poultry dust (particulate matter, PM)-induced respiratory tract inflammation, a common symptom in agricultural respiratory diseases. The study was based on the hypothesis that poultry PM would induce the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by respiratory epithelial cells under the upstream regulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and subsequent formation of cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (eicosanoids). Human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture were treated with the poultry PM (0.1-1.0 mg) for different lengths of time, following which PLA2 activity, release of eicosanoids and secretion of IL-8 in cells were determined. Poultry PM (1.0 mg/ml) caused a significant activation of PLA2 in a time-dependent manner (15-60 min), which was significantly attenuated by the calcium-chelating agents, cPLA2-specific inhibitor (AACOCF3) and antioxidant (vitamin C) in A549 cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced the release of COX- and LOX-catalyzed eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes B4 and C4) and upstream activation of AA LOX in the cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced release of IL-8 by the cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated by the calcium chelating agents, antioxidants and COX- and LOX-specific inhibitors. The current study for the first time revealed that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 release from the respiratory epithelial cells was regulated upstream by reactive oxygen species, cPLA2-, COX- and LOX-derived eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

  10. Protective Role of Curcumin and Flunixin Against Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease via Modulating Inflammatory Mediators and Cytokine Profile in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Boobalan; Dileep, Rasakatla; Rani, Matukumalli Usha; Kumar, C S V Satish; Kumar, Matham Vijay; Reddy, Alla Gopala

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. The present study is to evaluate the effect of flunixin and curcumin in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 animals: normal control group, acetic acid group, curcumin-treated group, and flunixin-treated group. Induction of colitis by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid produced severe macroscopic inflammation in the colon, 14 days after acetic acid administration as assessed by the colonic damage score. Microscopically, colonic tissues showed ulceration, edema, and inflammatory cells infiltration. Biochemical studies revealed increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Oxidative stress was indicated by elevated lipid peroxide formation and depleted reduced glutathione concentrations in colonic tissues. After induction of colitis, treatment with curcumin (50 mg/kg daily, p.o.) and flunixin (2.5 mg/kg daily, s.c.) decreased serum LDH, ALP, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as colonic MPO and lipid peroxide levels, whereas increased colonic prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 concentrations were observed. Moreover, effective doses of curcumin and flunixin were effective in restoring the histopathological changes induced by acetic acid administration. The findings of the present study provide evidence that flunixin may be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Bone Marrow Adipocytes Facilitate Fatty Acid Oxidation Activating AMPK and a Transcriptional Network Supporting Survival of Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabe, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Saitoh, Kaori; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Monma, Norikazu; Ikeo, Kazuho; Mogushi, Kaoru; Shikami, Masato; Ruvolo, Vivian; Ishizawa, Jo; Hail, Numsen; Kazuno, Saiko; Igarashi, Mamoru; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yamanaka, Yasunari; Arai, Hajime; Nagaoka, Isao; Miida, Takashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2017-03-15

    Leukemia cells in the bone marrow must meet the biochemical demands of increased cell proliferation and also survive by continually adapting to fluctuations in nutrient and oxygen availability. Thus, targeting metabolic abnormalities in leukemia cells located in the bone marrow is a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, we investigated the metabolic role of bone marrow adipocytes in supporting the growth of leukemic blasts. Prevention of nutrient starvation-induced apoptosis of leukemic cells by bone marrow adipocytes, as well as the metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in this process, was investigated using various analytic techniques. In acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) cells, the prevention of spontaneous apoptosis by bone marrow adipocytes was associated with an increase in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) along with the upregulation of PPARγ, FABP4, CD36, and BCL2 genes. In AMoL cells, bone marrow adipocyte coculture increased adiponectin receptor gene expression and its downstream target stress response kinase AMPK, p38 MAPK with autophagy activation, and upregulated antiapoptotic chaperone HSPs. Inhibition of FAO disrupted metabolic homeostasis, increased reactive oxygen species production, and induced the integrated stress response mediator ATF4 and apoptosis in AMoL cells cocultured with bone marrow adipocytes. Our results suggest that bone marrow adipocytes support AMoL cell survival by regulating their metabolic energy balance and that the disruption of FAO in bone marrow adipocytes may be an alternative, novel therapeutic strategy for AMoL therapy. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1453-64. ©2017 AACR.

  12. Modulating the Genomic Programming of Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Anne; Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    transcriptional plasticity when exposed to physiological and metabolic stimuli. In our work, we have focused on understanding the processes responsible for modulating the genomic programming in response to different external signals. Thus, we have shown that browning of human adipocytes with rosiglitazone......, such as Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) that are essential for modulating the genomic program in white adipocytes to induce browning. Furthermore, we have shown that acute suppression of adipocyte genes by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), involves redistribution of cofactors to enhancers...

  13. Adipocyte biology in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T M; Franks, S

    2013-07-05

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is associated with an adverse metabolic profile including insulin resistance. There is a clear association between obesity, the development of PCOS and the severity of its phenotypic, biochemical and metabolic features. Evidence to support this link includes data from epidemiological, pathophysiological and genetic studies. Given the importance of obesity in the development and manifestation of PCOS, ongoing research into the many facets of adipocyte biology in women with the condition is important and should continue to be a priority. In this review article, we discuss the existing literature on fat distribution, adipokines, adipocyte hypertrophy and adipocyte steroid metabolism in women with PCOS.

  14. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Seok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, KTH-13 with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1, with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop.

  15. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  16. Downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by a water extract of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill fruit in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Park, Sang Rul; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Gi-Young

    2013-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.

  17. Inflammatory mediator release byBrugia malayi from macrophages of susceptible hostMastomys coucha andTHP-1 andRAW 264.7 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiv Kumar Verma; Vikas Kushwaha; Vijaya Dubey; Kirti Saxena; Aakanksha Sharma; Puvvada Kalpana Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate which life stage of the parasite has the ability to stimulate release of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators from macrophages.Methods: The human macrophage/monocyte cell lineTHP-1, the mouse macrophage cell lineRAW 264.7 and naive peritoneal macrophages(PM)from the rodent hostMastomys coucha (M. coucha)were incubated at37 ℃in 5% CO2atmosphere with extracts of microfilariae(Mf), third stage infective larvae(L3) and adult worms (Ad)ofBrugia malayi. After48 hr post exposure,IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and nitric oxide (NO) in cell-free supernatants were estimated.Results: Extracts of all the life stages of the parasite were capable of stimulating pro-(IL-1β, IL-6 andTNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10)cytokines in both the cell lines and peritoneal macrophages ofM. coucha. Mf was the strongest stimulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by L3 and Ad; however, Ad was a strong stimulator ofIL-10 release. Mf was found to have potential to modulateLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. Ad-inducedNO release was concentration dependent with maximum at 20 μg/mL in bothRAW andPMs.Conclusions:The results show that parasites at all life stages were capable of stimulating pro- (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory(IL-10) cytokines andNO release from macrophages of susceptible hostM. coucha, human and mouse macrophage cell lines.Mf can suppress theLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. The findings also show that the two cell lines may provide a convenientin vitro system for assaying parasite-induced inflammatory mediator release.

  18. Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram D Mul

    Full Text Available The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively. MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R, which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of inflammatory immune mediators of the intraocular fluid aspirated from the foldable capsular vitreous body filled-eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijuan Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the level of human inflammatory immune mediators in the intraocular fluid aspirated from foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB filled-eyes during FCVB removal surgery, 3 months after implantation. METHODS: 8 samples of intra-FCVB fluids (n = 8 were collected from 8 FCVB filled patients in our previous FCVB exploratory clinical trial. The intra-FCVB fluids were aspirated from the FCVB filled-eyes during the FCVB removal surgeries at the third month. For the control groups, the vitreous fluids were collected from patients with idiopathic macular hole (n = 9 or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 6 during pars plana vitrectomy. A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 9 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF in these samples. The VEGF level of some intra-FCVB fluids (n = 6 were re-tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: In the intra-FCVB fluids, 9 cytokines concentrations of most samples (n = 5 measured by Multiplex immunoassay showed low values, except for Patient 02, 06, and 09. The VEGF concentrations of some intra-FCVB fluids (n = 6 tested by ELISA were in accordance with Multiplex immunoassay results. For all eight patients (n = 8, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF were slightly higher as compared to the idiopathic macular hole control group. While, the concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were not statistically significant different compared with the idiopathic macular hole control samples. Most cytokines concentrations (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, VEGF were not statistically significant different compared to the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment control group except IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS: The FCVB had sufficient porosity to allow cytokines to pass through. This study first discovered that the FCVB possesses favorable permeability of proteins in the human eye.

  20. The inflammatory mediator leukotriene D{sub 4} induces subcellular β-catenin translocation and migration of colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Tavga [Division of Cell and Experimental Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Sand-Dejmek, Janna [Division of Cell and Experimental Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Bayer HealthCare, Pharmaceuticals Medical Affairs, Solna (Sweden); Sjölander, Anita, E-mail: anita.sjolander@med.lu.se [Division of Cell and Experimental Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    The abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway frequently occurs in colorectal cancer. The nuclear translocation of β-catenin activates the transcription of target genes that promote cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene D{sub 4} (LTD{sub 4}) exerts its effects through the CysLT{sub 1} receptor. We previously reported an upregulation of CysLT{sub 1}R in patients with colon cancer, suggesting the importance of leukotrienes in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of LTD{sub 4} on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its effects on proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. LTD{sub 4} stimulation led to an increase in β-catenin expression, β-catenin nuclear translocation and the subsequent transcription of MYC and CCND1. Furthermore, LTD{sub 4} significantly reduced the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin at the plasma membrane and increased the migration and proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The effects of LTD{sub 4} can be blocked by the inhibition of CysLT{sub 1}R. Furthermore, LTD{sub 4} induced the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK)-3β activity, indicating a crosstalk between the G-protein-coupled receptor CysLT{sub 1} and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In conclusion, LTD{sub 4}, which can be secreted from macrophages and leukocytes in the tumor microenvironment, induces β-catenin translocation and the activation of β-catenin target genes, resulting in the increased proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Leukotriene D{sub 4} (LTD{sub 4}) lowers membrane β-catenin but increases nuclear β-catenin levels in colon cancer cells. • In agreement, LTD{sub 4} triggers inactivation of GSK-3β, activation of TCF/LEF and increased expression of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. • LTD{sub 4} also caused a significant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin and an increased migration of colon cancer cells.

  1. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  2. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.

  3. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  4. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR’s Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vanella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape, isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration.

  5. Withaferin A induces apoptosis and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hea Jin; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Baile, Clifton A

    2008-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a highly oxygenated steroidal lactone that is found in the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (also called ashwagandha) has been reported to have anti-tumor, anti-angiogenesis, and pro-apoptotic activity. We investigated the effects of WA on viability, apoptosis and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pre- and post-confluent preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were treated with WA (1-25 microM) up to 24 hrs. Viability and apoptosis were measured by CellTiter-Blue Cell Viability Assay and single strand DNA ELISA Assay, respectively. WA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in all stages of cells. Induction of apoptosis by WA in mature adipocytes was mediated by increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and altered Bax and Bcl2 protein expression. The effect of WA on adipogenesis was examined by AdipoRed Assay after treating with WA (0.1-1 microM) during the differentiation period. WA decreased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. The effects on apoptosis and lipid accumulation were also confirmed with Hoechst staining and Oil Red O staining, respectively. These results show that WA acts on adipocytes to reduce cell viability and adipogenesis and also induce apoptosis.

  6. Gallic Acid, the Active Ingredient of Terminalia bellirica, Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Hiroko; Koike, Yuka; Ohta, Masatomi; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Tsubata, Masahito; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Akase, Tomoko; Goshima, Yoshio; Aburada, Masaki; Shimada, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Visceral obesity induces the onset of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue is considered as a potential pharmacological target for treating metabolic disorders. The fruit of Terminalia bellirica is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat patients with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We previously investigated the effects of a hot water extract of T. bellirica fruit (TB) on obesity and insulin resistance in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic mice. To determine the active ingredients of TB and their molecular mechanisms, we focused on adipocyte differentiation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which are widely used to study adipocyte physiology. We show here that TB enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes and that one of the active main components was identified as gallic acid. Gallic acid (10-30 µM) enhanced the expression and secretion of adiponectin via adipocyte differentiation and also that of fatty acid binding protein-4, which is the target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), although it does not alter the expression of the upstream genes PPARγ and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha. In the PPARγ ligand assay, the binding of gallic acid to PPARγ was undetectable. These findings indicate that gallic acid mediates the therapeutic effects of TB on metabolic disorders by regulating adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, TB shows promise as a candidate for preventing and treating patients with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Phospholipid oxidation generates potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that mimic structurally related pro-resolving eicosanoids by activating Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretscher, Peter; Egger, Julian; Shamshiev, Abdijapar; Trötzmüller, Martin; Köfeler, Harald; Carreira, Erick M; Kopf, Manfred; Freigang, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Exposure of biological membranes to reactive oxygen species creates a complex mixture of distinct oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) species, which contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. While the ability of OxPL to modulate biological processes is increasingly recognized, the nature of the biologically active OxPL species and the molecular mechanisms underlying their signaling remain largely unknown. We have employed a combination of mass spectrometry, synthetic chemistry, and immunobiology approaches to characterize the OxPL generated from the abundant phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) and investigated their bioactivities and signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Our study defines epoxycyclopentenones as potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that mimic the signaling of endogenous, pro-resolving prostanoids by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Using a library of OxPL variants, we identified a synthetic OxPL derivative, which alleviated endotoxin-induced lung injury and inhibited development of pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells. These findings provide a molecular basis for the negative regulation of inflammation by lipid peroxidation products and propose a novel class of highly bioactive compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  8. 2-Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators by Downregulating of MAPK/NF-κB Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Fen; Liao, Kang-Chun; Chen, Chung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory pharmacological effect of eight 2-phenylnaphthalenes (PNAP-1−PNAP-8) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 (a mouse cell line) was investigated. Among them, 6,7-dihydroxy-2-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)naphthalene (PNAP-6) and 2-(4′-aminophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxynaphthalene (PNAP-8) exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity in this study. PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 not only significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, but also inhibited the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS stimulated cells. Moreover, PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by decreasing the degradation of IκB and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit (p65). In addition, PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 also attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. These results suggest that PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 exert anti-inflammatory activities by down regulating NF-κB activation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. This is the first study demonstrating that PNAPs can inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages cells. PMID:28060845

  9. Acetylsalicylic Acid reduces the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases the formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhnke, Thomas; Gomolka, Beate; Bilal, Süleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Sun, Yanping; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2013-01-01

    The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  10. Endogenous oils derived from human adipocytes are potent adjuvants that promote IL-1α-dependent inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Graham A; Hearnden, Claire H; Oleszycka, Ewa; Lyons, Claire L; Coutts, Graham; O'Connell, Jean; Corrigan, Michelle A; Lynch, Lydia; Campbell, Matthew; Callanan, John J; Mok, Kenneth H; Geoghegan, Justin; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Allan, Stuart M; Roche, Helen M; O'Shea, Donal B; Lavelle, Ed C

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with neutrophil and M1 macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. Based on the ability of oil-based adjuvants to induce immune responses, we hypothesized that endogenous oils derived from necrotic adipocytes may function as an immunological "danger signal." Here we show that endogenous oils of human origin are potent adjuvants, enhancing antibody responses to a level comparable to Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The endogenous oils were capable of promoting interleukin (IL)-1α-dependent recruitment of neutrophils and M1-like macrophages, while simultaneously diminishing M2-like macrophages. We found that endogenous oils from subcutaneous and omental adipocytes, and from healthy and unhealthy obese individuals, promoted comparable inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also confirmed that white adipocytes in visceral fat of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals are significantly larger than those in metabolically healthy obese individuals. Since adipocyte size is positively correlated with adipocyte death, we propose that endogenous oils have a higher propensity to be released from hypertrophied visceral fat in MUO individuals and that this is the key factor in driving inflammation. In summary, this study shows that adipocytes contain a potent oil adjuvant which drives IL-1α-dependent proinflammatory responses in vivo.

  11. Mitochondrial Ca2+ and ROS take center stage to orchestrate TNF-α–mediated inflammatory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dada, Laura A.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2011-01-01

    Proinflammatory stimuli induce inflammation that may progress to sepsis or chronic inflammatory disease. The cytokine TNF-α is an important endotoxin-induced inflammatory glycoprotein produced predominantly by macrophages and lymphocytes. TNF-α plays a major role in initiating signaling pathways and pathophysiological responses after engaging TNF receptors. In this issue of JCI, Rowlands et al. demonstrate that in lung microvessels, soluble TNF-α (sTNF-α) promotes the shedding of the TNF-α re...

  12. Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

    2007-07-16

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

  13. γ-Oryzanol Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hwa Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and potentially the risk of diabetes, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One of the phytochemicals found in high concentration in brown rice is γ-oryzanol (Orz, a group of ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and triterpene alcohols. Here, we found that Orz stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increased the protein expression of adipogenic marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ and CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBPα. Moreover, Orz significantly increased the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 from the cytosol to the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism by which Orz stimulated cell differentiation, we examined its effects on cellular signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, a central mediator of cellular growth and proliferation. The Orz treatment increased mTORC1 kinase activity based on phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1. The effect of Orz on adipocyte differentiation was dependent on mTORC1 activity because rapamycin blocks cell differentiation in Orz-treated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Orz stimulates adipocyte differentiation, enhances glucose uptake, and may be associated with cellular signaling mediated by PPAR-γ and mTORC1.

  14. Mouse mannose-binding lectin-A and ficolin-A inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated pro-inflammatory responses on mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jie Ma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown how soluble pattern-recognition receptors inblood, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL and ficolins,modulate mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Weinvestigate how mouse MBL-A or ficolin-A regulate mouse bonemarrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs-derived inflammatoryresponse against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation.LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine productions onmBMMCs obtained from Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4-deficientmice, TLR2-defficient mice, and their wildtype, were specificallyattenuated by the addition of either mouse MBL-A orficolin-A in a dose-dependent manner. However, the inhibitoryeffects by mouse MBL-A or ficolin-A were restored by theaddition of mannose or N-acetylglucosamine, respectively.These results suggest that mouse MBL-A and ficolin-A bind toLPS via its carbohydrate-recognition domain and fibrinogen-likedomain, respectively, whereby cytokine production by LPSmediatedTLR4 in mBMMCs appears to be down-regulated,indicating that mouse MBL and ficolin may have an inhibitoryfunction toward mouse TLR4-mediated excessive inflammationon the mast cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7: 376-381

  15. Assessment of inflammatory mediator, intestinal flora and Fas/FasL expression in patients with acute pancreatitis after lactulose combined with somatostatin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Li Zheng; Jie Peng; Aihemaitibaikere

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of lactulose combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory mediator, intestinal flora and Fas/FasL expression in patients with acute pancreatitis.Methods:A total of 56 patients with acute pancreatitis treated in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2015 were randomly divided into group A and group B, group A received lactulose, somatostatin combined with conventional therapy and group B received somatostatin combined with conventional therapy. Three days after treatment, the levels of inflammatory mediators, sFas and sFasL in serum, the expression of Fas and FasL in peripheral blood as well as the copy number of intestinal flora in feces tissue were determined. Results:Three days after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, sFas and sFasL content in serum of group A were significantly lower than those of group B,FasandFasL mRNA content and protein content in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of group B, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and bacteroides content in feces tissue were significantly higher than those of group B, and Escherichia coli, enterococcus and proteus content in feces tissue were significantly lower than those of group B.Conclusions:Lactulose combined with somatostatin treatment of acute pancreatitis can improve the intestinal mucosal barrier function, correct intestinal flora disturbance, relieve inflammation and inhibit the immunosuppression mediated by Fas/FasL.

  16. Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nandini; Tripathi, Subhash K; Sahu, Debasis; Das, Hasi R; Das, Rakha H

    2010-03-01

    Whole plant methanolic extracts of 14 traditionally used medicinal herbs were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts of Grindelia robusta, Salix nigra, Arnica montana, and Quassia amara showed up to 4.5-fold inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the J774 murine macrophage cells challenged with LPS without cytotoxicity. These four selected extracts significantly reduced the protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as observed by Western blot analysis. Culture supernatants from cells treated with these extracts indicated 3-5-fold reduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). However, only G. robusta and Q. amara extracts significantly inhibited (by 50%) IL-1beta and IL-12 secretions. Furthermore, all these plant extracts were shown to prevent the LPS-mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). All the above observations indicate the anti-inflammatory potential of these plant extracts.

  17. Recent advances in the understanding of endometriosis: the role of inflammatory mediators in disease pathogenesis and treatment [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Nothnick

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on recent advancements in our understanding of the roles of inflammatory mediators in endometriosis pathophysiology and the potential for improved therapies based upon targeting these pathways. We review the association between endometriosis and inflammation and the initial promise of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies based upon experimental evidence, and how and why these studies have not translated to the clinic. We then discuss emerging data on the role of inter-relationship among macrophage migration inhibitory factor, prostaglandin E2, and estrogen receptor-beta, and the potential utility of targeting these factors in endometriosis treatment. In doing so, we highlight the strengths and discuss the current research on identification of novel, anti-inflammatory-based therapy and the necessity to expand experimental endpoints to include clinically relevant measures when assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies for endometriosis.

  18. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR attenuates the expression of LPS- and Aβ peptide-induced inflammatory mediators in astroglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Shailendra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology shows characteristic 'plaques' rich in amyloid beta (Aβ peptide deposits. Inflammatory process-related proteins such as pro-inflammatory cytokines have been detected in AD brain suggesting that an inflammatory immune reaction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Glial cells in culture respond to LPS and Aβ stimuli by upregulating the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and also the expression of proinflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2. We have earlier reported that LPS/Aβ stimulation-induced ceramide and ROS generation leads to iNOS expression and nitric oxide production in glial cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective function of AICAR (a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase in blocking the pro-oxidant/proinflammatory responses induced in primary glial cultures treated with LPS and Aβ peptide. Methods To test the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant functions of AICAR, we tested its inhibitory potential in blocking the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS, expression of COX-2, generation of ROS, and associated signaling following treatment of glial cells with LPS and Aβ peptide. We also investigated the neuroprotective effects of AICAR against the effects of cytokines and inflammatory mediators (released by the glia, in blocking neurite outgrowth inhibition, and in nerve growth factor-(NGF induced neurite extension by PC-12 cells. Results AICAR blocked LPS/Aβ-induced inflammatory processes by blocking the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, iNOS, COX-2 and MnSOD genes, and by inhibition of ROS generation and depletion of glutathione in astroglial cells. AICAR also inhibited down-stream signaling leading to the regulation of transcriptional factors such as NFκB and C/EBP which are critical for the expression of iNOS, COX-2, MnSOD and cytokines (TNF-α/IL-1β and IL-6. AICAR promoted NGF-induced neurite growth

  19. Polyenylpyrrole derivatives inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory mediator expression by reducing reactive oxygen species production and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Feng Hua

    Full Text Available Two polyenylpyrroles from a soil ascomycete Gymnoascus reessii were previously identified as hit compounds in screening for cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. These compounds and various analogs, which have been previously synthesized and tested for anti-lung cancer cell activity, were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. After preliminary screening for cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, the non-toxic compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1h, 1i, and 1n reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production, with respective ED50 values of 15 ± 2, 16 ± 2, and 17 ± 2 µM. They also reduced expression of inducible NO synthase and interleukin-6 (IL-6 without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Compound 1h also reduced secretion of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by LPS-activated J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, primary mice peritoneal macrophages, and JAWSII murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β secretion by LPS + adenosine triphosphate-activated J774A.1 and JAWSII cells. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of compound 1h were found to be a decrease in LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation and a decrease in ATP-induced ROS production and PKC-α phosphorylation. These results provide promising insights into the anti-inflammatory activity of these conjugated polyenes and a molecular rationale for future therapeutic intervention in inflammation-related diseases. They also show how compound 1h regulates inflammation and suggest it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents to ameliorate inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  1. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.White_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.White_adipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte White adipocytes SRX800009 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.White_adipocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.White_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.White_adipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte White adipocytes SRX800009 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.White_adipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.White_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.50.AllAg.White_adipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte White adipocytes SRX800009 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.50.AllAg.White_adipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.White_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.10.AllAg.White_adipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte White adipocytes SRX800009 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.10.AllAg.White_adipocytes.bed ...

  6. Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Juliane Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor on the expression of inflammatory molecules. METHOD: The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1β and TNFα were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity Is a Possible Mechanism by Which the Polyherbal Formulation Comprised of Nigella sativa (Seeds, Hemidesmus indicus (Root, and Smilax glabra (Rhizome Mediates Its Antihepatocarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna B. Galhena

    2012-01-01

    oral administration of the decoction. As with the positive control, indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w. the inhibitory effect was pronounced at 3rd and 4th h after carrageenan injection. A notable IKK α/β mediated hepatic NF-κB inactivation was associated with a significant hepatic TNFα downregulation among mice-bearing hepatocarcinogenic changes subjected to decoction treatment. Inhibition of NO production, leukocyte migration, and membrane stabilization are possible mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory effect is mediated by the decoction. Overall findings imply that anti-inflammatory activity could be one of the mechanisms by which the decoction mediates its antihepatocarcinogenic effects.

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates interleukin-6 production in bone marrow derived macrophages: implications for inflammatory mediated diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M Coudriet

    Full Text Available The generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β fuel the acute phase response (APR. To maintain body homeostasis, the increase of inflammatory proteins is resolved by acute phase proteins via presently unknown mechanisms. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is transcribed in response to IL-6. Since IL-6 production promotes the generation of HGF and induces the APR, we posited that accumulating HGF might be a likely candidate for quelling excess inflammation under non-pathological conditions. We sought to assess the role of HGF and how it influences the regulation of inflammation utilizing a well-defined model of inflammatory activation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM. BMM were isolated from C57BL6 mice and were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of HGF. When HGF was present, there was a decrease in production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, along with an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Altered cytokine production correlated with an increase in phosphorylated GSK3β, increased retention of the phosphorylated NFκB p65 subunit in the cytoplasm, and an enhanced interaction between CBP and phospho-CREB. These changes were a direct result of signaling through the HGF receptor, MET, as effects were reversed in the presence of a selective inhibitor of MET (SU11274 or when using BMM from macrophage-specific conditional MET knockout mice. Combined, these data provide compelling evidence that under normal circumstances, HGF acts to suppress the inflammatory response.

  9. Polyacetylenes from carrots (Daucus carota) improve glucose uptake in vitro in adipocytes and myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Christensen, Kathrine B; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Oksbjerg, Niels; Wolber, Gerhard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-07-01

    A dichloromethane (DCM) extract of carrot roots was found to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake (GU) in adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the DCM extract resulted in the isolation of the polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol. Both polyacetylenes were able to significantly stimulate basal and/or insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and porcine myotube cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Falcarindiol increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-mediated transactivation significantly at concentrations of 3, 10 and 30 μM, while PPARγ-mediated transactivation by falcarinol was only observed at 10 μM. Docking studies accordingly indicated that falcarindiol binds to the ligand binding domain of PPARγ with higher affinity than falcarinol and that both polyacetylenes exhibit characteristics of PPARγ partial agonists. Falcarinol was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation as evident by gene expression studies and Oil Red O staining, whereas falcarindiol did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, which indicates that these polyacetylenes have distinct modes of action. The results of the present study suggest that falcarinol and falcarindiol may represent scaffolds for novel partial PPARγ agonists with possible antidiabetic properties.

  10. Differential effects of platelets and platelet inhibition by ticagrelor on TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunjungputri, R.N.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Tacke, S.; Berg, T.N.A. van den; Fijnheer, R.; Gomes, M.E.; Dinarello, C.A.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Gasem, M.H.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Groot, P.G. de; Mast, Q. de

    2015-01-01

    Platelets and platelet-monocyte interaction play an important role in inflammation. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of platelet inhibition have been reported in animal models. This study aimed to investigate the effect of platelets and platelet inhibition by the new P2Y12 receptor antagonist

  11. Inhibitory effects of Blueberry Extract on the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in LPS-activated BV2 Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained microglial activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been extensively investigated in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and has been postulated to lead to neuronal cell loss in these conditions. Recent studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs may suppress microglial ac...

  12. Differential roles of CIDEA and CIDEC in insulin-induced anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Minoru; Nagasawa, Michiaki; Hara, Tomoko; Ide, Tomohiro; Murakami, Koji

    2010-07-01

    Both insulin and the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector (CIDE) family play important roles in apoptosis and lipid droplet formation. However, regulation of the CIDE family by insulin and the contribution of the CIDE family to insulin actions remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether insulin regulates expression of the CIDE family and which subtypes contribute to insulin-induced anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation in human adipocytes. Insulin decreased CIDEA and increased CIDEC but not CIDEB mRNA expression. Starvation-induced apoptosis in adipocytes was significantly inhibited when insulin decreased the CIDEA mRNA level. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CIDEA inhibited starvation-induced apoptosis similarly to insulin and restored insulin deprivation-reduced adipocyte number, whereas CIDEC depletion did not. Lipid droplet size of adipocytes was increased when insulin increased the CIDEC mRNA level. In contrast, insulin-induced enlargement of lipid droplets was markedly abrogated by depletion of CIDEC but not CIDEA. Furthermore, depletion of CIDEC, but not CIDEA, significantly increased glycerol release from adipocytes. These results suggest that CIDEA and CIDEC are novel genes regulated by insulin in human adipocytes and may play key roles in the effects of insulin, such as anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation.

  13. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2013-01-01

    Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10-100  μ g/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPK α siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPAR γ , C/EBP α , and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  14. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide induces cytokine expression, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Katharina; Grisouard, Jean; Sauter, Nadine S; Herzog-Radimerski, Tanja; Dembinski, Kaethi; Peterli, Ralph; Frey, Daniel M; Zulewski, Henryk; Keller, Ulrich; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is linked to a chronic state of systemic and adipose tissue-derived inflammation. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone also acting on adipocytes. We investigated whether GIP affects inflammation, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in human adipocytes. Human subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, differentiated in vitro, were treated with human GIP to analyze mRNA expression and protein secretion of cytokines, glycerol, and free fatty acid release and insulin-induced glucose uptake. GIP induced mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-1β, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra, whereas TNFα, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 remained unchanged. Cytokine induction involved PKA and the NF-κB pathway as well as an autocrine IL-1 effect. Furthermore, GIP potentiated IL-6 and IL-1Ra secretion in the presence of LPS, IL-1β, and TNFα. GIP induced lipolysis via activation of hormone-sensitive lipase and was linked to NF-κB activation. Finally, chronic GIP treatment impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake possibly due to the observed impaired translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4. In conclusion, GIP induces an inflammatory and prolipolytic response via the PKA -NF-κB-IL-1 pathway and impairs insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in human adipocytes.

  15. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  16. Dual and Opposing Roles of MicroRNA-124 in Epilepsy Are Mediated through Inflammatory and NRSF-Dependent Gene Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Brennan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insult-provoked transformation of neuronal networks into epileptic ones involves multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies have identified both dysregulated inflammatory pathways and NRSF-mediated repression of crucial neuronal genes as contributors to epileptogenesis. However, it remains unclear how epilepsy-provoking insults (e.g., prolonged seizures induce both inflammation and NRSF and whether common mechanisms exist. We examined miR-124 as a candidate dual regulator of NRSF and inflammatory pathways. Status epilepticus (SE led to reduced miR-124 expression via SIRT1—and, in turn, miR-124 repression—via C/EBPα upregulated NRSF. We tested whether augmenting miR-124 after SE would abort epileptogenesis by preventing inflammation and NRSF upregulation. SE-sustaining animals developed epilepsy, but supplementing miR-124 did not modify epileptogenesis. Examining this result further, we found that synthetic miR-124 not only effectively blocked NRSF upregulation and rescued NRSF target genes, but also augmented microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines. Thus, miR-124 attenuates epileptogenesis via NRSF while promoting epilepsy via inflammation.

  17. Apigenin protects blood-brain barrier and ameliorates early brain injury by inhibiting TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Su, Jingyuan; Guo, Bingyu; Wang, Kaiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-09-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation has been considered as the major contributor to brain damage after SAH. SAH induces a systemic increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates the influx of inflammatory cells. It has been reported that the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway plays a vital role in the central nervous system diseases. Apigenin, a common plant flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation effect. In this study, we focused on the effects of apigenin on EBI following SAH and its anti-inflammation mechanism. Our results showed that apigenin (20mg/kg) administration significantly attenuated EBI (including brain edema, BBB disruption, neurological deficient, severity of SAH, and cell apoptosis) after SAH in rats by suppressing the expression of TLR4, NF-κB and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortex and by up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins of BBB. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that TLR4 was activated following SAH in neurons, microglia cells, and endothelial cells but not in astrocytes. Apigenin could suppress the activation of TLR4 induced by SAH and inhibit apoptosis of cells in the cortex. These results suggested that apigenin could attenuate EBI after SAH in rats by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammation and protecting against BBB disruption.

  18. The Regulatory Role of Rolipram on Inflammatory Mediators and Cholinergic/Adrenergic Stimulation-Induced Signals in Isolated Primary Mouse Submandibular Gland Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Un Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS induces inflammatory signals in salivary glands. We investigated the regulatory role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on inflammatory mediators and cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar and ductal cells. Submandibular gland (SMG expressed PDE4A through 4D mRNA and PDE4 was localized in the luminal membrane of SMG. LPS induced Ca2+ signaling and ROS production in SMG. Treatment with rolipram blocked LPS-induced Ca2+ increase and ROS production. The application of histamine evoked Ca2+ signals and ROS production, which were attenuated by rolipram in SMG cells. Moreover, LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and cleaved caspase-1 were inhibited by rolipram. The inhibitory role of rolipram in ROS-induced Ca2+ signaling was mainly observed in acinar cells and not in ductal cells. Rolipram also protected SMG acinar but not ductal cells from LPS-induced cell membrane damage. In the case of cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation, carbachol/isoproterenol-induced Ca2+ signals were upregulated by the treatment of rolipram in SMG. In the case of cAMP-dependent ductal bicarbonate secretion by rolipram, no effect was observed on the modulation of ductal chloride/bicarbonate exchange activity. Rolipram could suppress the inflammatory signals and could be a potential therapeutic strategy against LPS-induced inflammation to protect the salivary gland cells.

  19. The Regulatory Role of Rolipram on Inflammatory Mediators and Cholinergic/Adrenergic Stimulation-Induced Signals in Isolated Primary Mouse Submandibular Gland Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Un; Shin, Dong Min; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces inflammatory signals in salivary glands. We investigated the regulatory role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on inflammatory mediators and cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar and ductal cells. Submandibular gland (SMG) expressed PDE4A through 4D mRNA and PDE4 was localized in the luminal membrane of SMG. LPS induced Ca2+ signaling and ROS production in SMG. Treatment with rolipram blocked LPS-induced Ca2+ increase and ROS production. The application of histamine evoked Ca2+ signals and ROS production, which were attenuated by rolipram in SMG cells. Moreover, LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and cleaved caspase-1 were inhibited by rolipram. The inhibitory role of rolipram in ROS-induced Ca2+ signaling was mainly observed in acinar cells and not in ductal cells. Rolipram also protected SMG acinar but not ductal cells from LPS-induced cell membrane damage. In the case of cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation, carbachol/isoproterenol-induced Ca2+ signals were upregulated by the treatment of rolipram in SMG. In the case of cAMP-dependent ductal bicarbonate secretion by rolipram, no effect was observed on the modulation of ductal chloride/bicarbonate exchange activity. Rolipram could suppress the inflammatory signals and could be a potential therapeutic strategy against LPS-induced inflammation to protect the salivary gland cells. PMID:27143817

  20. Erucin Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin: Possible Mediation through the Inhibition of NFκB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Won Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling.

  1. Erucin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin: possible mediation through the inhibition of NFκB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2013-10-15

    Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L) inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles) treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling.

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptors Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture on Synovitis in Mice with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist, and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n=10. After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA.

  3. Inhibition of TNF-{alpha}-mediated inflammatory responses by a benzodioxolylacetylamino-linked benzothiazole analog in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Rae [Department of Biochemistry, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guo Hua [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, 52 Hyochangwon-gil, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Myeong [Division of Biotechnology, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Biochemistry, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Ha [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, 52 Hyochangwon-gil, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Raok, E-mail: rjeon@sm.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, 52 Hyochangwon-gil, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Hyun, E-mail: bhpark@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We synthesized SPA0537, a benzothiazole analog. {yields} SPA0537 is a potent NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. {yields} SPA0537 suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. {yields} SPA0537 is effective at suppressing osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: The pathologic processes of rheumatoid arthritis are mediated by a number of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases, the expressions of which are controlled by NF-{kappa}B. This study was performed to explore the effects of a benzothiazole analog, SPA0537, on the control of the NF-{kappa}B activation pathway. We also investigated whether SPA0537 had any anti-inflammatory effects in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). SPA0537 inhibited the nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B subunits, which correlated with the inhibitory effects on IKK phosphorylation and I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated rheumatoid FLS. These events further suppressed chemokine production, matrix metalloproteinase secretion, and TNF-{alpha}-induced cell proliferation. In addition, SPA0537 inhibited the osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and receptor activator of the NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in bone marrow macrophages. These findings suggest that SPA0537 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatoid FLS through the inhibition of the NF-{kappa}B pathway. Therefore, it may have therapeutic value for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman's disease, an immune-mediated