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Sample records for adipocyte extracellular matrix

  1. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    . Moreover, ADAM12-expressing cells were more prone to apoptosis, which could be prevented by treating the cells with beta1-activating antibodies. A reduced and re-organized fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix accompanied these changes. In addition, beta1 integrin was more readily extracted with Triton X......-100 from cells overexpressing ADAM12 than from control cells. Collectively, these results show that surface expression of ADAM12 impairs the function of beta1 integrins and, consequently, alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. These events may be necessary...

  2. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human adipocyte extracellular vesicles in reciprocal signaling between adipocytes and macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariëtte E G; Visseren, Frank L J; van Balkom, Bas W M; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; van Herwaarden, Joost A; de Jager, Wilco; Schipper, Henk S; Brenkman, Arjan B; Verhaar, Marianne C; Wauben, Marca H M; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or adipose tissue (AT)-explants play a role in the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, a key mechanism in AT inflammation, leading to metabolic complications like insulin resistance (IR) were determined.

  4. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracellular Vesicles from Hypoxic Adipocytes and Obese Subjects Reduce Insulin‐Stimulated Glucose Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczko, Justyna; Ortega, Francisco J.; Falcon‐Perez, Juan Manuel; Wabitsch, Martin; Fernandez‐Real, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Scope We investigate the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. Methods and results EVs are isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen), or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15% v/v). EVs are isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes are incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin‐stimulated glucose transport are measured. EVs released from hypoxic adipocytes impair insulin‐stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake and reduce insulin mediated phosphorylation of AKT. Insulin‐mediated phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is not affected. EVs from individuals with obesity decrease insulin stimulated 2‐deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes (p = 0.0159). Conclusion EVs released by stressed adipocytes impair insulin action in neighboring adipocytes. PMID:29292863

  7. Glomerular extracellular matrix components and integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, L. M.; de Melker, A. A.; Kramer, D.; Kuikman, I.; Chand, A.; Claessen, N.; Weening, J. J.; Sonnenberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    It has become apparent that extracellular matrix components and their cellular receptors, the integrins, are important regulators of glomerular development and function. In this rapidly evolving field we studied the production of extracellular matrix components and integrins by rat glomerular

  8. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization...

  9. Characterisation of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicle subtypes identifies distinct protein and lipid signatures for large and small extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcin, Maëva; Fleury, Audrey; Taillebois, Emiliane; Hilairet, Grégory; Krupova, Zuzana; Henry, Céline; Truchet, Sandrine; Trötzmüller, Martin; Köfeler, Harald; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Hue, Olivier; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martin, Patrice; Le Lay, Soazig

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells. Adipocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation of conditioned media collected from 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured for 24 h in serum-free conditions. Based on morphological and biochemical properties, as well as quantification of secreted EVs, we distinguished two subpopulations of adipocyte-derived EVs, namely small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and large extracellular vesicles (lEVs). Proteomic analyses revealed that lEVs and sEVs exhibit specific protein signatures, allowing us not only to define novel markers of each population, but also to predict their biological functions. Despite similar phospholipid patterns, the comparative lipidomic analysis performed on these EV subclasses revealed a specific cholesterol enrichment of the sEV population, whereas lEVs were characterised by high amounts of externalised phosphatidylserine. Enhanced secretion of lEVs and sEVs is achievable following exposure to different biological stimuli related to the chronic low-grade inflammation state associated with obesity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of primary murine adipocytes to secrete sEVs and lEVs, which display physical and biological characteristics similar to those described for 3T3-L1. Our study provides additional information and elements to define EV subtypes based on the characterisation of adipocyte-derived EV populations. It also underscores the need to distinguish EV subpopulations, through a combination of multiple

  10. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    of the MPO-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with extracellular matrix from vascular smooth muscle cells and healthy pig arteries has been examined. HOCl is rapidly consumed by such matrix samples, with the formation of matrix-derived chloramines or chloramides. The yield of these intermediates....../chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have...

  11. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

  12. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  13. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  14. Extracellular matrix, cell skeletons, and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, E D

    1989-09-01

    During embryonic development, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes the production of differentiated products by epithelial cells and the migration of mesenchymal cells, and probably also plays a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Here we examine the role of the cell skeleton (actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments) in mediating matrix effects on mesenchymal cell morphology, migration, and formation. The interaction of both epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells with ECM seems to involve the actin cortex, which is best developed in the base of the epithelial cell, where it attaches to underlying matrix via membrane-intercalated receptors. To interact with the matrix, the fibroblast has appropriate ECM receptors and an actin cortex around the whole cell. The actin cortex is absolutely required for assumption of bipolar shape, elongation, and movement through the matrix. Since the cortex seems to be anchored to the matrix, it is unlikely that it moves during cell migration. A new hypothesis states that the microtubule- and intermediate filament-rich endoplasm, containing the nucleus, moves past the actin cortex-receptor-matrix complex into the newly synthesized front end of the mesenchymal cell to effect forward movement. When epithelial cells transform into mesenchyme in the embryo, or when they are induced to do this in vitro, they switch from the keratin intermediate filament profile to one rich in vimentin, and the effect of cell matrix interaction on cell shape is profoundly altered. Vimentin-actin interactions with ECM may be a major factor in the ability of a cell to become mesenchymal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    that extracellular DNA is an important component of the extracellular matrix of microbial biofilms. The present chapter is focussed on extracellular DNA as matrix component in biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example from the Gram-negative bacteria, and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as examples...

  16. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  17. Extracellular matrix alterations in the Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Marcelo Silva; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachel; Coelho, Natália Lima; Mendes, Aline; Leonel, Monica Luzia Pereira; Mader, Ana Maria; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Glina, Sidney; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2017-07-01

    Peyronie's disease is characterized by fibrous plaque formation of the tunica albuginea, causing penile deformity and fertility problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the extracellular matrix in Peyronie's disease. The study used tissues collected by surgical procedure from individuals that presented a well-established disease, while control samples were obtained by biopsies of fresh cadavers. Immunohistochemistry analysis followed by digital quantification was performed to evaluate TGF-β, heparanases and metalloproteinases (MMPs). The profile of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, while hyaluronic acid quantification was obtained by an ELISA-like assay. The expression of mRNA was investigated for syndecan-1 proteoglycan (Syn-1), interleukine-6 (IL-6), hyaluronic acid synthases, and hyaluronidases. Pathologic features showed decreased apoptosis and blood vessel number in Peyronie's tissues. TGF-β and IL-6 were significantly enhanced in Peyronie's disease. There was an increased expression of heparanases, though no alteration was observed for MMPs. Hyaluronic acid as well as hyaluronic acid synthases, hyaluronidases, and dermatan sulfate were not changed, while the level of chondroitin sulfate was significantly ( P  = 0.008, Mann-Whitney test) increased in Peyronie's samples. Heparanases and sulfated glycosaminoglycans seem to be involved in extracellular matrix alterations in Peyronie's disease.

  18. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  19. Tumorigenic Potential of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stanley; Hymowitz, Michelle; Rollo, Ellen E.; Mann, Richard; Conner, Cathleen E.; Cao, Jian; Foda, Hussein D.; Tompkins, David C.; Toole, Bryan P.

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a glycoprotein present on the cancer cell plasma membrane, enhances fibroblast synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The demonstration that peritumoral fibroblasts synthesize most of the MMPs in human tumors rather than the cancer cells themselves has ignited interest in the role of EMMPRIN in tumor dissemination. In this report we have demonstrated a role for EMMPRIN in cancer progression. Human MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cells, which are tumorigenic but slow growing in vivo, were transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA and injected orthotopically into mammary tissue of female NCr nu/nu mice. Green fluorescent protein was used to visualize metastases. In three experiments, breast cancer cell clones transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA were considerably more tumorigenic and invasive than plasmid-transfected cancer cells. Increased gelatinase A and gelatinase B expression (demonstrated by in situ hybridization and gelatin substrate zymography) was demonstrated in EMMPRIN-enhanced tumors. In contrast to de novo breast cancers in humans, human tumors transplanted into mice elicited minimal stromal or inflammatory cell reactions. Based on these experimental studies and our previous demonstration that EMMPRIN is prominently displayed in human cancer tissue, we propose that EMMPRIN plays an important role in cancer progression by increasing synthesis of MMPs. PMID:11395366

  20. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: YongsuntR@Corning.com [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  1. DMPD: Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18243041 Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. Adair-Kirk...l) Show Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. PubmedID 18243041 Title Fragments of extracellular matrix

  2. Extracellular matrix as a driver for lung regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular matrix has manifold roles in tissue mechanics, guidance of cellular behavior, developmental biology, and regenerative medicine. Over the past several decades, various pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that many connective tissues may be replaced and/or regenerated using suitable extracellular matrix scaffolds. More recently, decellularization of lung tissue has shown that gentle removal of cells can leave behind a "footprint" within the matrix that may guide cellular adhesion, differentiation and homing following cellular repopulation. Fundamental issues like understanding matrix composition and micro-mechanics remain difficult to tackle, largely because of a lack of available assays and tools for systematically characterizing intact matrix from tissues and organs. This review will critically examine the role of engineered and native extracellular matrix in tissue and lung regeneration, and provide insights into directions for future research and translation.

  3. Extracellular matrix scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, K.E.M.; van Weeren, P.R.; Badylak, S.F.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Malda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine approaches based on decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds and tissues are rapidly expanding. The rationale for using ECM as a natural biomaterial is the presence of bioactive molecules that drive tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Moreover, appropriately

  4. Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sheng; Ding, Fei; Gong, Leiiei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is produced by the resident cells in tissues and organs, and secreted into the surrounding medium to provide biophysical and biochemical support to the surrounding cells due to its content of diverse bioactive molecules. Recently, the extracellular matrix has been used as a promising approach for tissue engineering. Emerging studies demonstrate that extracellular matrix scaffolds are able to create a favorable regenerative microenvironment, promote tissue-specific remodeling, and act as an inductive template for the repair and functional reconstruction of skin, bone, nerve, heart, lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, and other organs. In the current review, we will provide a critical overview of the structure and function of various types of extracellular matrix, the construction of three-dimensional extracellular matrix scaffolds, and their tissue engineering applications, with a focus on translation of these novel tissue engineered products to the clinic. We will also present an outlook on future perspectives of the extracellular matrix in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Targeting extracellular matrix remodeling in disease: Could resveratrol be a potential candidate?

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Renu; Agarwal, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the individual or collective cellular behavior is increasingly being recognized. Hence, newer therapeutic approaches targeting extracellular matrix remodeling are widely investigated. We reviewed the current literature showing the effects of resveratrol on various aspects of extracellular matrix remode...

  6. Extracellular matrix remodeling in experimental intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cintia Pereira; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Fregni, Maria Vitória Ventura Dias; Gotfryd, Alberto; Made, Ana Maria; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in intervertebral disc degeneration through the experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration. The model of disc degeneration induction, using needle 20G and 360° rotation, was applied for 30 seconds between the 6(th)/7(th), and 8(th)/9(th) coccygeal vertebrae of Wistar rats. The intermediary level, between the 7(th) and 8(th) vertebrae, was taken as control, not being subjected puncture. The distribution of the extracellular matrix components involved in the remodeling and inflammation process, such as proteoglycans (aggrecan, decorin, biglycan), growth factors (TGFβ), heparanase isoforms (HPSE1, HPSE2), metaloprotesasis-9 (MMP9) and interleukins (IL-6, IL-10) was analyzed during the post-injury period (15 to 30 days) and in the control group (discs collected immediately after the puncture, day zero). On the 15(th) day, acute phase of the disease, a reduced expression of extracellular matrix components had been observed, whilst there were no differences in the interleukins expression. At 30 days, the molecules followed a very similar pattern of expression in the control group (not affected by disc degeneration). The results show that during the acute phase significant alterations in the extracellular matrix components occur and in the late phase intervertebral disc returns to a profile similar to noninvolved tissue, probably due to extensive remodeling process of the extracellular matrix that is capable of regenerating the damaged tissue. : The experimental model used demonstrated the occurrence of significant changes in the extracellular matrix during the period analyzed after induction of intervertebral disc degeneration. Laboratory investigation.

  7. Vitamin A Deficiency and Alterations in the Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Barber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly by regulating the expression of a variety of proteins through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Extracellular matrix proteins are among those whose synthesis is known to be modulated by vitamin A. Retinoic acid, the main biologically active form of vitamin A, influences the expression of collagens, laminins, entactin, fibronectin, elastin and proteoglycans, which are the major components of the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the structure and macromolecular composition of this extracellular compartment is profoundly altered as a result of vitamin A deficiency. As cell behavior, differentiation and apoptosis, and tissue mechanics are influenced by the extracellular matrix, its modifications potentially compromise organ function and may lead to disease. This review focuses on the effects of lack of vitamin A in the extracellular matrix of several organs and discusses possible molecular mechanisms and pathologic implications.

  8. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

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    Marlise eKlein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS, eDNA and lipoteichoic acid (LTA. EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases.

  9. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Qureshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  10. Think About the Environment: Cellular Reprogramming by the Extracellular Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huels, David J.; Medema, Jan Paul

    2018-01-01

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Yui et al. (2018) show how tissue regeneration is driven by changes in the micro-environment. During intestinal regeneration, the epithelium is reprogrammed into a fetal state by an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), which is dependent on YAP/TAZ activation

  11. Extracellular matrix proteins: A positive feedback loop in lung fibrosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, M.E.; Boeijen, F.R.; Emson, C.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Smit, T.H.; Stoop, R.; Everts, V.

    2014-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. This not only affects tissue architecture and function, but it also influences fibroblast behavior and thus disease progression. Here we describe the expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C during the

  12. Proteomics analysis of the zebrafish skeletal extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Maurijn Y; Huitema, Leonie F A; Boeren, Sjef; Kranenbarg, Sander; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L; de Vries, Sacco C

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone

  13. Proteomics Analysis of the Zebrafish Skeletal Extracellular Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, M.Y.; Huitema, L.F.A.; Boeren, S.; Kranenbarg, S.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Vries, de S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone

  14. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the orthodontic force applied to teeth generates a series of events that remodel the periodontal ligament (PDL). Extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are described as molecular regulators of these events. However, the exact contribution of these proteins in human PDL modeling by orthodontic force ...

  15. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159...... males) were on an 8-week low-calorie diet with a 6-month follow-up. Body weight was measured before and after the diet, and after follow-up. Weight maintenance scores (WMS, regained weight as percentage of lost weight) were calculated based on the weight data. Genotype data were retrieved for 2903 SNPs...

  16. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  17. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  18. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably....... The loss of matrix formation was not caused by a failure to synthesize or externalize ECM components as determined by metabolic labeling or due to differences in surface expression of alpha5 or beta1 integrin. The matrix assembly defect was at the cell surface, since S2deltaS cells also lost the ability...... to rearrange laminin or fibronectin substrates into fibrils and to bind exogenous fibronectin. Transfection of activated alphaIIbalphaLdeltabeta3 integrin into alpha(5)-deficient CHO B2 cells resulted in reestablishment of the previously lost fibronectin matrix. However, cotransfection of this cell line with S...

  19. The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Wang, Steven X.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ansari, Hamayail; Nett, Jeniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm. NET inhibition depended on an intact extracellular biofilm matrix as physical or genetic disruption of this component resulted in NET release. Biofilm inhibition of NETosis could not be overcome by protein kinase C activation via phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and was associated with suppression of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The degree of impaired NET release correlated with resistance to neutrophil attack. The clinical relevance of the role for extracellular matrix in diminishing NET production was corroborated in vivo using a rat catheter model. The C. albicans pmr1Δ/Δ, defective in production of matrix mannan, appeared to elicit a greater abundance of NETs by scanning electron microscopy imaging, which correlated with a decreased fungal burden. Together, these findings show that C. albicans biofilms impair neutrophil response through an inhibitory pathway induced by the extracellular matrix. PMID:27622514

  20. Extracellular matrix in canine mammary tumors with special focus on versican, a versatile extracellular proteoglycan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdélyi, Ildikó

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) research has become fundamental to understand cancer. This thesis focuses on the exploration of ECM composition and organization in canine mammary tumors, with a special interest in the large chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG), versican. Chapter 1 gives an

  1. Proteomics analysis of the zebrafish skeletal extracellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurijn Y Kessels

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the extracellular protein composition of the zebrafish skeleton using a mass spectrometry-based approach, resulting in the identification of 262 extracellular proteins, including most of the bone and cartilage specific proteins previously reported in mammalian species. By comparing these extracellular proteins at larval, juvenile, and adult developmental stages, 123 proteins were found that differed significantly in abundance during development. Proteins with a reported function in bone formation increased in abundance during zebrafish development, while analysis of the cartilage matrix revealed major compositional changes during development. The protein list includes ligands and inhibitors of various signaling pathways implicated in skeletogenesis such as the Int/Wingless as well as the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways. This first proteomic analysis of zebrafish skeletal development reveals that the zebrafish skeleton is comparable with the skeleton of other vertebrate species including mammals. In addition, our study reveals 6 novel proteins that have never been related to vertebrate skeletogenesis and shows a surprisingly large number of differences in the cartilage and bone proteome between the head, axis and caudal fin regions. Our study provides the first systematic assessment of bone and cartilage protein composition in an entire vertebrate at different stages of development.

  2. The extracellular matrix and altered diffusion in focal cortical dysplasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Aleš; Vargová, Lýdia; Cicanič, Michal; Zámečník, J.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S106-S106 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA309/09/1597 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : focal cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  3. Targeting the extracellular matrix to disrupt cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Freja Albjerg Venning; Lena eWullkopf; Janine T Erler

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multi-step process, with each step involving intricate cross-talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly de-regulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic ca...

  4. Extracellular vesicles are integral and functional components of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilla, Kirsi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Arasu, Uma Thanigai; Härkönen, Kai; Matilainen, Johanna; Nieminen, Petteri

    2017-10-21

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small plasma membrane-derived particles released into the extracellular space by virtually all cell types. Recently, EV have received increased interest because of their capability to carry nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and signaling molecules and to transfer their cargo into the target cells. Less attention has been paid to their role in modifying the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), either directly or indirectly via regulating the ability of target cells to synthesize or degrade matrix molecules. Based on recent results, EV can be considered one of the structural and functional components of the ECM that participate in matrix organization, regulation of cells within it, and in determining the physical properties of soft connective tissues, bone, cartilage and dentin. This review addresses the relevance of EV as specific modulators of the ECM, such as during the assembly and disassembly of the molecular network, signaling through the ECM and formation of niches suitable for tissue regeneration, inflammation and tumor progression. Finally, we assess the potential of these aspects of EV biology to translational medicine. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  6. Extracellular matrix proteins: a positive feedback loop in lung fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauboer, Marjolein E; Boeijen, Fee R; Emson, Claire L; Turner, Scott M; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Smit, Theo H; Stoop, Reinout; Everts, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Lung fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. This not only affects tissue architecture and function, but it also influences fibroblast behavior and thus disease progression. Here we describe the expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C during the development of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. We further report in vitro experiments clarifying both the effect of myofibroblast differentiation on this expression and the effect of extracellular elastin on myofibroblast differentiation. Lung fibrosis was induced in female C57Bl/6 mice by bleomycin instillation. Animals were sacrificed at zero to five weeks after fibrosis induction. Collagen synthesized during the week prior to sacrifice was labeled with deuterium. After sacrifice, lung tissue was collected for determination of new collagen formation, microarray analysis, and histology. Human lung fibroblasts were grown on tissue culture plastic or BioFlex culture plates coated with type I collagen or elastin, and stimulated to undergo myofibroblast differentiation by 0-10 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF)β1. mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. New collagen formation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis was highly correlated to gene expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C. At the protein level, elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C were highly expressed in fibrotic areas as seen in histological sections of the lung. Type V collagen and tenascin C were transiently increased. Human lung fibroblasts stimulated with TGFβ1 strongly increased gene expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C. The extracellular presence of elastin increased gene expression of the myofibroblastic markers α smooth muscle actin and type I collagen. The extracellular matrix composition changes dramatically during the development of lung fibrosis. The increased levels of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C are probably the result of increased

  7. Glioma infiltration and extracellular matrix: key players and modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; Mentlein, Rolf

    2018-02-21

    An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process. We explore aspects of ECM interaction with glioma cells, reviewing the main glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. We discuss the roles of ECM-binding proteins, including CD44, RHAMM, integrins and axonal guidance molecules, and highlight the role of proteases and glycosidases in glioma infiltration; in binding and release chemokines, cytokines and growth factors; and in generating new bioactive ECM fragments. We also consider the roles of cytoskeletal signaling, angiogenesis, miRNAs and the glial-to-mesenchymal transition linked to glioma invasion. We closely discuss therapeutic approaches based on the modulation of the extracellular matrix, targeting the control of glioma infiltration, its relative failure in clinical trials, and potential means to overcome this difficulty. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antibacterial activity of dentine and pulp extracellular matrix extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) preparations from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM) possess antimicrobial activity. Dentine and pulp ECM preparations were isolated with 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 7.2 and sequential use of 0.5mol L(-1) NaCl, pH 11.7 and 0.1mol L(-1) tartaric acid, pH 2.0, respectively, with protease inhibitor inclusion throughout. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Enterococcus faecalis was assessed using turbidity as a measure of bacteria growth. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on primary pulp cells was also determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Statistical analysis of data was performed using paired student's t-tests. Extracellular matrix extracts from the pulp and dentine showed antibacterial activity against three types of anaerobic bacteria associated with dental disease (Ppulpal cells at the concentrations used for antibacterial activity. The bacteriostatic antibacterial activity of pECM and dECM indicates that the release of these matrix molecules from pulp and dentine may contribute to defence responses during dental disease, treatment and repair. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  9. Fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix in right ventricular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Mechanosensitive transduction of adrenergic signalling and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade trigger the activation of right ventricular fibroblasts. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines may contribute to expansion and activation of macrophages that may serve as a source of fibrogenic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Endothelin-1, TGF-βs, and matricellular proteins co-operate to activate cardiac myofibroblasts, and promote synthesis of matrix proteins. In comparison with the left ventricle, the RV tolerates well volume overload and ischemia; whether the right ventricular interstitial cells and matrix are implicated in these favourable responses remains unknown. Expansion of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix protein deposition are prominent features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of arrhythmic events. Prevailing conceptual paradigms on right ventricular remodelling are based on extrapolation of findings in models of left ventricular injury. Considering the unique embryologic, morphological, and physiologic properties of the RV and the clinical significance of right ventricular failure, there is a need further to dissect RV-specific mechanisms of fibrosis and interstitial remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  10. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas...... in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin...

  11. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  12. Inflammation-Generated Extracellular Matrix Fragments Drive Lung Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Bekaert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms explaining the propensity of a primary tumor to metastasize to a specific site still need to be unveiled, and clinical studies support a link between chronic inflammation and cancer dissemination to specific tissues. Using different mouse models, we demonstrate the role of inflammation-generated extracellular matrix fragments ac-PGP ( N -acetyl-proline-glycine-proline on tumor cells dissemination to lung parenchyma. In mice exposed to cigarette smoke or lipopolysaccharide, lung neutrophilic inflammation produces increased levels of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9 that contributes to collagen breakdown and allows the release of ac-PGP tripeptides. By silencing CXCR2 gene expression in tumor cells, we show that these generated ac-PGP tripeptides exert a chemotactic activity on tumor cells in vivo by binding CXCR2.

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

  14. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  15. Niche Extracellular Matrix Components and Their Influence on HSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) takes place in a highly specialized microenvironment within the bone marrow. Technological improvements, especially in the field of in vivo imaging, have helped unravel the complexity of the niche microenvironment and have completely changed the classical concept from what was previously believed to be a static supportive platform, to a dynamic microenvironment tightly regulating HSC homeostasis through the complex interplay between diverse cell types, secreted factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and the expression of different transmembrane receptors. To add to the complexity, non-protein based metabolites have also been recognized as a component of the bone marrow niche. The objective of this review is to discuss the current understanding on how the different extracellular matrix components of the niche regulate HSC fate, both during embryonic development and in adulthood. Special attention will be provided to the description of non-protein metabolites, such as lipids and metal ions, which contribute to the regulation of HSC behavior. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1984-1993, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Extracellular matrix alterations in the Peyronie’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Silva Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peyronie’s disease is characterized by fibrous plaque formation of the tunica albuginea, causing penile deformity and fertility problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the extracellular matrix in Peyronie’s disease. The study used tissues collected by surgical procedure from individuals that presented a well-established disease, while control samples were obtained by biopsies of fresh cadavers. Immunohistochemistry analysis followed by digital quantification was performed to evaluate TGF-β, heparanases and metalloproteinases (MMPs. The profile of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, while hyaluronic acid quantification was obtained by an ELISA-like assay. The expression of mRNA was investigated for syndecan-1 proteoglycan (Syn-1, interleukine-6 (IL-6, hyaluronic acid synthases, and hyaluronidases. Pathologic features showed decreased apoptosis and blood vessel number in Peyronie’s tissues. TGF-β and IL-6 were significantly enhanced in Peyronie’s disease. There was an increased expression of heparanases, though no alteration was observed for MMPs. Hyaluronic acid as well as hyaluronic acid synthases, hyaluronidases, and dermatan sulfate were not changed, while the level of chondroitin sulfate was significantly (P = 0.008, Mann-Whitney test increased in Peyronie’s samples. Heparanases and sulfated glycosaminoglycans seem to be involved in extracellular matrix alterations in Peyronie’s disease.

  17. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node extracellular matrix are distinct from contractile left ventricular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Gluck

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin. The extracellular matrix protein distribution suggests that resident pacemaking cardiomyocytes are enclosed in fibrillar collagens that can withstand greater tensile strength while the surrounding elastin-rich regions may undergo deformation to reduce the mechanical strain in these cells. Moreover, basement membrane-associated adhesion proteins that are ligands for integrins were of low abundance in the sinoatrial node, which may decrease force transduction in the pacemaking cardiomyocytes. In contrast to extracellular matrix of the left ventricle, extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node may reduce mechanical strain and force transduction in pacemaking cardiomyocytes. These findings provide the criteria for a suitable matrix scaffold for engineering biopacemakers.

  18. Zanthoxylum schinifolium leaf ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation through inactivation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Byung Woo; Hwang, Jin Ah; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Zanthoxylum schinifolium is widely used as a food flavoring in east Asia. Although this plant has also been used in traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of the common cold, toothache, stomach ache, diarrhea and jaundice, its anti-obesity activity remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract from the leaves of Z. schinifolium (EEZS) on adipocyte differentiation, and its underlying mechanism, in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. The results demonstrated that EEZS effectively suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation at non-toxic concentrations, and was associated with the downregulation of several adipocyte-specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α and C/EBPβ, in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was observed that EEZS markedly inactivated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, which act upstream of PPARγ and C/EBPs in adipogenesis. These results suggested that EEZS inhibited lipid accumulation by downregulating the major transcription factors involved in the pathway of adipogenesis, including PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ, via regulation of the ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. This indicated the potential use of EEZS as an anti-obesity agent.

  19. Clara cell adhesion and migration to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deMello Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clara cells are the epithelial progenitor cell of the small airways, a location known to be important in many lung disorders. Although migration of alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells has been examined, the migratory response of Clara cells has received little attention. Methods Using a modification of existing procedures for Clara cell isolation, we examined mouse Clara cells and a mouse Clara-like cell line (C22 for adhesion to and migration toward matrix substrate gradients, to establish the nature and integrin dependence of migration in Clara cells. Results We observed that Clara cells adhere preferentially to fibronectin (Fn and type I collagen (Col I similar to previous reports. Migration of Clara cells can be directed by a fixed gradient of matrix substrates (haptotaxis. Migration of the C22 cell line was similar to the Clara cells so integrin dependence of migration was evaluated with this cell line. As determined by competition with an RGD containing-peptide, migration of C22 cells toward Fn and laminin (Lm 511 (formerly laminin 10 was significantly RGD integrin dependent, but migration toward Col I was RGD integrin independent, suggesting that Clara cells utilize different receptors for these different matrices. Conclusion Thus, Clara cells resemble alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells by showing integrin mediated pro-migratory changes to extracellular matrix components that are present in tissues after injury.

  20. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Steven S.; Kim, Jina; Ahn, Kwangmi; Trepat, Xavier; Drake, Kenneth J.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Biswal, Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  1. Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease......-beta and IL-6 is enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity (e.g. detected by positron emission tomography scanning), circulatory responses (e.g. as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and dye dilution) and collagen turnover are markedly increased after exercise. Tendon blood flow...... is regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis...

  2. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas....... RESULTS. Fibrillar deposits of an antiadhesive glycoprotein tenascin in the anterior and posterior stroma, epithelial basement membrane (BM), bullae and subepithelial fibrosis (SEF) areas, and posterior collagenous layer (PCL) were revealed in disease corneas. Tenascin in midstroma, which was observed...... in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin...

  3. Engineering Three-dimensional Epithelial Tissues Embedded within Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-10

    The architecture of branched organs such as the lungs, kidneys, and mammary glands arises through the developmental process of branching morphogenesis, which is regulated by a variety of soluble and physical signals in the microenvironment. Described here is a method created to study the process of branching morphogenesis by forming engineered three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues of defined shape and size that are completely embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). This method enables the formation of arrays of identical tissues and enables the control of a variety of environmental factors, including tissue geometry, spacing, and ECM composition. This method can also be combined with widely used techniques such as traction force microscopy (TFM) to gain more information about the interactions between cells and their surrounding ECM. The protocol can be used to investigate a variety of cell and tissue processes beyond branching morphogenesis, including cancer invasion.

  4. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Steven S., E-mail: san@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kim, Jina [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Ahn, Kwangmi [Division of Biostatistics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Trepat, Xavier [CIBER, Enfermedades Respiratorias, 07110 Bunyola (Spain); Drake, Kenneth J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fredberg, Jeffrey J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  5. Targeting the extracellular matrix to disrupt cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freja Albjerg Venning

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multi-step process, with each step involving intricate cross-talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM. Many ECM proteins are significantly de-regulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  6. Role of the extracellular matrix in whole organ engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Denver M; Johnson, Scott A; Zhang, Li; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-08-01

    End-stage organ failure is a devastating problem with limited therapeutic options. The definitive treatment is orthotropic transplantation, however, there exists a severe shortage of viable donor organs, and this shortage is worsening with an aging demographic and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Patients fortunate enough to receive a transplant are required to receive immunosuppressive therapies and can face transplant rejection. The emerging concept of organ engineering may offer a new hope for these patients. Researchers in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are using three-dimensional whole organ scaffolds composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) for engineering functional tissue suitable for transplantation. Perfusion decellularization is an approach that generates native ECM scaffolds with intact 3D anatomical architecture and vasculature. Decellularized organs provide the ideal transplantable scaffold with all the necessary microstructure and extracellular cues for cell attachment, differentiation, vascularization, and function. The present manuscript will review the role of the ECM in normal development, the concept of ECM tissue specificity, and the effect of processing methods on eventual clinical outcomes. An overview of existing challenges and future directions will also be discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Targeting extracellular matrix remodeling in disease: Could resveratrol be a potential candidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Agarwal, Puneet

    2017-02-01

    Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the individual or collective cellular behavior is increasingly being recognized. Hence, newer therapeutic approaches targeting extracellular matrix remodeling are widely investigated. We reviewed the current literature showing the effects of resveratrol on various aspects of extracellular matrix remodeling. This review presents a summary of the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix deposition and breakdown. Mechanisms of action of resveratrol in extracellular matrix deposition involving growth factors and their signaling pathways are discussed. Involvement of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and role of transcription factors and sirtuins on the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix homeostasis are summarized. It is evident from the literature presented in this review that resveratrol has significant effects on both the synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix. The major molecular targets of the action of resveratrol are growth factors and their signaling pathways, phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, transcription factors, and SIRT-1. The effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix and the molecular targets appear to be related to experimental models, experimental environment as well as the doses.

  8. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF{sub 165} gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF{sub 165} treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF{sub 165}. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF{sub 165}, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF{sub 165} seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct.

  9. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D'Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct.

  10. Micromechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity of the meniscus extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qu, Feini; Han, Biao; Wang, Chao; Li, Hao; Mauck, Robert L; Han, Lin

    2017-05-01

    To understand how the complex biomechanical functions of the meniscus are endowed by the nanostructure of its extracellular matrix (ECM), we studied the anisotropy and heterogeneity in the micromechanical properties of the meniscus ECM. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the time-dependent mechanical properties of juvenile bovine meniscus at deformation length scales corresponding to the diameters of collagen fibrils. At this scale, anisotropy in the elastic modulus of the circumferential fibers, the major ECM structural unit, can be attributed to differences in fibril deformation modes: uncrimping when normal to the fiber axis, and laterally constrained compression when parallel to the fiber axis. Heterogeneity among different structural units is mainly associated with their variations in microscale fiber orientation, while heterogeneity across anatomical zones is due to alterations in collagen fibril diameter and alignment at the nanoscale. Unlike the elastic modulus, the time-dependent properties are more homogeneous and isotropic throughout the ECM. These results enable a detailed understanding of the meniscus structure-mechanics at the nanoscale, and can serve as a benchmark for understanding meniscus biomechanical functions, documenting disease progression and designing tissue repair strategies. Meniscal damage is a common cause of joint injury, which can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis among young adults. Restoration of meniscus function requires repairing its highly heterogeneous and complex extracellular matrix. Employing AFM, this study quantifies the anisotropic and heterogeneous features of the meniscus ECM structure and mechanics. The micromechanical properties are interpreted within the context of the collagen fibril nanostructure and its variation with tissue anatomical locations. These results provide a fundamental structure-mechanics knowledge benchmark, against which, repair and regeneration strategies can

  11. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C.; Novais, Tatiana F.; Faustoferri, Roberta C.; Quivey, Robert G.; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Klein, Marlise I.

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans -derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA – ΔlytS and ΔlytT; LTA – ΔdltA and ΔdltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide – ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms. PMID:28946780

  12. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C; Novais, Tatiana F; Faustoferri, Roberta C; Quivey, Robert G; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R; Klein, Marlise I

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans-derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA - ∆lytS and ∆lytT; LTA - ∆dltA and ∆dltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide - ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms.

  13. Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation through MAPK Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ha Hwang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation is regulated by the extracellular matrix (ECM through activation of intracellular signaling mediators. The stiffness of the ECM was shown to be an important regulatory factor for MSC differentiation, and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ was identified as an effector protein for MSC differentiation. However, the detailed underlying mechanism regarding the role of ECM stiffness and TAZ in MSC differentiation is not yet fully understood. In this report, we showed that ECM stiffness regulates MSC fate through ERK or JNK activation. Specifically, a stiff hydrogel matrix stimulates osteogenic differentiation concomitant with increased nuclear localization of TAZ, but inhibits adipogenic differentiation. ERK and JNK activity was significantly increased in cells cultured on a stiff hydrogel. TAZ activation was induced by ERK or JNK activation on a stiff hydrogel because exposure to an ERK or JNK inhibitor significantly decreased the nuclear localization of TAZ, indicating that ECM stiffness-induced ERK or JNK activation is important for TAZ-driven osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that ECM stiffness regulates MSC differentiation through ERK or JNK activation.

  14. A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Veidal, S S; Larsen, L

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation....

  15. The dynamic extracellular matrix: intervention strategies during heart failure and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeneman, Sylvia; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Faber, Birgit C.; Creemers, Esther E.; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Lutgens, Esther; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Daemen, Mat J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is no longer seen as the static embedding in which cells reside; it has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and cell-cell interactions. Turnover of the different extracellular matrix components is an active process with multiple levels of regulation.

  16. Astrocytes as a source for Extracellular matrix molecules and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWiese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system (CNS might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch towards the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness of the respective trophic factors Fibroblast growth factor (FGF and Epidermal growth factor (EGF. The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. On the other hand, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes are also known to act mostly in an inhibitory fashion under pathophysiological conditions. In this regard, we further summarize recent data concerning the role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and Tnc under pathological

  17. Extracellular matrix-based biomaterial scaffolds and the host response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Joseph M; Grainger, David W

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) collectively represents a class of naturally derived proteinaceous biomaterials purified from harvested organs and tissues with increasing scientific focus and utility in tissue engineering and repair. This interest stems predominantly from the largely unproven concept that processed ECM biomaterials as natural tissue-derived matrices better integrate with host tissue than purely synthetic biomaterials. Nearly every tissue type has been decellularized and processed for re-use as tissue-derived ECM protein implants and scaffolds. To date, however, little consensus exists for defining ECM compositions or sources that best constitute decellularized biomaterials that might better heal, integrate with host tissues and avoid the foreign body response (FBR). Metrics used to assess ECM performance in biomaterial implants are arbitrary and contextually specific by convention. Few comparisons for in vivo host responses to ECM implants from different sources are published. This review discusses current ECM-derived biomaterials characterization methods including relationships between ECM material compositions from different sources, properties and host tissue response as implants. Relevant preclinical in vivo models are compared along with their associated advantages and limitations, and the current state of various metrics used to define material integration and biocompatibility are discussed. Commonly applied applications of these ECM-derived biomaterials as stand-alone implanted matrices and devices are compared with respect to host tissue responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New advances in probing cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen P; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Parekh, Sapun H

    2017-05-22

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells within tissues. An emerging body of evidence has established that the ECM plays a key role in cell mechanotransduction - the study of coupling between mechanical inputs and cellular phenotype - through either mediating transmission of forces to the cells, or presenting mechanical cues that guide cellular behaviors. Recent progress in cell mechanotransduction research has been facilitated by advances of experimental tools, particularly microtechnologies, engineered biomaterials, and imaging and analytical methods. Microtechnologies have enabled the design and fabrication of controlled physical microenvironments for the study and measurement of cell-ECM interactions. Advances in engineered biomaterials have allowed researchers to develop synthetic ECMs that mimic tissue microenvironments and investigate the impact of altered physicochemical properties on various cellular processes. Finally, advanced imaging and spectroscopy techniques have facilitated the visualization of the complex interaction between cells and ECM in vitro and in living tissues. This review will highlight the application of recent innovations in these areas to probing cell-ECM interactions. We believe cross-disciplinary approaches, combining aspects of the different technologies reviewed here, will inspire innovative ideas to further elucidate the secrets of ECM-mediated cell control.

  19. Extracellular matrix in lung development, homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Naba, Alexandra; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Atabai, Kamran; Balestrini, Jenna; Bitterman, Peter B; Corley, Richard A; Ding, Bi-Sen; Engler, Adam J; Hansen, Kirk C; Hagood, James S; Kheradmand, Farrah; Lin, Qing S; Neptune, Enid; Niklason, Laura; Ortiz, Luis A; Parks, William C; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; White, Eric S; Chapman, Harold A; Thannickal, Victor J

    2018-03-08

    The lung's unique extracellular matrix (ECM), while providing structural support for cells, is critical in the regulation of developmental organogenesis, homeostasis and injury-repair responses. The ECM, via biochemical or biomechanical cues, regulates diverse cell functions, fate and phenotype. The composition and function of lung ECM become markedly deranged in pathological tissue remodeling. ECM-based therapeutics and bioengineering approaches represent promising novel strategies for regeneration/repair of the lung and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we assess the current state of lung ECM biology, including fundamental advances in ECM composition, dynamics, topography, and biomechanics; the role of the ECM in normal and aberrant lung development, adult lung diseases and autoimmunity; and ECM in the regulation of the stem cell niche. We identify opportunities to advance the field of lung ECM biology and provide a set recommendations for research priorities to advance knowledge that would inform novel approaches to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic lung diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Extracellular matrix as an inductive scaffold for functional tissue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan N; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-04-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork of both structural and functional proteins assembled in unique tissue-specific architectures. The ECM both provides the mechanical framework for each tissue and organ and is a substrate for cell signaling. The ECM is highly dynamic, and cells both receive signals from the ECM and contribute to its content and organization. This process of "dynamic reciprocity" is key to tissue development and for homeostasis. Based upon these important functions, ECM-based materials have been used in a wide variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. It has been demonstrated that ECM-based materials, when appropriately prepared, can act as inductive templates for constructive remodeling. Specifically, such materials act as templates for the induction of de novo functional, site-appropriate, tissue formation. Herein, the diverse structural and functional roles of the ECM are reviewed to provide a rationale for the use of ECM scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Translational examples of ECM scaffolds in regenerative are provided, and the potential mechanisms by which ECM scaffolds elicit constructive remodeling are discussed. A better understanding of the ability of ECM scaffold materials to define the microenvironment of the injury site will lead to improved clinical outcomes associated with their use. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammatory Alterations of the Extracellular Matrix in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, Junko [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Konno, Kenjiro [Department of Animal Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Itano, Naoki, E-mail: itanon@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2011-08-09

    Complex interactions between cancer cells and host stromal cells result in the formation of the “tumor microenvironment”, where inflammatory alterations involve the infiltration of tumor-associated fibroblasts and inflammatory leukocytes that contribute to the acquisition of malignant characteristics, such as increased cancer cell proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, angiogenesis, and avoidance of adaptive immunity. The microenvironment of a solid tumor is comprised not only of cellular compartments, but also of bioactive substances, including cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM can act as a scaffold for cell migration, a reservoir for cytokines and growth factors, and a signal through receptor binding. During inflammation, ECM components and their degraded fragments act directly and indirectly as inflammatory stimuli in certain cases and regulate the functions of inflammatory and immune cells. One such ECM component, hyaluronan, has recently been implicated to modulate innate immune cell function through pattern recognition toll-like receptors and accelerate the recruitment and activation of tumor-associated macrophages in inflamed cancers. Here, we will summarize the molecular mechanism linking inflammation with ECM remodeling in the tumor microenvironment, with a particular emphasis on the role of hyaluronan in controlling the inflammatory response.

  2. Chemical Decellularization Methods and Its Effects on Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Akbari Zahmati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Extracellular matrix (ECM produced by tissue decellularization processes as a biological scaffold due to its unique properties compared to other scaffolds for migration and implantation of stem cells have been used successfully in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the last years. The objective of this manuscript was to provide an overview of the chemical decellularization methods, evaluation of decellularized ECM and the potential effect of the chemical decellularization agents on the biochemical composition. Methods: We searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. The literature search was done by using the following keywords: “ECM, biologic scaffold, decellularization, chemical methods, tissue engineering.” We selected articles have been published from 2000 to 2016, and 15 full texts and 97 abstracts were reviewed. Results:Employing an optimization method to minimize damage to the ECM ultrastructure as for a result of the lack of reduction in mechanical properties and also the preservation of essential proteins such as laminin, fibronectin, Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, growth factor is required. Various methods include chemical, physical and enzymatic technics were studied. However, on each of these methods can have undesirable effects on ECM. Conclusion: It is suggested that instead of the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS which have high strength degradation, we can use zwitterionic separately or in combination with SDS. Tributyl phosphate (TBP due to its unique properties can be used in decellularization process.

  3. Degradation of extracellular matrix by peroxynitrite/peroxynitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Eleanor C; Davies, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides strength and elasticity to tissues and plays a key role in regulating cell behavior; damage to this material is believed to be a major factor in many inflammatory diseases. Peroxynitrite/peroxynitrous acid, which is generated at elevated levels at sites of inflammation, is believed to play a role in ECM damage; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we examined the reactions of bolus peroxynitrite, and that generated in a time-dependent manner by SIN-1 decomposition, with ECM isolated from a vascular smooth muscle cell line and porcine thoracic aorta. Bolus peroxynitrite caused the release of ECM glycosaminoglycans and proteins, the formation of 3-nitroTyr, and the detection of ECM-derived radicals (by immuno-spin trapping) in a concentration-dependent manner. Release and nitration of ECM components were modulated by the local pH and bicarbonate. SIN-1 caused the release of glycosaminoglycan, but not protein, from vascular smooth muscle cell-derived ECM in a concentration-, time-, and pH-dependent manner. The data presented here suggest that peroxynitrite-mediated damage to ECM occurs via a radical-mediated pathway. These reactions may contribute to ECM damage at sites of inflammation and play a role in disease progression, including rupture of atherosclerotic lesions.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX OF INJURED SUPRASPINATUS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luiz Henrique Oliveira; Ikemoto, Roberto; Mader, Ana Maria; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Munhoz, Bruna; Murachovsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of injuries of the supraspinatus muscle by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and anatomopathological analysis in animal model (Wistar rats). Twenty-five Wistar rats were submitted to complete injury of the supraspinatus tendon, then subsequently sacrificed in groups of five animals at the following periods: immediately after the injury, 24h after the injury, 48h after, 30 days after and three months after the injury. All groups underwent histological and IHC analysis. Regarding vascular proliferation and inflammatory infiltrate, we found a statistically significant difference between groups 1(control group) and 2 (24h after injury). IHC analysis showed that expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2, and collagen type 1 (Col-1) evaluation presented a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 4. We observed changes in the extracellular matrix components compatible with remodeling and healing. Remodeling is more intense 24h after injury. However, VEGF and Col-1 are substantially increased at 24h and 30 days after the injury, respectively. Level of Evidence I, Experimental Study.

  5. Bioactive Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Promotes Adaptive Cardiac Remodeling and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E.M. Mewhort, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural cardiac remodeling after ischemic injury can induce a transition to heart failure from progressive loss of cardiac function. Cellular regenerative therapies are promising but face significant translational hurdles. Tissue extracellular matrix (ECM holds the necessary environmental cues to stimulate cell-based endogenous myocardial repair pathways and promote adaptive remodeling toward functional recovery. Heart epicardium has emerged as an important anatomic niche for endogenous repair pathways including vasculogenesis and cardiogenesis. We show that acellular ECM scaffolds surgically implanted on the epicardium following myocardial infarction (MI can attenuate structural cardiac remodeling and improve functional recovery. We assessed the efficacy of this strategy on post-MI functional recovery by comparing intact bioactive scaffolds with biologically inactivated ECM scaffolds. We confirm that bioactive properties within the acellular ECM biomaterial are essential for the observed functional benefits. We show that interaction of human cardiac fibroblasts with bioactive ECM can induce a robust cell-mediated vasculogenic paracrine response capable of functional blood vessel assembly. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is uncovered as a critical regulator of this novel bioinductive effect. Acellular bioactive ECM scaffolds surgically implanted on the epicardium post-MI can reprogram resident fibroblasts and stimulate adaptive pro-reparative pathways enhancing functional recovery. We introduce a novel surgical strategy for tissue repair that can be performed as an adjunct to conventional surgical revascularization with minimal translational challenges.

  6. An innovative protocol for schwann cells extracellular matrix proteins extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L; Zomer Volpato, F; Cagol, N; Siciliano, M; Migliaresi, C; Motta, A; Sala, R

    2016-12-01

    The evidence that extracellular matrix (ECM) components could represent new targets for drugs designed to approach degenerative disease, requires their analysis. Before the analysis, proteins should be extracted from ECM and solubilized. Currently, few protocols for ECM proteins extraction and solubilization are available in literature, and most of them are based mainly on the use of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin, which often lead to proteins damage. Moreover, no methods have been so far proposed to solubilize Schwann Cell ECM, which may represent an important target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. In our study, we propose to solubilize SC ECM through the use of surfactants and urea. We compared our method of solubilization, with one of that proposed in literature for a general ECM, mainly based on the use of enzymes. We want to highlight the benefit of solubilizing SC ECM, avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes. To compare the amount of proteins extracted with both methods, MicroBCA assay was used, while the quality of the proteins extracted was observed through the SDS-PAGE. The results obtained confirm a better solubilization of SC ECM proteins with the proposed protocol, both quantitatively and qualitatively, showing a higher concentration of proteins extracted and a better enrichment of protein fractions, if compared to the enzyme-based protocol. Our results show that SC ECM could be efficiently solubilized through the use of surfactant and urea, avoiding the use of enzyme-base methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 3175-3180, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Extracellular matrix alterations in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszko, Gabriela; Curreli, Sebastiano; Kaushik, Rahul; Becker, Axel; Dityatev, Alexander

    2017-05-14

    The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulation of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Decreased labeling of perineuronal nets, a form of ECM predominantly associated with parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the brain, has been observed in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients, specifically, in brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Moreover, glial ECM in the form of dandelion clock-like structures was reported to be altered in schizophrenia patients. Here, we verified whether similar abnormalities in neural ECM can be reproduced in a rat model of schizophrenia, in which animals received sub-chronic administration of ketamine to reproduce the aspects of disease related to disrupted signaling through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Our study focused on two schizophrenia-related brain areas, namely the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate investigate ECM expression using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) and CS56 antibody, both labeling distinct chondroitin sulfate epitopes enriched in perineuronal nets and glial ECM, respectively. Our analysis revealed that ketamine-treated rats exhibit reduced number of WFA-labeled perineuronal nets, and a decreased intensity of parvalbumin fluorescence in mPFC interneurons somata. Moreover, we found an increased expression of CS56 immunoreactive form of ECM. Importantly, the loss of perineuronal nets was revealed in the mPFC, and was not detected in the hippocampus, suggesting regional specificity of ECM alterations. These data open an avenue for further investigations of functional importance of ECM abnormalities in schizophrenia as well as for search of treatments for their compensation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter; Sun, Shu; Kristensen, Jacob H; Leeming, Diana J; Karsdal, Morten A; Bolton, Charlotte E; Johnson, Simon R

    2015-06-11

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute significantly to disease progression. However, the effect on tissue structure and turnover is not well described. There is an urgent clinical need for biomarkers of disease activity associated with disease progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. 69 patients with COPD hospitalised for an exacerbation were recruited at admission and returned for a 4 weeks follow-up. Competitive ELISAs measuring circulating protein fragments in serum or plasma assessed the formation and degradation of collagen types III (Pro-C3 and C3M, respectively), IV (P4NP 7S and C4M, respectively), and VI (Pro-C6 and C6M, respectively), and degradation of elastin (ELM7 and EL-NE) and versican (VCANM). Circulating levels of C3M, C4M, C6M, ELM7, and EL-NE were elevated during an exacerbation of COPD as compared to follow-up (all P <0.0001), while VCANM levels were decreased (P <0.0001). Pro-C6 levels were decreased and P4NP 7S levels were elevated during exacerbation (P <0.0001). Pro-C3 levels were unchanged. At time of exacerbation, degradation/formation ratios were increased for collagen types III and VI and decreased for collagen type IV. Exacerbations of COPD resulted in elevated levels of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression.

  9. Extracellular Matrix Promotes Highly Efficient Cardiac Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: The Matrix Sandwich Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Klos, Matthew; Wilson, Gisela F.; Herman, Amanda M.; Lian, Xiaojun; Raval, Kunil K.; Barron, Matthew R.; Hou, Luqia; Soerens, Andrew G.; Yu, Junying; Palecek, Sean P.; Lyons, Gary E.; Thomson, James A.; Herron, Todd J.; Jalife, José; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are increasingly being used for cardiovascular research including disease modeling and hold promise for clinical applications. Current cardiac differentiation protocols exhibit variable success across different PSC lines and are primarily based on the application of growth factors. However, extracellular matrix (ECM) is also fundamentally involved in cardiac development from the earliest morphogenetic events such as gastrulation. Objective We sought to develop a more effective protocol for cardiac differentiation of human PSCs by using ECM in combination with growth factors known to promote cardiogenesis. Methods and Results PSCs were cultured as monolayers on Matrigel, an ECM preparation, and subsequently overlayed with Matrigel. The matrix sandwich promoted an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as in gastrulation with the generation of N-cadherin+ mesenchymal cells. Combining the matrix sandwich with sequential application of growth factors (Activin A, BMP4, and bFGF) generated cardiomyocytes with high purity (up to 98%) and yield (up to 11 cardiomyocytes/input PSC) from multiple PSC lines. The resulting cardiomyocytes progressively mature over 30 days in culture based on myofilament expression pattern and mitotic activity. Action potentials typical of embryonic nodal, atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes were observed, and monolayers of electrically coupled cardiomyocytes modeled cardiac tissue and basic arrhythmia mechanisms. Conclusions Dynamic ECM application promoted EMT of human PSCs and complemented growth factor signaling to enable robust cardiac differentiation. PMID:22912385

  10. Glia and extracellular matrix changes affect extracellular diffusion and volume transmission in the brain in health and disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S38 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : diffusion * extracellular matrix * extrasynaptic transmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. Adaptive evolution of the matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado João

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE belongs to a family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs that play a key role in skeleton development, particularly in mineralization, phosphate regulation and osteogenesis. MEPE associated disorders cause various physiological effects, such as loss of bone mass, tumors and disruption of renal function (hypophosphatemia. The study of this developmental gene from an evolutionary perspective could provide valuable insights on the adaptive diversification of morphological phenotypes in vertebrates. Results Here we studied the adaptive evolution of the MEPE gene in 26 Eutherian mammals and three birds. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation of some coding and non-coding regions of the MEPE gene across mammals indicating a possible regulatory or functional role likely related with mineralization and/or phosphate regulation. However, the majority of the coding region had a fast evolutionary rate, particularly within the largest exon (1467 bp. Rodentia and Scandentia had distinct substitution rates with an increased accumulation of both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations compared with other mammalian lineages. Characteristics of the gene (e.g. biochemical, evolutionary rate, and intronic conservation differed greatly among lineages of the eight mammalian orders. We identified 20 sites with significant positive selection signatures (codon and protein level outside the main regulatory motifs (dentonin and ASARM suggestive of an adaptive role. Conversely, we find three sites under selection in the signal peptide and one in the ASARM motif that were supported by at least one selection model. The MEPE protein tends to accumulate amino acids promoting disorder and potential phosphorylation targets. Conclusion MEPE shows a high number of selection signatures, revealing the crucial role of positive selection in the

  12. Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollbold Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  14. The matrikine N-α-PGP couples extracellular matrix fragmentation to endothelial permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Cornelia S; Scott, David W; Xu, Xin; Roda, Mojtaba Abdul; Payne, Gregory A; Wells, J Michael; Viera, Liliana; Winstead, Colleen J; Bratcher, Preston; Sparidans, Rolf W; Redegeld, Frank A; Jackson, Patricia L; Folkerts, Gert; Blalock, J Edwin; Patel, Rakesh P; Gaggar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The compartmentalization and transport of proteins and solutes across the endothelium is a critical biologic function altered during inflammation and disease, leading to pathology in multiple disorders. The impact of tissue damage and subsequent extracellular matrix (ECM) fragmentation in regulating

  15. hMSCs Cultured on Plant-Derived Tissue Engineering Extracellular Matrix in a Microgravity Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to fabricate an all plant-derived renewable, biodegradable complete mimic of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM). For the first...

  16. Fibulin-1 is a marker for arterial extracellular matrix alterations in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cangemi, Claudia; Skov, Vibe; Poulsen, Michael Kjaer

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined.......Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined....

  17. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoe Misa; Takahashi Toru; Ushizawa Koichi; Koshi Katsuo; Kizaki Keiichiro; Mishra Birendra; Sato Takashi; Ito Akira; Hashizume Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and...

  18. Extracellular matrix induces doxorubicin-resistance in human osteosarcoma cells by suppression of p53 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisi, Revekka; Dudas, Jozsef; Nagy-Olah, Julia; Timar, Ferenc; Szendroi, Miklos; Jeney, Andras

    2007-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The several chemotherapy-resistant cases of osteosarcoma are at a higher risk of relapse and adverse outcome. The aim of the current study was to determine the role of extracellular matrix in the resistance developed against chemotherapeutic treatments of human osteosarcoma cells. A cell line, named OSCORT was established from the biopsy of a 17-year-old male patient with primary osteosarcoma. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and quantification of DNA damage after treatments with doxorubicin were investigated in classical and three-dimensional cell culture systems using an extracellular matrix gel. The experimental results were related to the clinical observations of the case. The cells cultured in extracellular matrix gel have shown resistance to doxorubicin similar to that seen in the clinical case, as demonstrated by their proliferation, apoptosis and doxorubicin-induced DNA damage characteristics. Among the extracellular matrix components, the heparan sulfate proteoglycan and-to a lesser extent-fibronectin were involved in the doxorubicin resistance. Laminin and nidogen did not decrease the cytoreductive effect of doxorubicin, while collagen IV even increased it. The extracellular matrix gel decreased the protein levels of p53 and abrogated its cell nuclear translocalization. The most frequent known mutations in the p53 gene were not found in OSCORT cells. The current study provides experimental evidence for an epigenetical, extracellular matrix-induced loss of p53 function, which lead to a potent chemotherapy resistance showing accordance with the clinical experience.

  19. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in visceral adipose during weight cycling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Cíntia Rabelo E Paiva; Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; Santos, Paola Souza; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; de Morais, Thainá Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is necessary for a health adipose tissue (AT) expansion and also has a role during weight loss. We investigate the ECM alteration during weight cycling (WC) in mice and the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed using GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, during weight loss (WL). Obesity was induced in mice by a high-fat diet. Obese mice were subject to caloric restriction for WL followed by reintroduction to high-fat diet for weight regain (WR), resulting in a WC protocol. In addition, mice were treated with GM6001 during WL period and the effects were observed after WR. Activity and expression of MMPs was intense during WL. MMP inhibition during WL results in inflammation and collagen content reduction. MMP inhibition during WL period interferes with the period of subsequent expansion of AT resulting in improvements in local inflammation and systemic metabolic alterations induced by obesity. Our results suggest that MMPs inhibition could be an interesting target to improve adipose tissue inflammation during WL and to support weight cyclers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer(EMMPRINin retinoblastoma(Rband the relationships between MMP-2, EMMPRIN and tumor development.METHODS:Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in 39 cases of paraffin embedded Rb samples. Quantitative analysis of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were assessed by measuring the mean gray scale of Rb tissue with LEICA IM50 Color Pathologic Analysis System. The differences of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in each clinical and pathological stage were statistically analyzed, and the same step was also undertaken to study the relationship between Rb with MMP-2 positive expression and that with EMMPRIN positive expression.RESULTS: The positive expression rate of MMP-2 was 90%(Gray value: 109.64±14.52; 35/39, and that of EMMPRIN was 85%(Gray value: 108.01±13.60; 33/39. The expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were significantly higher in tumors of glaucomatous stage(Gray value: 108.21±11.47 and 107.56±14.32than those in intraocular stage(Gray value: 121.13±11.32 and 119.34±12.66; PPPPPPCONCLUSION: The positive expression levels of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN may correlate with tumor infiltration and metastasis.

  1. Matrix-Bound Nanovesicles Recapitulate Extracellular Matrix Effects on Macrophage Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihel, Luai; Bartolacci, Joseph G; Dziki, Jenna L; Vorobyov, Tatiana; Arnold, Brooke; Scarritt, Michelle E; Pineda Molina, Catalina; LoPresti, Samuel T; Brown, Bryan N; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-11-01

    The early macrophage response to biomaterials has been shown to be a critical and predictive determinant of downstream outcomes. When properly prepared, bioscaffolds composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to promote a transition in macrophage behavior from a proinflammatory to a regulatory/anti-inflammatory phenotype, which in turn has been associated with constructive and functional tissue repair. The mechanism by which ECM bioscaffolds promote this phenotypic transition, however, is poorly understood. The present study shows that matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBV), a component of ECM bioscaffolds, are capable of recapitulating the macrophage activation effects of the ECM bioscaffold from which they are derived. MBV isolated from two different source tissues, porcine urinary bladder and small intestinal submucosa, were found to be enriched in miRNA125b-5p, 143-3p, and 145-5p. Inhibition of these miRNAs within macrophages was associated with a gene and protein expression profile more consistent with a proinflammatory rather than an anti-inflammatory/regulatory phenotype. MBV and their associated miRNA cargo appear to play a significant role in mediating the effects of ECM bioscaffolds on macrophage phenotype.

  2. Astrocytes and extracellular matrix in extrasynaptic volume transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 369, č. 1654 (2014) ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11867S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : extracellular space * diffusion * astrocytes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 7.055, year: 2014

  3. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels and matrix-bound vesicles differentially regulate central nervous system neuron viability and axon growth and branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anne; Kandakatla, Apoorva; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Ren, Tanchen; Huleihel, Luai; Hussey, George; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen; Steketee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses. Extracellular matrix hydrogels are liquid at room temperature and enable minimally invasive extracellular matrix injections into central nervous system tissues, before gelation at 37℃. However, few studies have analyzed how extracellular matrix hydrogels influence primary central nervous system neuron survival and growth, and whether central nervous system and non-central nervous system extracellular matrix specificity is critical to neuronal responses. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels increase both primary hippocampal neuron survival and neurite growth to similar or even greater extents, suggesting extracellular matrix from non-homologous tissue sources, such as urinary bladder matrix-extracellular matrix, may be a more economical and safer alternative to developing central nervous system extracellular matrices for central nervous system applications. Additionally, we show matrix-bound vesicles derived from urinary bladder extracellular matrix are endocytosed by hippocampal neurons and positively regulate primary hippocampal neuron neurite growth. Matrix-bound vesicles carry protein and RNA cargos, including noncoding RNAs and miRNAs that map to the human genome and are known to regulate cellular processes. Thus, urinary bladder matrix-bound vesicles provide natural and transfectable cargoes which offer new experimental tools and therapeutic applications to study and treat central nervous system neuron injury.

  4. Weight gain reveals dramatic increases in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Charmaine S; Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Burk, David; Johannsen, Darcy L; Zingaretti, Cristina M; Cinti, Saverio; Ravussin, Eric

    2014-05-01

    In animal models of obesity, chronic inflammation and dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling in adipose tissue leads to insulin resistance. Whether similar pathophysiology occurs in humans is not clear. The aim of this study was to test whether 10% weight gain induced by overfeeding triggers inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling (gene expression, protein, histology) in skeletal muscle and sc adipose tissue in humans. We also investigated whether such remodeling was associated with an impaired metabolic response (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Twenty-nine free-living males were fed 40% over their baseline energy requirements for 8 weeks. Ten percent body weight gain prompted dramatic up-regulation of a repertoire of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in muscle and to a lesser degree in adipose tissue. The amount of extracellular matrix genes in the muscle were directly associated with the amount of lean tissue deposited during overfeeding. Despite weight gain and impaired insulin sensitivity, there was no change in local adipose tissue or systemic inflammation, but there was a slight increase in skeletal muscle inflammation. We propose that skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling is another feature of the pathogenic milieu associated with energy excess and obesity, which, if disrupted, may contribute to the development of metabolic dysfunction.

  5. Regulation of extracellular matrix vesicles via rapid responses to steroid hormones during endochondral bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Niels; Lin, Zhao; McClure, Michael J; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2017-12-09

    Endochondral bone formation is a precise and highly ordered process whose exact regulatory framework is still being elucidated. Multiple regulatory pathways are known to be involved. In some cases, regulation impacts gene expression, resulting in changes in chondrocyte phenotypic expression and extracellular matrix synthesis. Rapid regulatory mechanisms are also involved, resulting in release of enzymes, factors and micro RNAs stored in extracellular matrisomes called matrix vesicles. Vitamin D metabolites modulate endochondral development via both genomic and rapid membrane-associated signaling pathways. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and a membrane associated receptor, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3). 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] affects primarily chondrocytes in the resting zone (RC) of the growth plate, whereas 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 affects cells in the prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic cell zones (GC). This includes genomically directing the cells to produce matrix vesicles with zone specific characteristics. In addition, vitamin D metabolites produced by the cells interact directly with the matrix vesicle membrane via rapid signal transduction pathways, modulating their activity in the matrix. The matrix vesicle payload is able to rapidly impact the extracellular matrix via matrix processing enzymes as well as providing a feedback mechanism to the cells themselves via the contained micro RNAs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... periodontal tissues that are composed of different matrix components specific to different types of periodontal tissues (Matsuura et al., 1995). Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells possess osteogenic potential and play important roles in bone biology, such as necrotic processes, bone resorption, bone modeling,.

  7. Presynaptic neurones may contribute a unique glycoprotein to the extracellular matrix at the synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Pico; Carlson, Steven S.; Schweitzer, Erik; Kelly, Regis B.

    1985-04-01

    As the extracellular matrix at the original site of a neuromuscular junction seems to play a major part in the specificity of synaptic regeneration1-5, considerable attention has been paid to unique molecules localized to this region6-11. Here we describe an extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the elasmobranch electric organ that is localized near the nerve endings. By immunological criteria, it is synthesized in the cell bodies, transported down the axons and is related to a glycoprotein in the synaptic vesicles of the neurones that innervate the electric organ. It is apparently specific for these neurones, as it cannot be detected elsewhere in the nervous system of the fish. Therefore, neurones seem to contribute unique extracellular matrix glycoproteins to the synaptic region. Synaptic vesicles could be involved in transporting these glycoproteins to or from the nerve terminal surface.

  8. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  9. Extracellular matrix remodeling in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify features, relationships between parameters of the extracellular matrix and renal function in 110 patients with ischemic chronic heart failure the activity of collagen metabolism markers (MMP-9, TIMP-1, PICP, cystatin C, structural and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ELISA, echocardiography. Results. It was established that imbalance in the system MMP/TIMP in ischemic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction leads to disruption of the extracellular matrix structural functional sufficiency, increases functional failure and is associated with impaired renal function. Conclusion. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships between MMP/TIMP and GFR, cystatin C, indicating that the significant role of extracellular matrix imbalance in the development of renal dysfunction in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure.

  10. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  11. Extracellular-matrix-mediated osmotic pressure drives Vibrio cholerae biofilm expansion and cheater exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Nadell, Carey D; Stone, Howard A; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-08-23

    Biofilms, surface-attached communities of bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix, are a major mode of bacterial life. How the material properties of the matrix contribute to biofilm growth and robustness is largely unexplored, in particular in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in osmotic pressure. Here, using Vibrio cholerae as our model organism, we show that during active cell growth, matrix production enables biofilm-dwelling bacterial cells to establish an osmotic pressure difference between the biofilm and the external environment. This pressure difference promotes biofilm expansion on nutritious surfaces by physically swelling the colony, which enhances nutrient uptake, and enables matrix-producing cells to outcompete non-matrix-producing cheaters via physical exclusion. Osmotic pressure together with crosslinking of the matrix also controls the growth of submerged biofilms and their susceptibility to invasion by planktonic cells. As the basic physicochemical principles of matrix crosslinking and osmotic swelling are universal, our findings may have implications for other biofilm-forming bacterial species.Most bacteria live in biofilms, surface-attached communities encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, Yan et al. show that matrix production in Vibrio cholerae increases the osmotic pressure within the biofilm, promoting biofilm expansion and physical exclusion of non-matrix producing cheaters.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENTAL ROLE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX SUGGESTS A MONOPHYLETIC ORIGIN OF THE KINGDOM ANIMALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J

    1993-02-01

    The fundamental events of early development are similar in all animals, including sponges. Recent developments in the molecular biology of the extracellular matrix strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms behind these events are also similar among all animals. I propose that the complex (collagen, proteoglycan, adhesive glycoprotein, and integrin) system that mediates cell motility and transitions between epithelial and motile cell types is central to multicellularity in animals. I further propose that the extracellular matrix is a deep rooted homology that unites the kingdom Animalia into a monophyletic group of multicellular organisms. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Gyu Bae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering complex extracellular matrix (ECM is an important challenge for cell and tissue engineering applications as well as for understanding fundamental cell biology. We developed the methodology for fabrication of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with original wrinkling technique for the generation of well-defined native ECM-like platforms by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata [1]. This paper provides information on detailed characteristics of polyethylene glycol-diacrylate multiscale substrata. In addition, a possible model for guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata is proposed.

  14. Alterations in the biosynthesis of extracellular matrix molecules in connective tissues by electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciombor, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) of certain configurations have been shown to be effective clinically in promoting the healing of fracture non-unions and are believed to enhance calcification of extracellular matrix. In vitro studies have suggested that PEMFs may also have the effect of modifying the extracellular matrix by promoting the synthesis of matrix molecules. This study examines the effect of one particular type of PEMF and a sinusoidal continuous wave upon the extracellular matrix and calcification of endochondral ossification in vivo. The pulsed magnetic field (SS-22) utilized in these studies is being used clinically for the treatment of fracture non-unions, a condition in which the bone is not restored to form or function. The sinusoidal continuous wave was designed to provide a 5 Gauss amplitude at a 15 Hz. rate. The synthesis of cartilage molecules is enhanced by this type of PEMF and since wave and subsequent endochondral calcification is stimulated. Histomorphometric studies indicate that the maturation of bone trabeculae is also promoted by this type of PEMF stimulation. These results indicate that a specific PEMF or continuous waveform can change the composition of cartilage extracellular matrix in vivo and raises the possibility that the effects on other processes of endochondral ossification (e.g., fracture healing and growth plates) may occur through a similar mechanism.

  15. Degenerated human intervertebral discs contain autoantibodies against extracellular matrix proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Capossela

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs is associated with back pain and elevated levels of inflammatory cells. It has been hypothesised that discogenic pain is a direct result of vascular and neural ingrowth along annulus fissures, which may expose the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP to the systemic circulation and induce an autoimmune reaction. In this study, we confirmed our previous observation of antibodies in human degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs cultured in vitro. We hypothesised that the presence of antibodies was due to an autoimmune reaction against specific proteins of the disc. Furthermore we identified antigens which possibly trigger an autoimmune response in degenerative disc diseases. We demonstrated that degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs contain IgG antibodies against typical extracellular proteins of the disc, particularly proteins of the NP. We identified IgGs against collagen type II and aggrecan, confirming an autoimmune reaction against the normally immune privileged NP. We also found specific IgGs against collagens types I and V, but not against collagen type III. In conclusion, this study confirmed the association between disc degeneration and autoimmunity, and may open the avenue for future studies on developing prognostic, diagnostic and therapy-monitoring markers for degenerative disc diseases.

  16. Label-free Raman monitoring of extracellular matrix formation in three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunstar, A.; Leferink, Anne Marijke; Okagbare, P.I.; Morris, M.D.; Roessler, B.J.; Otto, Cornelis; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. Raman spectroscopy can be used for non-invasive sensing of cellular and ECM biochemistry. We have investigated

  17. Extracellular matrix turnover and inflammatory markers independently predict functional status and outcome in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radauceanu, Anca; Ducki, Camille; Virion, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Patrick; Mallat, Ziad; McMurray, John; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Mann, Douglas L.; Capiaumont-Vin, Josette; Li, Minjiang; Hanriot, Didier; Zannad, Faiez

    Background: Inflammatory pathways may promote extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and chronic heart failure (CHF) progression. The relationship between markers of inflammation and of ECM remodeling, and their influence oil functional status and outcomes has not been examined in a large cohort of

  18. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Abud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in resistant venous ulcers. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of patients with treatment-resistant venous ulceration who were treated with amelogenin extracellular matrix protein between June 2011 and December 2012.. Results: 26 patients (21 male and 5 female with a total number of 28 ulcers (24 patients with 1 ulcer, 2 patients with two ulcers were evaluated. The patients were treated with topically applied amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and regional four bandage compression. Bandages were changed weekly. Each cure continued for six weeks. In fourteen patients (15 ulcers, we observed a complete healing by the end of the first cure. In another twelve cases (13 ulcers, the same period resulted with a reduction in wound diameter. We continued to the second cure for these patients. By the end of the second cure, complete healing was achieved in five cases (6 ulcers. Conclusion: Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein may be considered as an effective therapeutic choice for refractory venous ulcers.

  19. Interactions of human tenascin-X domains with dermal extracellular matrix molecules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egging, D.; Berkmortel, F. van den; Taylor, G.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2007-01-01

    Tenascin-X (TNX) is a large 450 kDa extracellular matrix protein expressed in a variety of tissues including skin, joints and blood vessels. Deficiency of TNX causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome characterized by joint hypermobility, skin fragility and hyperextensible skin. Skin of TNX

  20. Extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trappetti

    Full Text Available During infection, pneumococci exist mainly in sessile biofilms rather than in planktonic form, except during sepsis. However, relatively little is known about how biofilms contribute to pneumococcal pathogenesis. Here, we carried out a biofilm assay on opaque and transparent variants of a clinical serotype 19F strain WCH159. After 4 days incubation, scanning electron microscopy revealed that opaque biofilm bacteria produced an extracellular matrix, whereas the transparent variant did not. The opaque biofilm-derived bacteria translocated from the nasopharynx to the lungs and brain of mice, and showed 100-fold greater in vitro adherence to A549 cells than transparent bacteria. Microarray analysis of planktonic and sessile bacteria from transparent and opaque variants showed differential gene expression in two operons: the lic operon, which is involved in choline uptake, and in the two-component system, ciaRH. Mutants of these genes did not form an extracellular matrix, could not translocate from the nasopharynx to the lungs or the brain, and adhered poorly to A549 cells. We conclude that only the opaque phenotype is able to form extracellular matrix, and that the lic operon and ciaRH contribute to this process. We propose that during infection, extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of pneumococci to cause invasive disease.

  1. Differences in cellular infiltrate and extracellular matrix of chronic diabetic and venous ulcers versus acute wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, M. A.; Lamme, E. N.; Zeegelaar, J.; Mekkes, J. R.; Bos, J. D.; Middelkoop, E.

    1998-01-01

    In diabetic patients, wound healing is impaired. We studied the pathogenesis behind this clinical observation by characterizing the pattern of deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and the cellular infiltrate in chronic (>8 wk) diabetic wounds, compared with chronic venous ulcers and an

  2. Proteoglycan changes in the extracellular matrix of lung tissue from patients with pulmonary emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, JFM; Coers, W; Noordhoek, JA; Flipsen, JTM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; Postma, DS

    To characterize the changes in the extracellular matrix in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, we undertook immunohistochemical studies in lung tissues from controls (n = 7), from patients with mild (n = 11) and severe (n = 8) emphysema, and from patients with lung fibrosis (n = 6). We studied

  3. Involutional ectropion and entropion: clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and eyelid extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Renato Wendell; Osaki, Midori Hentona; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa; Belfort, Rubens

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastic fibers, in involutional ectropion and entropion. Another goal was to compare the differences between involutional ectropion and entropion in regard to extracellular matrix content using computer-assisted morphometry. This clinicopathologic study included 20 consecutive patients with involutional ectropion (group 1) and 20 consecutive patients with involutional entropion (group 2). The pinch test was performed to measure horizontal eyelid laxity in both groups. Full-thickness eyelid biopsy specimens were examined by light microscopy and computer-assisted morphometry. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Pearson chi-square test, the Pearson correlation coefficient calculation, and a linear regression analysis were performed. All sections of specimens from patients in groups 1 and 2 revealed abnormal collagen and elastic fibers. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant negative correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix content in the eyelid skin, the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle, the perimeibomian tarsal stroma, and the intermeibomian tarsal stroma. Linear regression demonstrated that horizontal eyelid laxity is dependent upon extracellular matrix components in all eyelid regions. Collagen fiber content was significantly increased in specimens from patients in group 1 compared with specimens from patients in group 2. The present findings suggest that a reduction of collagen and elastic fibers may contribute to the development of excessive horizontal eyelid laxity in patients with involutional ectropion and entropion of the lower eyelid.

  4. INTEGRINS AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-PROTEINS IN THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF THE WILMS-TUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERINGA, J; MOLENAAR, WM; TIMENS, W

    The Wilms' tumour (WT) is composed of blastema, epithelium and mesenchyme; the epithelium and possibly also the mesenchyme develop from the blastema, parallel to embryonal development. Since interactions between cell adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play an important role

  5. Adherence of Staphylococci to plastic, mesothelial cells and mesothelial extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betjes, M. G.; Tuk, C. W.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.; Beelen, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we have investigated whether mesothelial cells (MC) and mesothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) are suitable substrates for the adherence of Staphylococci. Mesothelial cells were isolated from the peritoneal dialysis effluent by making use of their lack of Fc-receptors and capacity to

  6. Extracellular matrix in airway smooth muscle is associated with dynamics of airway function in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yick, C. Y.; Ferreira, D. S.; Annoni, R.; von der Thüsen, J. H.; Kunst, P. W.; Bel, E. H.; Lutter, R.; Mauad, T.; Sterk, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer as observed in asthma may influence ASM mechanical properties. We hypothesized that ECM in ASM is associated with airway function in asthma. First, we investigated the difference in ECM expression in

  7. The extracellular matrix - the under-recognized element in lung disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Mauad, Thais; Tjin, Gavin; Karlsson, Jenny C.; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    The lung is composed of airways and lung parenchyma, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) contains the main building blocks of both components. The ECM provides physical support and stability to the lung, and as such it has in the past been regarded as an inert structure. More recent research has

  8. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2017-06-01

    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  9. Cell contraction induces long-ranged stress stiffening in the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu Long; Ronceray, Pierre; Xu, Guoqiang; Malandrino, Andrea; Kamm, Roger D; Lenz, Martin; Broedersz, Chase P; Guo, Ming

    2018-04-04

    Animal cells in tissues are supported by biopolymer matrices, which typically exhibit highly nonlinear mechanical properties. While the linear elasticity of the matrix can significantly impact cell mechanics and functionality, it remains largely unknown how cells, in turn, affect the nonlinear mechanics of their surrounding matrix. Here, we show that living contractile cells are able to generate a massive stiffness gradient in three distinct 3D extracellular matrix model systems: collagen, fibrin, and Matrigel. We decipher this remarkable behavior by introducing nonlinear stress inference microscopy (NSIM), a technique to infer stress fields in a 3D matrix from nonlinear microrheology measurements with optical tweezers. Using NSIM and simulations, we reveal large long-ranged cell-generated stresses capable of buckling filaments in the matrix. These stresses give rise to the large spatial extent of the observed cell-induced matrix stiffness gradient, which can provide a mechanism for mechanical communication between cells.

  10. Extracellular Matrix Molecular Remodeling in Human Liver Fibrosis Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baiocchini

    Full Text Available Chronic liver damage leads to pathological accumulation of ECM proteins (liver fibrosis. Comprehensive characterization of the human ECM molecular composition is essential for gaining insights into the mechanisms of liver disease. To date, studies of ECM remodeling in human liver diseases have been hampered by the unavailability of purified ECM. Here, we developed a decellularization method to purify ECM scaffolds from human liver tissues. Histological and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the ECM scaffolds, devoid of plasma and cellular components, preserved the three-dimensional ECM structure and zonal distribution of ECM components. This method has been then applied on 57 liver biopsies of HCV-infected patients at different stages of liver fibrosis according to METAVIR classification. Label-free nLC-MS/MS proteomics and computation biology were performed to analyze the ECM molecular composition in liver fibrosis progression, thus unveiling protein expression signatures specific for the HCV-related liver fibrotic stages. In particular, the ECM molecular composition of liver fibrosis was found to involve dynamic changes in matrix stiffness, flexibility and density related to the dysregulation of predominant collagen, elastic fibers and minor components with both structural and signaling properties. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular bases underlying ECM remodeling in liver fibrosis and suggests new molecular targets for fibrolytic strategies.

  11. Cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion are linked by syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakideeri Karat, Sandeep Gopal; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan......-4, has been shown to regulate focal adhesions, junctions that form at the ends of microfilament bundles in response to matrix components such as fibronectin. Recently it has been shown that signaling emanating from this proteoglycan receptor includes regulation of Rho family GTPases and cytosolic...

  12. L-carnitine enhances extracellular matrix synthesis in human primary chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppoloni, Daniela; Politi, Laura; Dalla Vedova, Pietro; Messano, Masa; Koverech, Aleardo; Scandurra, Roberto; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative joint disease for which there is no cure. It is treated mainly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to control the symptoms and some supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate in order to obtain structure-modifying effects. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of L-carnitine, a molecule with a role in cellular energy metabolism, on extracellular matrix synthesis in human primary chondrocytes (HPCs). Dose-dependent effect of L-carnitine on cartilage matrix production, cell proliferation and ATP synthesis was examined by incubating HPCs with various amounts of molecule in monolayer (2D) and in hydromatrix scaffold (3D). L-Carnitine affected extracellular matrix synthesis in 3D in a dose-dependent manner; moreover, L-carnitine was very effective to stimulate cell proliferation and to induce ATP synthesis, mainly in 3D culture condition. In conclusion, L-carnitine enhances cartilage matrix glycosaminoglycan component production and cell proliferation, suggesting that this molecule could be useful in the treatment of pathologies where extracellular matrix is degraded, such as OA. To our knowledge, this is the first study where the effects of L-carnitine are evaluated in HPCs.

  13. Sprifermin (rhFGF18) modulates extracellular matrix turnover in cartilage explants ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reker, Ditte; Kjelgaard-Petersen, Cecilie Freja; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sprifermin (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18) is in clinical development as a potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). In vitro studies have shown that cartilage regenerative properties of sprifermin involve chondrocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix...... aggrecanase activity. Results: Sprifermin was able to reach the chondrocytes through the extracellular matrix, as it increased cell proliferation and metabolic activity of explants. ProC2 and CS846 was dose-dependently increased (P ... by immuno-histochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. ECM turnover was quantified by biomarker ELISAs; ProC2 reflecting type II collagen formation, CS846 reflecting aggrecan formation, active MMP9, C2M and AGNx2 reflecting matrix metalloproteinase activity, and AGNx1 reflecting...

  14. Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Derived from Human Umbilical Cord as a Scaffold for Neural Tissue Repair and Its Comparison with Extracellular Matrix from Porcine Tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, Zuzana; Výborný, Karel; Dubišová, Jana; Vacková, Irena; Jäger, Aleš; Lunov, Oleg; Jiráková, Klára; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2017), s. 333-345 ISSN 1937-3384 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01396S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000419 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : extracellular matrix * hydrogel * umbilical cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology; Biophysics (FZU-D)

  15. Fractional Excretion of Survivin, Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer, and Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bargenda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT is defined as a transformation of tubular epithelial cells into mesenchymal ones. These cells migrate through the extracellular matrix and change into active myofibroblasts, which are responsible for excessive matrix deposition. Such changes may lead to tubular dysfunction and fibrosis of the renal parenchyma, characteristic of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are no data on potential EMT markers in children with CKD. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of fractional excretion (FE of survivin, E-cadherin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP7, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as potential markers of CKD-related complications such as tubular damage and fibrosis. Methods: Forty-one pre-dialysis children with CKD Stages 3–5 and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The serum and urine concentrations of analysed parameters were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: Tubular reabsorption of all analysed parameters was >99% in the control group. All FE values rose significantly in children with CKD, yet they remained 1%. Conclusions: FE of the examined markers may become a useful tool in the assessment of tubular dysfunction during the course of CKD. The FE of survivin, EMMPRIN, and MMP7 warrant further research as potential independent markers of kidney-specific EMT.

  16. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm.

  17. The extracellular matrix of the lung and its role in edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pelosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is composed of a three-dimensional fiber mesh filled with different macromolecules such as: collagen (mainly type I and III, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans. In the lung, the extracellular matrix has several functions which provide: 1 mechanical tensile and compressive strength and elasticity, 2 low mechanical tissue compliance contributing to the maintenance of normal interstitial fluid dynamics, 3 low resistive pathway for an effective gas exchange, d control of cell behavior by the binding of growth factors, chemokines, cytokines and the interaction with cell-surface receptors, and e tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmentation and disorganization of extracellular matrix components comprises the protective role of the extracellular matrix, leading to interstitial and eventually severe lung edema. Thus, once conditions of increased microvascular filtration are established, matrix remodeling proceeds fairly rapidly due to the activation of proteases. Conversely, a massive matrix deposition of collagen fiber decreases interstitial compliance and therefore makes the tissue safety factor stronger. As a result, changes in lung extracellular matrix significantly affect edema formation and distribution in the lung.A matriz extracelular é um aglomerado tridimensional demacromoléculas composta por: fibras colágenas (principalmente, tipos I e III, elastina, glicosaminoglicanos e proteoglicanos. No pulmão, a matriz extracelular tem várias funções, tais como: 1 promover estresse tensil e elasticidade tecidual, 2 contribuir para a manutenção da dinâmica de fluidos no interstício, 3 propiciar efetiva troca gasosa, 4 controlar a função celular através de sua ligação com fatores de crescimento, quimiocinas, citocinas e interação com receptores de superfície, e 5 remodelamento e reparo tecidual. A fragmentação e a desorganização da matriz extracelular pode acarretar edema intersticial e

  18. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular matrix protein (Emp) has a fibrous structure and binds to different extracellular matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Jennifer; Neubauer, Svetlana; Pöllath, Christine; Hansen, Uwe; Rizzo, Fabio; Krafft, Christoph; Westermann, Martin; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peters, Georg; Pletz, Mathias W; Löffler, Bettina; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Tuchscherr, Lorena

    2017-10-20

    The extracellular matrix protein Emp of Staphylococcus aureus is a secreted adhesin that mediates interactions between the bacterial surface and extracellular host structures. However, its structure and role in staphylococcal pathogenesis remain unknown. Using multidisciplinary approaches, including circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron (TEM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, functional ELISA assays and in silico techniques, we characterized the Emp protein. We demonstrated that Emp and its truncated forms bind to suprastructures in human skin, cartilage or bone, among which binding activity seems to be higher for skin compounds. The binding domain is located in the C-terminal part of the protein. CD spectroscopy revealed high contents of β-sheets (39.58%) and natively disordered structures (41.2%), and TEM suggested a fibrous structure consisting of Emp polymers. The N-terminus seems to be essential for polymerization. Due to the uncommonly high histidine content, we suggest that Emp represents a novel type of histidine-rich protein sharing structural similarities to leucine-rich repeats proteins as predicted by the I-TASSER algorithm. These new findings suggest a role of Emp in infections of deeper tissue and open new possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Mimicking cell/extracellular matrix adhesion with lipid membranes and solid substrates: requirements, pitfalls and proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Damien; Vezy, Cyrille; Viallat, Annie; Bassereau, Patricia; Nassoy, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    The interest in physical approaches to the study of cell adhesion has generated numerous recent works on the development of substrates mimicking the extracellular matrix and the use of giant synthetic liposomes, commonly considered as basic models of living cells. The use of well-characterized bioactive substrates and artificial cells should allow us to gain new insight into the cell-extracellular matrix interactions, provided that their biomimetic relevance has been really proved. The aim of this paper is to define some minimal requirements for effective biomimetic features and to propose simple adhesion assays. We show, for instance, that immobilization of specific ligands is sometimes not sufficient to ensure specific adhesion of cells expressing the corresponding receptors. By investigating comparatively the adhesive behaviour of decorated erythrocytes and vesicles, we also discuss the potentialities and limitations of synthetic vesicles as test cells.

  20. Microfluidic vascularized bone tissue model with hydroxyapatite-incorporated extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Norhana; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Sudong; Kim, Jangho; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-10-21

    Current in vitro systems mimicking bone tissues fail to fully integrate the three-dimensional (3D) microvasculature and bone tissue microenvironments, decreasing their similarity to in vivo conditions. Here, we propose 3D microvascular networks in a hydroxyapatite (HA)-incorporated extracellular matrix (ECM) for designing and manipulating a vascularized bone tissue model in a microfluidic device. Incorporation of HA of various concentrations resulted in ECM with varying mechanical properties. Sprouting angiogenesis was affected by mechanically modulated HA-extracellular matrix interactions, generating a model of vascularized bone microenvironment. Using this platform, we observed that hydroxyapatite enhanced angiogenic properties such as sprout length, sprouting speed, sprout number, and lumen diameter. This new platform integrates fibrin ECM with the synthetic bone mineral HA to provide in vivo-like microenvironments for bone vessel sprouting.

  1. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  2. Biochemical and biophysical aspects of collagen nanostructure in the extracellular matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláčná, Lucie; Bakešová, J.; Varga, F.; Košťáková, E.; Plánka, L.; Nečas, A.; Lukáš, D.; Amler, Evžen; Pelouch, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 1 (2007), S51-S60 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110403; GA AV ČR IAA500390702 Grant - others:-(CZ) 1M6798582302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Collagen * Extracellular matrix * Nanofibers Subject RIV: BO - Bio physics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  3. Putative Chitin Synthases from Branchiostoma floridae Show Extracellular Matrix-related Domains and Mosaic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Guerriero, Gea

    2012-01-01

    The transition from unicellular to multicellular life forms requires the development of a specialized structural component, the extracellular matrix (ECM). In Metazoans, there are two main supportive systems, which are based on chitin and collagen/hyaluronan, respectively. Chitin is the major constituent of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeleton. However, presence of chitin/chitooligosaccharides has been reported in lower chordates and during specific stages of vertebrate development. In...

  4. Inhibition of extracellular matrix production and remodeling by doxycycline in smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Palomino-Morales; Carolina Torres; Sonia Perales; Ana Linares; Maria Jose Alejandre

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) production and remodeling of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in processes related to the differentiation in atherosclerosis. Due to the anti-atherosclerotic properties of the tetracyclines, we aimed to investigate whether cholesterol supplementation changes the effect of doxycycline over the ECM proteins synthesis and whether isoprenylated proteins and Rho A protein activation are affected. SMC primary culture isolated from chicks ...

  5. Bral1: "Superglue" for the extracellular matrix in the brain white matter.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cicanič, Michal; Syková, Eva; Vargová, Lýdia

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2012), s. 596-599 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1597; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : extracellular matrix * link proteins * signal transmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2012

  6. Extracellular matrix stiffness causes systematic variations in proliferation and chemosensitivity in myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Won; Mooney, David J

    2016-10-25

    Extracellular matrix stiffness influences biological functions of some tumors. However, it remains unclear how cancer subtypes with different oncogenic mutations respond to matrix stiffness. In addition, the relevance of matrix stiffness to in vivo tumor growth kinetics and drug efficacy remains elusive. Here, we designed 3D hydrogels with physical parameters relevant to hematopoietic tissues and adapted them to a quantitative high-throughput screening format to facilitate mechanistic investigations into the role of matrix stiffness on myeloid leukemias. Matrix stiffness regulates proliferation of some acute myeloid leukemia types, including MLL-AF9 + MOLM-14 cells, in a biphasic manner by autocrine regulation, whereas it decreases that of chronic myeloid leukemia BCR-ABL + K-562 cells. Although Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin ligand and matrix softening confer resistance to a number of drugs, cells become sensitive to drugs against protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) and rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) proteins regardless of matrix stiffness when MLL-AF9 and BCR-ABL are overexpressed in K-562 and MOLM-14 cells, respectively. By adapting the same hydrogels to a xenograft model of extramedullary leukemias, we confirm the pathological relevance of matrix stiffness in growth kinetics and drug sensitivity against standard chemotherapy in vivo. The results thus demonstrate the importance of incorporating 3D mechanical cues into screening for anticancer drugs.

  7. Collagen VI disorders: Insights on form and function in the extracellular matrix and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamandé, Shireen R; Bateman, John F

    2017-12-22

    Mutations in the three canonical collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3, cause a spectrum of muscle disease from Bethlem myopathy at the mild end to the severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Mutations can be either dominant or recessive and the resulting clinical severity is influenced by the way mutations impact the complex collagen VI assembly process. Most mutations are found towards the N-terminus of the triple helical collagenous domain and compromise extracellular microfibril assembly. Outside the triple helix collagen VI is highly polymorphic and discriminating mutations from rare benign changes remains a major diagnostic challenge. Collagen VI deficiency alters extracellular matrix structure and biomechanical properties and leads to increased apoptosis and oxidative stress, decreased autophagy, and impaired muscle regeneration. Therapies that target these downstream consequences have been tested in a collagen VI null mouse and also in small human trials where they show modest clinical efficacy. An important role for collagen VI in obesity, cancer and diabetes is emerging. A major barrier to developing effective therapies is the paucity of information about how collagen VI deficiency in the extracellular matrix signals the final downstream consequences - the receptors involved and the intracellular messengers await further characterization. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between melanocytes, mechanical properties and extracellular matrix composition in mouse heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Flavia; Kruithof, Boudewijn Pt; Balani, Kanthesh; Agarwal, Arvind; Gaussin, Vinciane; Kos, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Heart valves are complex structures composed of organized layers of extracellular matrix, and interstitial and overlying endothelial cells. In this article, we present the specific localization of a population of melanocytes within the murine heart valves at ages important for their post-natal development. In all stages analyzed in our study, melanocytes were found in high numbers populating the atrial aspect of the tricuspid and mitral leaflets. The pulmonary valve did not present melanocytes. To characterize a putative role for the valve melanocytes, the dynamic nanomechanical properties of tricuspid leaftets containing large numbers or no melanocytes were measured. The stiffness coefficient of hyperpigmented leaflets was higher (11.5 GPa) than the ones from wild-type (7.5 GPa) and hypopigmented (5.5 GPa) leaflets. These results suggest that melanocytes may contribute to the mechanical properties of the heart valves. The arrangement of extracellular matrix molecules such as Collagen I and Versican B is responsible for the mechanical characteristics of the leaflets. Melanocytes were found to reside primarily in areas of Versican B expression. The patterns of expression of Collagen I and Versican B were not, however, disrupted in hyper or hypopigmented leaflets. Melanocytes may affect other extracellular matrix molecules to alter the valves' microenvironment.

  9. Correlation between expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and cervical lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Chen, Mao-Huai; Wu, Ming-Yao; Wu, Xian-Ying

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and studied their relationship with cervical lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of EMMPRIN and MMP-2 in specimens from patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (CN), nonmetastastic NPC (NM-NPC), and lymph node-metastatic NPC (LNM-NPC). The rates of positive EMMPRIN expression in CN, NM-NPC, and LNM-NPC were 13.3%, 30.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Significant differences were found between the rates in CN and LNM-NPC (p correlated (rs = 0.466; p <0.01). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells may attain enhanced metastastic capability through the expression of MMP-2 induced by EMMPRIN.

  10. Functional Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds Used for Liver Organoid Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Ryan C.; Hanson, Ariel D.; Feingold, Steven; Cashion, Avery T.; Corcimaru, Ana; Wu, Bryant T.; Mullins, Christopher R.; Aylward, Stephen R.; Reid, Lola M.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A method of 3D functional ultrasound imaging has been developed to enable non-destructive assessment of extracellular matrix scaffolds that have been prepared by decellularization protocols and are intended for recellularization to create organoids. A major challenge in organ decellularization is retaining patent micro-vascular structures crucial for nutrient access and functionality of organoids. The imaging method described here provides statistical distributions of flow rates throughout the tissue volumes, 3D vessel network architecture visualization, characterization of microvessel volumes and sizes, and delineation of matrix from vascular circuits. The imaging protocol was tested on matrix scaffolds that are tissue-specific, but not species-specific, matrix extracts, prepared by a process that preserved >98% of the collagens, collagen-associated matrix components, and matrix-bound growth factors and cytokines. Image-derived data are discussed with respect to assessment of scaffolds followed by proof-of-concept studies in organoid establishment using Hep3B, human hepatoblast-like cells. Histology showed that the cells attached to scaffolds with patent vasculature within minutes, achieved engraftment at near 100%, expressed liver-specific functions within 24h, and yielded evidence of proliferation and increasing differentiation of cells throughout the two weeks of culture studies. This imaging method should prove valuable in analyses of such matrix scaffolds. PMID:24011714

  11. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Kyker, Kimberly D; Saban, Ricardo; Knowlton, Nicholas; Dozmorov, Igor; Centola, Michael B; Hurst, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  12. Glutathione peroxidase 3 localizes to the epithelial lining fluid and the extracellular matrix in interstitial lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schamberger, A.; Schiller, H.; Fernandez, I.; Sterclova, M.; Heinzelmann, K.; Hennen, E.; Hatz, R.; Behr, J.; Vasakova, M.; Mann, M.; Eickelberg, O.; Staab-Weijnitz, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant antioxidant activity and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) are hallmarks of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). It is known that oxidative stress alters the ECM, but extracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms in ILD are incompletely understood. Here, we extracted abundance and detergent solubility of extracellular antioxidant enzymes from a proteomic dataset of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice and assessed regulation and distribution of glutathione peroxidase ...

  13. The Ameloblastin extracellular matrix molecule enhances bone fracture resistance and promotes rapid bone fracture healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanyu; Li, Wenjin; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support, cell migration anchorage, cell differentiation cues, and fine-tuned cell proliferation signals during all stages of bone fracture healing, including cartilaginous callus formation, callus remodeling, and bony bridging of the fracture gap. In the present study we have defined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (AMBN) in fracture resistance and fracture healing of mouse long bones. To this end, long bones from WT and AMBNΔ5-6 truncation model mice were subjected to biomechanical analysis, fracture healing assays, and stem cell colony formation comparisons. The effect of exogenous AMBN addition to fracture sites was also determined. Our data indicate that lack of a functional AMBN in the bone matrix resulted in 31% decreased femur bone mass and 40% reduced energy to failure. On a cellular level, AMBN function inhibition diminished the proliferative capacity of fracture repair callus cells, as evidenced by a 58% reduction in PCNA and a 40% reduction in Cyclin D1 gene expression, as well as PCNA immunohistochemistry. In terms of fracture healing, AMBN truncation was associated with an enhanced and prolonged chondrogenic phase, resulting in delayed mineralized tissue gene expression and delayed ossification of the fracture repair callus. Underscoring a role of AMBN in fracture healing, there was a 6.9-fold increase in AMBN expression at the fracture site one week after fracture, and distinct AMBN immunolabeling in the fracture gap. Finally, application of exogenous AMBN protein to bone fracture sites accelerated callus formation and bone fracture healing (33% increase in bone volume and 19% increase in bone mineral density), validating the findings of our AMBN loss of function studies. Together, these data demonstrate the functional importance of the AMBN extracellular matrix protein in bone fracture prevention and rapid fracture healing. PMID:26899203

  14. Mechanical phenotyping of cells and extracellular matrix as grade and stage markers of lung tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzetta, Valeria; Musella, Ida; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-07-15

    The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. The mechanical phenotyping was performed on the surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung. A correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Our findings suggest a sort of asymmetric modification of the mechanical properties of the cells and the extra-cellular matrix in the tumor, being the more compliant cell even though it resides in a stiffer matrix. Overall, the simultaneous mechanical characterization of the tissues constituents (cells and ECM) provided new support for diagnosis and offered alternative points of analysis for cancer mechanobiology. When the integrity of the mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix is disturbed cancer, along with other diseases, may initiate and progress. Here, we show how a new technique gives the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. It was applied on surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung and a correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal recruitment of extracellular matrix proteins by excess Notch3 ECD: a new pathomechanism in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet-Leprêtre, Marie; Haddad, Iman; Baron-Menguy, Céline; Fouillot-Panchal, Maï; Riani, Meriem; Domenga-Denier, Valérie; Dussaule, Claire; Cognat, Emmanuel; Vinh, Joelle; Joutel, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, one of the most common inherited small vessel diseases of the brain, is characterized by a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix accumulation. The disease is caused by highly stereotyped mutations within the extracellular domain of the NOTCH3 receptor (Notch3(ECD)) that result in an odd number of cysteine residues. While CADASIL-associated NOTCH3 mutations differentially affect NOTCH3 receptor function and activity, they all are associated with early accumulation of Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates in small vessels. We still lack mechanistic explanation to link NOTCH3 mutations with small vessel pathology. Herein, we hypothesized that excess Notch3(ECD) could recruit and sequester functionally important proteins within small vessels of the brain. We performed biochemical, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analyses, using cerebral and arterial tissue derived from patients with CADASIL and mouse models of CADASIL that exhibit vascular lesions in the end- and early-stage of the disease, respectively. Biochemical fractionation of brain and artery samples demonstrated that mutant Notch3(ECD) accumulates in disulphide cross-linked detergent-insoluble aggregates in mice and patients with CADASIL. Further proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses identified two functionally important extracellular matrix proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) and vitronectin (VTN) that are sequestered into Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates. Using cultured cells, we show that increased levels or aggregation of Notch3 enhances the formation of Notch3(ECD)-TIMP3 complex, promoting TIMP3 recruitment and accumulation. In turn, TIMP3 promotes complex formation including NOTCH3 and VTN. In vivo, brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL exhibit elevated levels of both insoluble cross

  16. Host-Parasite Interaction: Parasite-Derived and -Induced Proteases That Degrade Human Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piña-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic protozoa are among the most important pathogens worldwide. Diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people. Humans are constantly threatened by infections caused by these pathogens. Parasites engage a plethora of surface and secreted molecules to attach to and enter mammalian cells. The secretion of lytic enzymes by parasites into host organs mediates critical interactions because of the invasion and destruction of interstitial tissues, enabling parasite migration to other sites within the hosts. Extracellular matrix is a complex, cross-linked structure that holds cells together in an organized assembly and that forms the basement membrane lining (basal lamina. The extracellular matrix represents a major barrier to parasites. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms for connective-tissue degradation may be of great importance for parasite survival. Recent advances have been achieved in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of proteases from parasitic protozoa. The focus of this paper is to discuss the role of protozoan parasitic proteases in the degradation of host ECM proteins and the participation of these molecules as virulence factors. We divide the paper into two sections, extracellular and intracellular protozoa.

  17. Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Marc D; Hoac, Betty; Addison, William N; Barros, Nilana M T; Millán, José L; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    As broadly demonstrated for the formation of a functional skeleton, proper mineralization of periodontal alveolar bone and teeth - where calcium phosphate crystals are deposited and grow within an extracellular matrix - is essential for dental function. Mineralization defects in tooth dentin and cementum of the periodontium invariably lead to a weak (soft or brittle) dentition in which teeth become loose and prone to infection and are lost prematurely. Mineralization of the extremities of periodontal ligament fibers (Sharpey's fibers) where they insert into tooth cementum and alveolar bone is also essential for the function of the tooth-suspensory apparatus in occlusion and mastication. Molecular determinants of mineralization in these tissues include mineral ion concentrations (phosphate and calcium), pyrophosphate, small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins and matrix vesicles. Amongst the enzymes important in regulating these mineralization determinants, two are discussed at length here, with clinical examples given, namely tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. Inactivating mutations in these enzymes in humans and in mouse models lead to the soft bones and teeth characteristic of hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia, respectively, where the levels of local and systemic circulating mineralization determinants are perturbed. In X-linked hypophosphatemia, in addition to renal phosphate wasting causing low circulating phosphate levels, phosphorylated mineralization-regulating small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins, such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein and osteopontin, and the phosphorylated peptides proteolytically released from them, such as the acidic serine- and aspartate-rich-motif peptide, may accumulate locally to impair mineralization in this disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cytoskeletal filament assembly and the control of cell spreading and function by extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, D. J.; Langer, R.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze how cell binding to extracellular matrix produces changes in cell shape. We focused on the initial process of cell spreading that follows cell attachment to matrix and, thus, cell 'shape' changes are defined here in terms of alterations in projected cell areas, as determined by computerized image analysis. Cell spreading kinetics and changes in microtubule and actin microfilament mass were simultaneously quantitated in hepatocytes plated on different extracellular matrix substrata. The initial rate of cell spreading was highly dependent on the matrix coating density and decreased from 740 microns 2/h to 50 microns 2/h as the coating density was lowered from 1000 to 1 ng/cm2. At approximately 4 to 6 hours after plating, this initial rapid spreading rate slowed and became independent of the matrix density regardless of whether laminin, fibronectin, type I collagen or type IV collagen was used for cell attachment. Analysis of F-actin mass revealed that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix resulted in a 20-fold increase in polymerized actin within 30 minutes after plating, before any significant change in cell shape was observed. This was followed by a phase of actin microfilament disassembly which correlated with the most rapid phase of cell extension and ended at about 6 hours; F-actin mass remained relatively constant during the slow matrix-independent spreading phase. Microtubule mass increased more slowly in spreading cells, peaking at 4 hours, the time at which the transition between rapid and slow spreading rates was observed. However, inhibition of this early rise in microtubule mass using either nocodazole or cycloheximide did not prevent this transition. Use of cytochalasin D revealed that microfilament integrity was absolutely required for hepatocyte spreading whereas interference with microtubule assembly (using nocodazole or taxol) or protein synthesis (using cycloheximide) only partially suppressed cell extension. In

  19. Cytoskeletal filament assembly and the control of cell spreading and function by extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, D J; Langer, R; Ingber, D E

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze how cell binding to extracellular matrix produces changes in cell shape. We focused on the initial process of cell spreading that follows cell attachment to matrix and, thus, cell 'shape' changes are defined here in terms of alterations in projected cell areas, as determined by computerized image analysis. Cell spreading kinetics and changes in microtubule and actin microfilament mass were simultaneously quantitated in hepatocytes plated on different extracellular matrix substrata. The initial rate of cell spreading was highly dependent on the matrix coating density and decreased from 740 microns 2/h to 50 microns 2/h as the coating density was lowered from 1000 to 1 ng/cm2. At approximately 4 to 6 hours after plating, this initial rapid spreading rate slowed and became independent of the matrix density regardless of whether laminin, fibronectin, type I collagen or type IV collagen was used for cell attachment. Analysis of F-actin mass revealed that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix resulted in a 20-fold increase in polymerized actin within 30 minutes after plating, before any significant change in cell shape was observed. This was followed by a phase of actin microfilament disassembly which correlated with the most rapid phase of cell extension and ended at about 6 hours; F-actin mass remained relatively constant during the slow matrix-independent spreading phase. Microtubule mass increased more slowly in spreading cells, peaking at 4 hours, the time at which the transition between rapid and slow spreading rates was observed. However, inhibition of this early rise in microtubule mass using either nocodazole or cycloheximide did not prevent this transition. Use of cytochalasin D revealed that microfilament integrity was absolutely required for hepatocyte spreading whereas interference with microtubule assembly (using nocodazole or taxol) or protein synthesis (using cycloheximide) only partially suppressed cell extension. In

  20. Chondrocyte secreted CRTAC1: a glycosylated extracellular matrix molecule of human articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Eric; Bräun, Jessica; Pelttari, Karoliina; Kadel, Stephanie; Kalbacher, Hubert; Richter, Wiltrud

    2007-01-01

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1), a novel human marker which allowed discrimination of human chondrocytes from osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in culture was so far studied only on the RNA-level. We here describe its genomic organisation and detect a new brain expressed (CRTAC1-B) isoform resulting from alternate last exon usage which is highly conserved in vertebrates. In humans, we identify an exon sharing process with the neighbouring tail-to-tail orientated gene leading to CRTAC1-A. This isoform is produced by cultured human chondrocytes, localized in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and its secretion can be stimulated by BMP4. Of five putative O-glycosylation motifs in the last exon of CRTAC1-A, the most C-terminal one is modified according to exposure of serial C-terminal deletion mutants to the O-glycosylation inhibitor Benzyl-alpha-GalNAc. Both isoforms contain four FG-GAP repeat domains and an RGD integrin binding motif, suggesting cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction potential. In summary, CRTAC1 acquired an alternate last exon from the tail-to-tail oriented neighbouring gene in humans resulting in the glycosylated isoform CRTAC1-A which represents a new extracellular matrix molecule of articular cartilage.

  1. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël M Martino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of extracellular matrix to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  2. Lib, transcriptionally induced in senile plaque-associated astrocytes, promotes glial migration through extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kazuki; Hata, Mitsumi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamada, Tatsuo

    2005-09-23

    In an effort to identify astrocyte-derived molecules that may be intimately associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lib, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to leucine-rich repeat superfamily, has been identified as a distinctly inducible gene, responsive to beta-amyloid as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. To evaluate the roles of Lib in AD, we investigated Lib expression in AD brain. In non-AD brain, Lib mRNA has been detected in neurons but not in quiescent astrocytes. On the contrary, in AD brain, Lib mRNA is expressed in activated astrocytes associated with senile plaques, but not expressed in neurons around lesions. Lib-expressing glioma cells displayed promotion of migration ability through reconstituted extracellular matrix and recombinant Lib protein bound to constituents of extracellular matrix. These observations suggest that Lib may contribute to regulation of cell-matrix adhesion interactions with respect to astrocyte recruitment around senile plaques in AD brain.

  3. VANGL2 interacts with integrin αv to regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tammy N; Jessen, Jason R

    2017-12-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are implicated in a variety of morphogenetic processes including embryonic cell migration and potentially cancer progression. During zebrafish gastrulation, the transmembrane protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) is required for PCP and directed cell migration. These cell behaviors occur in the context of a fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM). While it is thought that interactions with the ECM regulate cell migration, it is unclear how PCP proteins such as VANGL2 influence these events. Using an in vitro cell culture model system, we previously showed that human VANGL2 negatively regulates membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14) and activation of secreted matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Here, we investigated the functional relationship between VANGL2, integrin αvβ3, and MMP2 activation. We provide evidence that VANGL2 regulates cell surface integrin αvβ3 expression and adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin. Inhibition of MMP14/MMP2 activity suppressed the cell adhesion defect in VANGL2 knockdown cells. Furthermore, our data show that MMP14 and integrin αv are required for increased proteolysis by VANGL2 knockdown cells. Lastly, we have identified integrin αvβ3 as a novel VANGL2 binding partner. Together, these findings begin to dissect the molecular underpinnings of how VANGL2 regulates MMP activity and cell adhesion to the ECM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching the Extracellular Matrix and Introducing Online Databases within a Multidisciplinary Course with i-Cell-MATRIX: A Student-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joao Carlos; Costa, Manuel Joao; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The biochemistry and molecular biology of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is difficult to convey to students in a classroom setting in ways that capture their interest. The understanding of the matrix's roles in physiological and pathological conditions study will presumably be hampered by insufficient knowledge of its molecular structure.…

  5. The contribution of the extracellular matrix to gravisensing in characean cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    The cell-extracellular matrix junction, which includes the cell wall and the outer surface of the plasma membrane, may be an essential region for the perception of gravity by the internodal cells of Chara corallina. Typically, when an internodal cell is oriented vertically, the downwardly directed cytoplasmic stream travels at a velocity that is 10% faster than that of the upwardly directed stream. However when the cells are treated with impermeant hydrolytic enzymes that partially digest cellulose or hemicellulose, the cells lose their ability to respond to gravity even though streaming continues. By contrast, enzymes that digest pectins have no effect on the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, gravisensing is sensitive to protease treatment; Proteinase K, thermolysin and collagenase but not trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin or carboxypeptidase B, inhibit gravisensing. These findings indicate that proteins in the cell-extracellular matrix junction may be required for gravisensing. Moreover, the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) inhibits gravisensing in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that the gravireceptor may be an integrin-like protein. The macromolecules necessary for gravisensing have been localized to the cell ends. As a consequence of the exoplasmic site of action of the enzymes and the tetrapeptides, we interpret the results to mean that they are acting on the gravireceptor, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that they are acting on the signal transduction chain. On the whole, our observations indicate that the cell-extracellular matrix junction is a sine qua non for graviperception in statolith-free Chara internodal cells and we suggest that the gravireceptor is located in this region.

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Pregnancy-induced adaptations in intramuscular extracellular matrix of rat pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Kaddis, Timothy; Pichika, Rajeswari; Esparza, Mary C; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Birth trauma to pelvic floor muscles is a major risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. Intramuscular extracellular matrix determines muscle stiffness, supports contractile component, and shields myofibers from mechanical strain. Our goal was to determine whether pregnancy alters extracellular matrix mechanical and biochemical properties in a rat model, which may provide insights into the pathogenesis of pelvic floor muscle birth injury. To examine whether pregnancy effects were unique to pelvic floor muscles, we also studied a hind limb muscle. Passive mechanical properties of coccygeus, iliocaudalis, pubocaudalis, and tibialis anterior were compared among 3-month old Sprague-Dawley virgin, late-pregnant, and postpartum rats. Muscle tangent stiffness was calculated as the slope of the stress-sarcomere length curve between 2.5 and 4.0 μm, obtained from a stress-relaxation protocol at a bundle level. Elastin and collagen isoform concentrations were quantified by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enzymatic and glycosylated collagen crosslinks were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were compared by the use of repeated-measures, 2-way analysis of variance with Tukey post-hoc testing. Correlations between mechanical and biochemical parameters were assessed by linear regressions. Significance was set to P pelvic floor muscle stiffness did not differ from virgins (P > .3). A substantial increase in collagen V in coccygeus and pubocaudalis was observed in late-pregnant, compared with virgin, animals, (P pelvic floor muscles (P pelvic floor muscles, the tibialis anterior was unaltered by pregnancy. In contrast to other pelvic tissues, pelvic floor muscle stiffness increased in pregnancy, returning to prepregnancy state postpartum. This adaptation may shield myofibers from excessive mechanical strain during parturition. Biochemical alterations in pelvic floor muscle extracellular matrix due to pregnancy include increase in collagen V

  8. Pregnancy-induced adaptations in intramuscular extracellular matrix of rat pelvic floor muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Kaddis, Timothy; Pichika, Rajeswari; Esparza, Mary C.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Birth trauma to pelvic floor muscles is a major risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. Intramuscular extracellular matrix determines muscle stiffness, supports contractile component, and shields myofibers from mechanical strain. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to determine whether pregnancy alters extracellular matrix mechanical and biochemical properties in a rat model, which may provide insights into the pathogenesis of pelvic floor muscle birth injury. To examine whether pregnancy effects were unique to pelvic floor muscles, we also studied a hind limb muscle. STUDY DESIGN Passive mechanical properties of coccygeus, iliocaudalis, pubocaudalis, and tibialis anterior were compared among 3-month old Sprague–Dawley virgin, late-pregnant, and postpartum rats. Muscle tangent stiffness was calculated as the slope of the stress–sarcomere length curve between 2.5 and 4.0 μm, obtained from a stress-relaxation protocol at a bundle level. Elastin and collagen isoform concentrations were quantified by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enzymatic and glycosylated collagen crosslinks were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were compared by the use of repeated-measures, 2-way analysis of variance with Tukey post-hoc testing. Correlations between mechanical and biochemical parameters were assessed by linear regressions. Significance was set to P pelvic floor muscle stiffness did not differ from virgins (P > .3). A substantial increase in collagen V in coccygeus and pubocaudalis was observed in late-pregnant, compared with virgin, animals, (P pelvic floor muscles (P pelvic floor muscles, the tibialis anterior was unaltered by pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS In contrast to other pelvic tissues, pelvic floor muscle stiffness increased in pregnancy, returning to prepregnancy state post-partum. This adaptation may shield myofibers from excessive mechanical strain during parturition. Biochemical alterations in pelvic floor muscle extracellular matrix

  9. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  10. Understanding cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling to develop biomarkers of myocardial infarction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Holm; Mouton, Alan J.; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in industrialized countries, and myocardial infarction (MI) is a major CVD with significant morbidity and mortality. Following MI, the left ventricle (LV) undergoes a wound healing response to ischemia that results in extracellular...... matrix (ECM) scar formation to replace necrotic myocytes. While ECM accumulation following MI is termed cardiac fibrosis, this is a generic term that does not differentiate between ECM accumulation that occurs in the infarct region to form a scar that is structurally necessary to preserve left ventricle...

  11. Impact of TGF-β inhibition during acute exercise on Achilles tendon extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, Ross M; Huynh, Richard T; Volper, Brent D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TGF-β1 in regulating tendon extracellular matrix after acute exercise. Wistar rats exercised (n = 15) on a treadmill for four consecutive days (60 min/day) or maintained normal cage activity. After each exercise bout, the peritendinous space o...... suggest that TGF-β1 signaling is necessary for the regulation of tendon cross-link formation, as well as collagen and LOX gene transcription in an exercise-dependent manner....

  12. Proteomics of Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy support that the extracellular matrix of Descemet's membrane is disordered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Runager, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a major corneal disorder affecting the innermost part of the cornea, leading to visual impairment. As the morphological changes in FECD are mainly observed in the extracellular matrix of the Descemet's membrane/endothelial layer we determined......, respectively, of which 10 were significantly regulated. The results indicated that the level of type VIII collagen was unaltered even though the protein previously has been implicated in familial early onset forms of the disease. Using the second relative quantitation method iTRAQ we identified 22...

  13. Of extracellular matrix, scaffolds, and signaling: Tissuearchitectureregulates development, homeostasis, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-03-09

    The microenvironment surrounding cells influences gene expression, such that a cell's behavior is largely determined by its interactions with the extracellular matrix, neighboring cells, and soluble cues released locally or by distant tissues. We describe the essential role of context and organ structure in directing mammary gland development and differentiated function, and in determining response to oncogenic insults including mutations. We expand on the concept of 'dynamic reciprocity' to present an integrated view of development, cancer, and aging, and posit that genes are like piano keys: while essential, it is the context that makes the music.

  14. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  15. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in almost all stages of atherosclerosis, by both initiating atherosclerotic plaques and degrading them through the secretion of proteolytic enzymes leading to rupture. This review summarizes the literature on the role of macrophages and their proteolytic activity on proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM...... of the constituents of the ECM of the atherosclerotic plaque. At present it is not clear which proteases play pivotal roles at distinct stages of pathogenesis, rather that the combined proteolytic potential with some proteases at early stages and other at later stages may result in plaque rupture. This macrophage...

  16. Cinematographic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell interactions with extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Baldor, L

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells with growth modulators and extracellular matrix molecules may play a role in the proliferation and migration of these cells after vascular injury and during the development of atherosclerosis. Time-lapse cinematographic techniques have been used to study cell division and migration of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells in response to matrix molecules consisting of solubilized basement membrane (Matrigel) and type I collagen. When cells were grown adjacent to Matrigel, both migration and cell proliferation were increased and interdivision time was shortened. Cells grown in Matrigel or in type I collagen had markedly reduced migration rates but interdivision time was not altered. Further, diffusible components of the Matrigel were found to stimulate proliferation of the smooth muscle cells.

  17. Tendon development and musculoskeletal assembly: emerging roles for the extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arul; Schilling, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons and ligaments are extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich structures that interconnect muscles and bones. Recent work has shown how tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) interact with muscles via the ECM to establish connectivity and strengthen attachments under tension. Similarly, ECM-dependent interactions between tenocytes and cartilage/bone ensure that tendon-bone attachments form with the appropriate strength for the force required. Recent studies have also established a close lineal relationship between tenocytes and skeletal progenitors, highlighting the fact that defects in signals modulated by the ECM can alter the balance between these fates, as occurs in calcifying tendinopathies associated with aging. The dynamic fine-tuning of tendon ECM composition and assembly thus gives rise to the remarkable characteristics of this unique tissue type. Here, we provide an overview of the functions of the ECM in tendon formation and maturation that attempts to integrate findings from developmental genetics with those of matrix biology. PMID:26672092

  18. Embryonic lung morphogenesis in organ culture: experimental evidence for a proteoglycan function in the extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Bassett, K. E.; Spooner, B. S. Jr

    1993-01-01

    The lung rudiment, isolated from mid-gestation (11 day) mouse embryos, can undergo morphogenesis in organ culture. Observation of living rudiments, in culture, reveals both growth and ongoing bronchiolar branching activity. To detect proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, and deposition in the extracellular matrix, rudiments were metabolically labeled with radioactive sulfate, then fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for autoradiography. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) types, composing the carbohydrate component of the proteoglycans, were evaluated by selective GAG degradative approaches that showed chondroitin sulfate PG principally associated with the interstitial matrix, and heparan sulfate PG principally associated with the basement membrane. Experiments using the proteoglycan biosynthesis disrupter, beta-xyloside, suggest that when chondroitin sulfate PG deposition into the ECM is perturbed, branching morphogenesis is compromised.

  19. Image-inspired 3D multiphoton excited fabrication of extracellular matrix structures by modulated raster scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeti, Visar; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Chen, Shean-Jen; Su, Ping-Jung; Squirrell, Jayne M; Molinarolo, Katharine H; Lyons, Gary E; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Ogle, Brenda M; Campagnola, Paul J

    2013-10-21

    Multiphoton excited photochemistry is a powerful 3D fabrication tool that produces sub-micron feature sizes. Here we exploit the freeform nature of the process to create models of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of several tissues, where the design blueprint is derived directly from high resolution optical microscopy images (e.g. fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation). To achieve this goal, we implemented a new form of instrument control, termed modulated raster scanning, where rapid laser shuttering (10 MHz) is used to directly map the greyscale image data to the resulting protein concentration in the fabricated scaffold. Fidelity in terms of area coverage and relative concentration relative to the image data is ~95%. We compare the results to an STL approach, and find the new scheme provides significantly improved performance. We suggest the method will enable a variety of cell-matrix studies in cancer biology and also provide insight into generating scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  20. Relationships between mechanical properties and extracellular matrix constituents of the cervical stroma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Kaplan, David L; Socrate, Simona

    2009-10-01

    In normal pregnancy, the cervix maintains its shape during a period of substantial fetal and uterine growth. Hence, maintenance of biomechanical integrity is an important aspect of cervical function. It is known that cervical mechanical properties arise from extracellular matrix (ECM). The most important constituent of the cervical ECM is fibrillar collagen-it is collagen protein that the cervix derives its "strength" from. Other matrix molecules known to affect the collagen network include water, proteoglycans, hyaluronan, and elastin. The objective of this review is to discuss relationships between biochemical constituents and macroscopic mechanical properties. The individual constituents of the ECM will be discussed, especially in regard to collagen remodeling during pregnancy. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties of cervical tissue will be reviewed. An improved understanding of the biochemistry of cervical "strength" will shed light on how the cervix maintains its shape in normal pregnancy and shortens in preterm birth.

  1. Right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a comparison between bovine pericardium and porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ronak; Johnson, Jason; Kumar, T K S; Philip, Ranjit; Boston, Umar; Knott-Craig, Christopher J

    2017-05-29

    The porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix reportedly has the potential to differentiate into viable myocardial cells. When used in tetralogy of Fallot repair, it may improve right ventricular function. We evaluated right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium. Subjects with non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot with at least 1 year of follow-up were selected. The extracellular matrix and bovine pericardium groups were compared. We used three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricle global longitudinal strain, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to assess right ventricular function. The extracellular matrix group had 11 patients, whereas the bovine pericardium group had 10 patients. No differences between the groups were found regarding sex ratio, age at surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The follow-up period was 28±12.6 months in the extracellular matrix group and 50.05±17.6 months in the bovine pericardium group (p=0.001). The mean three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction (55.7±5.0% versus 55.3±5.2%, p=0.73), right ventricular global longitudinal strain (-18.5±3.0% versus -18.0±2.2%, p=0.44), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursions (1.59±0.16 versus 1.59±0.2, p=0.93) were similar in the extracellular matrix group and in the bovine pericardium group, respectively. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain in healthy children is reported at -29±3% in literature. In a small cohort of the patients undergoing non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, there was no significant difference in right ventricular function between groups having extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium patches followed-up for more than 1 year. Lower right ventricular longitudinal strain noted in both the groups compared to healthy children.

  2. Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Robert A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that activate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. To address this gap in knowledge, we have measured the effect of reducing adipocyte LPL expression on intracellular lipid accumulation using a well-established cultured model of adipocyte differentiation. Methods siRNA specific for mouse LPL was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of LPL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric detection following substrate (p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis. Apolipoprotein CII and CIII expression ratios were also measured by qRT-PCR. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by Nile Red staining. Results During differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, LPL mRNA expression increases 6-fold resulting in a 2-fold increase in cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity. Parallel to this increase in LPL expression, we found that intracellular lipids increased ~10-fold demonstrating a direct correlation between adipocyte-derived LPL expression and lipid storage. We next reduced LPL expression in adipocytes using siRNA transfections to directly quantify the contributions of adipocyte-derived LPL to lipid storage, This treatment reduced LPL mRNA expression and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity to ~50% of non-treated controls while intracellular lipid levels were reduced by 80%. Exogenous addition of purified LPL (to restore extracellular lipolytic activity or palmitate (as a source of free fatty acids to siRNA-treated cells restored intracellular lipid levels to those measured for non

  3. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-02-01

    The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate post-hoc tests. The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in the composite (overall P matrix graft

  4. Detection of Abnormal Extracellular Matrix in the Interstitium of Regenerating Renal Tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

  5. Detection of abnormal extracellular matrix in the interstitium of regenerating renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2014-12-15

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz's L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells.

  6. Heparanase isoform expression and extracellular matrix remodeling in intervertebral disc degenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. INTRODUCTION: Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. METHODS: Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.

  7. Regulatory roles of microtubule-associated proteins in neuronal morphogenesis. Involvement of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of recent investigations, the cytoskeleton can be viewed as a cytoplasmic system of interconnected filaments with three major integrative levels: self-assembling macromolecules, filamentous polymers, e.g., microtubules, intermediate filaments and actin filaments, and supramolecular structures formed by bundles of these filaments or networks resulting from cross-bridges between these major cytoskeletal polymers. The organization of this biological structure appears to be sensitive to fine spatially and temporally dependent regulatory signals. In differentiating neurons, regulation of cytoskeleton organization is particularly relevant, and the microtubule-associated protein (MAP tau appears to play roles in the extension of large neuritic processes and axons as well as in the stabilization of microtubular polymers along these processes. Within this context, tau is directly involved in defining neuronal polarity as well as in the generation of neuronal growth cones. There is increasing evidence that elements of the extracellular matrix contribute to the control of cytoskeleton organization in differentiating neurons, and that these regulations could be mediated by changes in MAP activity. In this brief review, we discuss the possible roles of tau in mediating the effects of extracellular matrix components on the internal cytoskeletal arrays and its organization in growing neurons.

  8. Bubaline Cholecyst Derived Extracellular Matrix for Reconstruction of Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Shakya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS and open wound (C in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2 was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS. In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM. Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P<0.05 increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III as compared to control (I and b-CS (II on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats.

  9. Salvage of Failed Local and Regional Flaps with Porcine Urinary Bladder Extracellular Matrix Aided Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Kruper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional flap failure can be a major complication in head and neck surgery, which continue to be prevalent for a number of reasons including poor flap design, improper surgical technique, and poor tissue vascularity. Dealing with these failures can be quite difficult. Surgical debridement, flap revisions, and complex wound regimens are necessitated to reestablish appropriate tissue coverage. Traditional use of wet to dry dressing to enable proper wound granulation and possible closure with additional flaps or skin grafts is a laborious process. Such treatments place great time burdens on the patient, physicians, and nurses. Because the face and neck possess a complex three-dimensional topography, wound dressings are inherently complex to design and change. Many patients also require postoperative treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy to treat aggressive malignancies, and delay in wound healing leads to a delay in adjuvant treatment. Recently, advances in regenerative medicine, specifically xenogeneic extracellular matrix compounds, have been shown to promote tissue growth while limiting scar tissue formation (Badylak 2004. To our knowledge, this paper is the first case series using the porcine extracellular matrix bioscaffold (MatriStem ACell, Columbia, MD, USA to salvage flaps with extensive wound breakdown on the face and neck.

  10. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sriram; Huang, Chun-Chieh; George, Anne

    2014-01-06

    Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world's population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM) incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs) were investigated for their ability to differentiate toward an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  11. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  12. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins: tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interchanged stromal-epithelial relations and altered expression profiles of various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins creates a suitable microenvironment for cancer development and growth. We support the opinion that remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important role in the cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ECM proteins tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Glands and surrounding stroma were analyzed in randomly selected specimens from 52 patients with prostate cancer and 28 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP. To evaluate the intensity of tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 expression the percentage of positively immunostained stromal cells was examined.Results: Compared to BPH, stroma of prostatic adenocarcinoma showed statistically significant increase in tenascin-C expression (p<0.001, predominantly around neoplastic glands, while fibronectin (p=0.001 and galectin-3 (p<0.001 expression in the same area was decreased.Conclusions: Our study confirms changes in the expression of ECM proteins of prostate cancer which may have important role in the cancer development.

  13. Heparanase isoform expression and extracellular matrix remodeling in intervertebral disc degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Mader, Ana Maria; Milani, Carlo; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2011-01-01

    To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.

  14. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eweida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  15. Collagen XII and XIV, New Partners of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Skin Extracellular Matrix Suprastructure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R.; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone. PMID:22573329

  16. An investigation of the influence of extracellular matrix anisotropy and cell–matrix interactions on tissue architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Dyson, R. J.

    2015-09-02

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Mechanical interactions between cells and the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside play a key role in tissue development. Mechanical cues from the environment (such as stress, strain and fibre orientation) regulate a range of cell behaviours, including proliferation, differentiation and motility. In turn, the ECM structure is affected by cells exerting forces on the matrix which result in deformation and fibre realignment. In this paper we develop a mathematical model to investigate this mechanical feedback between cells and the ECM. We consider a three-phase mixture of collagen, culture medium and cells, and formulate a system of partial differential equations which represents conservation of mass and momentum for each phase. This modelling framework takes into account the anisotropic mechanical properties of the collagen gel arising from its fibrous microstructure. We also propose a cell–collagen interaction force which depends upon fibre orientation and collagen density. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to study the influence of cell–ECM interactions on pattern formation in tissues. Our results illustrate the wide range of structures which may be formed, and how those that emerge depend upon the importance of cell–ECM interactions.

  17. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Birendra; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Koshi, Katsuo; Ushizawa, Koichi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Sato, Takashi; Ito, Akira; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

    2010-06-11

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14 suggesting its crucial role in adhesion and fusion of embryo to luminal

  18. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14 suggesting its crucial role in

  19. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoe Misa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14

  20. Preparation of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix by decellularization of rabbit livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Nari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrix. Methods: a combination of physical, chemical (Triton X-100 and SDS and enzymatic agents to decellularize rabbit livers was used. After 68 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and biochemical (DNA quantification studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using macroscopic staining, which revealed a correct conservation of bile and vascular trees. A microscopic observation corroborated these macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin staining showing no cells or nuclear material and the presence of a portal triad. Wilde's staining demonstrated the conservation of reticulin fibers in the decellularized matrix. In addition, scanning electron microscopy revealed a preserved Glisson's capsule and a decellularized matrix, with the DNA quantification being less than 10 % in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally, the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 96 hours. Conclusions: the proposed decellularization protocol was correct, and was verified by an absence of cells. The hepatic matrix had preserved vascular and bile ducts with a suitable three-dimensional architecture permitting further cell seeding.

  1. Novel serological neo-epitope markers of extracellular matrix proteins for the detection of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, D J; Karsdal, M A; Byrjalsen, I; Bendtsen, F; Trebicka, J; Nielsen, M J; Christiansen, C; Møller, S; Krag, A

    2013-11-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an invasive, but important diagnostic and prognostic marker in cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PHT). During cirrhosis, remodelling of fibrotic tissue by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a permanent process generating small fragments of degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins known as neoepitopes, which are then released into the circulation. To investigate their potential as plasma markers for detection of PHT. Ninety-four patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 liver-healthy controls were included. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected. All patients received HVPG measurement with blood sampling. In these samples, the following degradation or formation markers were measured: C1M (type I-collagen), C3M and PRO-C3 (type III collagen), C4M and P4NP 7S (type IV collagen), C5M (type V collagen), C6M (type VI collagen), BGM (biglycan), ELM (elastin), CRPM (CRP). All ECM markers except for CRPM correlated significantly with HVPG. Interestingly, C4M, C5M and ELM levels were significantly higher in patients with HVPG >10 mmHg. Multiple regression analysis identified PRO-C3, C6M and ELM as significant determinants, while the models A and B including PRO-C3, ELM, C6M and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) provided better description of PHT (r = 0.75, P models provided odds ratios of >100 for having clinical significant PHT. These novel non-invasive extracellular matrix markers reflect the degree of liver dysfunction. The different degrees of portal hypertension correlated with these circulating neoepitopes. Using a single blood sample, these neoepitopes in combination with MELD detect the level of portal hypertension. © 2013 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Neutrophil elastase processing of Gelatinase A is mediated by extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A.; Banda, M.J. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)

    1995-07-18

    Gelatinase A (72-kDa type IV collagenase) is a metalloproteinase that is expressed by many cells in culture and is overexpressed by some tumor cells. It has been suggested that the serine proteinase neutrophil elastase might play a role iii the posttranslational processing of gelatinase A and that noncatalytic interactions between gelatinase A and components of the extracellular matrix might alter potential processing pathways. These questions were addressed with the use of gelatin substrate zymography, gelatinolytic activity assays, and amino acid sequence analysis. We found that neutrophil elastase does proteolytically modify gelatinase A by cleaving at a number of sites within gelatinase A. Sequential treatment of gelatinase A with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) and neutrophil elastase yielded an active gelatinase with a 4-fold increase in gelatinolytic activity. The increased gelatinolytic activity correlated with that of a 40-kDa fragment of gelatinase A. Matrix components altered the proteolytic modifications in gelatinase A that were mediated by neutrophil elastase. In the absence of gelatin, neutrophil elastase destructively degraded gelatinase A by hydrolyzing at least two bonds within the fibronectin-like gelatin-binding domain of gelatinase A. In the presence of gelatin, these two inactivating cleavage sites were protected, and cleavage at a site within the hemopexin-like carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in a truncated yet active gelatinase. The results suggest a regulatory role for extracellular matrix molecules in stabilizing gelatinase A fragments and in altering the availability of sites susceptible to destructive proteolysis by neutrophil elastase. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Faslodex inhibits estradiol-induced extracellular matrix dynamics and lung metastasis in a model of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenggang; Zhou, Xiaobo; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Erik; Mancini, John D; Parkhitko, Andrey; Morrison, Tasha A; Silverman, Edwin K; Henske, Elizabeth P; Yu, Jane J

    2013-07-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease primarily affecting women. Genetic studies indicate that LAM cells carry inactivating tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-2 mutations, and metastasize to the lung. We previously discovered that estradiol increases the metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells in mice carrying xenograft tumors. Here, we investigate the molecular basis underlying the estradiol-induced lung metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells, and test the efficacy of Faslodex (an estrogen receptor antagonist) in a preclinical model of LAM. We used a xenograft tumor model in which estradiol induces the lung metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells. We analyzed the impact of Faslodex on tumor size, the extracellular matrix organization, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and lung metastasis. We also examined the effects of estradiol and Faslodex on MMP2 expression and activity in tuberin-deficient cells in vitro. Estradiol resulted in a marked reduction of Type IV collagen deposition in xenograft tumors, associated with 2-fold greater MMP2 concentrations compared with placebo-treated mice. Faslodex normalized the Type IV collagen changes in xenograft tumors, enhanced the survival of the mice, and completely blocked lung metastases. In vitro, estradiol enhanced MMP2 transcripts, protein accumulation, and activity. These estradiol-induced changes in MMP2 were blocked by Faslodex. In TSC2-deficient cells, estradiol increased MMP2 concentrations in vitro and in vivo, and induced extracellular matrix remodeling. Faslodex inhibits the estradiol-induced lung metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells. Targeting estrogen receptors with Faslodex may be of efficacy in the treatment of LAM.

  4. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is expressed in the form of proteoglycan and binds to the extracellular matrix protein tenascin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnea, G; Grumet, M; Milev, P

    1994-01-01

    immunohistochemical studies indicated that both RPTP beta and the extracellular matrix protein tenascin are localized in similar regions of the central nervous system. We have performed co-aggregation assays with red and green Co-vaspheres coated with tenascin and 3F8 PG, respectively, showing that the extracellular......The extracellular domain of receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) exhibits striking sequence similarity with a soluble, rat brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (3F8 PG). Immunoprecipitation experiments of cells transfected with RPTP beta expression vector and metabolically...... domain of RPTP beta (3F8 PG) binds specifically to tenascin. The interaction between a receptor tyrosine phosphatase and an extracellular matrix protein may have a role in development of the mammalian central nervous system....

  5. Developmental changes in extracellular matrix messenger RNAs in the mouse placenta during the second half of pregnancy: possible factors involved in the regulation of placental extracellular matrix expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Koji Y; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2007-12-01

    Expression of procollagens (Col1a1/2, Col3a1, Col4a1/2, Col5a1/2) and fibronectin 1 (Fn1) in the mouse fetal placental tissue was examined during the second half of pregnancy. Ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) revealed that levels of these mRNAs noticeably increased between Days 10 and 14 of pregnancy, and they remained at relatively constant levels thereafter. In situ hyridization showed that Col1a1 and Col4a1 mainly localized in the labyrinth, whereas Fn1 was expressed mainly in the spongiotrophoblast. Since members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily are involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in various tissues, mRNA levels of TGFB family members and their binding proteins were also examined by RPAs. Transforming growth factor-beta1-3 (Tgfb1-3), activin subunits (Inhba, Inhbb), follistatin (Fst), and follistatin-like 3 (Fstl3) were expressed in the placenta, whereas significant expression of myostatin (Mstn) was not detected. Although the expression patterns of Tgfb1-3 and Inhba in the placenta suggest possible involvement of TGFBs and activin A in the regulation of placental ECM expression, neither TGFBs nor activin A affected ECM mRNA levels in vitro. On the other hand, hypoxia significantly decreased Col1a1/2 and Col4a1/2 mRNAs in cultured placental cells, and a high-glucose condition significantly increased Col1a1 and Col3a1 mRNAs. Fn1 expression was increased under the high-glucose condition, although hypoxia also increased Fn1 expression to a lesser degree. These data suggest that an increase in oxygen tension and nutrient supply during placentation rather than TGFB family members may be responsible for the increase in the placental ECM mRNA expression.

  6. Dissecting the Role of the Extracellular Matrix in Heart Disease: Lessons from the Drosophila Genetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris J R; Jacobs, J Roger

    2017-04-24

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from mis-regulation of structural ECM proteins (Collagen, Laminin) or their receptors (Integrin). Key regulators of ECM turnover include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMP expression is increased in mice, pigs, and dogs with cardiomyopathy. The complexity and longevity of vertebrate animals makes a short-lived, genetically tractable model organism, such as Drosophila melanogaster , an attractive candidate for study. We survey ECM macromolecules and their role in heart development and growth, which are conserved between Drosophila and vertebrates, with focus upon the consequences of altered expression or distribution. The Drosophila heart resembles that of vertebrates during early development, and is amenable to in vivo analysis. Experimental manipulation of gene function in a tissue- or temporally-regulated manner can reveal the function of adhesion or ECM genes in the heart. Perturbation of the function of ECM proteins, or of the MMPs that facilitate ECM remodelling, induces cardiomyopathies in Drosophila , including cardiodilation, arrhythmia, and cardia bifida, that provide mechanistic insight into cardiac disease in mammals.

  7. Decellularized Human Liver Is Too Heterogeneous for Designing a Generic Extracellular Matrix Mimic Hepatic Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Giorgio; Magliaro, Chiara; Pirone, Andrea; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2017-12-01

    Decellularized human livers are considered the perfect extracellular matrix (ECM) surrogate because both three-dimensional architecture and biological features of the hepatic microenvironment are thought to be preserved. However, donor human livers are in chronically short supply, both for transplantation or as decellularized scaffolds, and will become even scarcer as life expectancy increases. It is hence of interest to determine the structural and biochemical properties of human hepatic ECM to derive design criteria for engineering biomimetic scaffolds. The intention of this work was to obtain quantitative design specifications for fabricating scaffolds for hepatic tissue engineering using human livers as a template. To this end, hepatic samples from five patients scheduled for hepatic resection were decellularized using a protocol shown to reproducibly conserve matrix composition and microstructure in porcine livers. The decellularization outcome was evaluated through histological and quantitative image analyses to evaluate cell removal, protein, and glycosaminoglycan content per unit area. Applying the same decellularization protocol to human liver samples obtained from five different patients yielded five different outcomes. Only one liver out of five was completely decellularized, while the other four showed different levels of remaining cells and matrix. Moreover, protein and glycosaminoglycan content per unit area after decellularization were also found to be patient- (or donor-) dependent. This donor-to-donor variability of human livers thus precludes their use as templates for engineering a generic "one-size fits all" ECM-mimic hepatic scaffold. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  9. HGF potentiates extracellular matrix-driven migration of human myoblasts: involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mariela Natacha; de Mello, Wallace; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Silva-Barbosa, Suse Dayse; Mouly, Vincent; Savino, Wilson; Riederer, Ingo

    2017-10-10

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is required for the activation of muscle progenitor cells called satellite cells (SC), plays a role in the migration of proliferating SC (myoblasts), and is present as a soluble factor during muscle regeneration, along with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. In this study, we aimed at determining whether HGF is able to interact with ECM proteins, particularly laminin 111 and fibronectin, and to modulate human myoblast migration. We evaluated the expression of the HGF-receptor c-Met, laminin, and fibronectin receptors by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, or immunofluorescence and used Transwell assays to analyze myoblast migration on laminin 111 and fibronectin in the absence or presence of HGF. Zymography was used to check whether HGF could modulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases by human myoblasts, and the activation of MAPK/ERK pathways was evaluated by immunoblotting. We demonstrated that human myoblasts express c-Met, together with laminin and fibronectin receptors. We observed that human laminin 111 and fibronectin have a chemotactic effect on myoblast migration, and this was synergistically increased when low doses of HGF were added. We detected an increase in MMP-2 activity in myoblasts treated with HGF. Conversely, MMP-2 inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulation of cell migration triggered by laminin or fibronectin. HGF treatment also induced in human myoblasts activation of MAPK/ERK pathways, whose specific inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulus of cell migration triggered by laminin 111 or fibronectin. We demonstrate that HGF induces ERK phosphorylation and MMP production, thus stimulating human myoblast migration on ECM molecules. Conceptually, these data state that the mechanisms involved in the migration of human myoblasts comprise both soluble and insoluble moieties. This should be taken into account to optimize the design of therapeutic cell transplantation strategies by improving

  10. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some......The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...

  12. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol–collagen–hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Shi Tong; Ren Weiping; Markel, David C; Wang Sunxi; Mao Guangzhao

    2012-01-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol–collagen–hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic–organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications. (paper)

  13. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  14. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    -links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes......The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  15. Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Isaac A.; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration, and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cue can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells’ responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors, We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. PMID:24910444

  16. Sensitivity of Bladder Cancer Cells to Curcumin and Its Derivatives Depends on the Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J.; Han, Zhiyong; Sindhwani, Puneet; Hurst, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Because the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents depends upon the supporting extracellular matrix (ECM), the response in vivo may not be reproduced in 2-dimensional cell culture. The dose-response to curcumin and two derivatives by bladder cancer cells grown on both normal (SISgel) and cancer-derived ECM (Matrigel) and on plastic were contrasted. Cells grown on Matrigel were resistant to curcumins, but cells growing on SISgel, which mimic cancer cells suppressed by normal ECM, were nearly as sensitive as cells grown on plastic. SV40-immortalized urothelial cells, which are models for premalignant cells, were the most sensitive, but even aggressive cell lines were nearly as sensitive when grown on SISgel as on plastic. Curcumin response depends highly on the supporting ECM, and cells grown on plastic poorly models cells growing on natural ECM. Curcumin could prove an effective chemopreventive for bladder cancer recurrence when administered intravesically post-therapy. PMID:17465196

  17. Cell-mediated fibre recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brendon M.; Trappmann, Britta; Wang, William Y.; Sakar, Mahmut S.; Kim, Iris L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how cells sense stiffness in settings structurally similar to native extracellular matrices, we designed a synthetic fibrous material with tunable mechanics and user-defined architecture. In contrast to flat hydrogel surfaces, these fibrous materials recapitulated cell-matrix interactions observed with collagen matrices including stellate cell morphologies, cell-mediated realignment of fibres, and bulk contraction of the material. Increasing the stiffness of flat hydrogel surfaces induced mesenchymal stem cell spreading and proliferation; however, increasing fibre stiffness instead suppressed spreading and proliferation for certain network architectures. Lower fibre stiffness permitted active cellular forces to recruit nearby fibres, dynamically increasing ligand density at the cell surface and promoting the formation of focal adhesions and related signalling. These studies demonstrate a departure from the well-described relationship between material stiffness and spreading established with hydrogel surfaces, and introduce fibre recruitment as a previously undescribed mechanism by which cells probe and respond to mechanics in fibrillar matrices.

  18. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robert P.; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape. PMID:26190146

  19. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... been interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two oxidative mechanisms, one involving oxygen-derived radicals catalysed by trace transition metal ions, and a second involving chlorinating species (HOCl or Cl2), generated by the haem enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is released extracellularly...... for 83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions...

  20. The Role of Structural Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brunner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a key role in the modulation of cancer cell invasion. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC the role of ECM proteins has been widely studied. The mechanisms, which are involved in the development of invasion, progression and generalization, are complex, depending on the interaction of ECM proteins with each other as well as with cancer cells. The following review will focus on the pathogenetic role and prognostic value of structural proteins, such as laminins, collagens, fi bronectin (FN, tenascin (Tn-C and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 in UC. In addition, the role of integrins mediating the interaction of ECM molecules and cancer cells will be addressed, since integrin-mediated FN, Tn-C and TSP1 interactions seem to play an important role during tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  1. NG2 proteoglycan increases mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jing; Wang Yang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Liu Jianshe; Wang Yumei; Zhang Chun; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lang, Florian; Feng Yuxi

    2007-01-01

    As a membrane-spanning protein, NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan interacts with molecules on both sides of plasma membrane. The present study explored the role of NG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the normal kidneys, NG2 was observed predominantly in glomerular mesangium, Bowman's capsule and interstitial vessels. Both mRNA and protein expression in kidneys was significantly higher in strepozotocin-induced diabetic rats than that in normal rats. In the cultured rat mesangial cell line HBZY-1, overexpression of NG2 promoted mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as type VI collagen and laminin. Furthermore, target knockdown of NG2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and ECM formation. The observations suggest that NG2 is up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. It actively participates in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of mesangial cells and deposition of ECM

  2. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors by Embryoid Bodies in Hydrodynamic and Static Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  3. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  4. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  5. Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Kirby, Tyler J; Kosmac, Kate; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-05

    Satellite cells, the predominant stem cell population in adult skeletal muscle, are activated in response to hypertrophic stimuli and give rise to myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds myofibers. This ECM is composed largely of collagens secreted by interstitial fibrogenic cells, which influence satellite cell activity and muscle repair during hypertrophy and aging. Here we show that MPCs interact with interstitial fibrogenic cells to ensure proper ECM deposition and optimal muscle remodeling in response to hypertrophic stimuli. MPC-dependent ECM remodeling during the first week of a growth stimulus is sufficient to ensure long-term myofiber hypertrophy. MPCs secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which represses Rrbp1, a master regulator of collagen biosynthesis, in fibrogenic cells to prevent excessive ECM deposition. These findings provide insights into how skeletal stem and progenitor cells interact with other cell types to actively regulate their extracellular environments for tissue maintenance and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The widely expressed extracellular matrix protein SMOC-2 promotes keratinocyte attachment and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Silke; Paulsson, Mats; Hartmann, Ursula

    2008-08-01

    SMOC-2 is a recently discovered member of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family of extracellular multidomain proteins of so far unknown function. While we have shown earlier that the homologous protein SMOC-1 is associated with basement membranes, in this study we demonstrate that, in the mouse, SMOC-2 could be detected in a large number of non-basement membrane localizations, often showing a diffuse tissue distribution. A more distinct expression pattern was seen in skin where SMOC-2 is mainly present in the basal layers of the epidermis. Functionally, recombinant SMOC-2 stimulated attachment of primary epidermal cells as well as several epidermal-derived cell lines but had no effect on the attachment of non-epidermal cells. Inhibition experiments using blocking antibodies against individual integrin subunits allowed the identification of alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta1 integrins as important cellular receptors for SMOC-2. Cell attachment as well as the formation of focal adhesions could be attributed to the extracellular calcium-binding domain. The calcium-binding domain also stimulated migration, but not proliferation of keratinocyte-like HaCaT cells. We conclude that SMOC-2, like other members of the BM40/SPARC family, acts as a regulator of cell-matrix interactions.

  7. Extracellular matrix dynamics and functions in the social amoeba Dictyostelium: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic complex of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, carbohydrates, and collagen that serves as an interface between mammalian cells and their extracellular environment. Essential for normal cellular homeostasis, physiology, and events that occur during development, it is also a key functionary in a number of human diseases including cancer. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum secretes an ECM during multicellular development that regulates multicellularity, cell motility, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis, and provides structural support and protective layers to the resulting differentiated cell types. Proteolytic processing within the Dictyostelium ECM leads to specific bioactive factors that regulate cell motility and differentiation. Here we review the structure and functions of the Dictyostelium ECM and its role in regulating multicellular development. The questions and challenges that remain and how they can be answered are also discussed. The Dictyostelium ECM shares many of the features of mammalian and plant ECM, and thus presents an excellent system for studying the structure and function of the ECM. As a genetically tractable model organism, Dictyostelium offers the potential to further elucidate ECM functions, and to possibly reveal previously unknown roles for the ECM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of biomolecular diffusion in extracellular matrix condensed by fibroblasts using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kihara

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM comprises the heterogeneous environment outside of cells in a biological system. The ECM is dynamically organized and regulated, and many biomolecules secreted from cells diffuse throughout the ECM, regulating a variety of cellular processes. Therefore, investigation of the diffusive behaviors of biomolecules in the extracellular environment is critical. In this study, we investigated the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules of various sizes, measuring from 1 to 10 nm in radius, by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in contracted collagen gel caused by fibroblasts, a traditional culture model of dynamic rearrangement of collagen fibers. The diffusion coefficients of the biomolecules in control collagen gel without cells decreased slightly as compared to those in solution, while the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules in the contracted gel at the cell vicinity decreased dramatically. Additionally, the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules were inversely correlated with molecular radius. In collagen gels populated with fibroblasts, the diffusion coefficient at the cell vicinity clearly decreased in the first 24 h of culture. Furthermore, molecular diffusion was greatly restricted, with a central focus on the populated cells. By using the obtained diffusion coefficients of biomolecules, we calculated the collagen fiber condensation ratio by fibroblasts in the cell vicinity at 3 days of culture to represent a 52-fold concentration. Thus, biomolecular diffusion is restricted in the vicinity of the cells where collagen fibers are highly condensed.

  9. Co-transfection of decorin and interleukin-10 modulates pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix gene expression in human tenocyte culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbah, Sunny A.; Thomas, Dilip; Browne, Shane; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix synthesis and remodelling are driven by increased activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). In tendon tissue repair, increased activity of TGF-β1 leads to progressive fibrosis. Decorin (DCN) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) antagonise pathological collagen synthesis by exerting a neutralising effect via downregulation of TGF-β1. Herein, we report that the delivery of DCN and IL-10 transgenes from a collagen hydrogel system supresses the constitutive expression of TGF-β1 and a range of pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix genes.

  10. RAGE-mediated extracellular matrix proteins accumulation exacerbates HySu-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Daile; He, Yuhu; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Huan; Zuo, Caojian; Chen, Guilin; Yu, Ying; Lu, Ankang

    2017-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation contributes to the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rare and fatal cardiovascular condition defined by high pulmonary arterial pressure, whether primary, idiopathic, or secondary to other causes. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is constitutively expressed in the lungs and plays an important role in ECM deposition. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which RAGE mediates ECM deposition/formation in pulmonary arteries and its roles in PAH progression remain unclear. Expression of RAGE and its activating ligands, S100/calgranulins and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), were increased in both human and mouse pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions and were also strikingly upregulated in pulmonary arteries in hypoxia plus SU5416 (HySu)-induced PAH in mice. RAGE deletion alleviated pulmonary arterial pressure and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in pulmonary arteries in HySu-induced PAH murine model. Moreover, blocking RAGE activity with a neutralizing antibody in human PASMCs, or RAGE deficiency in mouse PASMCs exposed to hypoxia, suppressed the expression of fibrotic proteins by reducing TGF-β1 expression. RAGE reconstitution in deficient mouse PASMCs restored hypoxia-stimulated TGF-β1 production via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway activation and subsequently increased ECM protein expression. Interestingly, HMGB1 acting on RAGE, not toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced ECM deposition in PASMCs. Finally, in both idiopathic PAH patients and HySu-induced PAH mice, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum were significantly elevated compared to those in controls. Activation of RAGE facilitates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by increase of ECM deposition in pulmonary arteries. Our results indicate that sRAGE may be a potential biomarker for PAH diagnosis and disease severity, and that RAGE may be a promising target for

  11. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Schwartz, Andrew J; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sF o ), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  12. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  13. Gene expression in human hippocampus from cocaine abusers identifies genes which regulate extracellular matrix remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C Mash

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine "rush". Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05. RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4. The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction.

  14. Tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix using carbodiimide cross-linking.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds is key for their application in the clinical setting. In the present study, cross-linking was used as a tool for tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM). CEM was cross-linked with varying cross-linking concentrations of N,N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N\\'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Shrink temperature measurements and ATR-FT-IR spectra were used to determine the degree of cross-linking. The effect of cross-linking on degradation was tested using the collagenase assay. Uniaxial tensile properties and the ability to support fibroblasts were also evaluated as a function of cross-linking. Shrink temperature increased from 59 degrees C for non-cross-linked CEM to 78 degrees C for the highest EDC cross-linking concentration, while IR peak area ratios for the free -NH(2) group at 3290 cm(-1) to that of the amide I band at 1635 cm(-1) decreased with increasing EDC cross-linking concentration. Collagenase assay demonstrated that degradation rates for CEM can be tailored. EDC concentrations 0 to 0.0033 mmol\\/mg CEM were the cross-linking concentration range in which CEM showed varied susceptibility to collagenase degradation. Furthermore, cross-linking concentrations up to 0.1 mmol EDC\\/mg CEM did not have statistically significant effect on the uniaxial tensile strength, as well as morphology, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts on CEM. In conclusion, the degradation rates of CEM can be tailored using EDC-cross-linking, while maintaining the mechanical properties and the ability of CEM to support cells.

  15. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM and methylcellulose (MC for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps-ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest.

  16. Down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) expression is necessary for adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Denis; Barruet, Emilie; Poggi, Marjorie; Bonardo, Bernadette; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Peiretti, Franck

    2010-02-26

    Matrix metalloproteinase activity is essential for proper extracellular matrix remodeling that takes place during adipose tissue formation. Four tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate their activity. However, the role of TIMPs in adipocyte differentiation is poorly understood. We found that the expression of all TIMPs was modified during adipocyte differentiation, but that of TIMP-3 was distinguished by its extreme down-regulation. TIMP-3 expression was closely linked to the differentiation process. Indeed, it remained low during the adipocyte differentiation but increased when cell differentiation was prevented. We identified the transcription factor Sp1 as being responsible for the regulation of TIMP-3 expression during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of TIMP-3 reduced adipocyte differentiation, underlining its active role in this process. TIMP-3 overexpression decreased the expression of the early and obligate key inductors of adipogenesis Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20), and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta). Our results indicate that during preadipocyte differentiation, the Sp1-dependent decrease in TIMP-3 expression is required for the successful implementation of the adipocyte differentiation program.

  17. Down-regulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) Expression Is Necessary for Adipocyte Differentiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Denis; Barruet, Emilie; Poggi, Marjorie; Bonardo, Bernadette; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Peiretti, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase activity is essential for proper extracellular matrix remodeling that takes place during adipose tissue formation. Four tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate their activity. However, the role of TIMPs in adipocyte differentiation is poorly understood. We found that the expression of all TIMPs was modified during adipocyte differentiation, but that of TIMP-3 was distinguished by its extreme down-regulation. TIMP-3 expression was closely linked to the differentiation process. Indeed, it remained low during the adipocyte differentiation but increased when cell differentiation was prevented. We identified the transcription factor Sp1 as being responsible for the regulation of TIMP-3 expression during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of TIMP-3 reduced adipocyte differentiation, underlining its active role in this process. TIMP-3 overexpression decreased the expression of the early and obligate key inductors of adipogenesis Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20), and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Our results indicate that during preadipocyte differentiation, the Sp1-dependent decrease in TIMP-3 expression is required for the successful implementation of the adipocyte differentiation program. PMID:20056610

  18. Cell survival, activation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells: modulation by extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Sulochana; Sudhakaran, Perumana R

    2008-12-01

    Cytokines and growth factors released by various hepatic cells exert both paracrine and autocrine effects on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation during liver injury. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the activation, transdifferentiation and survival of HSCs. An in vitro model system of isolated HSCs maintained in culture on different matrix protein substrata was employed. The rate of loss of HSC-specific retinol uptake activity and gain of myofibroblast-like activity such as (35)[S] proteoglycan synthesis varied in cells maintained on different matrix proteins and was in the order collagen I > collagen IV >/= laminin. (3)[H]-thymidine incorporation by HSCs maintained on different matrix proteins varied and was in the order collagen I > collagen IV > laminin. MTT assay revealed that the growth inhibition in response to curcumin was significantly low in cells maintained on collagen I. Apoptotic marker activities such as DNA fragmentation, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, annexin staining and caspase-3 activities showed that cells maintained on collagen I showed minimal apoptosis than those maintained on collagen IV, laminin and polylysine, showing the influence of ECM on HSC apoptosis. Experiments using blocking antibodies showed that the collagen I effect was mediated through alpha(2)beta(1) integrin. These results indicate that ECM influences activation, transdifferentiation and survival of HSCs, and suggest that apart from diffusible factors, the surrounding ECM also influences HSC behavior critical in both the progression of the fibrosis and the restitution of the liver during recovery after hepatic injury.

  19. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Akhmanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity, viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement, and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems.

  20. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, D. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Valli, M.; Viglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Istituto Nazionale per la ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Ledda, B.; Volta, C. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Manduca, P., E-mail: man-via@unige.it [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-10

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  1. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein required for eruption of incisors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kii, Isao; Amizuka, Norio; Minqi, Li; Kitajima, Satoshi; Saga, Yumiko; Kudo, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic tooth of rodents, the incisor continuously grows throughout life by the constant formation of dentin and enamel. Continuous eruption of the incisor is accompanied with formation of shear zone, in which the periodontal ligament is remodeled. Although the shear zone plays a role in the remodeling, its molecular biological aspect is barely understood. Here, we show that periostin is essential for formation of the shear zone. Periostin -/- mice showed an eruption disturbance of incisors. Histological observation revealed that deletion of periostin led to disappearance of the shear zone. Electron microscopy revealed that the disappearance of the shear zone resulted from a failure in digestion of collagen fibers in the periostin -/- mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis using anti-periostin antibodies demonstrated the restricted localization of periostin protein in the shear zone. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein, and immunoelectron microscopy showed a close association of periostin with collagen fibrils in vivo. These results suggest that periostin functions in the remodeling of collagen matrix in the shear zone

  2. Enhance and Maintain Chondrogenesis of Synovial Fibroblasts by Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Protein Matrilins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ming; Luo, Junming; Chen, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN) 1 and 3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Methods Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, while the protein levels of Col II and matrilins were determined by western blot analysis. Results SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with TGF-β1 for three days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a MATN1 or 3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of glycosaminoglycans, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Conclusion Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and 3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-β. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation. PMID:18282772

  3. Enhancing and maintaining chondrogenesis of synovial fibroblasts by cartilage extracellular matrix protein matrilins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, M; Luo, J; Chen, Q

    2008-09-01

    Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN)1 and MATN3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans (GAG) with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein levels of Col II and MATNs were determined by western blot analysis. SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) for 3 days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a Matn1 or Matn3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of GAG, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and MATN3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-beta. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation.

  4. Sodium hydrosulfide prevents myocardial dysfunction through modulation of extracellular matrix accumulation and vascular density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Wang, Xian-Li; Wang, Xi-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2014-12-12

    The aim was to examine the role of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on cardiac remodeling in post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. MI was induced in rats by ligation of coronary artery. After treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an exogenous H2S donor, 56 μM/kg·day) for 42 days, the effects of NaHS on left ventricular morphometric features, echocardiographic parameters, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), type I and type III collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the border zone of infarct area were analyzed to elucidate the protective mechanisms of exogenous H2S on cardiac function and fibrosis. Forty-two days post MI, NaHS-treatment resulted in a decrease in myocardial fibrotic area in association with decreased levels of type I, type III collagen and MMP-9 and improved cardiac function. Meanwhile, NaHS administration significantly increased cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), HO-1, α-SMA, and VEGF expression. This effect was accompanied by an increase in vascular density in the border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our results provided the strong evidences that exogenous H2S prevented cardiac remodeling, at least in part, through inhibition of extracellular matrix accumulation and increase in vascular density.

  5. Distinct profile of vascular progenitor attachment to extracellular matrix proteins in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Laura; Li, Yuhua; Addison, Christina L; Brand, Marjorie; Javidnia, Hedyeh; Corsten, Martin; Burns, Kevin; Allan, David S

    2012-04-01

    Vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) facilitate angiogenesis and initiate vascular repair by homing in on sites of damage and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. VPCs also contribute to tumor angiogenesis and induce angiogenic switching in sites of metastatic cancer. In this study, the binding of attaching cells in VPC clusters that form in vitro on specific ECM proteins was investigated. VPC cluster assays were performed in vitro on ECM proteins enriched in cancer cells and in remodelling tissue. Profiles of VPC clusters from patients with cancer were compared to healthy controls. The role of VEGF and integrin-specific binding of angiogenic attaching cells was addressed. VPC clusters from cancer patients were markedly increased on fibronectin relative to other ECM proteins tested, in contrast to VPC clusters from control subjects, which formed preferentially on laminin. Specific integrin-mediated binding of attaching cells in VPC clusters was matrix protein-dependent. Furthermore, cancer patients had elevated plasma VEGF levels compared to healthy controls and VEGF facilitated preferential VPC cluster formation on fibronectin. Incubating cells from healthy controls with VEGF induced a switch from the 'healthy' VPC binding profile to the profile observed in cancer patients with a marked increase in VPC cluster formation on fibronectin. The ECM proteins laminin and fibronectin support VPC cluster formation via specific integrins on attaching cells and can facilitate patterns of VPC cluster formation that are distinct in cancer patients. Larger studies, however, are needed to gain insight on how tumor angiogenesis may differ from normal repair processes.

  6. Characterization of glomerular extracellular matrix by proteomic analysis of laser captured microdissected glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Liliane; Barati, Michelle T.; Caster, Dawn J.; McLeish, Kenneth R.; Merchant, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a prominent feature of many glomerular diseases and is a final common pathway of glomerular injury. However, changes in ECM composition accompanying disease-related remodeling are unknown. The physical properties of ECM create challenges for characterization of composition using standard protein extraction techniques, as the insoluble components of ECM are frequently discarded and many ECM proteins are in low abundance compared to other cell proteins. Prior proteomic studies defining normal ECM composition used a large number of glomeruli isolated from human kidneys retrieved for transplantation or by nephrectomy for cancer. Here we examined the ability to identify ECM proteins by mass spectrometry using glomerular sections compatible with that available from standard renal biopsy specimens. Proteins were classified as ECM by comparison to the Matrisome database and previously identified glomerular ECM proteins. Optimal ECM protein identification resulted from sequential decellularization and protein extraction of 100 human glomerular sections isolated by laser capture microdissection from either frozen or formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue. In total, 147 ECM proteins were identified, including the majority of structural and GBM proteins previously identified along with a number of matrix and glomerular basement membrane proteins not previously associated with glomeruli. Thus, our study demonstrates the feasibility of proteomic analysis of glomerular ECM from retrieved glomerular sections isolated from renal biopsy tissue and expands the list of known ECM proteins in glomeruli. PMID:27988214

  7. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. αII-spectrin regulates invadosome stability and extracellular matrix degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ponceau

    Full Text Available Invadosomes are actin-rich adhesion structures involved in tissue invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling. αII-Spectrin, an ubiquitous scaffolding component of the membrane skeleton and a partner of actin regulators (ABI1, VASP and WASL, accumulates highly and specifically in the invadosomes of multiple cell types, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs expressing SrcY527F, the constitutively active form of Src or activated HMEC-1 endothelial cells. FRAP and live-imaging analysis revealed that αII-spectrin is a highly dynamic component of invadosomes as actin present in the structures core. Knockdown of αII-spectrin expression destabilizes invadosomes and reduces the ability of the remaining invadosomes to digest the ECM and to promote invasion. The ECM degradation defect observed in spectrin-depleted-cells is associated with highly dynamic and unstable invadosome rings. Moreover, FRAP measurement showed the specific involvement of αII-spectrin in the regulation of the mobile/immobile β3-integrin ratio in invadosomes. Our findings suggest that spectrin could regulate invadosome function and maturation by modulating integrin mobility in the membrane, allowing the normal processes of adhesion, invasion and matrix degradation. Altogether, these data highlight a new function for spectrins in the stability of invadosomes and the coupling between actin regulation and ECM degradation.

  9. Abnormal osteopontin and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein localization, and odontoblast differentiation, in X-linked hypophosphatemic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, B; Bardet, C; Coyac, B R; Baroukh, B; Naji, J; Rowe, P S; Opsahl Vital, S; Linglart, A; Mckee, M D; Chaussain, C

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in phosphate-regulating gene (PHEX) lead to X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a genetic disease characterized by impaired mineralization in bones and teeth. In human XLH tooth dentin, calcospherites that would normally merge as part of the mineralization process are separated by unmineralized interglobular spaces where fragments of matrix proteins accumulate. Here, we immunolocalized osteopontin (OPN) in human XLH teeth, in a three-dimensional XLH human dental pulp stem cell-collagen scaffold culture model and in a rat tooth injury repair model treated with acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptides (ASARM). In parallel, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) immunolocalization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed in XLH teeth. OPN was expressed by odontoblasts in the XLH models, and localized to the abnormal calcospherites of XLH tooth dentin. In addition, ALP activity and MEPE localization were abnormal in human XLH teeth, with MEPE showing an accumulation in the unmineralized interglobular spaces in dentin. Furthermore, XLH odontoblasts failed to form a well-polarized odontoblast layer. These data suggest that both MEPE and OPN are involved in impaired tooth mineralization associated with XLH, possibly through different effects on the mineralization process.

  10. The cnidarian nematocyst: a miniature extracellular matrix within a secretory vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Suat

    2011-10-01

    Nematocysts are the taxon-defining features of all cnidarians including jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. They are highly sophisticated organelles used for the capture of prey and defense. The nematocyst capsule is produced within a giant post-Golgi vesicle, which is continuously fed by proteins from the secretory pathway. Mature nematocysts consist of a hollow capsule body in which a long tubule is coiled up that, upon discharge, is expelled in a harpoon-like fashion. This is accompanied by the release of a toxin cocktail stored in the capsule matrix. Nematocyst discharge, which is one of the fastest processes in biology, is driven by an extreme osmotic pressure of about 150 bar. The molecular analysis of the nematocyst has from the beginning indicated a collagenous nature of the capsule structure. In particular, a large family of unusual minicollagens has been demonstrated to form the highly resistant scaffold of the capsule. Recent findings on the molecular composition of Hydra nematocysts have confirmed the notion of a specialized extracellular matrix, which is assembled during an intracellular secretion process to form the most complex predatory apparatus at the cellular level.

  11. Extracellular Matrix-Inspired Growth Factor Delivery Systems for Skin Wound Healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Martino, Mikaël M.

    2015-08-01

    Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  12. Synaptic Remodeling Depends on Signaling between Serotonin Receptors and the Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bijata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rewiring of synaptic circuitry pertinent to memory formation has been associated with morphological changes in dendritic spines and with extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling. Here, we mechanistically link these processes by uncovering a signaling pathway involving the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, the hyaluronan receptor CD44, and the small GTPase Cdc42. We highlight a physical interaction between 5-HT7R and CD44 (identified as an MMP-9 substrate in neurons and find that 5-HT7R stimulation increases local MMP-9 activity, triggering dendritic spine remodeling, synaptic pruning, and impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP. The underlying molecular machinery involves 5-HT7R-mediated activation of MMP-9, which leads to CD44 cleavage followed by Cdc42 activation. One important physiological consequence of this interaction includes an increase in neuronal outgrowth and elongation of dendritic spines, which might have a positive effect on complex neuronal processes (e.g., reversal learning and neuronal regeneration.

  13. Buckling Reduces eNOS Production and Stimulates Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Arteries in Organ Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Artery buckling alters the fluid shear stress and wall stress in the artery but its temporal effect on vascular wall remodeling is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the early effect of artery buckling on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and extracellular matrix remodeling. Bilateral porcine carotid arteries were maintained in an ex vivo organ culture system with and without buckling while under the same physiological pressure and flow rate for 3-7 days. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III and IV, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and eNOS were determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that MMP-2 expression level was significantly higher in buckled arteries than in the controls and higher at the inner curve than at the outer curve of buckled arteries, while collagen IV content showed an opposite trend, suggesting that artery buckling increased MMP-2 expression and collagen IV degradation in a site-specific fashion. However, no differences for MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III, and TIMP-2 were observed among the outer and inner curve sides of buckled arteries and straight controls. Additionally, eNOS expression was significantly decreased in buckled arteries. These results suggest that artery buckling triggers uneven wall remodeling that could lead to development of tortuous arteries.

  14. Sodium Hydrosulfide Prevents Myocardial Dysfunction through Modulation of Extracellular Matrix Accumulation and Vascular Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Long Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to examine the role of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S on cardiac remodeling in post-myocardial infarction (MI rats. MI was induced in rats by ligation of coronary artery. After treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an exogenous H2S donor, 56 μM/kg·day for 42 days, the effects of NaHS on left ventricular morphometric features, echocardiographic parameters, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9, type I and type III collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, CD34, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in the border zone of infarct area were analyzed to elucidate the protective mechanisms of exogenous H2S on cardiac function and fibrosis. Forty-two days post MI, NaHS-treatment resulted in a decrease in myocardial fibrotic area in association with decreased levels of type I, type III collagen and MMP-9 and improved cardiac function. Meanwhile, NaHS administration significantly increased cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, HO-1, α-SMA, and VEGF expression. This effect was accompanied by an increase in vascular density in the border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our results provided the strong evidences that exogenous H2S prevented cardiac remodeling, at least in part, through inhibition of extracellular matrix accumulation and increase in vascular density.

  15. Bioengineered Bruch's-like extracellular matrix promotes retinal pigment epithelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel McLenachan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the eye, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE adheres to a complex protein matrix known as Bruch's membrane (BrM. The aim of this study was to provide enriched conditions for RPE cell culture through the production of a BrM-like matrix. Our hypothesis was that a human RPE cell line would deposit an extracellular matrix (ECM resembling BrM. The composition and structure of ECM deposited by ARPE19 cells (ARPE19-ECM was characterized. To produce ARPE19-ECM, ARPE19 cells were cultured in the presence dextran sulphate. ARPE19-ECM was decellularized using deoxycholate and characterized by immunostaining and western blot analysis. Primary human RPE and induced pluripotent stem cells were seeded onto ARPE19-ECM or geltrex coated surfaces and examined by microscopy or RT-PCR. Culture of ARPE19 cells with dextran sulphate promoted nuclear localization of SOX2, formation of tight junctions and deposition of ECM. ARPE19 cells deposited ECM proteins found in the inner layers of BrM, including fibronectin, vitronectin, collagens IV and V as well as laminin-alpha-5, but not those found in the middle elastic layer (elastin or the outer layers (collagen VI. ARPE19-ECM promoted pigmentation in human RPE and pluripotent stem cell cultures. Expression of RPE65 was significantly increased on ARPE19-ECM compared with geltrex in differentiating pluripotent stem cell cultures. ARPE19 cells deposit ECM with a composition and structure similar to BrM in the retina. Molecular cues present in ARPE19-ECM promote the acquisition and maintenance of the RPE phenotype. Together, these results demonstrate a simple method for generating a BrM-like surface for enriched RPE cell cultures.

  16. Extracellular matrix peptides of Artemia cyst shell participate in protecting encysted embryos from extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Liu, Yu-Lei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Many species of the brine shrimp Artemia are found in various severe environments in many parts of the world where extreme salinity, high UV radiation levels, high pH, anoxia, large temperature fluctuations, and intermittent dry conditions are often recorded. To withstand adverse environments, Artemia undergoes an oviparous developmental pathway to release cysts whereas, under favorable conditions, swimming nauplius larvae are formed directly via an ovoviviparous pathway. In the former case these cysts have an extraordinary ability to keep the embryos protected from the harsh environment for long periods. This is achieved through the protection by a complex out-wrapping cyst shell. However, the formation and function of the cyst shell is complex; the details remain largely unclear. A shell gland-specific gene (SGEG2) was cloned and identified from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. Western blot analysis showed that SGEG2 presumably requires post-translational proteolysis in order to be processed into two mature peptides (SGEG2a and 2b). The three matrix peptides (SGEG1 reported previously, 2a, and 2b) were found to distribute throughout the cyst shell. The results of gene knockdown by RNAi and subsequent resistance to environmental stresses assays indicated that these matrix peptides are required for cyst shell formation and are involved in protecting the encysted embryos from environmental stress. This study revealed that extracellular matrix peptides participate in protecting embryos from extreme salinity, UV radiation, large temperature fluctuations and dry environments, thereby facilitating their survival. The cyst shell provides an excellent opportunity to link the ecological setting of an organism to the underlying physiological and biochemical processes enabling its survival. The cyst shell material has also a high potential to become an excellent new biomaterial with a high number of prospective uses due, specifically, to such biological

  17. Extracellular matrix biomimicry for the creation of investigational and therapeutic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowe, Amanda S; Gonzalez, Anjelica L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a web of fibrous proteins that serves as a scaffold for tissues and organs, and is important for maintaining homeostasis and facilitating cellular adhesion. Integrin transmembrane receptors are the primary adhesion molecules that anchor cells to the ECM, thus integrating cells with their microenvironments. Integrins play a critical role in facilitating cell-matrix interactions and promoting signal transduction, both from the cell to the ECM and vice versa, ultimately mediating cell behavior. For this reason, many advanced biomaterials employ biomimicry by replicating the form and function of fibrous ECM proteins. The ECM also acts as a reservoir for small molecules and growth factors, wherein fibrous proteins directly bind and present these bioactive moieties that facilitate cell activity. Therefore biomimicry can be enhanced by incorporating small molecules into ECM-like substrates. Biomimetic ECM materials have served as invaluable research tools for studying interactions between cells and the surrounding ECM, revealing that cell-matrix signaling is driven by mechanical forces, integrin engagement, and small molecules. Mimicking pathological ECMs has also elucidated disease specific cell behaviors. For example, biomimetic tumor microenvironments have been used to induce metastatic cell behaviors, and have thereby shown promise for in vitro cancer drug testing and targeting. Further, ECM-like substrates have been successfully employed for autologous cell recolonization for tissue engineering and wound healing. As we continue to learn more about the mechanical and biochemical characteristics of the ECM, these properties can be harnessed to develop new biomaterials, biomedical devices, and therapeutics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Extracellular matrix-induced gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, Nandor; Garamszegi, Susanna P; Shehadeh, Lina A; Scully, Sean P

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules modify gene expression through attachment-dependent (focal adhesion-related) integrin receptor signaling. It was previously unknown whether the same molecules acting as soluble peptides could generate signal cascades without the associated mechanical anchoring, a condition that may be encountered during matrix remodeling and degradation and relevant to invasion and metastatic processes. In the current study, the role of ECM ligand-regulated gene expression through this attachment-independent process was examined. It was observed that fibronectin, laminin, and collagen type I and II induce Smad2 activation in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cells. This activation is not caused by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta ligand contamination or autocrine TGF involvement and is 3- to 5-fold less robust than the TGF-beta1 ligand. The resulting nuclear translocation of Smad4 in response to ECM ligand indicates downstream transcriptional responses occurring. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments determined that collagen type II and laminin act through interaction with integrin alpha(2)beta(1) receptor complex. The ECM ligand-induced Smad activation (termed signaling crosstalk) resulted in cell type and ligand-specific transcriptional changes, which are distinct from the TGF-beta ligand-induced responses. These findings show that cell-matrix communication is more complex than previously thought. Soluble ECM peptides drive transcriptional regulation through corresponding adhesion and non-attachment-related processes. The resultant gene expressional patterns correlate with pathway activity and not by the extent of Smad activation. These results extend the complexity and the existing paradigms of ECM-cell communication to ECM ligand regulation without the necessity of mechanical coupling.

  19. DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in children exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Lantz, Robert Clark; Chau, Binh T

    2017-08-15

    Several novel mechanistic findings regarding to arsenic's pathogenesis has been reported and some of them suggest that the etiology of some arsenic induced diseases are due in part to heritable changes to the genome via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone maintenance, and mRNA expression. Recently, we reported that arsenic exposure during in utero and early life was associated with impairment in the lung function and abnormal receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) sputum levels. Based on our results and the reported arsenic impacts on DNA methylation, we designed this study in our cohort of children exposed in utero and early childhood to arsenic with the aim to associate DNA methylation of MMP9, TIMP1 and RAGE genes with its protein sputum levels and with urinary and toenail arsenic levels. The results disclosed hypermethylation in MMP9 promotor region in the most exposed children; and an increase in the RAGE sputum levels among children with the mid methylation level; there were also positive associations between MMP9 DNA methylation with arsenic toenail concentrations; RAGE DNA methylation with iAs, and %DMA; and finally between TIMP1 DNA methylation with the first arsenic methylation. A negative correlation between MMP9 sputum levels with its DNA methylation was registered. In conclusion, arsenic levels were positive associated with the DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes;, which in turn could modifies the biological process in which they are involved causing or predisposing to lung diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Usha Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, including its progression from dysplasia to carcinoma, "field effects", genetic changes in tumor associated mucosa (TAM and effect of matrix metalloproteinases in breaking down of matrix proteins to facilitate invasion, has been well documented. However, what remains to be done is to extrapolate this knowledge to improve patient care. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the extracellular matrix (ECM changes with the routine histochemical stains available to most histopathologists. Materials and Methods: The study includes 72 cases of OSCC in which the tumor and adjacent normal appearing areas were sampled to study the ECM changes with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and Verhoeff′s-Van Gieson elastic stain (VVG. Results: Basophilic fragmentation of collagen (H and E and clumped short elastic fibers (VVG were seen in 12 (16.7% cases. Of the remaining cases, 18 (25% had a dense lymphocytic infiltrate and had no demonstrable elastic fibers. Those cases with H and E changes were further studied and compared with normal mucosa for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural study demonstrated an increase in oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers and decrease in collagen fibers with some transformation changes associated with OSCCs and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Changes in transformation of collagen to elastic fibers and also the loss of both the fibers in areas of lymphocytic infiltration possibly indicate degradation of ECM fibers by factors released from the lymphocytes or tumor cells and the limiting effect on the tumor by ECM remodeling.

  2. A cytoskeletal clutch mediates cellular force transmission in a soft, three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Leanna M; Adhikari, Arjun S; Patel, Mohak; Grimmer, Peter; Leijnse, Natascha; Kim, Min Cheol; Notbohm, Jacob; Franck, Christian; Dunn, Alexander R

    2017-07-07

    The ability of cells to impart forces and deformations on their surroundings underlies cell migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and is thus an essential aspect of complex, metazoan life. Previous work has resulted in a refined understanding, commonly termed the molecular clutch model, of how cells adhering to flat surfaces such as a microscope coverslip transmit cytoskeletally generated forces to their surroundings. Comparatively less is known about how cells adhere to and exert forces in soft, three-dimensional (3D), and structurally heterogeneous ECM environments such as occur in vivo. We used time-lapse 3D imaging and quantitative image analysis to determine how the actin cytoskeleton is mechanically coupled to the surrounding matrix for primary dermal fibroblasts embedded in a 3D fibrin matrix. Under these circumstances, the cytoskeletal architecture is dominated by contractile actin bundles attached at their ends to large, stable, integrin-based adhesions. Time-lapse imaging reveals that α-actinin-1 puncta within actomyosin bundles move more quickly than the paxillin-rich adhesion plaques, which in turn move more quickly than the local matrix, an observation reminiscent of the molecular clutch model. However, closer examination did not reveal a continuous rearward flow of the actin cytoskeleton over slower moving adhesions. Instead, we found that a subset of stress fibers continuously elongated at their attachment points to integrin adhesions, providing stable, yet structurally dynamic coupling to the ECM. Analytical modeling and numerical simulation provide a plausible physical explanation for this result and support a picture in which cells respond to the effective stiffness of local matrix attachment points. The resulting dynamic equilibrium can explain how cells maintain stable, contractile connections to discrete points within ECM during cell migration, and provides a plausible means by which fibroblasts contract provisional matrices

  3. Organization of the expanded cumulus-extracellular matrix in preovulatory follicles: arole for inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-45 ISSN 1210-0668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/05/0960 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus expansion * cumulus-extracellular matrix * hyaluronan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Biomimetics of the extracellular matrix: an integrated three-dimensional fiber-hydrogel composite for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coburn, J.; Gibson, M.; Bandalini, P.A.; Laird, C.; Mao, H.Q.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Seliktar, D.; Elisseeff, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of an integrated fibrous protein network and proteoglycan-based ground (hydrogel) substance. We designed a novel electrospinning technique to engineer a three dimensional fiber-hydrogel composite that mimics the native ECM structure, is injectable, and

  5. beta-Catenin signaling is required for TGF-beta(1)-induced extracellular matrix production by airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, Hoeke A.; Menzen, Mark H.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2011-01-01

    Baarsma HA, Menzen MH, Halayko AJ, Meurs H, Kerstjens HA, Gosens R. beta-Catenin signaling is required for TGF-beta(1)-induced extracellular matrix production by airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301: L956-L965, 2011. First published September 9, 2011; doi:

  6. Development of an acellular tumor extracellular matrix as a three-dimensional scaffold for tumor engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Lü

    Full Text Available Tumor engineering is defined as the construction of three-dimensional (3D tumors in vitro with tissue engineering approaches. The present 3D scaffolds for tumor engineering have several limitations in terms of structure and function. To get an ideal 3D scaffold for tumor culture, A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice to establish xenotransplatation models. Tumors were retrieved at 30-day implantation and sliced into sheets. They were subsequently decellularized by four procedures. Two decellularization methods, Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treatment and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatment, achieved complete cellular removal and thus were chosen for evaluation of histological and biochemical properties. Native tumor tissues were used as controls. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured onto the two 3D scaffolds for further cell growth and growth factor secretion investigations, with the two-dimensional (2D culture and cells cultured onto the Matrigel scaffolds used as controls. Results showed that Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treated tumor sheets had well-preserved extracellular matrix structures and components. Their porosity was increased but elastic modulus was decreased compared with the native tumor samples. They supported MCF-7 cell repopulation and proliferation, as well as expression of growth factors. When cultured within the Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated scaffold, A549 cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-480 had similar behaviors to MCF-7 cells, but human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells (KYSE-510 had a relatively slow cell repopulation rate. This study provides evidence that Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated acellular tumor extracellular matrices are promising 3D scaffolds with ideal spatial arrangement, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility for improved modeling of 3D tumor microenvironments.

  7. Age and SPARC Change the Extracellular Matrix Composition of the Left Ventricle

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    Lisandra E. de Castro Brás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM. We studied 6 groups of mice (n=4/group: young (4-5 months old, middle-aged (11-12 m.o., and old (18–29 m.o. C57BL/6J wild type (WT and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold, while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P<0.05. These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.

  8. Rho-kinase regulates extracellular matrix-mediated osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugawa, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Kawamura, Mari; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Shimoe, Masayuki; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Hongo, Shoichi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-06-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells contain heterogeneous mesenchymal cell populations, which have the ability to differentiate into cells that produce adjacent mineralized tissues and abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is essential not only for the homeostasis of the periodontal tissue, but also for controlling the differentiation of the PDL cells. The process of differentiation involves mechanotransduction, which links the ECM to the cytoskeleton. The present study investigated the roles of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling, a crucial regulator of the cytoskeleton, during ECM-mediated osteogenic differentiation of PDL cells in vitro. The PDL cells were isolated from human periodontal ligaments of extracted teeth and cultured in osteogenic medium with or without Y-27632, a pharmacological inhibitor of ROCK. ECM-coated plates were used for ECM-mediated differentiation. The osteogenic phenotype was evaluated at different time points by real-time RT-PCR for the gene encoding alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and an ALP activity assay. The effects of ROCK on cytoskeletal changes and ECM synthesis were examined by immunofluorescence analysis. Y-27632 significantly inhibited ALP at the mRNA and protein activity levels in the late stage of differentiation; concomitantly, the actin filament content and the extracellular levels of collagen-I and fibronectin were markedly decreased by Y-27632. Exogenous collagen-I and fibronectin temporally increased ALP activity, with fibronectin showing a more pronounced effect. Importantly, ECM-mediated differentiation was almost completely inhibited by Y-27632. These findings indicated that ECM-mediated differentiation is dependent on ROCK signaling, and ROCK signaling contributes to the establishment of the ECM microenvironment for PDL cell differentiation. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. The extracellular matrix niche microenvironment of neural and cancer stem cells in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Brösicke, Nicole; Theocharidis, Ursula; Faissner, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells and cancer stem cells (NSCs/CSCs) share several overlapping characteristics such as self-renewal, multipotency and a comparable molecular repertoire. In addition to the intrinsic cellular properties, NSCs/CSCs favor a similar environment to acquire and maintain their characteristics. In the present review, we highlight the shared properties of NSCs and CSCs in regard to their extracellular microenvironment called the NSC/CSC niche. Moreover, we point out that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their complementary receptors influence the behavior of NSCs/CSCs as well as brain tumor progression. Here, we focus on the expression profile and functional importance of the ECM glycoprotein tenascin-C, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan DSD-1-PG/phosphacan but also on other important glycoprotein/proteoglycan constituents. Within this review, we specifically concentrate on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor prognosis despite intense and aggressive surgical and therapeutic treatment. Recent studies indicate that GBM onset is driven by a subpopulation of CSCs that display self-renewal and recapitulate tumor heterogeneity. Based on the CSC hypothesis the cancer arises just from a small subpopulation of self-sustaining cancer cells with the exclusive ability to self-renew and maintain the tumor. Besides the fundamental stem cell properties of self-renewal and multipotency, GBM stem cells share further molecular characteristics with NSCs, which we would like to review in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the extracellular matrix of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae): structure, composition, and adhesive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Anusuya; Chiovitti, Anthony; Dugdale, Tony M; Wetherbee, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The extracellular matrix of the ovoid and fusiform morphotypes of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin) was characterized in detail. The structural and nanophysical properties were analyzed by microscopy. Of the two morphotypes, only the ovoid form secretes adhesive mucilage; light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images showed that the mucilage was secreted from the girdle band region of the cell as cell-substratum tethers, accumulating on the surface forming a biofilm. After 7 d, the secreted mucilage became entangled, forming adhesive strands that crisscrossed the substratum surface. In the initial secreted mucilage atomic force microscopy identified a high proportion of adhesive molecules without regular retraction curves and some modular-like adhesive molecules, in the 7 d old biofilm, the adhesive molecules were longer with fewer adhesive events but greater adhesive strength. Chemical characterization was carried out on extracted proteins and polysaccharides. Differences in protein composition, monosaccharide composition, and linkage analysis are discussed in relation to the composition of the frustule and secreted adhesive mucilage. Polysaccharide analysis showed a broad range of monosaccharides and linkages across all fractions with idiosyncratic enrichment of particular monosaccharides and linkages in each fraction. 3-linked Mannan was highly enriched in the cell frustule fractions indicating a major structural role, while Rhamnose and Fucose derivatives were enriched in the secreted fractions of the ovoid morphotype suggesting involvement in cell adhesion. Comparison of SDS-PAGE of extracellular proteins showed two major bands for the ovoid morphotype and four for the fusiform morphotype of which only one appeared to be common to both morphotypes. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Cell adhesion control by ion implantation into extra-cellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Kaibara, Makoto; Iwaki, Masaya; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Nishisaka, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Cell adhesion control of polymer surfaces by ion implantation into polymers and extra-cellular matrix has been studied by means of in vitro adhesion measurements of the carcinoma of the cervix (HeLa cell). The specimens used were polystyrene (PS), oxygen plasma treated polystyrene (PS-O), extra-cellular matrix (Collagen: Type I) coated polystyrene (PS-C), and gelatin coated polystyrene (PS-G). Ne + , Na + , and Ar + implantations were performed with a fluence of 1x10 15 ions/cm 2 at energies of 50, 100 and 150 keV. The chemical and physical structures of ion implanted specimens have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Ion implanted PS demonstrated a dramatic improvement of adhesion of HeLa cell. HeLa cell adhered only to ion implanted circular domains of a diameter about 0.1 mm on PS. By contrast, ion implanted PS-C, PS-G and PS-O domains inhibited the cell adhesion. These phenomena were observed on Ne + , Na + , and Ar + implanted specimens at energies of 50, 100, and 150 keV. Ion implantation broke the original chemical bonds to form new radicals such as =C=O, condensed rings, C-C, C-O and OH radical. Ion implanted PS had a large amount of new radicals compared with that of PS-C, PS-G and PS-O. Ion implantation broke NH and NH 3 bonds originating from amino acid in PS-C and PS-G. OH and =C=O caused by oxygen treatment in PS-O were also destroyed by ion implantation. It is concluded that cell adhesion to ion implanted PS was caused by carbon structure and new radicals induced by ion implantation. The inhibition of HeLa cell adhesion on PS-C, PS-G and PS-O was caused by the destruction of cell adhesion properties of amino acid, OH and =C=O by radiation effects. ((orig.))

  12. Phospholipids reduce gastric cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Petra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nidation of floating tumour cells initiates peritoneal carcinosis and limits prognosis of gastro-intestinal tumours. Adhesion of tumour cells to extracellular matrix components is a pivotal step in developing peritoneal dissemination of intraabdominal malignancies. Since phospholipids efficaciously prevented peritoneal adhesion formation in numerous animal studies we investigated their capacity to reduce adhesions of gastric cancer cells to extracellular matrix components (ECM. Methods Human gastric cancer cells (NUGC-4, Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan were used in this study. Microtiter plates were coated with collagen IV (coll, laminin (ln and fibronectin (fn. Non-specific protein binding of the coated wells was blocked by adding 1% (w/v BSA (4°C, 12 h and rinsing the wells with Hepes buffer. 50.000 tumour cells in 100 μl medium were seeded into each well. Beside the controls, phospholipids were added in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0/100 μl medium. After an incubation interval of 30 min, attached cells were fixed and stained with 0.1% (w/v crystal violet. The dye was resuspended with 50 μl of 0.2% (v/v Triton X-100 per well and colour yields were then measured by an ELISA reader at 590 nm. Optical density (OD showed a linear relationship to the amount of cells and was corrected for dying of BSA/polystyrene without cells. Results The attachment of gastric cancer cells to collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin could be significantly reduced up to 53% by phospholipid concentrations of 0.5 mg/100 μl and higher. Conclusion These results, within the scope of additional experimental studies on mice and rats which showed a significant reduction of peritoneal carcinosis, demonstrated the capacity of phospholipids in controlling abdominal nidation of tumour cells to ECM components. Lipid emulsions may be a beneficial adjunct in surgery of gastrointestinal malignancies.

  13. INCREASE OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS AND METALLOPROTEINASES 2 AND 9 IN LIVER EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ON EARLY STAGES OF EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS

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    Pedro Luiz Rodrigues GUEDES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Cholestasis produces hepatocellular injury, leukocyte infiltration, ductular cells proliferation and fibrosis of liver parenchyma by extracellular matrix replacement. Objective Analyze bile duct ligation effect upon glycosaminoglycans content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs activities. Methods Animals (6-8 weeks; n = 40 were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after bile duct ligation or Sham-surgery. Disease evolution was analyzed by body and liver weight, seric direct bilirubin, globulins, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, tissue myeloperoxidase and MMP-9, pro MMP-2 and MMP-2 activities, histopathology and glycosaminoglycans content. Results Cholestasis caused cellular damage with elevation of globulins, GGT, Alk-P, ALT, AST. There was neutrophil infiltration observed by the increasing of myeloperoxidase activity on 7 (P = 0.0064 and 14 (P = 0.0002 groups which leads to the magnification of tissue injuries. Bile duct ligation increased pro-MMP-2 (P = 0.0667, MMP-2 (P = 0.0003 and MMP-9 (P<0.0001 activities on 14 days indicating matrix remodeling and establishment of inflammatory process. Bile duct ligation animals showed an increasing on dermatan sulfate and/or heparan sulfate content reflecting extracellular matrix production and growing mitosis due to parenchyma depletion. Conclusions Cholestasis led to many changes on rats’ liver parenchyma, as so as on its extracellular matrix, with major alterations on MMPs activities and glycosaminoglycans content.

  14. Galectin-3 preserves renal tubules and modulates extracellular matrix remodeling in progressive fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Daryl M; Pasichnyk, Katie; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus M; Collins, Sarah; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Eddy, Allison A

    2011-01-01

    Renal tubular cell apoptosis is a critical detrimental event that leads to chronic kidney injury in association with renal fibrosis. The present study was designed to investigate the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), an important regulator of multiple apoptotic pathways, in chronic kidney disease induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). After UUO, Gal-3 expression significantly increased compared with basal levels reaching a peak increase of 95-fold by day 7. Upregulated Gal-3 is predominantly tubular at early time points after UUO but shifts to interstitial cells as the injury progresses. On day 14, there was a significant increase in TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells (129%) and cytochrome c release (29%), and a decrease in BrdU-positive cells (62%) in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. The degree of renal damage was more extensive in Gal-3-deficient mice at days 14 and 21, 35 and 21% increase in total collagen, respectively. Despite more severe fibrosis, myofibroblasts were significantly decreased by 58% on day 14 in the Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. There was also a corresponding 80% decrease in extracellular matrix synthesis in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. Endo180 is a recently recognized receptor for intracellular collagen degradation that is expressed by interstitial cells during renal fibrogenesis. Endo180 expression was significantly decreased by greater than 50% in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these results suggested that Gal-3 not only protects renal tubules from chronic injury by limiting apoptosis but that it may lead to enhanced matrix remodeling and fibrosis attenuation.

  15. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix in Advanced Lesions of Canine Distemper Demyelinating Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehusen, Frauke; Al-Azreg, Seham A; Raddatz, Barbara B; Haist, Verena; Puff, Christina; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Ulrich, Reiner; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs. A significantly increased amount of aggrecan was detected in early and late white matter lesions. In addition, the positive signal for collagens I and IV as well as fibronectin was significantly increased in late lesions. Conversely, the expression of phosphacan was significantly decreased in early and more pronounced in late lesions compared to controls. Furthermore, a set of genes involved in ECM was extracted from a publically available microarray data set and was analyzed for differential gene expression. Gene expression of ECM molecules, their biosynthesis pathways, and pro-fibrotic factors was mildly up-regulated whereas expression of matrix remodeling enzymes was up-regulated to a relatively higher extent. Summarized, the observed findings indicate that changes in the quality and content of ECM molecules represent important, mainly post-transcriptional features in advanced canine distemper lesions. Considering the insufficiency of morphological regeneration in chronic distemper lesions, the accumulated ECM seems to play a crucial role upon regenerative processes and may explain the relatively small regenerative potential in late stages of this disease.

  16. Extracellular matrix signature identifies breast cancer subgroups with different clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, A; Tagliabue, E; Sørlie, T; Naume, B; Triulzi, T; Orlandi, R; Russnes, H G; Nesland, J M; Tammi, R; Auvinen, P; Kosma, V-M; Ménard, S; Børresen-Dale, A-L

    2008-02-01

    Prediction of the clinical outcome of breast cancer is multi-faceted and challenging. There is growing evidence that the complexity of the tumour micro-environment, consisting of several cell types and a complex mixture of proteins, plays an important role in development, progression, and response to therapy. In the current study, we investigated whether invasive breast tumours can be classified on the basis of the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and whether such classification is representative of different clinical outcomes. We first examined the matrix composition of 28 primary breast carcinomas by morphology and gene expression profiling using 22K oligonucleotide Agilent microarrays. Hierarchical clustering of the gene expression profile of 278 ECM-related genes derived from the literature divided the tumours into four main groups (ECM1-4). A set of selected differentially expressed genes was validated by immunohistochemistry. The robustness of the ECM classification was confirmed by studying the four ECM groups in a previously published gene expression data set of 114 early-stage primary breast carcinomas profiled using cDNA arrays. Univariate survival analysis showed significant differences in clinical outcome among the various ECM subclasses. One set of tumours, designated ECM4, had a favourable outcome and was defined by the overexpression of a set of protease inhibitors belonging to the serpin family, while tumours with an ECM1 signature had a poorer prognosis and showed high expression of integrins and metallopeptidases, and low expression of several laminin chains. Furthermore, we identified three surrogate markers of ECM1 tumours: MARCO, PUNC, and SPARC, whose expression levels were associated with breast cancer survival and risk of recurrence. Our findings suggest that primary breast tumours can be classified based upon ECM composition and that this classification provides relevant information on the biology of breast carcinomas

  17. Epithelial growth by rat vibrissae follicles in vitro requires mesenchymal contact via native extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, R.E.; Paus, R.; Stenn, K.S.; Kuklinska, E.; Moellmann, G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-08-01

    An in vitro assay utilizing the rat vibrissa anagen follicle as a model for studying the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI) in hair growth is described. Through selective disruption of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, we investigate whether the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermal papilla and basement membrane zone (BMZ) serves a crucial function in hair follicle EMI. Epithelial bulbs incubated intact within their follicular sheaths incorporate thymidine primarily into cells of the hair matrix and outer root sheath, as shown by autoradiography. However, after removal of its mesenchymal associations (dermal papilla and extrabulbar connective tissue), the epithelial bulb showed no incorporation. Neither externally added collagen (type I or IV) nor the basement membrane components in Matrigel could substitute for the growth supporting influence of native surrounding stroma. Mechanical separation of the bulb from the dermal papilla in the basement membrane zone inhibited thymidine incorporation by the epithelium even though mesenchyme was still in close proximity. Enzymatic digestion of the dermal papilla ECM and the basal lamina by Dispase, a fibronectinase and type IV collagenase, also inhibited bulb growth without evidence of cytotoxicity. These experiments suggest that direct epithelial to mesenchymal contact is required for the support of follicular epithelial growth in vitro and that specific ECM components, possibly fibronectin and/or type IV collagen, rather than diffusable factors alone, play a crucial role in the mechanism of hair follicle EMI. The in vitro system described here provides an alternative to developmental EMI models and may serve as a valuable tool for studying EMI in the adult mammalian organism.

  18. The Antimuscarinic Agent Tolterodine Regulates Bladder Extracellular Matrix in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Xin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Antimuscarinic agents can delay the progression of bladder dysfunction caused by bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. To date, the relationship between muscarinic receptor activity and the bladder extracellular matrix (ECM remains unclear. Thus, an animal model of partial BOO (PBOO in female rats was established to explore the variation in bladder wall ECM proteins under PBOO conditions with antimuscarinic agent administration. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, PBOO, and PBOO plus tolterodine. Picrosirius red staining was used to examine the smooth muscle and collagen content of bladder samples. Gene microarray and RT-PCR were performed to survey the expression of ECM proteins, receptors, and metabolism regulators in the rat bladder. Positive results were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Picrosirius red staining showed that smooth muscle volume significantly increased in the PBOO and PBOO plus tolterodine groups (p < 0.05, while collagen significantly increased in the PBOO group (p < 0.05 but not in the PBOO plus tolterodine group. Gene microarray and RT-PCR revealed that none of the collagen subtypes exhibited significant changes after PBOO establishment and tolterodine administration. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs increased significantly in the PBOO plus tolterodine group (p < 0.05. Additionally, PBOO inhibited the expression of non-collagen ECM proteins in the rat bladder wall, while tolterodine induced the expression of non-collagen ECM proteins and ECM receptors. Conclusions: Tolterodine decreased the volume of collagen in PBOO rat bladder wall, possibly via MMPs, and regulated the expression of ECM proteins and receptors.

  19. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

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    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  20. Biological variation of extracellular matrix biomarkers in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täger, Tobias; Wiebalck, Clara; Fröhlich, Hanna; Corletto, Anna; Katus, Hugo A; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) biomarkers such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are pathophysiological key, prognostic marker and therapeutic target in chronic heart failure (HF). Serial measurements of MMPs and TIMPs may be useful for guidance of these applications. However, interpretation of time-dependent changes requires knowledge about the biological variation of ECM biomarkers. We performed measurements of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-4 in 50 patients with chronic HF who met rigid criteria for clinical stability at 3-h, 6-h, 1-week and 2-week time intervals. In addition, clinical and haemodynamic assessment was performed at baseline, at 1- and 2-week intervals. Haemodynamic variables were measured using inert gas rebreathing and impedance cardiography. Heart rhythm was monitored with external ECG event recorders throughout the complete study. Reference change values (RCVs) and minimal important differences (MIDs) were determined for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-4. Clinical and haemodynamic variables were stable over time. Depending on the time-interval, RCVs ranged between 4.9 and 11.7% for MMP-2, 26.4 and 56.7% for MMP-9, 10.8 and 30.7% for TIMP-1, and 16.0 and 47.4% for TIMP-4, respectively. The MIDs varied between 43.38 and 65.22 ng/ml for MMP-2, 28.71 and 40.96 ng/ml for MMP-9, 52.32 and 156.07 ng/ml for TIMP-1, and 293.92 and 798.04 pg/ml for TIMP-4, respectively. The biological variation of ECM biomarkers differs with respect to individual biomarkers and time intervals. MMP-2 may be most suitable for serial biomarker measurements, as the biological variation is low irrespective of the time interval between measurements.

  1. Anisotropic silk biomaterials containing cardiac extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Whitney L; Hu, Dongjian; Domian, Ibrahim J; Kaplan, David L; Black, Lauren D

    2015-03-31

    Cardiac malformations and disease are the leading causes of death in the United States in live-born infants and adults, respectively. In both of these cases, a decrease in the number of functional cardiomyocytes often results in improper growth of heart tissue, wound healing complications, and poor tissue repair. The field of cardiac tissue engineering seeks to address these concerns by developing cardiac patches created from a variety of biomaterial scaffolds to be used in surgical repair of the heart. These scaffolds should be fully degradable biomaterial systems with tunable properties such that the materials can be altered to meet the needs of both in vitro culture (e.g. disease modeling) and in vivo application (e.g. cardiac patch). Current platforms do not utilize both structural anisotropy and proper cell-matrix contacts to promote functional cardiac phenotypes and thus there is still a need for critically sized scaffolds that mimic both the structural and adhesive properties of native tissue. To address this need, we have developed a silk-based scaffold platform containing cardiac tissue-derived extracellular matrix (cECM). These silk-cECM composite scaffolds have tunable architectures, degradation rates, and mechanical properties. Subcutaneous implantation in rats demonstrated that addition of the cECM to aligned silk scaffold led to 99% endogenous cell infiltration and promoted vascularization of a critically sized scaffold (10 × 5 × 2.5 mm) after 4 weeks in vivo. In vitro, silk-cECM scaffolds maintained the HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and promoted a more functional phenotype in both cell types. This class of hybrid silk-cECM anisotropic scaffolds offers new opportunities for developing more physiologically relevant tissues for cardiac repair and disease modeling.

  2. Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Promotes Tissue Remodeling, Arteriogenesis, and Perfusion in a Rat Hindlimb Ischemia Model

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    Jessica L. Ungerleider, BS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surgical and endovascular revascularization can be performed in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, 40% of patients with critical limb ischemia do not have a revascularization option. This study examines the efficacy and mechanisms of action of acellular extracellular matrix-based hydrogels as a potential novel therapy for treating PAD. We tested the efficacy of using a tissue-specific injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized porcine skeletal muscle (SKM and compared this to a new human umbilical cord-derived matrix (hUC hydrogel, which could have greater potential for tissue regeneration because of the younger age of the tissue source. In a rodent hindlimb ischemia model, both hydrogels were injected 1-week post-surgery and perfusion was regularly monitored with laser speckle contrast analysis to 35 days post-injection. There were significant improvements in hindlimb tissue perfusion and perfusion kinetics with both biomaterials. Histologic analysis indicated that the injected hydrogels were biocompatible, and resulted in arteriogenesis, rather than angiogenesis, as well as improved recruitment of skeletal muscle progenitors. Skeletal muscle fiber morphology analysis indicated that the muscle treated with the tissue-specific SKM hydrogel more closely matched healthy tissue morphology. Whole transcriptome analysis indicated that the SKM hydrogel caused a shift in the inflammatory response, decreased cell death, and increased blood vessel and muscle development. These results show the efficacy of an injectable ECM hydrogel alone as a potential therapy for treating patients with PAD. Our results indicate that the SKM hydrogel improved functional outcomes through stimulation of arteriogenesis and muscle progenitor cell recruitment.

  3. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer expression in the baboon endometrium: menstrual cycle and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braundmeier, A G; Fazleabas, A T; Nowak, R A

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; BSG) regulates tissue remodeling through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In human and non-human primates, endometrial remodeling is important for menstruation and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We hypothesized that as in humans, BSG and MMPs are expressed in the endometrium of cycling baboons, and their expression is hormonally regulated by ovarian hormones, but endometriosis disrupts this regulation. BSG expression was evaluated in the baboon endometrium by q-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In the endometrium of control cycling animals, BSG mRNA levels were highest in late secretory stage tissue. BSG protein localized to glandular epithelial cells during the proliferative phase; whereas, secretory stage tissues expressed BSG in glandular and luminal epithelia with weak stromal staining. Several MMPs were differentially expressed throughout the menstrual cycle with the highest levels found during menstruation. In ovariectomized animals, BSG endometrial mRNA levels were highest with treatment of both estrogen and progesterone than that with only estrogen. Estrogen alone resulted in BSG protein localization primarily in the endometrial glandular epithelia, while estrogen and progesterone treatment displayed BSG protein localization in both the glandular and stromal cells. Exogenous hormone treatment resulted in differential expression patterns of all MMPs compared with the control cycling animals. In the eutopic endometrium of endometriotic animals, BSG mRNA levels and protein were elevated early but decreased later in disease progression. Endometriosis elevated the expression of all MMPs except MMP7 compared with the control animals. In baboons, BSG and MMP endometrial expression is regulated by both ovarian hormones, and their expression patterns are dysregulated in endometriotic animals.

  4. Overcoming Barriers of Age to Enhance Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy: The Clout of the Extracellular Matrix

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    Mark Owyong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing list of cancer immunotherapeutics approved for use in a population with an increasing number of aged individuals. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT mediates tumor destruction by activating anti-tumor immune responses that have been silenced through the oncogenic process. However, in an aging individual, immune deregulation is positively correlated with age. In this context, it is vital to examine the age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME and specifically, those directly affecting critical players to ensure CIT efficacy. Effector T cells, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-associated neutrophils play important roles in promoting or inhibiting the inflammatory response, while cancer-associated fibroblasts are key mediators of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Immune checkpoint inhibitors function optimally in inflamed tumors heavily invaded by CD4 and CD8 T cells. However, immunosenescence curtails the effector T cell response within the TME and causes ECM deregulation, creating a biophysical barrier impeding both effective drug delivery and pro-inflammatory responses. The ability of the chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T cell to artificially induce an adaptive immune response can be modified to degrade essential components of the ECM and alleviate the age-related changes to the TME. This review will focus on the age-related alterations in ECM and immune-stroma interactions within the TME. We will discuss strategies to overcome the barriers of immunosenescence and matrix deregulation to ameliorate the efficacy of CIT in aged subjects.

  5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is expressed in the form of proteoglycan and binds to the extracellular matrix protein tenascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, G; Grumet, M; Milev, P; Silvennoinen, O; Levy, J B; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1994-05-20

    The extracellular domain of receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) exhibits striking sequence similarity with a soluble, rat brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (3F8 PG). Immunoprecipitation experiments of cells transfected with RPTP beta expression vector and metabolically labeled with [35S]sulfate and [35S]methionine indicate that the transmembrane form of RPTP beta is indeed a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The 3F8 PG is therefore a variant form composed of the entire extracellular domain of RPTP beta probably generated by alternative RNA splicing. Previous immunohistochemical studies indicated that both RPTP beta and the extracellular matrix protein tenascin are localized in similar regions of the central nervous system. We have performed co-aggregation assays with red and green Co-vaspheres coated with tenascin and 3F8 PG, respectively, showing that the extracellular domain of RPTP beta (3F8 PG) binds specifically to tenascin. The interaction between a receptor tyrosine phosphatase and an extracellular matrix protein may have a role in development of the mammalian central nervous system.

  6. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including

  7. Extracellular matrix-associated gene expression in adult sensory neuron populations cultured on a laminin substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Neva J; Mearow, Karen M

    2013-01-30

    In our previous investigations of the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in promoting neurite growth we have observed that a permissive laminin (LN) substrate stimulates differential growth responses in subpopulations of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons expressing Trk and p75 receptors grow neurites on a LN substrate in the absence of neurotrophins, while isolectin B4-binding neurons (IB4+) do not display significant growth under the same conditions. We set out to determine whether there was an expression signature of the LN-induced neurite growth phenotype. Using a lectin binding protocol IB4+ neurons were isolated from dissociated DRG neurons, creating two groups - IB4+ and IB4-. A small-scale microarray approach was employed to screen the expression of a panel of ECM-associated genes following dissociation (t=0) and after 24 hr culture on LN (t=24LN). This was followed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry of selected genes. The microarray screen showed that 36 of the 144 genes on the arrays were consistently expressed by the neurons. The array analyses showed that six genes had lower expression in the IB4+ neurons compared to the IB4- cells at t=0 (CTSH, Icam1, Itgβ1, Lamb1, Plat, Spp1), and one gene was expressed at higher levels in the IB4+ cells (Plaur). qRT-PCR was carried out as an independent assessment of the array results. There were discrepancies between the two methods, with qRT-PCR confirming the differences in Lamb1, Plat and Plaur, and showing decreased expression of AdamTs1, FN, and Icam in the IB4+ cells at t=0. After 24 hr culture on LN, there were no significant differences detected by qRT-PCR between the IB4+ and IB4- cells. However, both groups showed upregulation of Itgβ1 and Plaur after 24 hr on LN, the IB4+ group also had increased Plat, and the IB4- cells showed decreased Lamb1, Icam1 and AdamTs1. Further, the array screen also detected a number of genes (not subjected to qRT-PCR) expressed similarly by both

  8. In vitro extracellular matrix model to evaluate stroma cell response to transvaginal mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Yang, Chau-Chen; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgical mesh for female pelvic floor reconstruction has increased in recent years. However, there is paucity of information about the biological responses of host stroma cells to different meshes. This study was aimed to establish an in vitro experimental model to study the micro-environment of extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded mesh and the stroma cell behaviors to different synthetic meshes. Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh was used to evaluate the interaction of stroma cells and synthetic mesh in a simulated ECM environment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated in the system. The established multi-cellular Matrigel co-culture system was used to detect stroma cell recruitment and tube formation ability for different synthetic meshes. HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells were recruited into the mesh interstices and organized into tube-like structures in type I mesh material from Perigee, Marlex and Prolift 24 hr after cell inoculation. On the contrary, there was little recruitment of HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells into the type III mesh of intra-vaginal sling (IVS). The Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh offers a useful in vitro model to study the biological behaviors of stroma cells in response to different types of synthetic meshes. The system can help to select ideal mesh candidates before actual implantation into the human body. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The ability of haemolysins expressed by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to bind to extracellular matrix components

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    Caroline A Magalhães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are considered important bacterial causes of diarrhoea. Considering the repertoire of virulence genes, atypical EPEC (aEPEC is a heterogeneous group, harbouring genes that are found in other diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, such as those encoding haemolysins. Haemolysins are cytolytic toxins that lyse host cells disrupting the function of the plasma membrane. In addition, these cytolysins mediate a connection to vascular tissue and/or blood components, such as plasma and cellular fibronectin. Therefore, we investigated the haemolytic activity of 72 aEPEC isolates and determined the correlation of this phenotype with the presence of genes encoding enterohaemolysins (Ehly and cytolysin A (ClyA. In addition, the correlation between the expression of haemolysins and the ability of these secreted proteins to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM components was also assessed in this study. Our findings demonstrate that a subset of aEPEC presents haemolytic activity due to the expression of Ehlys and/or ClyA and that this activity is closely related to the ability of these isolates to bind to ECM components.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the interactions between human corneal endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin San; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Giegengack, Matthew; Khan, Faraaz A; Soker, Shay; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    The corneal endothelium is the innermost cell layer of the cornea and rests on Descemet's membrane consisting of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins which can directly affect the cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, proliferation, polarity, morphogenesis and function. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions between the ECM environment and human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), with the ultimate goal to improve cell proliferation and function in vitro. To evaluate the interaction of HCECs with ECM proteins, cells were seeded on ECM-coated tissue culture dishes, including collagen type I (COL I), collagen type IV (COL IV), fibronectin (FN), FNC coating mix (FNC) and laminin (LM). Cell adhesion and proliferation of HCECs on each substratum and expression of CEC markers were studied. The results showed that HCECs plated on the COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC-coated plates had enhanced cell adhesion initially; the number for COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). In addition, cells grown on ECM protein-coated dishes showed more compact cellular morphology and CEC marker expression compared to cells seeded on uncoated dishes. Collectively, our results suggest that an adequate ECM protein combination can provide a long-term culture environment for HCECs for corneal endothelium transplantation. (paper)

  11. Fabrication and biological evaluation of uniform extracellular matrix coatings on discontinuous photolithography generated micropallet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Nicholas M; Bachman, Mark; Li, Guann-Pyng; Nelson, Edward L

    2010-11-01

    The recent identification of rare cell populations within tissues that are associated with specific biological behaviors, for example, progenitor cells, has illuminated a limitation of current technologies to study such adherent cells directly from primary tissues. The micropallet array is a recently developed technology designed to address this limitation by virtue of its capacity to isolate and recover single adherent cells on individual micropallets. The capacity to apply this technology to primary tissues and cells with restricted growth characteristics, particularly adhesion requirements, is critically dependent on the capacity to generate functional extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings. The discontinuous nature of the micropallet array surface provides specific constraints on the processes for generating the desired ECM coatings that are necessary to achieve the full functional capacity of the micropallet array. We have developed strategies, reported herein, to generate functional coatings with various ECM protein components: fibronectin, EHS tumor basement membrane extract, collagen, and laminin-5; confirmed by evaluation for rapid cellular adherence of four dissimilar cell types: fibroblast, breast epithelial, pancreatic epithelial, and myeloma. These findings are important for the dissemination and expanded use of micropallet arrays and similar microtechnologies requiring the integrated use of ECM protein coatings to promote cellular adherence.

  12. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

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    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  13. Oxygen diffusion and consumption in extracellular matrix gels: implications for designing three-dimensional cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Adai; Galgoczy, Roland; Almendros, Isaac; Xaubet, Antonio; Farré, Ramon; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures are increasingly used as tissue surrogates to study many physiopathological processes. However, to what extent current 3D culture protocols provide physiologic oxygen tension conditions remains ill defined. To address this limitation, oxygen tension was measured in a panel of acellular or cellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) gels with A549 cells, and analyzed in terms of oxygen diffusion and consumption. Gels included reconstituted basement membrane, fibrin and collagen. Oxygen diffusivity in acellular gels was up to 40% smaller than that of water, and the lower values were observed in the denser gels. In 3D cultures, physiologic oxygen tension was achieved after 2 days in dense (≥3 mg/mL) but not sparse gels, revealing that the latter gels are not suitable tissue surrogates in terms of oxygen distribution. In dense gels, we observed a dominant effect of ECM composition over density in oxygen consumption. All diffusion and consumption data were used in a simple model to estimate ranges for gel thickness, seeding density and time-window that may support physiologic oxygen tension. Thus, we identified critical variables for oxygen tension in ECM gels, and introduced a model to assess initial values of these variables, which may short-cut the optimization step of 3D culture studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characterization of and host response to tyramine substituted-hyaluronan enriched fascia extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, LiKang; Calabro, Anthony; Rodriguez, E. Rene; Tan, Carmela D.; Walker, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Naturally-occurring biomaterial scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have been previously investigated for soft tissue repair. We propose to enrich fascia ECM with high molecular weight tyramine substituted-hyaluronan (TS-HA) to modulate inflammation associated with implantation and enhance fibroblast infiltration. As critical determinants of constructive remodeling, the host inflammatory response and macrophage polarization to TS-HA enriched fascia were characterized in a rat abdominal wall model. TS-HA treated fascia with cross-linking had a similar lymphocyte (P = 0.11) and plasma cell (P = 0.13) densities, greater macrophage (P = 0.001) and giant cell (P fascia, with or without cross-linking, exhibited a predominantly M2 pro-remodeling macrophage profile similar to water controls (P = 0.82), which is suggestive of constructive tissue remodeling. Our findings demonstrated that HA augmentation can alter the host response to an ECM, but the appropriate concentration and molecular weight needed to minimize chronic inflammation within the scaffold remains to be determined. PMID:21553156

  16. Functional characterization of detergent-decellularized equine tendon extracellular matrix for tissue engineering applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Youngstrom

    Full Text Available Natural extracellular matrix provides a number of distinct advantages for engineering replacement orthopedic tissue due to its intrinsic functional properties. The goal of this study was to optimize a biologically derived scaffold for tendon tissue engineering using equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. We investigated changes in scaffold composition and ultrastructure in response to several mechanical, detergent and enzymatic decellularization protocols using microscopic techniques and a panel of biochemical assays to evaluate total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Biocompatibility was also assessed with static mesenchymal stem cell (MSC culture. Implementation of a combination of freeze/thaw cycles, incubation in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, trypsinization, treatment with DNase-I, and ethanol sterilization produced a non-cytotoxic biomaterial free of appreciable residual cellular debris with no significant modification of biomechanical properties. These decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS are suitable for complex tissue engineering applications, as they provide a clean slate for cell culture while maintaining native three-dimensional architecture.

  17. Altered expression of epithelial integrins and extracellular matrix receptors in oral erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirowsk, G W; Lozada-Nur, F; Dekker, N P; MacPhail, L A; Regezi, J A

    1996-10-01

    Inflammation and ulceration at the epithelium-connective tissue interface, a characteristic of erythema multiforme (EM), may be associated with altered molecular attachment of basal keratinocytes. To determine the expression of basal keratinocyte-associated integrins and their basement membrane ligands in oral EM, specimens of clinically and microscopically confirmed EM (n = 12) and mucosal controls (n = 7) were stained immunohistochemically for the integrins alpha 3, beta 6, beta 1, and beta 4 and for extracellular matrix proteins laminin 1, laminin 5, collagen IV, and collagen VII using a standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. In EM, results showed increased staining intensity for all integrins studied in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. Basement membrane-associated staining of a6 and b4 was intense, but disrupted and fragmented. In EM, integrin staining was most marked at the summit of the connective tissue papillae. Laminin 5 staining was more intense than in controls, was frequently fragmented, and extended into the lamina propria. Laminin 1 staining was discontinuous and was frequently less intense than in controls. Collagen IV staining in EM was interrupted along the basement membrane. Collagen VII staining was fragmented but unchanged in intensity. These alterations in interface adhesion molecules suggest that hemidesmosome-associated molecules are important in the pathogenesis of EM. The staining intensities and patterns of expression of these adhesion molecules suggest that oral EM is initially focused in the connective tissue papillae.

  18. Amine functionalization of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix with generation 1 PAMAM dendrimer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-02-01

    A method to functionalize cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) with free amine groups was established in an attempt to improve its potential for tethering of bioactive molecules. CEM was incorporated with Generation-1 polyamidoamine (G1 PAMAM) dendrimer by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N\\'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross-linking system. The nature of incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer was evaluated using shrink temperature measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) assessment, ninhydrin assay, and swellability. The effects of PAMAM incorporation on mechanical and degradation properties of CEM were evaluated using a uniaxial mechanical test and collagenase degradation assay, respectively. Ninhydrin assay and FTIR assessment confirmed the presence of increasing free amine groups with increasing quantity of PAMAM in dendrimer-incorporated CEM (DENCEM) scaffolds. The amount of dendrimer used was found to be critical in controlling scaffold degradation, shrink temperature, and free amine content. Cell culture studies showed that fibroblasts seeded on DENCEM maintained their metabolic activity and ability to proliferate in vitro. In addition, fluorescence cell staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of cell-seeded DENCEM showed preservation of normal fibroblast morphology and phenotype.

  19. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

  20. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  1. The Use of Natural Polymers in Tissue Engineering: A Focus on Electrospun Extracellular Matrix Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Bowlin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural polymers such as collagens, elastin, and fibrinogen make up much of the body’s native extracellular matrix (ECM. This ECM provides structure and mechanical integrity to tissues, as well as communicating with the cellular components it supports to help facilitate and regulate daily cellular processes and wound healing. An ideal tissue engineering scaffold would not only replicate the structure of this ECM, but would also replicate the many functions that the ECM performs. In the past decade, the process of electrospinning has proven effective in creating non-woven ECM analogue scaffolds of micro to nanoscale diameter fibers from an array of synthetic and natural polymers. The ability of this fabrication technique to utilize the aforementioned natural polymers to create tissue engineering scaffolds has yielded promising results, both in vitro and in vivo, due in part to the enhanced bioactivity afforded by materials normally found within the human body. This review will present the process of electrospinning and describe the use of natural polymers in the creation of bioactive ECM analogues in tissue engineering.

  2. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Identifies Extracellular Matrix Gene Expression by Pancreatic Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Ting

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are shed from primary tumors into the bloodstream, mediating the hematogenous spread of cancer to distant organs. To define their composition, we compared genome-wide expression profiles of CTCs with matched primary tumors in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, isolating individual CTCs using epitope-independent microfluidic capture, followed by single-cell RNA sequencing. CTCs clustered separately from primary tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, showing low-proliferative signatures, enrichment for the stem-cell-associated gene Aldh1a2, biphenotypic expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and expression of Igfbp5, a gene transcript enriched at the epithelial-stromal interface. Mouse as well as human pancreatic CTCs exhibit a very high expression of stromal-derived extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, including SPARC, whose knockdown in cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasiveness. The aberrant expression by CTCs of stromal ECM genes points to their contribution of microenvironmental signals for the spread of cancer to distant organs.

  3. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  4. Extracellular matrix control of mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis: insights from imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-10-23

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to solely provide physical support to a tissue, is a key component of a cell's microenvironment responsible for directing cell fate and maintaining tissue specificity. It stands to reason, then, that changes in the ECM itself or in how signals from the ECM are presented to or interpreted by cells can disrupt tissue organization; the latter is a necessary step for malignant progression. In this review, we elaborate on this concept using the mammary gland as an example. We describe how the ECM directs mammary gland formation and function, and discuss how a cell's inability to interpret these signals - whether as a result of genetic insults or physicochemical alterations in the ECM - disorganizes the gland and promotes malignancy. By restoring context and forcing cells to properly interpret these native signals, aberrant behavior can be quelled and organization re-established. Traditional imaging approaches have been a key complement to the standard biochemical, molecular, and cell biology approaches used in these studies. Utilizing imaging modalities with enhanced spatial resolution in live tissues may uncover additional means by which the ECM regulates tissue structure, on different length scales, through its pericellular organization (short-scale) and by biasing morphogenic and morphostatic gradients (long-scale).

  5. Cardiac extracellular matrix is associated with adverse outcome in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Franz; Zotter-Tufaro, Caroline; Kammerlander, Andreas A; Panzenböck, Adelheid; Aschauer, Stefan; Dalos, Daniel; Köll, Benedikt; Börries, Benedikt; Agis, Hermine; Kain, Renate; Aumayr, Klaus; Klinglmüller, Florian; Mascherbauer, Julia; Bonderman, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, its prognostic relevance is poorly investigated. A total of 73 HF patients who underwent LV endomyocardial biopsy were enrolled in our study. ECM area was quantified by TissueFAXS and ImageJ software. Patients were followed-up at 6-month intervals. The study endpoint was defined as hospitalization for a cardiac reason and/or cardiac death. Furthermore, the influence of the ECM on invasively measured haemodynamic parameters was tested. During a median follow-up period of 9.0 months, 34 patients (46.6%) reached the combined endpoint. Median ECM area was 30.5%. Patients with ECM area ≥30.5% experienced significantly more events (67.6% vs. 25.0%, P heart haemodynamics and is associated with clinical course in various non-ischaemic HF types. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  7. Integrins and the extracellular matrix: key mediators of development and regeneration of the sensory nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Natalie J

    2011-11-01

    The somatosensory nervous system is responsible for the transmission of a multitude of sensory information from specialized receptors in the periphery to the central nervous system. Sensory afferents can potentially be damaged at several sites: in the peripheral nerve; the dorsal root; or the dorsal columns of the spinal cord; and the success of regeneration depends on the site of injury. The regeneration of peripheral nerve branches following injury is relatively successful compared to central branches. This is largely attributed to the presence of neurotrophic factors and a Schwann cell basement membrane rich in permissive extracellular matrix (ECM) components which promote axonal regeneration in the peripheral nerve. Modulation of the ECM environment and/or neuronal integrins may enhance regenerative potential of sensory neurons following peripheral or central nerve injury or disease. This review describes the interactions between integrins and ECM molecules (particularly the growth supportive ligands, laminin, and fibronectin; and the growth inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)) during development and regeneration of sensory neurons following physical injury or neuropathy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  9. From Nano to Macro: Studying the Hierarchical Structure of the Corneal Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantock, Andrew J.; Winkler, Moritz; Parfitt, Geraint J.; Young, Robert D.; Brown, Donald J.; Boote, Craig; Jester, James V.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current methods for studying ocular extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly from the ‘nano’ to the ‘macro’ levels of hierarchical organization. Since collagen is the major structural protein in the eye, providing mechanical strength and controlling ocular shape, the methods presented focus on understanding the molecular assembly of collagen at the nanometer level using x-ray scattering through to the millimeter to centimeter level using nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of second harmonic generated (SHG) signals. Three-dimensional analysis of ECM structure is also discussed, including electron tomography, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and digital image reconstruction. Techniques to detect non-collagenous structural components of the ECM are also presented, and these include immunoelectron microscopy and staining with cationic dyes. Together, these various approaches are providing new insights into the structural blueprint of the ocular ECM, and in particular that of the cornea, which impacts upon our current understanding of the control of corneal shape, pathogenic mechanisms underlying ectatic disorders of the cornea and the potential for corneal tissue engineering. PMID:25819457

  10. Elastase effect on the extracellular matrix of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, J.; Mogayzel, P.J. Jr.; Pratt, C.A.; Toselli, P.; Wolfe, B.L.; Faris, B.; Franzblau, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of porcine pancreatic elastase on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures was monitored both chemically and ultrastructurally. Initially, the elastin appeared as non-coalesced material closely associated with filaments, presumably microfibrils. The insoluble elastin accumulated in the ECM of cells in culture for 6 weeks accounted for 40-45% of the total protein. After exposure to elastase for 30-60 minutes, the elastin content was reduced to 14-20%. The reduction in the total protein content of the cultures after elastase treatment was due primarily to the loss of elastin. Although the amino acid compositions of the elastin isolated from cultures both before and after elastase treatment were similar, there were striking ultrastructural differences in the amorphous elastin. The elastin assumed a mottled appearance after elastase exposure, similar to that seen in in vivo emphysema models. Pulse experiments with 3 H-valine demonstrated an increase in protein synthesis by the cells 20 hours after elastase exposure, suggesting the potential for elastin repair. The use of this culture system will aid in clarifying the role of elastolysis in pulmonary and vascular injuries

  11. Inhibition of extracellular matrix production and remodeling by doxycycline in smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Palomino-Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM production and remodeling of smooth muscle cells (SMCs have been implicated in processes related to the differentiation in atherosclerosis. Due to the anti-atherosclerotic properties of the tetracyclines, we aimed to investigate whether cholesterol supplementation changes the effect of doxycycline over the ECM proteins synthesis and whether isoprenylated proteins and Rho A protein activation are affected. SMC primary culture isolated from chicks exposed to atherogenic factors in vivo (a cholesterol-rich diet, SMC-Ch, comparing it with control cultures isolated after a standard diet (SMC-C. After treatment with 20 nM doxycycline, [H3]-proline and [H3]-mevalonate incorporation were used to measure the synthesis of collagen and isoprenylated proteins, respectively. Real-time PCR was assessed to determine col1a2, col2a1, col3a1, fibronectin, and mmp2 gene expression and the pull-down technique was applied to determine the Rho A activation state. A higher synthesis of collagens and isoprenylated proteins in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C was determined showing that doxycycline inhibits ECM production and remodeling in both SMC types of cultures. Moreover, preliminary results about the effect of doxycycline on protein isoprenylation and Rho A protein activation led us to discuss the possibility that membrane G-protein activation pathways could mediate the molecular mechanism.

  12. Combinatorial Extracellular Matrix Microenvironments for Probing Endothelial Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Luqia; Kim, Joseph J; Wanjare, Maureen; Patlolla, Bhagat; Coller, John; Natu, Vanita; Hastie, Trevor J; Huang, Ngan F

    2017-07-26

    Endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells are a promising cell type for enhancing angiogenesis in ischemic cardiovascular tissues. However, our understanding of microenvironmental factors that modulate the process of endothelial differentiation is limited. We examined the role of combinatorial extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on endothelial differentiation systematically using an arrayed microscale platform. Human pluripotent stem cells were differentiated on the arrayed ECM microenvironments for 5 days. Combinatorial ECMs composed of collagen IV + heparan sulfate + laminin (CHL) or collagen IV + gelatin + heparan sulfate (CGH) demonstrated significantly higher expression of CD31, compared to single-factor ECMs. These results were corroborated by fluorescence activated cell sorting showing a 48% yield of CD31 + /VE-cadherin + cells on CHL, compared to 27% on matrigel. To elucidate the signaling mechanism, a gene expression time course revealed that VE-cadherin and FLK1 were upregulated in a dynamically similar manner as integrin subunit β3 (>50 fold). To demonstrate the functional importance of integrin β3 in promoting endothelial differentiation, the addition of neutralization antibody inhibited endothelial differentiation on CHL-modified dishes by >50%. These data suggest that optimal combinatorial ECMs enhance endothelial differentiation, compared to many single-factor ECMs, in part through an integrin β3-mediated pathway.

  13. Inhibition of extracellular matrix production and remodeling by doxycycline in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Perales, Sonia; Linares, Ana; Alejandre, Maria Jose

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) production and remodeling of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in processes related to the differentiation in atherosclerosis. Due to the anti-atherosclerotic properties of the tetracyclines, we aimed to investigate whether cholesterol supplementation changes the effect of doxycycline over the ECM proteins synthesis and whether isoprenylated proteins and Rho A protein activation are affected. SMC primary culture isolated from chicks exposed to atherogenic factors in vivo (a cholesterol-rich diet, SMC-Ch), comparing it with control cultures isolated after a standard diet (SMC-C). After treatment with 20 nM doxycycline, [H 3 ]-proline and [H 3 ]-mevalonate incorporation were used to measure the synthesis of collagen and isoprenylated proteins, respectively. Real-time PCR was assessed to determine col1a2, col2a1, col3a1, fibronectin, and mmp2 gene expression and the pull-down technique was applied to determine the Rho A activation state. A higher synthesis of collagens and isoprenylated proteins in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C was determined showing that doxycycline inhibits ECM production and remodeling in both SMC types of cultures. Moreover, preliminary results about the effect of doxycycline on protein isoprenylation and Rho A protein activation led us to discuss the possibility that membrane G-protein activation pathways could mediate the molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different profiles of onion bulb in CIDP and CMT1A in relation to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Teruaki; Unuma, Tsuneo; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic neuropathy is usually intractable, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) are the representative disorders. The two disorders are sometimes confused both clinically and pathologically. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the pathology of large onion bulbs, focusing on the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Nine patients with CIDP and 14 with CMT1A were included. The opened interspaces in OB were frequently shown in CMT1A patients. In CIDP, interspaces of OB packed with collagen fibers were prominent. The mean ratio of opened OB was significantly increased in CMT1A (37.9%) compared to CIDP patients (10.6%) (p = 0.003). Among the ECM examined, tenascin-C (TNC) showed a distinct difference in the pattern of immunoreactivity of OB. The mean ratio of OB showing TNC immunoreactivity was significantly larger in CIDP (29.7%, p = 0.005) than in CMT1A (5.0%). TNC immunoreactivity was confined to the area around myelin sheaths in CMT1A. The increased deposition of collagen fibers in CIDP suggests the activity of nerve regeneration. TNC expression in Schwann cell lamellae comprising OB may also suggest the activity of regeneration. Schwann cell phenotypes in CIDP may be different from CMT1A regarding the production of ECM proteins.

  15. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies extracellular matrix gene expression by pancreatic circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David T; Wittner, Ben S; Ligorio, Matteo; Vincent Jordan, Nicole; Shah, Ajay M; Miyamoto, David T; Aceto, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Brannigan, Brian W; Xega, Kristina; Ciciliano, Jordan C; Zhu, Huili; MacKenzie, Olivia C; Trautwein, Julie; Arora, Kshitij S; Shahid, Mohammad; Ellis, Haley L; Qu, Na; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Rivera, Miguel N; Deshpande, Vikram; Ferrone, Cristina R; Kapur, Ravi; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Shioda, Toshi; Toner, Mehmet; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-09-25

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed from primary tumors into the bloodstream, mediating the hematogenous spread of cancer to distant organs. To define their composition, we compared genome-wide expression profiles of CTCs with matched primary tumors in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, isolating individual CTCs using epitope-independent microfluidic capture, followed by single-cell RNA sequencing. CTCs clustered separately from primary tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, showing low-proliferative signatures, enrichment for the stem-cell-associated gene Aldh1a2, biphenotypic expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and expression of Igfbp5, a gene transcript enriched at the epithelial-stromal interface. Mouse as well as human pancreatic CTCs exhibit a very high expression of stromal-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including SPARC, whose knockdown in cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasiveness. The aberrant expression by CTCs of stromal ECM genes points to their contribution of microenvironmental signals for the spread of cancer to distant organs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  17. On-demand dissolution of modular, synthetic extracellular matrix reveals local epithelial-stromal communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jorge; Cook, Christi D; Ahrens, Caroline Chopko; Wang, Alex J; Brown, Alexander; Kumar, Manu; Stockdale, Linda; Rothenberg, Daniel; Renggli, Kasper; Gordon, Elizabeth; Lauffenburger, Douglas; White, Forest; Griffith, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Methods to parse paracrine epithelial-stromal communication networks are a vital need in drug development, as disruption of these networks underlies diseases ranging from cancer to endometriosis. Here, we describe a modular, synthetic, and dissolvable extracellular matrix (MSD-ECM) hydrogel that fosters functional 3D epithelial-stromal co-culture, and that can be dissolved on-demand to recover cells and paracrine signaling proteins intact for subsequent analysis. Specifically, synthetic polymer hydrogels, modified with cell-interacting adhesion motifs and crosslinked with peptides that include a substrate for cell-mediated proteolytic remodeling, can be rapidly dissolved by an engineered version of the microbial transpeptidase Sortase A (SrtA) if the crosslinking peptide includes a SrtA substrate motif and a soluble second substrate. SrtA-mediated dissolution affected only 1 of 31 cytokines and growth factors assayed, whereas standard protease degradation methods destroyed about half of these same molecules. Using co-encapsulated endometrial epithelial and stromal cells as one model system, we show that the dynamic cytokine and growth factor response of co-cultures to an inflammatory cue is richer and more nuanced when measured from SrtA-dissolved gel microenvironments than from the culture supernate. This system employs accessible, reproducible reagents and facile protocols; hence, has potential as a tool in identifying and validating therapeutic targets in complex diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  19. Development of a porcine renal extracellular matrix scaffold as a platform for kidney regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seock Hwan; Chun, So Young; Chae, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Chung, Sung Kwang; Lee, Jin Ho; Song, Phil Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2015-04-01

    Acellular scaffolds, possessing an intact three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and biochemical components, are promising for regeneration of complex organs, such as the kidney. We have successfully developed a porcine renal acellular scaffold and analyzed its physical/biochemical characteristics, biocompatibility, and kidney reconstructive potential. Segmented porcine kidney cortexes were treated with either 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 (Triton) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Scanning electron microscopy showed both treatments preserved native tissue architecture, including porosity and composition. Swelling behavior was higher in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Maximum compressive strength was lower in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Attenuated total reflective-infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of amide II (-NH) in both scaffolds. Furthermore, richer ECM protein and growth factor contents were observed in the Triton-treated compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Primary human kidney cell adherence, viability, and proliferation were enhanced on the Triton-treated scaffold compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Following murine in vivo implantation, tumorigenecity was absent for both scaffolds after 8 weeks and in the Triton-treated scaffold only, glomeruli-like structure formation and neovascularity were observed. We identified 1% Triton X-100 as a more suitable decellularizing agent for porcine renal ECM scaffolds prior to kidney regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulates Extra-Cellular Matrix Production in Cellular Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Casco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM. The MNP concentration (0.03 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL, type (magnetoferritin, shape (nanorod—85 nm × 425 nm and incorporation method were studied to determine each of their effects on the specific stimulation of four ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen IV, elastin and fibronectin in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Results demonstrated that as MNP concentration increased there was up to a 6.32-fold increase in collagen production over no MNP samples. Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry (IHC results demonstrated that MNP type had the greatest influence on elastin production with a 56.28% positive area stain compared to controls and MNP shape favored elastin stimulation with a 50.19% positive area stain. Finally, there are no adverse effects of MNPs on cellular contractile ability. This study provides insight on the stimulation of ECM production in cells and tissues, which is important because it plays a critical role in regulating cellular functions.

  2. Neural cell alignment by patterning gradients of the extracellular matrix protein laminin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, Beatrice; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Greco, Pierpaolo; Bystrenova, Eva; Bianchi, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic orientation and accurate positioning of neural cells is achieved by patterning stripes of the extracellular matrix protein laminin on the surface of polystyrene tissue culture dishes by micromoulding in capillaries (MIMICs). Laminin concentration decreases from the entrance of the channels in contact with the reservoir towards the end. Immunofluorescence analysis of laminin shows a decreasing gradient of concentration along the longitudinal direction of the stripes. The explanation is the superposition of diffusion and convection of the solute, the former dominating at length scales near the entrance (characteristic length around 50 μm), the latter further away (length scale in excess of 900 μm). These length scales are independent of the channel width explored from about 15 to 45 μm. Neural cells are randomly seeded and selectively adhere to the pattern, leaving the unpatterned areas depleted even upon 6 days of incubation. Cell alignment was assessed by the orientation of the long axis of the 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained nuclei. Samples on patterned the laminin area exhibit a large orientational order parameter. As control, cells on the unpatterned laminin film exhibit no preferential orientation. This implies that the anisotropy of laminin stripes is an effective chemical stimulus for cell recruiting and alignment. PMID:24501672

  3. Modifying alginate with early embryonic extracellular matrix, laminin, and hyaluronic acid for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yo-Shen; Chen, Yen-Yu; Hsueh, Yu-Sheng; Tai, Hao-Chih; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular matrix provides both mechanistic and chemical cues that can influence cellular behaviors such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, a new material, HA-L-Alg, was synthesized by linking developmentally essential ECM constituents hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin(L) to alginate (Alg). The fabrication of HA-L-Alg was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, and it was used to form 3D cell-carrying beads. HA-L-Alg beads had a steady rate of degradation and retained 63.25% of mass after 9 weeks. HA-L-Alg beads showed biocompatibility comparable to beads formed by Alg-only with no obvious cytotoxic effect on the embedded 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HA-L-Alg encapsulated 3T3-L1 cells were found to have a higher proliferation rate over those in Alg-only beads. These cells also showed better differentiation capacity after 2 weeks of adipogenic induction within HA-L-Alg beads. These results support that HA-L-Alg facilitated cell survival and proliferation, as well as stimulated and maintained cell differentiation. Our results suggest that HA-L-Alg has a great clinical potential to be used as stem cell carrier for adipose tissue engineering. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 669-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cardiac extracellular matrix-fibrin hybrid scaffolds with tunable properties for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corin; Budina, Erica; Stoppel, Whitney L; Sullivan, Kelly E; Emani, Sirisha; Emani, Sitaram M; Black, Lauren D

    2015-03-01

    Solubilized cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) is being developed as an injectable therapeutic that offers promise for promoting cardiac repair. However, the ECM alone forms a hydrogel that is very soft compared to the native myocardium. As both the stiffness and composition of the ECM are important in regulating cell behavior and can have complex synergistic effects, we sought to develop an ECM-based scaffold with tunable biochemical and mechanical properties. We used solubilized rat cardiac ECM from two developmental stages (neonatal, adult) combined with fibrin hydrogels that were cross-linked with transglutaminase. We show that ECM was retained within the gels and that the Young's modulus could be tuned to span the range of the developing and mature heart. C-kit+ cardiovascular progenitor cells from pediatric patients with congenital heart defects were seeded into the hybrid gels. Both the elastic modulus and composition of the scaffolds impacted the expression of endothelial and smooth muscle cell genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the hybrid gels are injectable, and thus have potential for minimally invasive therapies. ECM-fibrin hybrid scaffolds offer new opportunities for exploiting the effects of both composition and mechanical properties in directing cell behavior for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the identification of the soluble angiogenic factors, insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, and receptor signaling pathways that mediate control of angiogenesis--the growth of blood capillaries. This review focuses on work that explores how endothelial cells integrate these chemical signals with mechanical cues from their local tissue microenvironment so as to produce functional capillary networks that exhibit specialized form as well as function. These studies have revealed that ECM governs whether an endothelial cell will switch between growth, differentiation, motility, or apoptosis programs in response to a soluble stimulus based on its ability to mechanically resist cell tractional forces and thereby produce cell and cytoskeletal distortion. Transmembrane integrin receptors play a key role in this mechanochemical transduction process because they both organize a cytoskeletal signaling complex within the focal adhesion and preferentially focus mechanical forces on this site. Molecular filaments within the internal cytoskeleton--microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments--also contribute to the cell's structural and functional response to mechanical stress through their role as discrete support elements within a tensegrity-stabilized cytoskeletal array. Importantly, a similar form of mechanical control also has been shown to be involved in the regulation of contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. Thus, the mechanism by which cells perform mechanochemical transduction and the implications of these findings for morphogenetic control are discussed in the wider context of vascular development and cardiovascular physiology.

  6. Effect of Extracellular Matrix Membrane on Bone Formation in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

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    Jin Wook Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbable extracellular matrix (ECM membrane has recently been used as a barrier membrane (BM in guided tissue regeneration (GTR and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Absorbable BMs are mostly based on collagen, which is more biocompatible than synthetic materials. However, implanted absorbable BMs can be rapidly degraded by enzymes in vivo. In a previous study, to delay degradation time, collagen fibers were treated with cross-linking agents. These compounds prevented the enzymatic degradation of BMs. However, cross-linked BMs can exhibit delayed tissue integration. In addition, the remaining cross-linker could induce inflammation. Here, we attempted to overcome these problems using a natural ECM membrane. The membrane consisted of freshly harvested porcine pericardium that was stripped from cells and immunoreagents by a cleaning process. Acellular porcine pericardium (APP showed a bilayer structure with a smooth upper surface and a significantly coarser bottom layer. APP is an ECM with a thin layer (0.18–0.35 mm but with excellent mechanical properties. Tensile strength of APP was 14.15±2.24 MPa. In in vivo experiments, APP was transplanted into rabbit tibia. The biocompatible material was retained for up to 3 months without the need for cross-linking. Therefore, we conclude that APP could support osteogenesis as a BM for up to 3 months.

  7. Nanoscale Viscoelasticity of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Soft Tissues: a Multiscale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Amir K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Javid, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    We propose that the bulk viscoelasticity of soft tissues results from two length-scale-dependent mechanisms: the time-dependent response of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) at the nanometer scale and the biophysical interactions between the ECM solid structure and interstitial fluid at the micrometer scale. The latter was modeled using the poroelasticity theory with an assumption of free motion of the interstitial fluid within the porous ECM structure. Following a recent study (Heris, H.K., Miri, A.K., Tripathy, U., Barthelat, F., Mongeau, L., 2013. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials), atomic force microscopy was used to perform creep loading and 50-nm sinusoidal oscillations on porcine vocal folds. The proposed model was calibrated by a finite element model to accurately predict the nanoscale viscoelastic moduli of ECM. A linear correlation was observed between the in-depth distribution of the viscoelastic moduli and that of hyaluronic acids in the vocal fold tissue. We conclude that hyaluronic acids may regulate the vocal fold viscoelasticity at nanoscale. The proposed methodology offers a characterization tool for biomaterials used in vocal fold augmentations. PMID:24317493

  8. Urine matrix metalloproteinases and their extracellular inducer EMMPRIN in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Kinga; Bargenda, Agnieszka; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in CKD-related tissue remodeling. However, there are no data on urine MMPs and their extracellular inducer EMMPRIN in CKD patients. The aim of study was to assess the concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 in serum and urine of CKD children and to analyze the potential relations between those parameters. Forty-one pre-dialysis CKD children and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The concentrations of analyzed parameters were assessed by ELISA. Serum and urine values of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 were significantly elevated in CKD patients versus controls. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in urine correlated significantly with the corresponding values in serum, whereas MMP-7, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 urine concentrations did not. There were also significant correlations between urine values of all parameters. The increased urine levels of MMPs, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 indicate enhanced proteolysis and renal tissue remodeling. In the case of MMP-7, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 those disturbances seem independent of enhanced serum activity of the corresponding enzymes. The urine MMP-7 and EMMPRIN concentrations may serve as new independent indices of tissue remodeling and renal interstitial fibrosis in children with CKD.

  9. Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix: Basic Characteristics and Current Applications in Orthopedic Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixiang; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jia; Guo, Quanyi; Peng, Jiang; Liu, Shichen; Yang, Jianhua; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and intricate microenvironment with excellent biophysical, biomechanical, and biochemical properties, which can directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as plays key roles in homeostasis and regeneration of tissues and organs. The ECM has attracted a great deal of attention with the rapid development of tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine. Tissue-derived ECM scaffolds (also referred to as decellularized tissues and whole organs) are considered a promising therapy for the repair of musculoskeletal defects, including those that are widely used in orthopedics, although there are a few shortcomings. Similar to tissue-derived ECM scaffolds, cell-derived ECM scaffolds also have highly advantageous biophysical and biochemical properties, in particular their ability to be produced in vitro from a number of different cell types. Furthermore, cell-derived ECM scaffolds more closely resemble native ECM microenvironments. The products of cell-derived ECM have a wide range of biomedical applications; these include reagents for cell culture substrates and biomaterials for scaffolds, hybrid scaffolds, and living cell sheet coculture systems. Although cell-derived ECM has only just begun to be investigated, it has great potential as a novel approach for cell-based tissue repair in orthopedic tissue engineering. This review summarizes and analyzes the various types of cell-derived ECM products applied in cartilage, bone, and nerve tissue engineering in vitro or in vivo and discusses future directions for investigation of cell-derived ECM.

  10. Polo-like Kinase I is involved in Invasion through Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-04-02

    Polo-like kinase 1, PLK1, has important functions in maintaining genome stability and is involved in regulation of mitosis. PLK1 is up regulated in many invasive carcinomas. We asked whether it may also play a role in acquisition of invasiveness, a crucial step in transition to malignancy. In a model of metaplastic basal-like breast carcinoma progression, we found that PLK1 expression is necessary but not sufficient to induce invasiveness through laminin-rich extracellular matrix. PLK1 mediates invasion via Vimentin and {beta}1 integrin, both of which are necessary. We observed that PLK1 phosphorylates Vimentin on serine 82, which in turn regulates cell surface levels of {beta}1 integrin. We found PLK1 to be also highly expressed in pre-invasive in situ carcinomas of the breast. These results support a role for the involvement of PLK1 in the invasion process and point to this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for pre-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma treatment.

  11. Is DRM lipid composition relevant in cell-extracellular matrix adhesion structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, María Gabriela; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    Focal adhesions mediate cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. They are inserted in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. In spite of the relevance that membrane lipids appear to have on cell adhesion structures, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports on the membrane lipid composition where focal adhesions are located in vivo or on how changes in local membrane composition contribute to focal adhesion maintenance. This may be due to the fact that the explosion of information in the fields of genomics and proteomics has not been matched by a corresponding advancement of knowledge in the field of lipids. The physiological importance of lipids is illustrated by the numerous diseases to which lipid abnormalities contribute. To gain insight into the role of membrane lipid composition in the preservation of epithelial cell adhesion to the substratum, how specific changes in the membrane lipid composition in vivo affect the maintenance of focal adhesions in renal papillae collecting duct cells has been previously studied. It is currently considered that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate plays a crucial role in the maintenance of assembled focal adhesion. However, such pool of polyphosphoinositides has to be part of a domain of a specific lipid composition to serve as a membrane lipid stabilizing the focal adhesion plaque.

  12. Tissue-Derived Extracellular Matrix Bioscaffolds: Emerging Applications in Cartilage and Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Cook, James L

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common problem in orthopedic practice. Given the long-term consequences of unaddressed cartilage and meniscal pathology, a number of treatments have been attempted to stimulate repair or to replace the injured tissue. Despite advances in orthopedic surgery, effective treatments for cartilage and meniscus injuries remain a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering is a developing field that aims to regenerate injured tissues with a combination of cells, scaffolds, and signals. Many natural and synthetic scaffold materials have been developed and tested for the repair and restoration of a number of musculoskeletal tissues. Among these, biological scaffolds derived from cell and tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) have shown great promise in tissue engineering given the critical role of the ECM for maintaining the biological and biomechanical properties, structure, and function of native tissues. This review article presents emerging applications for tissue-derived ECM scaffolds in cartilage and meniscus repair. We examine normal ECM composition and the current and future methods for potential treatment of articular cartilage and meniscal defects with decellularized scaffolds.

  13. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

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    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  14. Optimization of Liver Decellularization Maintains Extracellular Matrix Micro-Architecture and Composition Predisposing to Effective Cell Seeding.

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    Panagiotis Maghsoudlou

    Full Text Available Hepatic tissue engineering using decellularized scaffolds is a potential therapeutic alternative to conventional transplantation. However, scaffolds are usually obtained using decellularization protocols that destroy the extracellular matrix (ECM and hamper clinical translation. We aim to develop a decellularization technique that reliably maintains hepatic microarchitecture and ECM components. Isolated rat livers were decellularized by detergent-enzymatic technique with (EDTA-DET or without EDTA (DET. Histology, DNA quantification and proteomics confirmed decellularization with further DNA reduction with the addition of EDTA. Quantification, histology, immunostaining, and proteomics demonstrated preservation of extracellular matrix components in both scaffolds with a higher amount of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the EDTA-DET scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray phase contrast imaging showed microarchitecture preservation, with EDTA-DET scaffolds more tightly packed. DET scaffold seeding with a hepatocellular cell line demonstrated complete repopulation in 14 days, with cells proliferating at that time. Decellularization using DET preserves microarchitecture and extracellular matrix components whilst allowing for cell growth for up to 14 days. Addition of EDTA creates a denser, more compact matrix. Transplantation of the scaffolds and scaling up of the methodology are the next steps for successful hepatic tissue engineering.

  15. Abnormal secretion or extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin by dermal fibroblasts from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewicz, D.; Cao, S.; Cosselli, J. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Abnormal synthesis, secretion, and extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin is observed in the majority of fibroblast cell strains obtained from individuals with the Marfan syndrome (>85%). These fibrillin protein abnormalities are due to mutations in the FBN1 gene. We have screened fibroblast cell strains from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) without skeletal or ocular features of the Marfan syndrome for defects in fibrillin synthesis or processing. Dermal fibroblasts obtained from biopsies were pulse labeled with [{sup 35}S]cysteine for 30 minutes and then chased for 0, 4, and 20 hours. The media, cell lysate and extracellular matrix were harvested separately, then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. We selected fibroblasts from 17 TAA patients to study based on the development of a TAA at a young age or a family history of TAAs. Cells from 3 patients synthesized and secreted fibrillin normally, but did not incorporate the fibrillin in the extracellular matrix. None of the cell strains were found to have diminished synthesis of fibrillin when compared with control cells. We were unable to detect abnormalities in the synthesis, secretion, or matrix incorporation of fibrillin by cells from 9 of the 17 patients. These results indicate that fibrillin protein defects are found in a significant number of patients with TAAs who are young or have a family history of TAAs. Analysis of the FBN1 gene for mutations in these patients with fibrillin protein defects will determine if the observed protein abnormalities are the result of FBN1 gene mutations.

  16. Red Wine administration to Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice reduces their Macrophage-derived Extracellular Matrix Atherogenic Properties

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    MARIELLE KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs from the arterial extracellular matrix (ECM contribute to the trapping of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL in the arterial wall, a phenomenon called "lipoprotein retention". Moreover, we have shown that subsequent to their binding to the matrix, LDL and Ox-LDL are taken up by macrophages. Oxidative stress significantly increases macrophage secretion of ECM-PGs, lipoprotein binding to the ECM and the uptake of ECM-retained lipoproteins by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to determine whether red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice would affect their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix properties, such as the glycosaminoglycan content and the ability to bind LDL. In addition, we questioned the ability of LDL bound to the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM to be taken up by macrophages. Red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice did not affect the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM glycosaminoglycan content but it significantly reduced the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM ability to bind LDL and the subsequent uptake of ECM-retained LDL by the macrophages. The present study thus clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effect of red wine consumption by E0 mice on their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix atherogenic properties.

  17. Extracellular matrix surface network is associated with non-morphogenic calli of Helianthus tuberosus cv. Albik produced from various explants

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    Maria Pilarska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus is economically important species. To improve characters of this energetic plant via genetic modification, production of callus tissue and plant regeneration are the first steps. A new, potentially energetic cultivar Albik was used in this study to test callus induction and regeneration. Callus was produced on leaves, petioles, apical meristems and stems from field-harvested plants but was totally non-morphogenic. Its induction started in the cortex and vascular bundles as confirmed by histological analysis. The surface of heterogeneous callus was partially covered with a membranous extracellular matrix surface network visible in scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The results clearly indicate that: (i the morphogenic capacity of callus in topinambur is genotype dependent, (ii cv. Albik of H. tuberosus proved recalcitrant in in vitro regeneration, and (iii extracellular matrix surface network is not a morphogenic marker in this cultivar.

  18. Molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix in rat liver mounting a hepatic progenitor cell response for tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig; Jelnes, Peter; Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundTissue repair in the adult mammalian liver occurs in two distinct processes, referred to as the first and second tiers of defense. We undertook to characterize the changes in molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix when hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) respond in a second tier...... and compared the transcriptional signatures in untreated rat liver (control) with those from livers of day 1, day 5 and day 9 post hepatectomy in both protocols. Numerous transcripts encoding specific subunits of collagens, laminins, integrins, and various other extracellular matrix structural components were...... strong correlation with Krt1- 19, a well-established marker of a ductular/HPC reaction. Furthermore, a significant up-modulation and very strong correlation between the transcriptional profiles of Krt1-19 and St14 encoding matriptase, a component of a novel protease system, was found in the second tier...

  19. The role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis

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    Alison Gartland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most deaths from solid cancers occur as a result of secondary metastasis to distant sites. Bone is the most frequent metastatic site for many cancer types and can account for up to 80% of cancer-related deaths in certain tumours. The progression from a discrete solid primary tumour to devastating and painful bone metastases is a complex process involving multiple cell types and steps. There is increasing evidence that modulation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the lethal transition from a primary to disseminated metastatic bone tumour. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on the role of role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis

  20. Chinese yellow wine inhibits production of homocysteine-induced extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hangyuan; Wang, Ping; You, Binquan; Xing, Yangbo; Lee, Jong-Dae

    2007-06-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of Chinese yellow wine is associated with a reduced risk of coronary disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation have been involved in atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability. The present research aimed to study the effects of Chinese yellow wine on the production of homocysteine (Hcy)-induced extracellular MMP-2 in cultured rats vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We examined the effects of different Hcy levels (0-1000 micromol/l) on MMP-2 production, and the effects of Chinese yellow wine with low alcohol concentrations (12-19%) on Hcy-induced MMP-2 in cultured rat (VSMCs) using gelatin zymography and western blotting. We further compared the changes of MMP-2 under various treatments for 12, 24 and 48 h. Hcy (50-1000 micromol/l) increased the production of MMP-2 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Increased production of MMP-2 induced by Hcy was reduced by extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine. Production of MMP-2 under various treatments for 48 h increased more than 12 and 24 h. Extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine decreased Hcy-induced MMP-2 secretion. The inhibitory effect of yellow wine on the activation of MMP-2 might contribute to their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Collagenous Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: Lessons from the Common Sea Urchin Tissue

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    Kheng Lim Goh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e.g., sea urchins. Collagenous ECM of the sea urchin possesses structural features and mechanical properties that are similar to those of mammalian ones. However, even more intriguing is that some tissues such as the ligamentous catch apparatus can exhibit mutability, namely rapid reversible changes in the tissue mechanical properties. These tissues are known as mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs. The mutability of these tissues has been the subject of on-going investigations, covering the biochemistry, structural biology and mechanical properties of the collagenous components. Recent studies point to a nerve-control system for regulating the ECM macromolecules that are involved in the sliding action of collagen fibrils in the MCT. This review discusses the key attributes of the structure and function of the ECM of the sea urchin ligaments that are related to the fibril-fibril sliding action—the focus is on the respective components within the hierarchical architecture of the tissue. In this context, structure refers to size, shape and separation distance of the ECM components while function is associated with mechanical properties e.g., strength and stiffness. For simplicity, the components that address the different length scale from the largest to the smallest are as follows: collagen fibres, collagen fibrils, interfibrillar matrix and collagen molecules. Application of recent theories of stress transfer and fracture mechanisms in fibre

  2. Collagenous Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: Lessons from the Common Sea Urchin Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kheng Lim; Holmes, David F

    2017-04-25

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e.g., sea urchins. Collagenous ECM of the sea urchin possesses structural features and mechanical properties that are similar to those of mammalian ones. However, even more intriguing is that some tissues such as the ligamentous catch apparatus can exhibit mutability, namely rapid reversible changes in the tissue mechanical properties. These tissues are known as mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs). The mutability of these tissues has been the subject of on-going investigations, covering the biochemistry, structural biology and mechanical properties of the collagenous components. Recent studies point to a nerve-control system for regulating the ECM macromolecules that are involved in the sliding action of collagen fibrils in the MCT. This review discusses the key attributes of the structure and function of the ECM of the sea urchin ligaments that are related to the fibril-fibril sliding action-the focus is on the respective components within the hierarchical architecture of the tissue. In this context, structure refers to size, shape and separation distance of the ECM components while function is associated with mechanical properties e.g., strength and stiffness. For simplicity, the components that address the different length scale from the largest to the smallest are as follows: collagen fibres, collagen fibrils, interfibrillar matrix and collagen molecules. Application of recent theories of stress transfer and fracture mechanisms in fibre reinforced

  3. Extracellular matrix metabolism disorder induced by mechanical strain on human parametrial ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Wenjun; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a global health problem that may seriously impact the quality of life of the sufferer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in the pathogenesis of POP, by investigating the expression of ECM components in human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) subject to various mechanical strain loads. Fibroblasts derived from parametrial ligaments were cultured from patients with POP and without malignant tumors, who underwent vaginal hysterectomy surgery. Fibroblasts at generations 3‑6 of exponential phase cells were selected, and a four‑point bending device was used for 0, 1,333 or 5,333 µ mechanical loading of cells at 0.5 Hz for 4 h. mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Under increased mechanical strain (5,333 µ), mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and TGF‑β1 decreased, particularly COL1A1; however, mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9 were significantly increased, compared with the control group (0 µ strain). Following 1,333 µ mechanical strain, mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and MMP‑2 increased, and MMP‑9 decreased, whereas no significant differences were observed in TGF‑β1 mRNA and protein expression levels. In conclusion, ECM alterations may be involved in pathogenesis of POP, with decreased synthesis and increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in this process and thus may supply a new target and strategy for understanding the etiology and therapy of POP.

  4. [Extraction techniques and biocompatibility evaluations of naturally derived nerve extracellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Zhao, Zhe; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li; Sui, Xiang; Xu, Wenjing; Chen, Jifeng; Lu, Shibi

    2010-09-01

    Native extracellular matrix (ECM) is comprised of a complex network of structural and regulatory proteins that are arrayed into a tissue-specific, biomechanically optimal, fibrous matrix. The multifunctional nature of the native ECM will need to be considered in the design and fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. To investigate the extraction techniques of naturally derived nerve ECM and the feasibility of nerve tissue engineering scaffold. Ten fresh canine sciatic nerves were harvested; nerve ECM material was prepared by hypotonic freeze-thawing, mechanical grinding, and differential centrifugation. The ECM was observed by scanning electron microscope. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect specific ECM proteins including collagen type I, laminin, and fibronectin. Total collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents were assessed using biochemical assays. The degree of decellularization was evaluated with staining for nuclei using Hoechst33258. The dorsal root ganglion and Schwann cells of rats were respectively seeded onto nerve tissue-specific ECM films. The biocompatibility was observed by specific antibodies for cell markers. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed that nerve-derived ECM consisted of a nanofibrous structure, which diameter was 30-130 nm. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that the nerve-derived ECM was made up of collagen type I, laminin, and fibronectin. The histological staining showed that the staining results of sirius red, Safranin O, and toluidine blue were positive. Hoechst33258 staining showed no DNA within the decellularized ECM. Those ECM films had good biocompatibility for dorsal root ganglion and Schwann cells. The contents of total collagen and GAG in the nerve-derived ECM were (114.88 +/- 13.33) microg/mg and (17.52 +/- 2.34) microg/mg, showing significant difference in the content of total collagen (P 0.05) when compared with the contents of normal nerve tissue [(54.07 +/- 5.06) microg/mg and (25

  5. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes lung fibroblast proliferation, survival and differentiation to myofibroblasts.

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    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Cao, Jian; Pulkoski-Gross, Ashleigh; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2016-02-17

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressively fatal disease. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that induces the expression of some matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in neighboring stromal cells through direct epithelial-stromal interactions. EMMPRIN is highly expressed in type II alveolar epithelial cells at the edges of the fibrotic areas in IPF lung sections. However, the exact role of EMMPRIN in IPF is unknown. To determine if EMMPRIN contributes to lung fibroblast proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and differentiation to myofibroblasts, normal Human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) transiently transfected with either EMMPRIN/GFP or GFP were treated with TGF- β1 from 0 to 10 ng/ml for 48 h and examined for cell proliferation (thymidine incorporation), apoptosis (FACS analysis and Cell Death Detection ELISA assay), cell migration (Modified Boyden chamber) and differentiation to myofibroblasts using Western blot for α-smooth actin of cell lysates. The effect of EMMPRIN inhibition on NHLF proliferation, apoptosis, migration and differentiation to myofibroblasts after TGF- β1 treatment was examined using EMMPRIN blocking antibody. We examined the mechanism by which EMMPRIN induces its effects on fibroblasts by studying the β-catenin/canonical Wnt signaling pathway using Wnt luciferase reporter assays and Western blot for total and phosphorylated β-catenin. Human lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN had a significant increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to control fibroblasts. Furthermore, EMMPRIN promoted lung fibroblasts resistance to apoptosis. Lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN showed a significantly increased expression of α- smooth muscle actin, a marker of differentiation to myofibroblasts compared to control cells. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMMPRIN in lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Attenuation of EMMPRIN expression with the use of an

  6. Serum markers of the extracellular matrix remodelling reflect antifibrotic therapy in bile-duct ligated rats.

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    Robert eSchierwagen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProgression of liver fibrosis is characterized by synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP cleave collagen fibers at a specific site and thereby generate soluble fragments of ECM (neo-epitopes. The levels of these neo-epitopes might reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins.MethodsBile duct ligation (BDL was performed on wildtype rats, which received atorvastatin (15mg/kg*d for one week starting at one, two, three, four and five weeks after BDL (T1-T5, while controls remained untreated. Hepatic fibrosis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hepatic hydroxyproline content. TGFβ levels were measured by RT-PCR. Proteolytic activity of MMP-2 was examined by zymography. Levels of degradation MMP driven type I, III, IV and VI collagen degradation (C1M, C3M, C4M and C6M and type III and IV collagen formation (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S markers were assessed by specific ELISAs in serum probes.ResultsSerum markers of ECM neo-epitopes reflected significantly the deposition of ECM in the liver and were able to distinguish between early (T1-T3 and severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Statin treatment to the fibrotic livers resulted in reduction of neo-epitope markers, especially when therapy was started in the stage of severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Furthermore, these markers correlated with hepatic expression of profibrotic cytokines TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. Formation markers of type III and IV collagen (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S and degradation markers C4M and C6M correlated significantly with MMP-2 activity in rats with severe fibrosis. ConclusionDetermination of ECM remodelling turnover markers in serum allowed a distinction between mild and severe fibrosis. With respect to statin therapy, the markers may serve as read-out for efficacy of anti-fibrotic treatment.

  7. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms and yield properties of hydrated bone extracellular matrix.

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    Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Taylor, Aidan; Casari, Daniele; Wolfram, Uwe; Zysset, Philippe; Michler, Johann

    2017-09-15

    Bone features a hierarchical architecture combining antagonistic properties like toughness and strength. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to this advantageous combination, its postyield and failure behaviour was analyzed on the length scale of a single lamella. Micropillars were compressed to large strains under hydrated conditions to measure their anisotropic yield and post-yield behaviour. An increase in strength compared to the macroscale by a factor of 1.55 and a strong influence of hydration with a decrease by 60% in yield stress compared to vacuum conditions were observed. Post-compression transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed anisotropic deformation mechanisms. In axial pillars, where fibrils were oriented along the loading axis, kink bands were observed and shear cracks emerged at the interface of ordered and disordered regions. Micromechanical analysis of fibril kinking allowed an estimate of the extrafibrillar matrix shear strength to be made: 120±40MPa. When two opposing shear planes met a wedge was formed, splitting the micropillar axially in a mode 1 crack. Making use of an analytical solution, the mode 1 fracture toughness of bone extracellular matrix for splitting along the fibril direction was estimated to be 0.07MPam. This is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than on the macroscale, which may be explained by the absence of extrinsic toughening mechanisms. In transverse pillars, where fibrils were oriented perpendicular to the loading axis, cracks formed in regions where adverse fibril orientation reduced the local fracture resistance. This study underlines the importance of bone's hierarchical microstructure for its macroscopic strength and fracture resistance and the need to study structure-property relationships as well as failure mechanisms under hydrated conditions on all length scales. Bone's hierarchical architecture combines toughness and strength. To understand the governing deformation mechanisms, its

  8. Cardiac Fibroblast-Dependent Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Is Associated with Diastolic Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes

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    Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Lord, C. Kevin; West, T. Aaron; Stewart, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest manifestations of diabetes-induced changes in left ventricular (LV) function, and results from a reduced rate of relaxation and increased stiffness. The mechanisms responsible for increased stiffness are not completely understood. Chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), and increased levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines are molecular pathways known to be involved in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and accumulation resulting in increased LV diastolic stiffness. Experiments were conducted using a genetically-induced mouse model of T2DM generated by a point mutation in the leptin receptor resulting in nonfunctional leptin receptors (db/db murine model). This study correlated changes in LV ECM and stiffness with alterations in basal activation of signaling cascades and expression of profibrotic markers within primary cultures of cardiac fibroblasts from diabetic (db/db) mice with nondiabetic (db/wt) littermates as controls. Primary cultures of cardiac fibrobroblasts were maintained in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemic-HG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (normoglycemic-NG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. The cells then underwent a 24-hour exposure to their opposite (NG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (HG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. Protein analysis demonstrated significantly increased expression of type I collagen, TIMP-2, TGF-β, PAI-1 and RAGE in diabetic db/db cells as compared to nondiabetic db/wt, independent of glucose media concentration. This pattern of protein expression was associated with increased LV collagen accumulation, myocardial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Isolated diabetic db/db fibroblasts were phenotypically distinct from nondiabetic db/wt fibroblasts and exhibited a profibrotic phenotype in normoglycemic conditions. PMID:23991045

  9. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

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    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  10. Prediction of extracellular matrix stiffness in engineered heart valve tissues based on nonwoven scaffolds.

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    Engelmayr, George C; Sacks, Michael S

    2008-08-01

    The in vitro development of tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) exhibiting appropriate structural and mechanical characteristics remains a significant challenge. An important step yet to be addressed is establishing the relationship between scaffold and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical properties. In the present study, a composite beam model accounting for nonwoven scaffold-ECM coupling and the transmural collagen concentration distribution was developed, and utilized to retrospectively estimate the ECM effective stiffness in TEHV specimens incubated under static and cyclic flexure conditions (Engelmayr Jr et~al. in Biomaterials 26(2):175-187 2005). The ECM effective stiffness was expressed as the product of the local collagen concentration and the collagen specific stiffness (i.e., stiffness/concentration), and was related to the overall TEHV effective stiffness via an empirically determined scaffold-ECM coupling parameter and measured transmural collagen concentration distributions. The scaffold-ECM coupling parameter was determined by flexural mechanical testing of polyacrylamide gels (i.e., ECM analogs) of variable stiffness and associated scaffold-polyacrylamide gel composites (i.e., engineered tissue analogs). The transmural collagen concentration distributions were quantified from fluorescence micrographs of picro-sirius red stained TEHV sections. As suggested by a previous structural model of the nonwoven scaffold (Engelmayr Jr and Sacks in J Biomech Eng 128(4):610-622, 2006), nonwoven scaffold-ECM composites did not follow a traditional rule of mixtures. The present study provided further evidence that the primary mode of reinforcement in nonwoven scaffold-ECM composites is an increase in the number fiber-fiber bonds with a concomitant increase in the effective stiffness of the spring-like fiber segments. Simulations of potential ECM deposition scenarios using the current model indicated that the present approach is sensitive to the specific time

  11. Influence of extracellular matrix coatings on implant stability and osseointegration: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlinger, Bernd; Pilling, Eckart; Huhle, Matthias; Mai, Ronald; Bierbaum, Susanne; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Hempel, Ute; Eckelt, Uwe

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the application of components of the extracellular matrix such as glycosaminoglycans used as implant surface coatings in combination with collagen, with and without growth factor, can lead to enhanced ossification and thus improve implant stability compared with collagen coatings alone. Twenty miniature pigs received 120 experimental titanium implants in the mandible. Three types of surface coatings were created: (1) collagen type I (coll), (2) collagen type I/chondroitin sulphate (coll/CS), (3) collagen type I/chondroitin sulphate/BMP-4 (coll/CS/BMP). Periimplant bone formation was assessed within a defined recess along the length axis of the implant. Bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone volume density (BVD) were determined, using both histomorphometry and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SRmicroCT). To measure implant stability, resonance frequency analysis was applied after implantation and 1, 3, 7, and 22 weeks after placement. BIC was highest for coll/CS coated implants, followed by coll, p = 0.082. Histomorphometric BVD did not significantly change for any coating. SRmicroCT analysis showed an increased BVD for collagen coated implants, compared with the other two surface coatings. Implant stability showed a decrease for all coatings up to the third week. At 22 weeks, all coatings showed an increase in stability without reaching their initial level. Highest stability was reached for coll coated implants, p = 0.051. It was concluded that collagen and coll/CS implant coatings have advantageous characteristics for peri-implant bone formation, compared with the further integration of BMP-4.

  12. Extracellular matrix aggregates from differentiating embryoid bodies as a scaffold to support ESC proliferation and differentiation.

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    Saik-Kia Goh

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have emerged as potential cell sources for tissue engineering and regeneration owing to its virtually unlimited replicative capacity and the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Current differentiation strategies primarily involve various growth factor/inducer/repressor concoctions with less emphasis on the substrate. Developing biomaterials to promote stem cell proliferation and differentiation could aid in the realization of this goal. Extracellular matrix (ECM components are important physiological regulators, and can provide cues to direct ESC expansion and differentiation. ECM undergoes constant remodeling with surrounding cells to accommodate specific developmental event. In this study, using ESC derived aggregates called embryoid bodies (EB as a model, we characterized the biological nature of ECM in EB after exposure to different treatments: spontaneously differentiated and retinoic acid treated (denoted as SPT and RA, respectively. Next, we extracted this treatment-specific ECM by detergent decellularization methods (Triton X-100, DOC and SDS are compared. The resulting EB ECM scaffolds were seeded with undifferentiated ESCs using a novel cell seeding strategy, and the behavior of ESCs was studied. Our results showed that the optimized protocol efficiently removes cells while retaining crucial ECM and biochemical components. Decellularized ECM from SPT EB gave rise to a more favorable microenvironment for promoting ESC attachment, proliferation, and early differentiation, compared to native EB and decellularized ECM from RA EB. These findings suggest that various treatment conditions allow the formulation of unique ESC-ECM derived scaffolds to enhance ESC bioactivities, including proliferation and differentiation for tissue regeneration applications.

  13. Reinforcement of esophageal anastomoses with an extracellular matrix scaffold in a canine model.

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    Nieponice, Alejandro; Gilbert, Thomas W; Badylak, Stephen F

    2006-12-01

    The gastric pull-up procedure, a standard intervention after radical esophagectomy, is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to leaks and stricture. A previous preclinical study showed that an extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold with autologous muscle tissue could be used to repair a complete circumferential defect in the cervical esophagus. The aim of the present study was to determine if healing of end-to-end anastomoses of the esophagus could be improved by reinforcement with an ECM scaffold. Twelve female mongrel dogs underwent a complete transection of either the cervical esophagus (n = 6) or the gastroesophageal junction (n = 6). A portion of the endomucosa at the anastomotic site was resected and replaced with an ECM scaffold in contact with the subjacent muscle and the muscle was anastomosed. The measured end points included macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and quantification of the esophageal diameter at the anastomotic site. No anastomotic leaks or systemic complications were observed in the ECM-treated animals. Morphologic findings in both groups showed complete mucosal covering of the surgery site. The remodeled esophageal tissue showed angiogenesis and complete epithelialization. Intact, organized layers of muscle tissue were present between the native muscularis externa and the submucosal layer and effectively bridged the transected ends. The ECM scaffold altered the default mechanism of esophageal repair. Scar tissue formation with associated stricture was virtually eliminated, and the esophageal healing response was characterized by the replacement with structurally normal tissue layers. These findings suggest that the high morbidity rate associated with esophagectomy procedures may be reduced by this ECM augmentation procedure at the anastomotic site.

  14. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

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    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Angela B. S.; Junges, Mauricio; Silvello, Daiane; Macari, Adriana; Araújo, Bruno S. de; Seligman, Beatriz G.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Rohde, Luis Eduardo P.; Clausell, Nadine; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function

  16. Mechanical Properties of Tyramine Substituted-Hyaluronan Enriched Fascia Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, LiKang; Calabro, Anthony; Walker, Esteban; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally-occurring biomaterial scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have been the topic of recent investigation in the context of rotator cuff tendon repair. We previously reported a method to treat fascia ECM with high molecular weight tyramine substituted-hyaluronan (TS-HA) for use as a tendon augmentation scaffold. The presence of cross-linked TS-HA in fascia was associated with an increased macrophage and giant cell response compared to water treated controls after implantation in a rat abdominal wall model. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which TS-HA treatment was associated with mechanical property changes of fascia after implantation in the rat model. Fascia samples in all groups demonstrated time-dependent decreases in mechanical properties. TS-HA treated fascia with cross-linking exhibited a lower toe modulus, a trend toward lower toe stiffness, and a higher transition strain than water treated controls not only after implantation, but also at time zero. TS-HA treatment, with or without cross-linking, had no significant effect on time-zero or post-implantation load relaxation ratio, load relaxation rate, linear-region stiffness, or linear-region modulus. Our findings demonstrated that the particular TS-HA treatment employed in this study decreased the low-load elastic mechanical properties of fascia ECM, in keeping with the heightened macrophage and giant cell host response seen previously. This work provides a starting point and guidance for investigating alternative HA treatment strategies. PMID:22238019

  17. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

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    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  18. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

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    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  19. Microfluidics embedded within extracellular matrix to define vascular architectures and pattern diffusive gradients.

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    Baker, Brendon M; Trappmann, Britta; Stapleton, Sarah C; Toro, Esteban; Chen, Christopher S

    2013-08-21

    Gradients of diffusive molecules within 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) are essential in guiding many processes such as development, angiogenesis, and cancer. The spatial distribution of factors that guide these processes is complex, dictated by the distribution and architecture of vasculature and presence of surrounding cells, which can serve as sources or sinks of factors. To generate temporally and spatially defined soluble gradients within a 3D cell culture environment, we developed an approach to patterning microfluidically ported microchannels that pass through a 3D ECM. Micromolded networks of sacrificial conduits ensconced within an ECM gel precursor solution are dissolved following ECM gelation to yield functional microfluidic channels. The dimensions and spatial layout of channels are readily dictated using photolithographic methods, and channels are connected to external flow via a gasket that also serves to house the 3D ECM. We demonstrated sustained spatial patterning of diffusive gradients dependent on the architecture of the microfluidic network, as well as the ability to independently populate cells in either the channels or surrounding ECM, enabling the study of 3D morphogenetic processes. To highlight the utility of this approach, we generated model vascular networks by lining the channels with endothelial cells and examined how channel architecture, through its effects on diffusion patterns, can guide the location and morphology of endothelial sprouting from the channels. We show that locations of strongest gradients define positions of angiogenic sprouting, suggesting a mechanism by which angiogenesis is regulated in vivo and a potential means to spatially defining vasculature in tissue engineering applications. This flexible 3D microfluidic approach should have utility in modeling simple tissues and will aid in the screening and identification of soluble factor conditions that drive morphogenetic events such as angiogenesis.

  20. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

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    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  1. Comparative analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in chronic pancreatitis: differences between pancreatic head and tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehling, B; Kolb, A; Ramadani, M; Schmidt, E; Gansauge, F; Beger, H G

    2004-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis (cP) with an inflammatory mass in the pancreatic head, the degree of fibrosis in the pancreatic head compared with the tail should be determined and differences in the expression pattern of collagen types I, III, and IV; laminin; vitronectin; and fibronectin should be evaluated. From 12 patients with alcohol-induced and idiopathic cP who underwent surgery due to local complications, 24 corresponding cP tissue samples from the pancreatic head and the resection margin were obtained. The degree of fibrosis was calculated using a computer-assisted method (Adobe Photo Shop). The expression pattern of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) was investigated by immunostaining using the streptavidin-peroxidase technique. In each case, the degree of fibrosis was higher in the pancreatic head than in the resection margin. For alcohol-induced cP, the median degree of fibrosis in the head was 64% versus 47% in the resection margin, and for idiopathic cP, it was 40% versus 32%. Staining intensity of collagen type IV and laminin in the head was higher than in the resection surface. In degenerative tissue, collagen types I, III, and IV and laminin were moderately expressed, fibronectin was weakly expressed, and vitronectin was not expressed, with no differences between the head and resection margin. Basement membranes in the head and the resection margin predominantly consisted of collagen types I, III, and IV and laminin. In ductal epithelia, collagen type IV staining in the head was stronger than in the resection margin. In cP with an inflammatory mass in the head, the degree of fibrosis in the pancreatic head is higher than in the resection margin. Differences in the expression pattern of ECMPs could be detected for collagen type IV and laminin. These results underline the hypothesis of the pancreatic head being the pacemaker of cP in which collagen type IV and laminin may play an important role.

  2. Implication of SPARC in the modulation of the extracellular matrix and mitochondrial function in muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Melouane

    Full Text Available Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is differentially associated with cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM assembly. We show here the effect of exogenous SPARC inhibition/induction on ECM and mitochondrial proteins expression and on the differentiation of C2C12 cells. The cells were cultured in growth medium (GM supplemented with different experimental conditions. The differentiation of myoblasts was studied for 5 days, the expressions of ECM and mitochondrial proteins were measured and the formation of the myotubes was quantified after exogenous induction/inhibition of SPARC. The results indicate that the addition of recombinant SPARC protein (rSPARC in cell culture medium increased the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and myogenin expression during the myotube formation. However, the treatment with antibody specific for SPARC (anti-SPARC prevented the differentiation and decreased myogenin expression. The induction of SPARC in the proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells increased collagen 1a1 protein expression, whereas the inhibition decreased it. The effects on fibronectin protein expression were opposite. Furthermore, the addition of rSPARC in C2C12 myoblast increased the expression of mitochondrial proteins, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II (UQCRC2 and succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit (SDHB, whereas the anti-SPARC decreased them. During the differentiation, only the anti-SPARC had the effects on mitochondrial proteins, NADH dehydrogenase ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8 (NADHB8, SDHB and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (MTCO1. Thus, SPARC plays a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 and may be involved in the link between the ECM remodeling and mitochondrial function.

  3. Regulation of human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into chondrocytes in extracellular matrix-based hydrogel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Liang, Hui; Mou, Chenchen; Li, Xiaoran; Sun, Jie; Zhuang, Yan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu

    2014-02-01

    To induce human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into chondrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments, we developed porous hydrogel scaffolds using the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and collagen (COL). The turbidity and viscosity experiments indicated hydrogel could form through pH-triggered co-precipitation when pH=2-3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the hydrogel scaffolds could controllably release growth factors as envisaged. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was released to stimulate hMSCs differentiation into chondrocytes; and then collagen binding domain-basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) was released to improve the differentiation and preserve the chondrocyte phenotype. In in vitro cell culture experiments, the differentiation processes were compared in different microenvironments: 2D culture in culture plate as control, 3D culture in the fabricated scaffolds without growth factors (CC), the samples with CBD-bFGF (CC-C), the samples with TGF-β (CC-T), the samples with CBD-bFGF/TGF-β (CC-CT). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the hMSC marker genes of CD44 and CD105 decreased; at the same time the chondrocyte marker genes of collagen type II and aggrecan increased, especially in the CC-CT sample. Immunostaining results further confirmed the hMSC marker protein of CD 44 disappeared and the chondrocyte marker protein of collagen type II emerged over time in the CC-CT sample. These results imply the ECM-based hydrogel scaffolds with growth factors can supply suitable 3D cell niches for hMSCs differentiation into chondrocytes and the differentiation process can be regulated by the controllably released growth factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative extracellular matrix proteomics to study mammary and liver tissue microenvironments

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    Goddard, Erica T.; Hill, Ryan C.; Barrett, Alexander; Betts, Courtney; Guo, Qiuchen; Maller, Ori; Borges, Virginia F.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-01

    Normal epithelium exists within a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) that is tuned to regulate tissue specific epithelial cell function. As such, ECM contributes to tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and disease, including cancer. Though it is now recognized that the functional unit of normal and transformed epithelium is the epithelial cell and its adjacent ECM, we lack a basic understanding of tissue-specific ECM composition and abundance, as well as how physiologic changes in ECM impact cancer risk and outcomes. While traditional proteomic techniques have advanced to robustly identify ECM proteins within tissues, methods to determine absolute abundance have lagged. Here, with a focus on tissues relevant to breast cancer, we utilize mass spectrometry methods optimized for absolute quantitative ECM analysis. Employing an extensive protein extraction and digestion method, combined with stable isotope labeled Quantitative conCATamer (QconCAT) peptides that serve as internal standards for absolute quantification of protein, we quantify 98 ECM, ECM-associated, and cellular proteins in a single analytical run. In rodent models, we applied this approach to the primary site of breast cancer, the normal mammary gland, as well as a common and particularly deadly site of breast cancer metastasis, the liver. We find that mammary gland and liver have distinct ECM abundance and relative composition. Further, we show mammary gland ECM abundance and relative compositions differ across the reproductive cycle, with the most dramatic changes occurring during the pro-tumorigenic window of weaning-induced involution. Combined, this work suggests ECM candidates for investigation of breast cancer progression and metastasis, particularly in postpartum breast cancers that are characterized by high metastatic rates. Finally, we suggest that with use of absolute quantitative ECM proteomics to characterize tissues of interest, it will be possible to reconstruct more relevant in vitro

  5. Breast cancer normalization induced by embryonic mesenchyme is mediated by extracellular matrix biglycan.

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    Bischof, Ashley G; Yüksel, Deniz; Mammoto, Tadanori; Mammoto, Akiko; Krause, Silva; Ingber, Donald E

    2013-08-01

    Some epithelial cancers can be induced to revert to quiescent differentiated tissue when combined with embryonic mesenchyme; however, the mechanism of this induction is unknown. Here we combine tissue engineering, developmental biology, biochemistry and proteomics approaches to attack this problem. Using a synthetic reconstitution system, we show that co-culture of breast cancer cells with embryonic mesenchyme from early stage (E12.5-13.5) mammary glands decreases tumor cell proliferation while stimulating acinus differentiation, whereas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) fail to produce these normalizing effects. When insoluble extracellular matrices (ECMs) were isolated from cultured early stage (E12.5-13.5) embryonic mammary mesenchyme cells or E10 tooth mesenchyme and recombined with mammary tumor cells, they were found to be sufficient to induce breast cancer normalization including enhanced expression of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α). In contrast, ECM from later stage (E14.5) mammary mesenchyme and conditioned medium isolated from mesenchymal cell cultures were ineffective. Importantly, when the inductive ECMs produced by early stage embryonic mammary mesenchyme were scraped from dishes and injected into fast-growing breast tumors in mice, they significantly inhibited cancer expansion. Proteomics analysis of the detergent insoluble ECM material revealed several matrix components that were preferentially expressed in the embryonic ECMs. Analysis of two of these molecules previously implicated in cancer regulation--biglycan and tenascin C--revealed that addition of biglyan can mimic the tumor normalization response, and that siRNA knockdown of its expression in cultured embryonic mesenchyme results in loss of the ECM's inductive activity. These studies confirm that embryonic mesenchyme retains the ability to induce partial breast cancer reversion, and that its inductive capability resides at least in part in the ECM protein biglycan that it produces.

  6. Influence of pH on extracellular matrix preservation during lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Balestrini, Jenna L; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Liping; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.

  7. The extracellular matrix of porcine mature oocytes: Origin, composition and presumptive roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivko Juraj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM of porcine mature oocytes was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM after treatment with tannic acid and ruthenium red. Present in the perivitelline space (PVS and on the surface of the zona pellucida (ZP, it appeared to be composed of thin filaments and granules at the interconnections of the filaments, which were interpreted respectively as hyaluronic acid chains and bound proteoglycans. In order to determine whether this material is produced by the corona cells (the same ECM was found also on the surface of the zona pellucida and between cumulus cells or by the oocyte itself, the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans was checked by autoradiography on semi-thin and thin sections observed by light and electron microscopy. Immature oocytes within or without cumulus cells, were incubated with L [3H-] fucose or L [3H-] glucosamine – precursors respectively of glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA bound to proteoglycans – for various times (with or without chase and at different stages during in vitro maturation. In the first case, incorporation was found in both cumulus cells and ooplasm (notably in the Golgi area for 3H-fucose and labeled material accumulated in the ECM of the PVS and of the ZP surface. Labeling in the PVS with both precursors was maximum between metaphase I (MI and metaphase II (MII and was partially extracted by hyaluronidase but not by neuraminidase. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, significantly decreased the amount of 3H-fucose labeled molecules in the PVS and increased the incidence of polyspermic penetration during subsequent in vivo fertilization. Since cumulus-free oocytes also secreted 3H-glucosamine containing compounds, both oocyte and cumulus cells probably contribute to the production of the ECM found in the PVS of mature oocytes. ECM and particularly its HA moiety present on both sides of the ZP may constitute a

  8. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Dadson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO. Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO and wild-type (WT mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1α1 and collagen 1α3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1α only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects.

  9. Polypropylene Surgical Mesh Coated with Extracellular Matrix Mitigates the Host Foreign Body Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew T.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Crapo, Peter M.; Huber, Alexander; Burnsed, Olivia A.; Londono, Ricardo; Johnson, Scott A.; Daly, Kerry A.; Stahl, Elizabeth C.; Freund, John M.; Medberry, Christopher J.; Carey, Lisa E.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical mesh devices composed of synthetic materials are commonly used for ventral hernia repair. These materials provide robust mechanical strength and are quickly incorporated into host tissue; factors which contribute to reduced hernia recurrence rates. However, such mesh devices cause a foreign body response with the associated complications of fibrosis and patient discomfort. In contrast, surgical mesh devices composed of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) are associated with constructive tissue remodeling, but lack the mechanical strength of synthetic materials. A method for applying a porcine dermal ECM hydrogel coating to a polypropylene mesh is described herein with the associated effects upon the host tissue response and biaxial mechanical behavior. Uncoated and ECM coated heavy-weight BARD™ Mesh were compared to the light-weight ULTRAPRO™ and BARD™ Soft Mesh devices in a rat partial thickness abdominal defect overlay model. The ECM coated mesh attenuated the pro-inflammatory response compared to all other devices, with a reduced cell accumulation and fewer foreign body giant cells. The ECM coating degraded by 35 days, and was replaced with loose connective tissue compared to the dense collagenous tissue associated with the uncoated polypropylene mesh device. Biaxial mechanical characterization showed that all of the mesh devices were of similar isotropic stiffness. Upon explantation, the light-weight mesh devices were more compliant than the coated or uncoated heavy-weight devices. The present study shows that an ECM coating alters the default host response to a polypropylene mesh, but not the mechanical properties in an acute in vivo abdominal repair model. PMID:23873846

  10. Up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in phagocytically challenged trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M Porter

    Full Text Available Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, the tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic function in TM cells is thought to play an important role in the normal functioning of the outflow pathway. Dysfunction of phagocytosis could lead to abnormalities of outflow resistance and increased intraocular pressure (IOP. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are completely unknown.Gene expression profile analysis of human TM cells phagocytically challenged to E. coli or pigment under physiological and oxidative stress environment were performed using Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 array and analyzed with Genespring GX. Despite the differential biological response elicited by E. coli and pigment particles, a number of genes, including MMP1, MMP3, TNFSF11, DIO2, KYNU, and KCCN2 showed differential expression with both phagocytic ligands in all conditions. Data was confirmed by qPCR in both human and porcine TM cells. Metacore pathway analysis and the usage of recombinant adenovirus encoding the dominant negative mutant of IkB identified NF-κB as a transcription factor mediating the up-regulation of at least MMP1 and MMP3 in TM cells with phagocytosis. In-gel zymography demonstrated increased collagenolytic and caseinolytic activities in the culture media of TM cells challenge to E. coli. In addition, collagenolytic I activity was further confirmed using the self-quenched fluorescent substrate DQ-Collagen I.Here we report for the first time the differential gene expression profile of TM cells phagocytically challenged with either E. coli or pigment. Our data indicate a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  11. Role of the extracellular matrix in variations of invasive pathways in lung cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, V.K. de [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, L.; Gomes, A.; Alarcão, A.; Silva, M.R.; Couceiro, P.; Sousa, V. [Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Soares, F.A. [Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-11

    Among the most common features of highly invasive tumors, such as lung adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC), is the massive degradation of the extracellular matrix. The remarkable qualitative and quantitative modifications of hyaluronidases (HAases), hyaluronan synthases (HAS), E-cadherin adhesion molecules, and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) may favor invasion, cellular motility, and proliferation. We examined HAase proteins (Hyal), HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β profiles in lung AD subtypes and SqCC obtained from smokers and non-smokers. Fifty-six patients, median age 64 years, who underwent lobectomy for AD (N = 31) and SqCC (N = 25) were included in the study. HAS-1, -2 and -3, and Hyal-1 and -3 were significantly more expressed by tumor cells than normal and stroma cells (P < 0.01). When stratified according to histologic types, HAS-3 and Hyal-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in tumor cells of AD (P = 0.01) and stroma of SqCC (P = 0.002), respectively. Tobacco history in patients with AD was significantly associated with increased HAS-3 immunoreactivity in tumor cells (P < 0.01). Stroma cells of SqCC from non-smokers presented a significant association with HAS-3 (P < 0.01). Hyal, HAS, E-cadherin, and TGF-β modulate a different tumor-induced invasive pathway in lung AD subgroups and SqCC. HAases in resected AD and SqCC were strongly related to the prognosis. Therefore, our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing high HAS-3 and Hyal-1 synthesis, or local responses to low TGF-β and E-cadherin, may have a greater impact in lung cancer prognosis.

  12. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on the growth of haematopoietic progenitor cells

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    Celebi, Betuel; Pineault, Nicolas [Hema-Quebec, Research and Development Department, Quebec City, G1V 5C3, PQ (Canada); Mantovani, Diego, E-mail: nicolas.pineault@hema-quebec.qc.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, PQ (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haematological recovery are currently limited by the amount of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) present in each unit. HPCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) normally interact with cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins present within the endosteal and vascular niches. Hence, we investigated whether coating of culture surfaces with ECM proteins normally present in the marrow microenvironment could benefit the ex vivo expansion of HPCs. Towards this, collagen types I and IV (COL I and IV), laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) were tested individually or as component of two ECM-mix complexes. Individually, ECM proteins had both common and unique properties on the growth and differentiation of UCB CD34+ cells; some ECM proteins favoured the differentiation of some lineages over that of others (e.g. FN for erythroids), some the expansion of HPCs (e.g. LN and megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor) while others had less effects. Next, two ECM-mix complexes were tested; the first one contained all four ECM proteins (4ECMp), while the second 'basement membrane-like structure' was without COL I (3ECMp). Removal of COL I led to strong reductions in cell growth and HPCs expansion. Interestingly, the 4ECMp-mix complex reproducibly increased CD34+ (1.3-fold) and CD41+ (1.2-fold) cell expansions at day 6 (P < 0.05) versus control, and induced greater myeloid progenitor expansion (P < 0.05) than 3ECMp. In conclusion, these results suggest that optimization of BM ECM protein complexes could provide a better environment for the ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic progenitors than individual ECM protein.

  13. Comparative study of cellular and extracellular matrix composition of native and tissue engineered heart valves.

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    Schenke-Layland, K; Riemann, I; Opitz, F; König, K; Halbhuber, K J; Stock, U A

    2004-05-01

    Tissue engineering of heart valves utilizes biodegradable or metabolizable scaffolds for remodeling by seeded autologous cells. The aim of this study was to determine and compare extracellular matrix (ECM) formations, cellular phenotypes and cell location of native and tissue engineered (TE) valve leaflets. Ovine carotid arteries, ovine and porcine hearts were obtained from slaughterhouses. Cells were isolated from carotid arteries and dissected ovine, porcine and TE leaflets. TE constructs were fabricated from decellularized porcine pulmonary valves, seeded ovine arterial cells and subsequent 16 days dynamic in vitro culture using a pulsatile bioreactor. Native and TE valves were studied by histology (hematoxylin-eosin, resorcin-fuchsin, Movat pentachrome), NIR femtosecond multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cells of native and TE tissues were identified and localized by immunohistochemistry. Arterial, valvular and re-isolated TE-construct cells were processed for immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. ECM analysis and SEM revealed characteristical and comparable structures in native and TE leaflets. Most cells in native leaflets stained strongly positive for vimentin. Cells positive to alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), myosin and calponin were only found at the ventricular (inflow) side of ovine aortic and porcine pulmonary valve leaflets. Cells from TE constructs had a strong expression of vimentin, alpha-SMA, myosin, calponin and h-caldesmon throughout the entire leaflet. Comparable ECM formation and endothelial cell lining of native and TE leaflets could be demonstrated. However, immunostaining revealed significant differences between valvular cell phenotypes of native and TE leaflets. These results may be essential for further cardiovascular tissue engineering efforts.

  14. Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein-Derived Synthetic Peptides Differentially Modulate Glioma and Sarcoma Cell Migration.

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    Brösicke, Nicole; Sallouh, Muhammad; Prior, Lisa-Marie; Job, Albert; Weberskirch, Ralf; Faissner, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation in numerous cell lineages. ECM functions are initiated by small peptide sequences embedded in large constituents that are recognized by specific cellular receptors. In this study, we have investigated the biological effects of peptides derived from collagen type IV and tenascin-C compared to the well-known RGD peptide originally discovered in fibronectin. The influence of glycoproteins and corresponding peptides on the migration of the glioma cell lines U-251-MG and U-373-MG and the sarcoma line S-117 was studied. When the cell lines were tested in a modified Boyden chamber assay on filters coated with the ECM glycoproteins, glioma cells showed a strong migration response on tenascin-C and the basal lamina constituent collagen IV, in contrast to S-117 cells. In order to identify relevant stimulatory motifs, peptides derived from fibronectin (6NHX-GRGDSF), tenascin-C (TN-C, VSWRAPTA), and collagen type IV (MNYYSNS) were compared, either applied in solution in combination with ECM glycoprotein substrates, in solution in the presence of untreated membranes, or coated on the filters of the Boyden chambers. Using this strategy, we could identify the novel tenascin-C-derived peptide motif VSWRAPTA as a migration stimulus for glioma cells. Furthermore, while kin peptides generally blocked the effects of the respective homologous ECM proteins, unexpected effects were observed in heterologous situations. There, in several cases, addition of soluble peptides strongly boosted the response to the coated ECM proteins. We propose that peptides may synergize or antagonize each other by stimulating different signaling pathways.

  15. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Angela B. S., E-mail: angelabssantos@yahoo.com.br [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Junges, Mauricio; Silvello, Daiane; Macari, Adriana; Araújo, Bruno S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Seligman, Beatriz G. [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rohde, Luis Eduardo P.; Clausell, Nadine; Foppa, Murilo [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function.

  16. The exit strategy: Pharmacological modulation of extracellular matrix production and deposition for better aqueous humor drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Toris, Carol B

    2016-09-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy and an irreversible blinding disease. The etiology of glaucoma is not known but numerous risk factors are associated with this disease including aging, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), race, myopia, family history and use of steroids. In POAG, the resistance to the aqueous humor drainage is increased leading to elevated IOP. Lowering the resistance and ultimately the IOP has been the only way to slow disease progression and prevent vision loss. The primary drainage pathway comprising of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is made up of relatively large porous beams surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). Its juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or the cribriform meshwork is made up of cells embedded in dense ECM. The JCT is considered to offer the major resistance to the aqueous humor outflow. This layer is adjacent to the endothelial cells forming Schlemm's canal, which provides approximately 10% of the outflow resistance. The ECM in the TM and the JCT undergoes continual remodeling to maintain normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is believed that the TM is a major contributor of ECM proteins and evidence points towards increased ECM deposition in the outflow pathway in POAG. It is not clear how and from where the ECM components emerge to hinder the normal aqueous humor drainage. This review focuses on the involvement of the ECM in ocular hypertension and glaucoma and the mechanisms by which various ocular hypotensive drugs, both current and emerging, target ECM production, remodeling, and deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  18. Effects of castration on penile extracellular matrix morphology in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nathalia Cs; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Pereira, Vivian Alves; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Chagas, Maurício Alves

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to verify the possible modifications caused by hormonal deprivation in the extracellular matrix in the penises of neutered cats. Methods Twenty-seven penises from domestic shorthair cats were collected: 14 samples from intact cats and 13 from neutered cats. Sections were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin, hematoxylin and eosin, and picrosirius red. Histomorphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy and image analysis software. The following parameters were analyzed: density of the elastic fibers and collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum; density of the elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum and the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum; luminal area of the urethra; area of the corpus spongiosum; area of the corpus cavernosum; and thickness of the urethral epithelium. The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify the normal distribution, and groups were compared using Student's t-test; P cats and neutered cats in the density of elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum (8.13% ± 1.38% vs 3.11% ± 0.66%), tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum (4.37% ± 1.08% vs 3.30% ± 1.01%) and corpus spongiosum (6.28% ± 3.03% vs 4.10% ± 2.19%), and density of collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum (34.11% ± 10.86% vs 44.21% ± 12.72%). Conclusions and relevance The results show a significant decrease in the density of the elastic fibers and a significant increase of the density of the collagen fibers in the corpus spongiosum in neutered animals. This suggests that the compliance of the periurethral region is reduced, and these changes could be a predisposing factor for urethral obstructive disease.

  19. Development of a Micronized Meniscus Extracellular Matrix Scaffold for Potential Augmentation of Meniscal Repair and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Sherman, Seth L; Cook, James L

    2016-12-01

    Decellularized scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) hold promise for repair and regeneration of the meniscus, given the potential for ECM-based biomaterials to aid in stem cell recruitment, infiltration, and differentiation. The objectives of this study were to decellularize canine menisci to fabricate a micronized, ECM-derived scaffold and to determine the cytocompatibility and repair potential of the scaffold ex vivo. Menisci were decellularized with a combination of physical agitation and chemical treatments. For scaffold fabrication, decellularized menisci were cryoground into a powder and the size and morphology of the ECM particles were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Histologic and biochemical analyses of the scaffold confirmed effective decellularization with loss of proteoglycan from the tissue but no significant reduction in collagen content. When washed effectively, the decellularized scaffold was cytocompatible to meniscal fibrochondrocytes, synoviocytes, and whole meniscal tissue based on the resazurin reduction assay and histologic evaluation. In an ex vivo model for meniscal repair, radial tears were augmented with the scaffold delivered with platelet-rich plasma as a carrier, and compared to nonaugmented (standard-of-care) suture techniques. Histologically, there was no evidence of cellular migration or proliferation noted in any of the untreated or standard-of-care treatment groups after 40 days of culture. Conversely, cellular infiltration and proliferation were noted in scaffold-augmented repairs. These data suggest the potential for the scaffold to promote cellular survival, migration, and proliferation ex vivo. Further investigations are necessary to examine the potential for the scaffold to induce cellular differentiation and functional meniscal fibrochondrogenesis.

  20. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on the growth of haematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, Betuel; Pineault, Nicolas; Mantovani, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haematological recovery are currently limited by the amount of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) present in each unit. HPCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) normally interact with cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins present within the endosteal and vascular niches. Hence, we investigated whether coating of culture surfaces with ECM proteins normally present in the marrow microenvironment could benefit the ex vivo expansion of HPCs. Towards this, collagen types I and IV (COL I and IV), laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) were tested individually or as component of two ECM-mix complexes. Individually, ECM proteins had both common and unique properties on the growth and differentiation of UCB CD34+ cells; some ECM proteins favoured the differentiation of some lineages over that of others (e.g. FN for erythroids), some the expansion of HPCs (e.g. LN and megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor) while others had less effects. Next, two ECM-mix complexes were tested; the first one contained all four ECM proteins (4ECMp), while the second 'basement membrane-like structure' was without COL I (3ECMp). Removal of COL I led to strong reductions in cell growth and HPCs expansion. Interestingly, the 4ECMp-mix complex reproducibly increased CD34+ (1.3-fold) and CD41+ (1.2-fold) cell expansions at day 6 (P < 0.05) versus control, and induced greater myeloid progenitor expansion (P < 0.05) than 3ECMp. In conclusion, these results suggest that optimization of BM ECM protein complexes could provide a better environment for the ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic progenitors than individual ECM protein.

  1. In vitro regulation of human breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion via integrin receptors to the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, G P; Puddefoot, J R; Vinson, G P; Wells, C A; Carpenter, R

    1995-09-01

    The extracellular matrix consists of the interstitium and the basement membrane. Cellular interaction with fibronectin, laminin and collagen provides a possible mechanism by which cancer cells adhere, invade and metastasize. The integrins are a major family of adhesion molecules that recognize epitopes on the extracellular matrix as ligands. These include the alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 5 integrins, most of which were found to be expressed on MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR75-1 and Hs578T breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adhered to the matrix proteins in a dose-dependent manner and was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against relevant integrins. Only Hs578T was significantly invasive through fibronectin but both Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 invaded through laminin and type IV collagen in an in vitro assay. The invasive potential of these cell lines could be inhibited by integrin antibodies added to cells before incubation, but the addition of antibodies after cells were allowed to adhere to the matrix failed to inhibit invasion. Inhibition of cellular adhesion to the matrix reduced the invasive potential of breast cancer cell lines. As integrin antibodies inhibit cell invasion in vitro, the integrins may be of potential value as antitumour therapeutic agents.

  2. Expression of Genes Involved in Cellular Adhesion and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Correlates with Poor Survival of Patients with Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawska, Joanna; Kedzierska, Hanna; Poplawski, Piotr; Rybicka, Beata; Tanski, Zbigniew; Piekielko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common highly metastatic kidney malignancy. Adhesion has a crucial role in the metastatic process. TGF (transforming growth factor)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine that influences cancerous transformation. We hypothesized that 1) changes in the expression of adhesion related genes may influence survival rate of patients with renal cell carcinoma and 2) TGF-β1 may contribute to changed expression of adhesion related genes. Two-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays were used to analyze the expression of adhesion related genes in 77 tumors and matched pair controls. The prognostic significance of genes was evaluated in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data on 468 patients with renal cell carcinoma. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were applied for TGF-β1 analysis. TGF-β1 mediated regulation of gene expression was analyzed by TGF-β1 supplementation of Caki-2 cells and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of 19 genes related to adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling was statistically significantly disturbed in renal cell carcinoma compared with controls. The 10-gene expression signature (COL1A1, COL5A1, COL11A1, FN1, ICAM1, ITGAL, ITGAM, ITGB2, THBS2 and TIMP1) correlated with poor survival (HR 2.85, p = 5.7e-10). TGF-β1 expression was 22 times higher in renal cell carcinoma than in controls (p adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling develops early during renal cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and correlates with poor survival. TGF-β1 contributes to changed expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion related genes. Bioinformatic analysis performed on a broad panel of cancers of nonkidney origin suggests that disturbed expression of genes related to extracellular matrix and adhesion may be a universal feature of cancerous progression. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. CBP and Extracellular Matrix-Induced Apoptosis in p53(-) HMECs: A Model of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    current prevention strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prevention, CREBP-binding protein, extracellular matrix, apoptosis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...the retention time of Tam and QTam were 4.3 and 4.8min, respectively. QTam was 495% pure by reverse phase HPLC. The high-resolution FAB -MS and [1H]NMR... Leukemia , 11, 2087–2096. Giles RH, Petrij F, Dauwerse HG, den Hollander AI, Lushnikova T, van Ommen GJ, Goodman RH, Deaven LL, Doggett NA, Peters DJ

  4. Muscle-derived Decellularised Extracellular Matrix Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    in vivo torque production from EMG in mouse muscles injured by eccentric contractions. J Physiol 1999;515(Pt 2):609e19. 27. Gamba PG, Conconi MT, Lo... Muscle -derived decellularised extracellular matrix improves functional recovery in a rat latissimus dorsi muscle defect model Xiaoyu K. Chen a,b...maxillary injuries; Muscle function; Skeletal muscle ; Volumetric muscle loss Summary Purpose: Craniofacial maxillary injuries represent nearly 30% of all

  5. Porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix grafts (ACell Vet® Corneal Discs) for keratomalacia in 17 equids (2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Laura A; Lassaline, Mary; Scherrer, Nicole M

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical course, outcomes, and complications associated with use of commercially available porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts (ACell Vet(®) Corneal Discs) in equid patients with keratomalacia, and to evaluate the efficacy of ECM grafts as a viable alternative to other biomaterials for corneal grafting in equid patients. Sixteen horses and one donkey (17 eyes) with unilateral keratomalacia severe enough to warrant surgical repair between August 2012 and September 2013. Retrospective medical record review to identify equid patients meeting inclusion criteria of (i) diagnosis with keratomalacia severe enough to warrant surgical repair and (ii) surgical repair with an extracellular matrix graft. Eleven geldings, four mares, and two colts met inclusion criteria. Patients averaged 9 years of age. Twelve of 17 eyes (71%) were considered infected based on either corneal cytology (10/17, or 59%) or corneal culture (12/17, or 71%) positive for bacteria (8/17, or 47%) or fungi (9/17, or 53%). At the time topical medications were discontinued, 16 eyes (94%) were visual. One operated eye ruptured 5 days postoperatively and was enucleated. Keratouveitis developed in 14/14 eyes that underwent regular examinations approximately 2 weeks postoperatively which responded to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. Extracellular matrix grafts may be a viable alternative to other biomaterials for corneal grafting in equids. Advantages include commercial availability and shelf storage. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  7. Basic components of connective tissues and extracellular matrix: elastin, fibrillin, fibulins, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, tenascins and thrombospondins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Jaroslava; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix and many types of soft tissues. Elastin is another major component of certain soft tissues, such as arterial walls and ligaments. Many other molecules, though lower in quantity, function as essential components of the extracellular matrix in soft tissues. Some of these are reviewed in this chapter. Besides their basic structure, biochemistry and physiology, their roles in disorders of soft tissues are discussed only briefly as most chapters in this volume deal with relevant individual compounds. Fibronectin with its muldomain structure plays a role of "master organizer" in matrix assembly as it forms a bridge between cell surface receptors, e.g., integrins, and compounds such collagen, proteoglycans and other focal adhesion molecules. It also plays an essential role in the assembly of fibrillin-1 into a structured network. Laminins contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, stability of phenotype, and resistance towards apoptosis. Though the primary role of fibrinogen is in clot formation, after conversion to fibrin by thrombin, it also binds to a variety of compounds, particularly to various growth factors, and as such fibrinogen is a player in cardiovascular and extracellular matrix physiology. Elastin, an insoluble polymer of the monomeric soluble precursor tropoelastin, is the main component of elastic fibers in matrix tissue where it provides elastic recoil and resilience to a variety of connective tissues, e.g., aorta and ligaments. Elastic fibers regulate activity of TGFβs through their association with fibrillin microfibrils. Elastin also plays a role in cell adhesion, cell migration, and has the ability to participate in cell signaling. Mutations in the elastin gene lead to cutis laxa. Fibrillins represent the predominant core of the microfibrils in elastic as well as non

  8. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alleviates Extracellular Matrix Accumulation in High Glucose-Induced Renal Fibroblasts through mTOR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular matrix accumulation contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has been found to inhibit extracellular matrix synthesis by experiments in vivo and vitro, its role in alleviating the deposition of extracellular matrix in renal interstitial fibroblasts has not been well defined. Methods: Currently, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of AMPK on high glucose-induced extracellular matrix synthesis and involved intracellular signaling pathway by using western blot in the kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK-49f. Results: Collagen IV protein levels were significantly increased by high glucose in a time-dependent manner. This was associated with a decrease in Thr72 phosphorylation of AMPK and an increase in phosphorylation of mTOR on Ser2448. High glucose-induced extracellular matrix accumulation and mTOR activation were significantly inhibited by the co-treatment of rAAV-AMPKα1312 (encoding constitutively active AMPKα1 whereas activated by r-AAV-AMPKα1D157A (encoding dominant negative AMPKα1. In cultured renal fibroblasts, overexpression of AMPKα1D157A upregulated mTOR signaling and matrix synthesis, which were ameliorated by co-treatment with the inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that AMPK exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of extracellular matrix through mTOR signaling pathway.

  9. New insight of some extracellular matrix molecules in beef muscles. Relationships with sensory qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubost, A; Micol, D; Lethias, C; Listrat, A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the relationships between decorin, tenascin-X and type XIV collagen, three minor molecules of extracellular matrix (ECM), with some structural parameters of connective tissue and its content in total collagen, its cross-links (CLs) and its proteoglycans (PGs). In addition, we have evaluated impact of these minor molecules on beef quality traits. The relative abundance of these molecules was evaluated by western blot analysis in Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles from Aberdeen Angus and Blond d'Aquitaine beef breeds. Decorin and tenascin-X were more abundant in BF than in LT (1.8 v. 0.5 arbitrary units (AU), respectively, Pparameters measured. To assess the impact of decorin, tenascin-X and collagen XIV and of their ratios to total collagen and PGs on shear force and quality traits we realized, respectively, a multiple-linear regression analysis and a Pearson's correlation analysis. Decorin and tenascin-X relative abundance were, respectively, negatively and positively involved in juiciness. Decorin relative abundance was also negatively involved in abnormal flavour and positively in overall liking. The ratio of decorin to total collagen and PGs was negatively correlated to juiciness, together with collagen XIV ratio to total PGs. The ratios of decorin, tenascin-X and collagen XIV to total PGs were positively correlated to sensory tenderness, negatively to abnormal beef flavour and positively to overall liking. The ratio of decorin to total collagen was also negatively correlated to abnormal flavour and positively to overall liking while its ratio to total PGs was positively correlated to beef flavour and overall liking. Results of the present study highlighted for the first time the possible role of minor ECM molecules on beef quality traits. In addition, variations of meat texture and more generally of sensory qualities would depend not only to the quantity of total collagen and of its CLs, but also of

  10. Extracellular matrix mineralization promotes E11/gp38 glycoprotein expression and drives osteocytic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Matthew; Loveridge, Nigel; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Farquharson, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts which reside in a mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM). The factors that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. We have investigated whether ECM mineralization could promote osteocyte formation. To do this we have utilised MLO-A5 pre-osteocyte-like cells and western blotting and comparative RT-PCR to examine whether the expression of osteocyte-selective markers is elevated concurrently with the onset of ECM mineralization. Secondly, if mineralization of the ECM is indeed a driver of osteocyte formation, we reasoned that impairment of ECM mineralization would result in a reversible inhibition of osteocyte formation. Supplementation of MLO-A5 cell cultures with ascorbic acid and phosphate promoted progressive ECM mineralization as well as temporally associated increases in expression of the osteocyte-selective markers, E11/gp38 glycoprotein and sclerostin. Consistent with a primary role for ECM mineralization in osteocyte formation, we also found that inhibition of ECM mineralization, by omitting phosphate or adding sodium pyrophosphate, a recognized inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, resulted in a 15-fold decrease in mineral deposition that was closely accompanied by lower expression of E11 and other osteocyte markers such as Dmp1, Cd44 and Sost whilst expression of osteoblast markers Ocn and Col1a increased. To rule out the possibility that such restriction of ECM mineralization may produce an irreversible modification in osteoblast behaviour to limit E11 expression and osteocytogenesis, we also measured the capacity of MLO-A5 cells to re-enter the osteocyte differentiation programme. We found that the mineralisation process was re-initiated and closely allied to increased expression of E11 protein after re-administration of phosphate or omission of sodium pyrophosphate, indicating an ECM mineralization-induced restoration in osteocyte formation. These results emphasise the importance of cell

  11. The Role of Fibroblasts in Pancreatic Cancer: Extracellular Matrix Versus Paracrine Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Bolm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Desmoplasia is a characteristic feature and a suspected mechanism of tumor progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Main constituents of the stroma involve cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs and extracellular matrix (ECM. The aim of this study was to dissect the interaction of CAFs, ECM, and PDAC cells in both an in vitro setting and a large-scale clinical cohort study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients operated for PDAC were identified from our prospectively maintained clinical database. A standard pathology protocol was applied for pancreatoduodenectomy specimens also assessing CAF activation as either CAF grade 0 or CAF grade +. Interaction between a spectrum of pancreatic cancer cell lines (PCCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 was assessed in a conditioned medium experimental setup. RESULTS: One hundred eleven patients operated for PDAC from 2001 to 2011 were identified. Univariate analysis disclosed CAF grade + (P = .030, positive M status (P 0.1 (P = .045 to impair overall survival. Independent prognostic factors were CAF grade (P = .050 and positive M status (P = .002. CAF grade correlated with N status (CC = 0.206, P = .030, LNR (CC = 0.187, P = .049, tumor size (CC = −0.275, P = .003, and M status (CC = 0.190, P = .045. In the in vitro setting, paracrine effects of pancreatic cancer cell resulted in morphological activation of fibroblasts and tumor cell differentiation–dependent increase of fibroblast growth. Paracrine effects of poorly differentiated PCCs led to an upregulation of Vimentin in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Paracrine effects of fibroblasts on their part promoted cancer cell motility in all PCCs. As the second stromal component, fibroblast-derived ECM resulted in significantly decreased proliferation depending on density and led to upregulation of ZEB1 in poorly differentiated PCCs. CONCLUSION: In PDAC patients, positive CAF grading was identified as a negative prognostic parameter

  12. Influence of cartilage extracellular matrix molecules on cell phenotype and neocartilage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Shawn P; Chen, Xian; Sovani, Sujata; Taniguchi, Noboru; Colwell, Clifford W; Lotz, Martin K; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between chondrocytes and the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for maintaining the cartilage's role as a low-friction and load-bearing tissue. In this study, we examined the influence of cartilage zone-specific ECM on human articular chondrocytes (HAC) in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) environments. Two culture systems were used. SYSTEM 1: HAC were cultured on cell-culture plates that had been precoated with the following ECM molecules for 7 days: decorin, biglycan, tenascin C (superficial zone), collagen type II, hyaluronan (HA) (middle and deep zones), and osteopontin (deep zone). Uncoated standard culture plates were used as controls. Expanded cells were examined for phenotypic changes using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, expanded cells were placed into high-density pellet cultures for 14 days. Neocartilage formation was assessed via gene expression and histology evaluations. SYSTEM 2: HAC that were cultured on untreated plates and encapsulated in a 3D alginate scaffold were mixed with one of the zone-specific ECM molecules. Cell viability, gene expression, and histology assessments were conducted on 14-day-old tissues. In HAC monolayer culture, exposure to decorin, HA, and osteopontin increased COL2A1 and aggrecan messenger RNA (mRNA) levels compared with controls. Biglycan up-regulated aggrecan without a significant impact on COL2A1 expression; Tenascin C reduced COL2A1 expression. Neocartilage formed after preculture on tenascin C and collagen type II expressed higher COL2A1 mRNA compared with control pellets. Preculture of HAC on HA decreased both COL2A1 and aggrecan expression levels compared with controls, which was consistent with histology. Reduced proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) mRNA levels were observed in HAC pellets that had been precultured with biglycan and collagen type II. Exposing HAC to HA directly in 3D-alginate culture most effectively induced neocartilage formation, showing increased COL2A1

  13. Airway remodelling and inflammation in asthma are dependent on the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Cooley, Marion A; Nair, Prema M; Donovan, Chantal; Hsu, Alan C; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Haw, Tatt Jhong; Hansbro, Nicole G; Ge, Qi; Brown, Alexandra C; Tay, Hock; Foster, Paul S; Wark, Peter A; Horvat, Jay C; Bourke, Jane E; Grainge, Chris L; Argraves, W Scott; Oliver, Brian G; Knight, Darryl A; Burgess, Janette K; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. It is characterized by allergic airway inflammation, airway remodelling, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Asthma patients, in particular those with chronic or severe asthma, have airway remodelling that is associated with the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagens. Fibulin-1 (Fbln1) is an important ECM protein that stabilizes collagen and other ECM proteins. The level of Fbln1c, one of the four Fbln1 variants, which predominates in both humans and mice, is increased in the serum and airways fluids in asthma but its function is unclear. We show that the level of Fbln1c was increased in the lungs of mice with house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic allergic airway disease (AAD). Genetic deletion of Fbln1c and therapeutic inhibition of Fbln1c in mice with chronic AAD reduced airway collagen deposition, and protected against AHR. Fbln1c-deficient (Fbln1c -/- ) mice had reduced mucin (MUC) 5 AC levels, but not MUC5B levels, in the airways as compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Fbln1c interacted with fibronectin and periostin that was linked to collagen deposition around the small airways. Fbln1c -/- mice with AAD also had reduced numbers of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells around the airways and reduced airway contractility as compared with WT mice. After HDM challenge, these mice also had fewer airway inflammatory cells, reduced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-33, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and CXCL1 levels in the lungs, and reduced IL-5, IL-33 and TNF levels in lung-draining lymph nodes. Therapeutic targeting of Fbln1c reduced the numbers of GATA3-positive Th2 cells in the lymph nodes and lungs after chronic HDM challenge. Treatment also reduced the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 from co-cultured dendritic cells and T cells restimulated with HDM extract. Human epithelial cells cultured with Fbln1c peptide produced more CXCL1 mRNA than medium-treated controls. Our data show

  14. Acute left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction: coupling of regional healing with remote extracellular matrix expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William; Duffy, Stephen J; White, David A; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Du, Xiao-Jun; Ellims, Andris H; Dart, Anthony M; Taylor, Andrew J

    2012-09-01

    This prospective study aimed to assess regional and temporal patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM) changes post-myocardial infarction (MI). A fundamental process in the development of ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is LV remodeling, characterized by structural and functional abnormalities throughout the myocardium including the noninfarcted (remote) myocardium and interstitium. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on MI patients acutely (mean: 5 days post-MI, n = 25) and repeated subacutely (mean: 139 days post-MI, n = 21), and was also performed in a separate group of 15 patients with chronic MI (mean: 2,580 days post-MI, n = 15). Twenty volunteers without a history of MI acted as controls. CMR was used to evaluate LV morphology and function, with post-contrast T1 mapping to semiquantitatively assess changes in the ECM. Putative mediators of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), were also measured. Age, sex, and diabetic and hypertensive status did not differ between MI groups and controls. Compared with controls, patients early post-acute MI demonstrated reduced LV ejection fraction (50.25 ± 7.29% vs. 66.7 ± 6.2% [controls], p infarction early post-acute MI, compared with controls, demonstrated reduced systolic thickening (60 ± 5.0% vs. 106 ± 7.6%, p ≤ 0.0002), and lower post-contrast myocardial T1 times suggestive of ECM expansion (437 ± 113 ms vs. 549 ± 119 ms, p = 0.01). In a subgroup analysis between early post-acute MI and controls of similar age and sex, the remote sector post-contrast myocardial T1 times remained significantly shorter post-acute MI compared with controls (420 ± 121 ms vs. 529 ± 113 ms, p = 0.03). Serum levels of MIF inversely correlated with global myocardial T1 time in patients early post-acute MI (r = -0.6, p = 0.01), suggesting a coupling of regional healing with acute LV remodeling. Within a week of acute MI, the remote myocardium

  15. Investigation of the Extracellular Matrix Effect for the QCM/CCD Cell Activity Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyen-Wook; Otani, Naoya; Hiroshi, Muramatsu; Chang, Sang-Mok; Kim, Jong Min

    2018-08-01

    A real-time quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cell activity monitoring system coupled with micro CCD cameras was developed to investigate the cultured cell activity, which could measure the viscoelastic characteristics of the cell with the QCM and observe the cell morphology changes with CCD camera simultaneously. Both the viscoelastic characteristics and the shape of the cultured cell are important factors to estimate the cell activity and the cell adhesion. The extracellular matrix (ECM) on the surface of the QCM is essential to culture the cell stably in the QCM monitoring system. To find the ECM optimization condition, the adhesive strength of cultured cells on the ECM modified glass surface was measured by using rotating water stream and CCD camera. After culturing HepG2 cells for 24 hours on the ECM modified glass plates, the glass plates were dipped in the PBS solution and rotated with 1,000, 1,300, and 1,500 rpm for 30 seconds. The adhesiveness of ECMs was investigated by calculating the remained cells after rotating. Four types of ECM, such as amino group, carboxyl group, collagen monomer, and collagen polymer, were used and tested. The current paper improves the sensing system of previous report so that measurements of four ECMs can be simultaneously conducted under the same conditions in order to enhance reliability. A collagen polymer exposed ECM was the most stable on an adhesiveness point of view, but not suitable for the QCM cell activity monitoring due to the decrease of the QCM sensitivity. The sensitivity of the QCM cell activity monitoring system using collagen monomer as ECM is about 2.6 times better than that using collagen polymer. A collagen monomer exposed ECM was more stable than amino group and carboxyl group exposed ECMs based on an adhesiveness point of view. Therefore, a collagen monomer exposed ECM was the most stable and suitable for the QCM cell activity monitoring system among the four ECMs. The changes of the resonance frequency

  16. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin/CBP interaction with the small molecule ICG-001 inhibits proliferation and extracellular matrix production in airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, T.; Crutzen, S.; Halayko, A.J.; Gosens, R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Airway hyperresponsiveness is a principle feature of asthma, explained in part by remodeling of airway smooth muscle (ASM), including muscle thickening and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production by the ASM. Current therapies are largely successful in targeting the

  17. Hsp90 Binds Directly to Fibronectin (FN) and Inhibition Reduces the Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Dhanani, Karim C. H.; Prinsloo, Earl; Edkins, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been identified in the extracellular space and has been shown to chaperone a finite number of extracellular proteins involved in cell migration and invasion. We used chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to isolate a complex containing Hsp90 and the matrix protein fibronectin (FN) from breast cancer cells. Further analysis showed direct binding of Hsp90 to FN using an in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay, a solid phase binding assay and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy showed regions of co-localisation of Hsp90 and FN in breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous Hsp90β was shown to increase the formation of extracellular FN matrix in the Hs578T cell line, whilst knockdown or inhibition of Hsp90 led to a reduction in the levels of both soluble and insoluble FN and could be partially rescued by addition of exogenous Hsp90β. Treatment of cells with novobiocin led to internalization of FN into vesicles that were positive for the presence of the lysosomal marker, LAMP-1. Taken together, the direct interaction between FN and Hsp90, as well as the decreased levels of both soluble and insoluble FN upon Hsp90 inhibition or knockdown, suggested that FN may be a new client protein for Hsp90 and that Hsp90 was involved in FN matrix assembly and/or stability. The identification of FN as a putative client protein of Hsp90 suggests a role for Hsp90 in FN matrix stability, which is important for a number of fundamental cellular processes including embryogenesis, wound healing, cell migration and metastasis. PMID:24466266

  18. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification. PMID:26347154

  19. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Styrczewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD, phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  20. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  1. Characterization of extracellular polymeric matrix, and treatment of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms with DNase I and proteinase K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM, often with great phylogenetic variety. Bacteria in the subgingival biofilm are key factors that cause periodontal diseases; among these are the Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the major components of the EPM and to test the effect of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I and proteinase K. Methods: F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis bacterial cells were grown in dynamic and static biofilm models. The effects of DNase I and proteinase K enzymes on the major components of the EPM were tested during biofilm formation and on mature biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used in observing biofilm structure. Results: Proteins and carbohydrates were the major components of the biofilm matrix, and extracellular DNA (eDNA was also present. DNase I and proteinase K enzymes had little effect on biofilms in the conditions used. In the flow cell, F. nucleatum was able to grow in partially oxygenated conditions while P. gingivalis failed to form biofilm alone in similar conditions. F. nucleatum supported the growth of P. gingivalis when they were grown together as dual species biofilm. Conclusion: DNase I and proteinase K had little effect on the biofilm matrix in the conditions used. F. nucleatum formed biofilm easily and supported the growth of P. gingivalis, which preferred anaerobic conditions.

  2. Combined effects of extracellular matrix and growth factors on NBT-II rat bladder carcinoma cell dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G C; Boyer, B; Valles, A M; Thiery, J P

    1991-10-01

    Using the rat bladder carcinoma cell line NBT-II we showed that collagens but not laminin and fibronectin were able to induce cell scattering. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha also promoted NBT-II cell dispersion on glass or tissue culture plastic. We have now further analysed the scatter response to these two growth factors in the presence of extracellular matrix molecules. In the presence of growth factors, no peripheral single-cell dispersion occurred on fibronectin and laminin, although time-lapse video analyses revealed intense cell mingling and motility inside the monolayer forming around NBT-II aggregates. Patterns of strings or files of cells protruding from the monolayer were often observed. The presence of a scattering activity in the complex acellular extracellular matrix deposited by NBT-II cells themselves strongly suggested that substratum conditioning was responsible for this effect. On the other hand, the two growth factors accelerated collagen-mediated NBT-II individual cell dispersion and locomotion in a reversible way. As a marker of cell dissociation, we studied desmosome distribution in aggregate cultures: desmosomes were present in aggregates formed in suspension even in the presence of growth factors, whereas internalization occurred after cell-to-substratum contact. On laminin or fibronectin and in the presence of growth factors, peripheral cells inside the halo of NBT-II aggregates did not exhibit desmosome linkages. These observations suggest that scatter effects per se are dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix. In particular, on a substratum nonpermissive for direct cell translocation, individual cell dispersion can be replaced by en bloc patterns of migration following substratum conditioning by the cells.

  3. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... was determined in patients with chronic kidney disease (n=32; median age, 63 years; inter-quartile range, 51 to 73 years). Serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used to determine central...... in chronic kidney disease....

  4. [Automatic morphometric analysis as a method for determining the level of extracellular matrix components and for quantifying nuclear antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, I S; Chuprinenko, L M; Sotnichenko, A S; Gaivoronskaya, T V; Gumenyuk, S E; Gubareva, E A; Kuevda, E V; Krutova, V A; Alekseenko, S N

    Automated image analysis methods are highly important for biotechnology research. The authors developed and tested a program for the morphometric analysis of photomicrographs of the sections processed using the standard immunohistochemical examination protocols. The color deconvolution method used in the algorithm was proven to be effective in mapping the distribution of DAB chromogen in the sample containing multiple dyes. The experiment demonstrated that the level of extracellular matrix proteins could be comparatively quantified in different groups of samples. The effective methods for the quantitative analysis of the Ki-67 labelling index were also tested using the same algorithms. The developed program was published under free GPL 3.0.

  5. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  6. Influence of the amyloid dye Congo red on curli, cellulose, and the extracellular matrix in E. coli during growth and matrix purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; McCrate, Oscar A; Zhou, Xiaoxue; Lee, Jessica; Thongsomboon, Wiriya; Cegelski, Lynette

    2016-11-01

    Microbial biofilms are communities of cells characterized by a hallmark extracellular matrix (ECM) that confers functional attributes to the community, including enhanced cohesion, adherence to surfaces, and resistance to external stresses. Understanding the composition and properties of the biofilm ECM is crucial to understanding how it functions and protects cells. New methods to isolate and characterize ECM are emerging for different biofilm systems. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance was used to quantitatively track the isolation of the insoluble ECM from the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain UTI89 and understand the role of Congo red in purification protocols. UTI89 assembles amyloid-integrated biofilms when grown on YESCA nutrient agar. The ECM contains curli amyloid fibers and a modified form of cellulose. Biofilms formed by UTI89 and other E. coli and Salmonella strains are often grown in the presence of Congo red to visually emphasize wrinkled agar morphologies and to score the production of ECM. Congo red is a hallmark amyloid-binding dye and binds to curli, yet also binds to cellulose. We found that growth in Congo red enabled more facile extraction of the ECM from UTI89 biofilms and facilitates isolation of cellulose from the curli mutant, UTI89ΔcsgA. Yet, Congo red has no influence on the isolation of curli from curli-producing cells that do not produce cellulose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate can remove Congo red from curli, but not from cellulose. Thus, Congo red binds strongly to cellulose and possibly weakens cellulose interactions with the cell surface, enabling more complete removal of the ECM. The use of Congo red as an extracellular matrix purification aid may be applied broadly to other organisms that assemble extracellular amyloid or cellulosic materials. Graphical abstract Solid-state NMR was used to quantitatively track the isolation of the insoluble amyloid-associated ECM from uropathogenic E. coli and understand the role of Congo red in

  7. Capillary network formation from dispersed endothelial cells: Influence of cell traction, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João R. D.; Travasso, Rui; Carvalho, João

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a functional vascular network depends on biological, chemical, and physical processes being extremely well coordinated. Among them, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion are fundamental to achieve a functional network of endothelial cells, able to fully cover a required domain. By the use of a Cellular Potts Model and Finite Element Method it is shown that there exists a range of values of endothelial traction forces, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix rigidities where the network can spontaneously be formed, and its properties are characterized. We obtain the analytical relation that the minimum traction force required for cell network formation must obey. This minimum value for the traction force is approximately independent on the considered cell number and cell-cell adhesion. We quantify how these two parameters influence the morphology of the resulting networks (size and number of meshes).

  8. Combined antiretroviral therapy attenuates hepatic extracellular matrix remodeling in HIV patients assessed by novel protein fingerprint markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Anadol, Evrim; Schierwagen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) attenuates hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfected patients. However, the role of HIV or cART on hepatic fibrosis in HIV monoinfection is discussed controversially. During liver fibrosis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade...... extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into small soluble fragments, which reflect hepatic remodeling processes. This study used these novel biomarkers to investigate the effect of HIV and cART on hepatic fibrosis remodeling. DESIGN: In 249 patients with HIV monoinfection and 55 healthy controls, the serum levels...... and fibrosis using transient elastography (Fibroscan). RESULTS: C3M, BGM, C4M and P4NP 7S were significantly elevated in HIV patients compared to controls and correlated to HIV viral loads and inversely to cART duration. C4M, P4NP 7S and ELM were lower in patients under cART therapy and in patients without HIV...

  9. In vivo imaging of extracellular matrix remodeling by tumor-associated fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perentes, Jean Y; McKee, Trevor D; Ley, Carsten D

    2009-01-01

    Here we integrated multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and the registration of second harmonic generation images of collagen fibers to overcome difficulties in tracking stromal cell-matrix interactions for several days in live mice. We show that the matrix-modifying hormone relaxin increased...

  10. Raman microspectroscopy: A non-invasive analysis tool for monitoring of collagen-containing extracellular matrix formation in a medium-throughput culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunstar, A.; Otto, Cornelis; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional environment is known to play an important role in promoting cell–matrix interactions. We have investigated the possibility of using Raman microspectroscopy—which has the great advantage of noninvasive sensing—for in vitro monitoring of extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in a

  11. A role for leukocyte integrins and extracellular matrix remodeling of adipose tissue in the risk of weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumans, Nadia Jt; Vink, Roel G; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; van Baak, Marleen A; Mariman, Edwin Cm

    2017-05-01

    Background: Weight loss (WL) is often followed by weight regain after an energy-restricted dietary intervention (DI). When people are following a diet, the volume of an adipocyte decreases by loss of triglycerides, which creates stress between the cell contents and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Previously, we observed that genetic variations in ECM genes are associated with an increased risk of weight regain. Objective: We investigated the relation between the expression of ECM genes during WL and a period of weight stabilization (WS) and the risk of weight regain. Design: In this randomized controlled trial, 61 healthy overweight or obese participants followed either a 5-wk very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/d) or a 12-wk low-calorie diet (1250 kcal/d) (WL period) with a subsequent 4-wk WS period and a 9-mo follow-up. The WL and WS periods combined were considered the DI. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy samples were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression changes for a broad set of ECM-related genes were correlated with the weight-regain percentage (WR%). Results: A total of 26 of the 277 genes were significantly correlated with WR% during WL, WS, or the DI periods. Most correlations were observed in the VLCD group during the WS period. Four genes code for leukocyte-specific receptors. These and other genes belong to a group of 26 genes, among which the expression changes were highly correlated ( r ≥ 0.7, P ≤ 0.001). This group could be divided into 3 subclusters linking to 2 biological processes-leukocyte integrin gene activity and ECM remodeling-and a link to insulin sensitivity was also apparent. Conclusions: Our present findings indicate the importance of adipose tissue leukocytes for the risk of weight regain. ECM modification also seems to be involved, and we observed a link to insulin sensitivity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01559415. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A connection between extracellular matrix and hormonal signals during the development of the human fetal adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chamoux

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, body homeostasis and secondary sexual characters, emerges from a tightly regulated development of a zone-specific secretion pattern during fetal life. Its development during fetal life is critical for the well being of pregnancy, the initiation of delivery, and even for an adequate adaptation to extra-uterine life. As early as from the sixth week of pregnancy, the fetal adrenal gland is characterized by a highly proliferative zone at the periphery, a concentric migration accompanied by cell differentiation (cortisol secretion and apoptosis in the central androgen-secreting fetal zone. After birth, a strong reorganization occurs in the adrenal gland so that it better fulfills the newborn's needs, with aldosterone production in the external zona glomerulosa, cortisol secretion in the zona fasciculata and androgens in the central zona reticularis. In addition to the major hormonal stimuli provided by angiotensin II and adrenocorticotropin, we have tested for some years the hypotheses that such plasticity may be under the control of the extracellular matrix. A growing number of data have been harvested during the last years, in particular about extracellular matrix expression and its putative role in the development of the human adrenal cortex. Laminin, collagen and fibronectin have been shown to play important roles not only in the plasticity of the adrenal cortex, but also in cell responsiveness to hormones, thus clarifying some of the unexplained observations that used to feed controversies.

  13. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. (Monsanto Corporate Research, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  15. Novel serological neo-epitope markers of extracellular matrix proteins for the detection of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, M A; Byrjalsen, I

    2013-01-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an invasive, but important diagnostic and prognostic marker in cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PHT). During cirrhosis, remodelling of fibrotic tissue by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a permanent process generating small fragments of degrade...

  16. Generating favorable growth factor and protease release profiles to enable extracellular matrix accumulation within an in vitro tissue engineering environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Battiston, Kyle G; Labow, Rosalind S; Simmons, Craig A; Santerre, J Paul

    2017-05-01

    Tissue engineering (particularly for the case of load-bearing cardiovascular and connective tissues) requires the ability to promote the production and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (e.g., collagen, glycosaminoglycan and elastin). Although different approaches have been attempted in order to enhance ECM accumulation in tissue engineered constructs, studies of underlying signalling mechanisms that influence ECM deposition and degradation during tissue remodelling and regeneration in multi-cellular culture systems have been limited. The current study investigated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-monocyte co-culture systems using different VSMC:monocyte ratios, within a degradable polyurethane scaffold, to assess their influence on ECM generation and degradation processes, and to elucidate relevant signalling molecules involved in this in vitro vascular tissue engineering system. It was found that a desired release profile of growth factors (e.g. insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and hydrolytic proteases (e.g. matrix-metalloproteinases 2, 9, 13 and 14 (MMP2, MMP9, MMP13 and MMP14)), could be achieved in co-culture systems, yielding an accumulation of ECM (specifically for 2:1 and 4:1 VSMC:monocyte culture systems). This study has significant implications for the tissue engineering field (including vascular tissue engineering), not only because it identified important cytokines and proteases that control ECM accumulation/degradation within synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds, but also because the established culture systems could be applied to improve the development of different types of tissue constructs. Sufficient extracellular matrix accumulation within cardiovascular and connective tissue engineered constructs is a prerequisite for their appropriate function in vivo. This study established co-culture systems with tissue specific cells (vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)) and defined ratios of immune cells (monocytes) to investigate

  17. Comparison of four decontamination treatments on porcine renal decellularized extracellular matrix structure, composition, and support of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Nielsen, Jeffery J; Morris, Ryan J; Gassman, Jason R; Reynolds, Paul R; Roeder, Beverly L; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-03-01

    Engineering whole organs from porcine decellularized extracellular matrix and human cells may lead to a plentiful source of implantable organs. Decontaminating the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds is an essential step prior to introducing human cells. However, decontamination of whole porcine kidneys is a major challenge because the decontamination agent or irradiation needs to diffuse deep into the structure to eliminate all microbial contamination while minimizing damage to the structure and composition of the decellularized extracellular matrix. In this study, we compared four decontamination treatments that could be applicable to whole porcine kidneys: 70% ethanol, 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl, 0.2% peracetic acid in 4% ethanol, and gamma (γ)-irradiation. Porcine kidneys were decellularized by perfusion of 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and the four decontamination treatments were optimized using segments (n = 60) of renal tissue to ensure a consistent comparison. Although all four methods were successful in decontamination, γ-irradiation was very damaging to collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans, leading to less proliferation of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells within the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. The effectiveness of the other three optimized solution treatments were then all confirmed using whole decellularized porcine kidneys (n = 3). An aqueous solution of 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl was determined to be the best method for decontamination of porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Impact of cyclic mechanical stimulation on the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in human primary rotator cuff fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohberger, Birgit; Kaltenegger, Heike; Stuendl, Nicole; Rinner, Beate; Leithner, Andreas; Sadoghi, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation plays an important role in the development and remodelling of tendons. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical stimulation on the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in human primary rotator cuff (RC) fibroblasts. RC fibroblasts were isolated from patients with degenerative RC tears and characterized using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cells were stimulated using the Flexcell FX5K™ Tension System. The stimulation regime was a uniaxial sinusoidal waveform with 10 % elongation and a frequency of 0.5 Hz, whereby each cycle consists of 10-s strain and 30-s relaxation. Data were normalized to mechanically unstimulated control groups for every experimental condition. RT-qPCR was performed to determine relative mRNA levels, and collagen production was measured by a colorimetric assay. The positive expression of CD91 and CD10, and negativity for CD45 and CD4 confirmed the fibroblast phenotype of RC primary cells. RT-qPCR revealed that 10 % continuous cyclic strain for 7 and 14 days induced a significant increase in the mRNA expression both on the matrix metalloproteinases MMP1, MMP3, MMP13, and MMP14 and on the extracellular matrix proteins decorin, tenascin-C, and scleraxis. Furthermore, mechanically stimulated groups produced significantly higher amounts of total collagen. These results may contribute to a better understanding of strain-induced tendon remodelling and will form the basis for the correct choice of applied force in rehabilitation after orthopaedic surgery. These findings underline the fact that early passive motion of the joint in order to induce remodelling of the tendon should be included within a rehabilitation protocol for rotator cuff repair.

  19. Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Megan I; Martynowicz, David M; Grafinger, Olivia R; Hucik, Andrea; Shanks-Skinner, Emma; Uniacke, James; Coppolino, Marc G

    2017-09-29

    Tumor cell invasion involves targeted localization of proteins required for interactions with the extracellular matrix and for proteolysis. The localization of many proteins during these cell-extracellular matrix interactions relies on membrane trafficking mediated in part by SNAREs. The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function is regulated during tumor cell invasion. Munc18c is known to regulate Stx4 activity, and here we show that Munc18c is required for Stx4-mediated invadopodium formation and cell invasion. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed a physical association between Munc18c and Stx4, which was enhanced during invadopodium formation, and that a reduction in Munc18c expression decreases invadopodium formation. We also found that an N-terminal Stx4-derived peptide associates with Munc18c and inhibits endogenous interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Furthermore, expression of the Stx4 N-terminal peptide decreased invadopodium formation and cell invasion in vitro Of note, cells expressing the Stx4 N-terminal peptide exhibited impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and EGF receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface during invadopodium formation. Our findings implicate Munc18c as a regulator of Stx4-mediated trafficking of MT1-MMP and EGFR, advancing our understanding of the role of SNARE function in the localization of proteins that drive tumor cell invasion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The evolving proteome of a complex extracellular matrix, the Oikopleura house.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hosp

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrices regulate biological processes at the level of cells, tissues, and in some cases, entire multicellular organisms. The subphylum Urochordata exemplifies the latter case, where animals are partially or completely enclosed in "houses" or "tunics". Despite this common strategy, we show that the house proteome of the appendicularian, Oikopleura, has very little in common with the proteome of the sister class, ascidian, Ciona. Of 80 identified house proteins (oikosins, ∼half lack domain modules or similarity to known proteins, suggesting de novo appearance in appendicularians. Gene duplication has been important in generating almost 1/3 of the current oikosin complement, with serial duplications up to 8 paralogs in one family. Expression pattern analyses revealed that individual oikosins are produced from specific fields of cells within the secretory epithelium, but in some cases, migrate up to at least 20 cell diameters in extracellular space to combine in defined house structures. Interestingly, peroxidasin and secretory phospholipase A(2 domains, implicated in innate immune defence are secreted from the anlage associated with the food-concentrating filter, suggesting that this extra-organismal structure may play, in part, such a role in Oikopleura. We also show that sulfation of proteoglycans is required for the hydration and inflation of pre-house rudiments into functional houses. Though correct proportioning in the production of oikosins would seem important in repetitive assembly of the complex house structure, the genomic organization of oikosin loci appears incompatible with common enhancers or locus control regions exerting such a coordinate regulatory role. Thus, though all tunicates employ extracellular matrices based on a cellulose scaffold as a defining feature of the subphylum, they have evolved radically different protein compositions associated with this common underlying structural theme.

  1. Cellular and Extracellular Matrix Basis for Heterogeneity in Mitral Annular Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Fahrenholtz, Monica M.; Connell, Patrick S.; Timek, Tomasz A.; Daughters, George T.; Kuo, Joyce J.; Patton, Aaron M.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Regional heterogeneity in mitral annular contraction, which is generally ascribed to the fibrous vs. muscular annular composition, ensures proper leaflet motion and timing of coaptation. It is unknown whether the fibroblast-like cells in the annulus modulate this heterogeneity, even though valvular interstitial cells (VICs) can be mechanically “activated.” Methods Fourteen sheep underwent implantation of radiopaque markers around the mitral annulus defining four segments: septal (SEPT), lateral (LAT), and anterior (ANT-C) and posterior (POST-C) commissures. Segmental annular contraction was calculated using biplane videofluoroscopy. Immunohistochemistry of annular cross sections assessed regional matrix content, matrix turnover, and cell phenotype. Micropipette aspiration measured the Young's modulus of the leaflets adjacent to the myocardial border. Results Whereas SEPT contained more collagen I and III, LAT demonstrated more collagen and elastin turnover as shown by greater decorin, lysyl oxidase, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-13 and smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMaA). This greater matrix turnover paralleled greater annular contraction in LAT vs. SEPT (22.5% vs. 4.1%). Similarly, POST-C had more SMaA and MMP13 than ANT-C, consistent with greater annular contraction in POST-C (18.8% vs. 11.1%). Interestingly, POST-C had the greatest effective modulus, significantly higher than LAT. Conclusions These data suggest that matrix turnover by activated VICs relates to annular motion heterogeneity, maintains steady-state mechanical properties in the annulus, and could be a therapeutic target when annular motion is impaired. Conversely, alterations in this heterogeneous annular contraction, whether through disease or secondary to ring annuloplasty, could disrupt this normal pattern of cell-mediated matrix remodeling and further adversely impact mitral valve function. PMID:26195991

  2. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases (ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like) characterization during intestine regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting; Wan, Zixuan; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Bai, Yucen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A. japonicus by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-2 like is 2733bp and contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1716bp encoding 572 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-16 like is 2705bp and contains an ORF of 1452bp encoding 484 amino acids. The predicted protein sequences of each MMP contain two conserved domains, ZnMc_MMP and HX. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like share high sequence similarity with MMP-2 and MMP-16 from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, respectively. Then we investigated spatio-temporal expression of ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like during different regeneration stages by qRT-PCR and IHC. The expression pattern of them showed a roughly opposite trend from that of ECM components. According to our results, a fibronectin-dominate temporary matrix is created in intestine regeneration, and it might provide structural integrity for matrix and promote cell movement. We also hypothesize that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like could accelerate cell migration and regulate interaction between ECM components and growth factors. This work provides new evidence of ECM and MMPs involvement in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Extracellular Matrix Synthesis and Degradation in a Rabbit Model of Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at determining if the electroacupuncture (EA is able to protect degenerated disc in vivo. New Zealand white rabbits (n=40 were used for the study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. EA intervention was applied to one of the four groups. Magnetic resonance imaging and Pfirrmann’s classification were obtained for each group to evaluate EA treatment on the intervertebral disc degeneration. Discs were analyzed using immunofluorescence for the labeling of collagens 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. For protein expression analysis, western blot was used for biglycan and decorin. Outcomes indicated that EA intervention decreased the grades compared with the compressed disc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a significant increase of collagens 1 and 2, TIMP-1, and BMP-2 positive cells, in contrast to MMP-13 after EA treatment for 28 days. The protein expression showed a sign of regeneration that decorin and biglycan were upregulated. It was concluded that EA contributed to the extracellular matrix (ECM anabolic processes and increased the ECM components. MMPs and their inhibitors involved in the mechanism of EA intervention on ECM decreased disc. It kept a dynamic balance between ECM synthesis and degradation.

  4. DNA builds and strengthens the extracellular matrix in Myxococcus xanthus biofilms by interacting with exopolysaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available One intriguing discovery in modern microbiology is the extensive presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA within biofilms of various bacterial species. Although several biological functions have been suggested for eDNA, including involvement in biofilm formation, the detailed mechanism of eDNA integration into biofilm architecture is still poorly understood. In the biofilms formed by Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium with complex morphogenesis and social behaviors, DNA was found within both extracted and native extracellular matrices (ECM. Further examination revealed that these eDNA molecules formed well organized structures that were similar in appearance to the organization of exopolysaccharides (EPS in ECM. Biochemical and image analyses confirmed that eDNA bound to and colocalized with EPS within the ECM of starvation biofilms and fruiting bodies. In addition, ECM containing eDNA exhibited greater physical strength and biological stress resistance compared to DNase I treated ECM. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that DNA interacts with EPS and strengthens biofilm structures in M. xanthus.

  5. Human macrophages primed with angiogenic factors show dynamic plasticity, irrespective of extracellular matrix components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Diana T. A.; van Putten, Sander M.; Koerts, Jasper A.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Macrophages are important in inflammation as well as in tissue repair processes. They can be activated by various stimuli and classified into two major groups: M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated). Inflammation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling play a major role in tissue

  6. Cell Adhesions: Actin-Based Modules that Mediate Cell-Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Cell Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Alexia; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Nelson, W. James; Bianchini, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Cell adhesions link cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to each other, and depend on interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Both cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites contain discrete, yet overlapping functional modules. These modules establish physical association with the actin cytoskeleton, locally modulate actin organization and dynamics, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. Interplay between these modules generates distinct actin architectures that underlie different stages, types, and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions. Actomyosin contractility is required to generate mature, stable adhesions, as well as sense and translate the mechanical properties of the cellular environment to changes in cell organization and behavior. In this chapter we discuss the organization and function of different adhesion modules and how they interact with the actin cytoskeleton. We highlight the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in adhesions, and how adhesion molecules mediate crosstalk between cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites. PMID:28679638

  7. Cloning from purified high endothelial venule cells of hevin, a close relative of the antiadhesive extracellular matrix protein SPARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J P; Springer, T A

    1995-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEV) in lymphoid tissues support high levels of lymphocyte extravasion from the blood. We purified high endothelial cells from human tonsils by immunomagnetic selection with MECA-79 MAb to construct an HEV cDNA library. Differential screening of this library using cDNA probes from HEV (plus) or flat-walled vessel (minus) endothelial cells allowed us to characterize a novel human cDNA expressed to high levels in HEV. The cDNA encodes a secreted acidic calcium-binding glycoprotein of 664 aa residues, designated hevin, exhibiting 62% identity with the antiadhesive extracellular matrix protein SPARC, over a region of 232 aa spanning more than four fifths of the SPARC coding sequence. The primary structure and sequence of hevin and similar to SPARC-like proteins from rat and quail, called SC1 or QR1. Hevin could contribute to the induction or maintenance of features of the HEV endothelium that facilitate lymphocyte migration.

  8. Study of liquid scintillator in detecting the PMN-CL, Ly-CL and extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianxing; Cao Rui; Liang Qizhong; Zou Xiaowei

    1997-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and lymphocyte(Ly) in blood of patients with cirrhosis has two peaks. Basic peak value of PMN-CL and Ly-CL is increased, the maximal peak values of Zym-PMN and PHA-Ly are decreased, phagolyosis and opsonic function is also decreased, extracellular matrix (ECM) is all increased, HA is positively correlated with 'child' sort (r = 0.96, A>B>C). It suggests that OR is produced and released during CL and superoxide phosphatides is produced by OR in ECM of cirrhosis. It injures the membrane of cells and tissue. Analysis of CL is aided to study the development mechanism of liver fibrosis

  9. Plasma concentrations of extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 are related to cardiovascular risk markers in chronic kidney disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Sidelmann, Johannes J

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic...... to determine central hemodynamic and arterial stiffness indices. RESULTS: We observed a positive correlation of fibulin-1 levels with age (r = 0.38; p = 0.033), glycated hemoglobin (r = 0.80; p = 0.003), creatinine (r = 0.35; p = 0.045), and fibrinogen (r = 0.39; p = 0.027). Glomerular filtration rate...... and fibulin-1 were inversely correlated (r = -0.57; p = 0.022). There was a positive correlation between fibulin-1 and central pulse pressure (r = 0.44; p = 0.011) and central augmentation pressure (r = 0.55; p = 0.001). In a multivariable regression model, diabetes, creatinine, fibrinogen and central...

  10. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  11. Extracellular matrix as a solid-state regulator in angiogenesis: identification of new targets for anti-cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of blood capillaries, is regulated by soluble growth factors and insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Soluble angiogenic mitogens act over large distances to initiate capillary growth whereas changes in ECM govern whether individual cells will grow, differentiate, or involute in response to these stimuli in the local tissue microenvironment. Analysis of this local control mechanism has revealed that ECM molecules switch capillary endothelial cells between differentiation and growth by both binding specific transmembrane integrin receptors and physically resisting cell-generated mechanical loads that are applied to these receptors. Control of capillary endothelial cell form and function therefore may be exerted by altering the mechanical properties of the ECM as well as its chemical composition. Understanding of this mechanochemical control mechanism has led to the development of new angiogenesis inhibitors that may be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  12. ADAM 12 cleaves extracellular matrix proteins and correlates with cancer status and stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Roopali; Wewer, Ulla M; Zurakowski, David

    2004-01-01

    -Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Four peptides were identified that spanned the amino acid sequence of ADAM 12. Immunoblot analysis using ADAM 12-specific antibodies detected an approximately 68-k...... or casein. Gelatinase activity of ADAM 12 was completely abrogated by zinc chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA and was partially inhibited by the hydroxamate inhibitor Marimastat. Endogenous matrix metalloprotease inhibitor TIMP-3 inhibited activity. To validate our initial identification of this enzyme...... is a gelatinase, that it can be detected in breast cancer patient urine, and that increased urinary levels of this protein correlate with breast cancer progression. They further support the possibility that detection of urinary ADAM 12 may prove useful in the development of noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic...

  13. [Prolonged exposure to crystalline silica Min-U-Sil-5 influences apoptosis or extracellular matrix genes expression in human bronchial epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, A; Antognelli, C; Murgia, N; dell'Omo, M; Talesa, V N; Muzi, G

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil-5) induces oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), through the intracellular accumulation of ROS that cause oxidative damage leading to the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and to the loss of cell adhesion molecules inducing apoptosis and genotoxic damage. This paper briefly summarizes some of the recent findings from our laboratories with emphasis on the molecular events by which the cronic and cumulative exposure to crystalline silica can induce cellular damage that promotes changes in extracellular matrix and in apoptosis gene expression.

  14. Defining a turnover index for the correlation of biomaterial degradation and cell based extracellular matrix synthesis using fluorescent tagging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Wimpenny, Ian; Wechsler, Roni; Shachaf, Yonatan; Yang, Ying; El Haj, Alicia J

    2016-11-01

    Non-destructive protocols which can define a biomaterial's degradation and its associated ability to support proliferation and/or promote extracellular matrix deposition will be an essential in vitro tool. In this study we investigate fluorescently tagged biomaterials, with varying rates of degradation and their ability to support cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Changes in fluorescence of the biomaterials and the release of fluorescent soluble by-products were confirmed as accurate methods to quantify degradation. It was demonstrated that increasing rates of the selected biomaterials' degradation led to a decrease in cell proliferation and concurrently an increase in osteogenic matrix production. A novel turnover index (TI), which directly describes the effect of degradation of a biomaterial on cell behaviour, was calculated. Lower TIs for proliferation and high TIs for osteogenic marker production were observed on faster degrading biomaterials, indicating that these biomaterials supported an upregulation of osteogenic markers. This TI was further validated using an ex vivo chick femur model, where the faster degrading biomaterial, fibrin, led to an increased TI for mineralisation within an epiphyseal defect. This in vitro tool, TI, for monitoring the effect of biomaterial degradation on extracellular matrix production may well act as predictor of the selected biomaterials' performance during in vivo studies. This paper outlines a novel metric, Turnover Index (TI), which can be utilised in tissue-engineering for the comparison of a range of biomaterials. The metric sets out to define the relationship between the rate of degradation of biomaterials with the rate of cell proliferation and ECM synthesis, ultimately allowing us to tailor material for set clinical requirements. We have discovered some novel comparative findings that cells cultured on biomaterials with increased rates of degradation have lower rates of proliferation but alternatively

  15. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    targets the angiogenic process by investigation of tumor expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. A possible correlation with gender, patient age, symptom duration, tumor size, and the absolute and relative growth rate is explored.......Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  16. Conserved Ankyrin Repeat Proteins and Their NIMA Kinase Partners Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Intracellular Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lažetić, Vladimir; Fay, David S

    2017-01-01

    Molting is an essential developmental process in nematodes during which the epidermal apical extracellular matrix, the cuticle, is remodeled to accommodate further growth. Using genetic approaches, we identified a requirement for three conserved ankyrin repeat-rich proteins, MLT-2/ANKS6, MLT-3/ANKS3, and MLT-4/INVS, in Caenorhabditis elegans molting. Loss of mlt function resulted in severe defects in the ability of larvae to shed old cuticle and led to developmental arrest. Genetic analyses demonstrated that MLT proteins functionally cooperate with the conserved NIMA kinase family members NEKL-2/NEK8 and NEKL-3/NEK6/NEK7 to promote cuticle shedding. MLT and NEKL proteins were specifically required within the hyp7 epidermal syncytium, and fluorescently tagged mlt and nekl alleles were expressed in puncta within this tissue. Expression studies further showed that NEKL-2-MLT-2-MLT-4 and NEKL-3-MLT-3 colocalize within largely distinct assemblies of apical foci. MLT-2 and MLT-4 were required for the normal accumulation of NEKL-2 at the hyp7-seam cell boundary, and loss of mlt-2 caused abnormal nuclear accumulation of NEKL-2 Correspondingly, MLT-3, which bound directly to NEKL-3, prevented NEKL-3 nuclear localization, supporting the model that MLT proteins may serve as molecular scaffolds for NEKL kinases. Our studies additionally showed that the NEKL-MLT network regulates early steps in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the apical surface of hyp7, which may in part account for molting defects observed in nekl and mlt mutants. This study has thus identified a conserved NEKL-MLT protein network that regulates remodeling of the apical extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking, functions that may be conserved across species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Effect of apoptosis and response of extracellular matrix proteins after chemotherapy application on human breast cancer cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, G; Vatansever, S; Ayla, S; Uysal, A; Aktas, S; Karabulut, B; Bilir, A

    2006-02-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) represents a three-dimensional structural form of tumors in laboratory conditions, and it has the characteristics of avascular micrometastases or intervascular spaces of big tumors. Recent studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play a critical role in tumor metastasis, therefore normal and cancer cells require an ECM for survival, proliferation and differentiation. Doxorubicin and Docetaxel are widely used in the therapy of breast cancer, as well as in in vivo and in vitro studies. In this study, we examined the effect of apoptosis and proliferation of cells on the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, by using p53, bcl-2 and Ki67 gene expression, and the tendency to metastasis with extracellular matrix proteins, laminin and type IV collagen after chemotherapy in the spheroid model. The apoptotic cell death in situ was detected by TUNEL method. TUNEL-positive cells and positive immunoreactivities of laminin, type IV collagen, p53 and, bcl-2 were detected in the control group. There was no laminin and type IV collagen immunoreactivities in spheroids of drug groups. While TUNEL-positive cells and p53 immunoreactivity were detected in Docetaxel, Doxorubicin and Docetaxel/Doxorubicin groups, p53 immunoreactivity was not observed in the Docetaxel group. There was no bcl-2 immunoreactivity in either drug group. In addition, we did not detect Ki67 immunoreactivity in both control and drug treatment groups. However, the absence of Ki67 protein in MCF-7 breast multicellular tumor spheroids is possibly related to the cells in G0 or S phase. These chemotherapeutic agents may affect the presence of ECM proteins in this in vitro model of micrometastasis of spheroids. These findings suggest that the possible mechanism of cell death in Doxorubicin and Docetaxel/Doxorubicin treatment groups is related to apoptosis through the p53 pathway. However, we considered the possibility that there is another control mechanism for the

  18. Hanging on for the ride: adhesion to the extracellular matrix mediates cellular responses in skeletal muscle morphogenesis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F; Sher, Roger B; Henry, Clarissa A

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle specification and morphogenesis during early development are critical for normal physiology. In addition to mediating locomotion, skeletal muscle is a secretory organ that contributes to metabolic homeostasis. Muscle is a highly adaptable tissue, as evidenced by the ability to increase muscle cell size and/or number in response to weight bearing exercise. Conversely, muscle wasting can occur during aging (sarcopenia), cancer (cancer cachexia), extended hospital stays (disuse atrophy), and in many genetic diseases collectively known as the muscular dystrophies and myopathies. It is therefore of great interest to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate skeletal muscle development and adaptation. Muscle morphogenesis transforms short muscle precursor cells into long, multinucleate myotubes that anchor to tendons via the myotendinous junction. This process requires carefully orchestrated interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix microenvironment. These interactions are dynamic, allowing muscle cells to sense biophysical, structural, organizational, and/or signaling changes within their microenvironment and respond appropriately. In many musculoskeletal diseases, these cell adhesion interactions are disrupted to such a degree that normal cellular adaptive responses are not sufficient to compensate for accumulating damage. Thus, one major focus of current research is to identify the cell adhesion mechanisms that drive muscle morphogenesis, with the hope that understanding how muscle cell adhesion promotes the intrinsic adaptability of muscle tissue during development may provide insight into potential therapeutic approaches for muscle diseases. Our objectives in this review are to highlight recent studies suggesting conserved roles for cell-extracellular matrix adhesion in vertebrate muscle morphogenesis and cellular adaptive responses in animal models of muscle diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Role of the inducible adhesin, CpAls7, in binding ofCandida parapsilosisto extracellular matrix under fluid shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Matthew N; Glass, Kyle A; Longley, Sarah J; Kim, Denny J; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Wortzel, Jeremy D; Shaw, Sunil K; Bliss, Joseph M

    2018-01-29

    The yeast, Candida parapsilosis , is an increasingly common cause of systemic fungal infections among the immune compromised, including premature infants. Adhesion to host surfaces is an important step in pathogenesis, but this process has not been extensively studied in this organism. A microfluidics assay was developed to test the ability of C. parapsilosis to adhere to immobilized host extracellular matrix proteins under physiologic fluid shear conditions. Growth in mammalian tissue culture media at 37°C for 3-6 hours led to induction of an adhesive phenotype at shear forces of 1-5 dynes/cm 2 in some isolates of C. parapsilosis Glutamic acid, proline and calcium appeared to be the minimally necessary requirements for increased adhesion in these assays. To determine whether genes homologous to the ALS gene family of C. albicans were important for the adhesive phenotype, expression of 5 homologous C. parapsilosis genes were quantified using qPCR under conditions leading to increased adhesion. CPAR2_404800 ( CpALS7 ) and CPAR2_404780 showed increased expression compared to control yeast. The extent of adhesion was variable among different isolates, and linear regression identified expression of CpALS7 but not CPAR2_404780 to have a strong positive correlation with adhesion. A homozygous CpALS7 deletion strain was deficient in adhesion, whereas expression of CpALS7 in S. cerevisiae resulted in increased adhesion. Together, these data provide strong evidence that CpAls7 aids in the adherence of C. parapsilosis to extracellular matrix under shear forces and support its previously reported role in virulence. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the expression of extracellular matrix genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Emanuel Ramos de Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous senile degenerative diseases including retinal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a link between proteasome regulation and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-mediated expression of extracellular matrix genes. For this purpose, human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 were treated with different concentrations of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, interferon-γ (IFNγ and the irreversible proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin. First, cytotoxicity and proliferation assays were carried out. The expression of proteasome-related genes and proteins was assessed and proteasome activity was determined. Then, expression of fibrosis-associated factors fibronectin (FN, fibronectin EDA domain (FN EDA, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor-γ (PPARγ was assessed. The proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin strongly arrested cell cycle progression and down-regulated TGFβ gene expression, which in turn was shown to induce expression of pro-fibrogenic genes in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, epoxomicin induced a directional shift in the balance between MMP-2 and TIMP-1 and was associated with down-regulation of transcription of extracellular matrix genes FN and FN-EDA and up-regulation of the anti-fibrogenic factor PPARγ. In addition, both CTGF and TGFβ were shown to affect expression of proteasome-associated mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest a link between proteasome activity and pro-fibrogenic mechanisms in the RPE, which could imply a role for proteasome-modulating agents in the treatment of retinal disorders characterized by RPE-mediated fibrogenic responses.

  1. The gelatinous extracellular matrix facilitates transport studies in kelp: visualization of pressure-induced flow reversal across sieve plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Jan; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In vascular plants, important questions regarding phloem function remain unanswered due to problems with invasive experimental procedures in this highly sensitive tissue. Certain brown algae (kelps; Laminariales) also possess sieve tubes for photoassimilate transport, but these are embedded in large volumes of a gelatinous extracellular matrix which isolates them from neighbouring cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that kelp sieve tubes might tolerate invasive experimentation better than their analogues in higher plants, and sought to establish Nereocystis luetkeana as an experimental system. The predominant localization of cellulose and the gelatinous extracellular matrix in N. luetkeana was verified using specific fluorescent markers and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sieve tubes in intact specimens were loaded with fluorescent dyes, either passively (carboxyfluorescein diacetate; CFDA) or by microinjection (rhodamine B), and the movement of the dyes was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Application of CFDA demonstrated source to sink bulk flow in N. luetkeana sieve tubes, and revealed the complexity of sieve tube structure, with branches, junctions and lateral connections. Microinjection into sieve elements proved comparatively easy. Pulsed rhodamine B injection enabled the determination of flow velocity in individual sieve elements, and the direct visualization of pressure-induced reversals of flow direction across sieve plates. The reversal of flow direction across sieve plates by pressurizing the downstream sieve element conclusively demonstrates that a critical requirement of the Münch theory is satisfied in kelp; no such evidence exists for tracheophytes. Because of the high tolerance of its sieve elements to experimental manipulation, N. luetkeana is a promising alternative to vascular plants for studying the fluid mechanics of sieve tube networks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company

  2. Decellularized extracellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes endothelial differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Xu, Jianguang; Zhu, Shaoyue; Yuan, Changyong; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-04-01

    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PGF2alpha induced differential expression of genes involved in turnover of extracellular matrix in rat decidual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari Eduardo A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rat, the decidual tissue is an important component for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Decidualization can be induced by either the implantation of the blastocyst or by artificial stimuli. The process of decidua formation or decidualization, is characterized by growth and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells. Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α has been shown to be involved in inhibition of implantation, alteration of embryo development, induction of luteal regression, and the mediation of pregnancy loss induced by microorganism infections. In order to establish a direct role for PGF2α in decidual function, we have evaluated its effects on the expression of an extensive array of genes using primary decidual cell culture. Upon treatment with PGF2α sixty genes were significantly down-regulated whereas only six genes were up-regulated (from a total of 1176 genes studied. Interestingly, the majority of the genes inhibited by PGF2α are either directly or indirectly involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Genes such as gelatinase A (MMP2, cathepsin L, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2 and 3 (TIMP3, plasminogen activator inhibitor1 (PAI1, tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA, urokinase plasminogen activator (tPA, endothelin 1, calponin, carboxypeptidase D and calponin acidic were down regulated. The opposite effect was observed for prostromelysin 53 kDa (proMMP3, plasma proteinase I alpha and alpha 1 antiproteinase, all of which were significantly up-regulated by PGF2α. The results strongly suggest that the abortificient role of elevated levels of PGF2α after implantation is due, in large part, to inhibition of genes involved in the normal turnover of the extracellular matrix necessary for decidual formation.

  4. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated.

  5. Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Wolfgang A; Ingenwerth, Marc; Djuidje, Carolle E; Hader, Christiane; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Engers, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The cortical cytoskeleton network connects the actin cytoskeleton to various membrane proteins, influencing cell adhesion, polarity, migration and response to extracellular signals. Previous studies have suggested changes in the expression of specific components in prostate cancer, especially of 4.1 proteins (encoded by EPB41 genes) which form nodes in this network. Expression of EPB41L1, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 (protein: 4.1B), EPB41L4B (EHM2), EPB41L5, EPB49 (dematin), VIL2 (ezrin), and DLG1 (summarized as „cortical cytoskeleton' genes) as well as ERG was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in a well-characterized set of 45 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma and 13 benign tissues. Hypermethylation of EPB41L3 and GSTP1 was compared in 93 cancer tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of 4.1B was further studied by immunohistochemistry. EPB41L1 and EPB41L3 were significantly downregulated and EPB41L4B was upregulated in cancer tissues. Low EPB41L1 or high EPB41L4B expression were associated with earlier biochemical recurrence. None of the other cortical cytoskeleton genes displayed expression changes, in particular EPB49 and VIL2, despite hints from previous studies. EPB41L3 downregulation was significantly associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and strongly correlated with GSTP1 hypermethylation. Protein 4.1B was detected most strongly in the basal cells of normal prostate epithelia. Its expression in carcinoma cells was similar to the weaker one in normal luminal cells. EPB41L3 downregulation and EPB41L4B upregulation were essentially restricted to the 22 cases with ERG overexpression. Expression changes in EPB41L3 and EPB41L4B closely paralleled those previously observed for the extracellular matrix genes FBLN1 and SPOCK1, respectively. Specific changes in the cortical cytoskeleton were observed during prostate cancer progression. They parallel changes in the expression of extracellular matrix components and all together appear to be associated with

  6. Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnenführer Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cortical cytoskeleton network connects the actin cytoskeleton to various membrane proteins, influencing cell adhesion, polarity, migration and response to extracellular signals. Previous studies have suggested changes in the expression of specific components in prostate cancer, especially of 4.1 proteins (encoded by EPB41 genes which form nodes in this network. Methods Expression of EPB41L1, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 (protein: 4.1B, EPB41L4B (EHM2, EPB41L5, EPB49 (dematin, VIL2 (ezrin, and DLG1 (summarized as „cortical cytoskeleton" genes as well as ERG was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in a well-characterized set of 45 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma and 13 benign tissues. Hypermethylation of EPB41L3 and GSTP1 was compared in 93 cancer tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of 4.1B was further studied by immunohistochemistry. Results EPB41L1 and EPB41L3 were significantly downregulated and EPB41L4B was upregulated in cancer tissues. Low EPB41L1 or high EPB41L4B expression were associated with earlier biochemical recurrence. None of the other cortical cytoskeleton genes displayed expression changes, in particular EPB49 and VIL2, despite hints from previous studies. EPB41L3 downregulation was significantly associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and strongly correlated with GSTP1 hypermethylation. Protein 4.1B was detected most strongly in the basal cells of normal prostate epithelia. Its expression in carcinoma cells was similar to the weaker one in normal luminal cells. EPB41L3 downregulation and EPB41L4B upregulation were essentially restricted to the 22 cases with ERG overexpression. Expression changes in EPB41L3 and EPB41L4B closely paralleled those previously observed for the extracellular matrix genes FBLN1 and SPOCK1, respectively. Conclusions Specific changes in the cortical cytoskeleton were observed during prostate cancer progression. They parallel changes in the expression of extracellular matrix

  7. Novel insights into the function and dynamics of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Genovese, Federica

    2015-01-01

    the essential information needed for maintenance of a sophisticated structure anchoring the cells and sustaining normal function of tissues. Therefore, the matrix itself may be considered as a paracrine/endocrine entity, with more complex functions than previously appreciated. The aims of this review are to 1......) explore key structural and functional components of the ECM as exemplified by monogenetic disorders leading to severe pathologies, 2) discuss selected pathological posttranslational modifications of ECM proteins resulting in altered functional (signaling) properties from the original structural proteins...... homeostasis. These properties should be exploited to establish novel biochemical markers and antifibrotic treatment strategies for liver fibrosis as well as other fibrotic diseases....

  8. Extracellular matrix synthesis in blastula and gastrula stages of normal and hybrid frog embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Pulse-chase labelling experiments and light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography were used to examine the site of synthesis, mode of transport, and sites of deposition of fucose-, glucose- and mannose-labelled materials in different developmental stages of normal developing Rana pipiens embryos and interspecific hybrid embryos formed by fertilizing the eggs of R. pipiens with the sperm of R. catesbeiana. In both normal and hybrid embryos, after a 15-30 min pulse, grains are closely associated with juxtanuclear and cytoplasmic collections of membrane-bound vescicles which resemble the Golgi apparatus. In normal embryos following a 15-30 min pulse and a 60-min chase, grains are largely cleared from the cytoplasmic vescicles and deposited in the extra-cellular spaces or along cell surfaces. In contrast, arrested hybrid embryos given a 15-30 min pulse and a 60-min chase show a marked accumulation of grains over cytoplasmic structures such as the Golgi apparatus and vescicular elements in the cell cortex. Certain interesting features of regional variation in synthetic activity in developing normal embryos are also described. (author)

  9. Real Time FRET Based Detection of Mechanical Stress in Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanjie; Suchyna, Thomas M; Lazakovitch, Elena; Gronostajski, Richard M; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    A molecular force sensing cassette (stFRET) was incorporated into actinin, filamin, and spectrin in vascular endothelial cells (BAECs) and into collagen-19 in Caenorhabditis elegans. To estimate the stress sensitivity of stFRET in solution, we used DNA springs. A 60-mer loop of single stranded DNA was covalently linked to the external cysteines of the donor and acceptor. When the complementary DNA was added it formed double stranded DNA with higher persistence length, stretching the linker and substantially reducing FRET efficiency. The probe stFRET detected constitutive stress in all cytoskeletal proteins tested, and in migrating cells the stress was greater at the leading edge than the trailing edge. The stress in actinin, filamin and spectrin could be reduced by releasing focal attachments from the substrate with trypsin. Inhibitors of actin polymerization produced a modest increase in stress on the three proteins suggesting they are mechanically in parallel. Local shear stress applied to the cell with a perfusion pipette showed gradients of stress leading from the site of perfusion. Transgenic C. elegans labeled in collagen-19 produced a behaviorally and anatomically normal animal with constitutive stress in the cuticle. Stretching the worm visibly stretched the probe in collagen showing that we can trace the distribution of mean tissue stress in specific molecules. stFRET is a general purpose dynamic sensor of mechanical stress that can be expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in isolated proteins, cells, tissues, organs and animals.

  10. Selective reactivity of monochloramine with extracellular matrix components affects the disinfection of biofilm and detached clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Coburn, Kimberly M; Seo, Youngwoo

    2014-04-01

    The efficiency of monochloramine disinfection was dependent on the quantity and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms, as monochloramine has a selective reactivity with proteins over polysaccharides. Biofilms with protein-based (Pseudomonas putida) and polysaccharide based EPS (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as biofilms with varied amount of polysaccharide EPS (wild-type and mutant P. aeruginosa), were compared. The different reactivity of EPS components with monochloramine influenced disinfectant penetration, biofilm inactivation, as well as the viability of detached clusters. Monochloramine transport profiling measured by a chloramine-sensitive microelectrode revealed a broader diffusion boundary layer between bulk and biofilm surface in the P. putida biofilm compared to those of P. aeruginosa biofilms. The reaction with proteins in P. putida EPS multiplied both the time and the monochloramine mass required to achieve a full biofilm penetration. Cell viability in biofilms was also spatially influenced by monochloramine diffusion and reaction within biofilms, showing a lower survival in the surface section and a higher persistence in the middle section of the P. putida biofilm compared to the P. aeruginosa biofilms. While polysaccharide EPS promoted biofilm cell viability by obstructing monochloramine reactive sites on bacterial cells, protein EPS hindered monochloramine penetration by reacting with monochloramine and reduced its concentration within biofilms. Furthermore, the persistence of bacterial cells detached from biofilm (over 70% for P. putida and ∼40% for polysaccharide producing P. aeruginosa) suggested that currently recommended monochloramine residual levels may underestimate the risk of water quality deterioration caused by biofilm detachment.

  11. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  12. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  13. Raman spectroscopy in biomedicine – non-invasive in vitro analysis of cells and extracellular matrix components in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, Eva; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an established laser-based technology for the quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. Over the past few years, Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful diagnostic tool in the life sciences. Raman spectra allow assessment of the overall molecular constitution of biological samples, based on specific signals from proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic crystals. Measurements are non-invasive and do not require sample processing, making Raman spectroscopy a reliable and robust method with numerous applications in biomedicine. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy allows the highly sensitive discrimination of bacteria. Rama spectra retain information on continuous metabolic processes and kinetics such as lipid storage and recombinant protein production. Raman spectra are specific for each cell type and provide additional information on cell viability, differentiation status, and tumorigenicity. In tissues, Raman spectroscopy can detect major extracellular matrix components and their secondary structures. Furthermore, the non-invasive characterization of healthy and pathological tissues as well as quality control and process monitoring of in vitro-engineered matrix is possible. This review provides comprehensive insight to the current progress in expanding the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of living cells and tissues, and serves as a good reference point for those starting in the field. PMID:23161832

  14. Structural biology response of a collagen hydrogel synthetic extracellular matrix with embedded human fibroblast: computational and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Sara; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Doblaré, Manuel; Ochoa, Ignacio; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Adherent cells exert contractile forces which play an important role in the spatial organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Due to these forces, the substrate experiments a volume reduction leading to a characteristic shape. ECM contraction is a key process in many biological processes such as embryogenesis, morphogenesis and wound healing. However, little is known about the specific parameters that control this process. With this aim, we present a 3D computational model able to predict the contraction process of a hydrogel matrix due to cell-substrate mechanical interaction. It considers cell-generated forces, substrate deformation, ECM density, cellular migration and proliferation. The model also predicts the cellular spatial distribution and concentration needed to reproduce the contraction process and confirms the minimum value of cellular concentration necessary to initiate the process observed experimentally. The obtained continuum formulation has been implemented in a finite element framework. In parallel, in vitro experiments have been performed to obtain the main model parameters and to validate it. The results demonstrate that cellular forces, migration and proliferation are acting simultaneously to display the ECM contraction.

  15. Skip Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degrading Proteases Expression in Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Villar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether Ski-interacting protein (SKIP regulates TGF-β1-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and uPA Inhibitor (PAI-1 in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell model. Materials and Methods. PC-3 prostate cancer cell line was used. The role of SKIP was evaluated using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA compounds. The expression of uPA, MMP-9, and PAI-1 was evaluated by zymography assays, RT-PCR, and promoter transactivation analysis. Results. In PC-3 cells TGF-β1 treatment stimulated uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 expressions. The knockdown of SKIP in PC-3 cells enhanced the basal level of uPA, and TGF-β1 treatment inhibited uPA production. Both PAI-1 and MMP-9 production levels were increased in response to TGF-β1. The ectopic expression of SKIP inhibited both TGF-β1-induced uPA and MMP-9 promoter transactivation, while PAI-1 promoter response to the factor was unaffected. Conclusions. SKIP regulates the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 stimulated by TGF-β1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, SKIP is implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation and can therefore be suggested as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment.

  16. Components, structure, biogenesis and function of the Hydra extracellular matrix in regeneration, pattern formation and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarras, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM), termed mesoglea by early biologists. Morphological studies have determined that Hydra ECM is composed of two basal lamina layers positioned at the base of each epithelial layer with an intervening interstitial matrix. Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrate species. These components include such macromolecules as laminin, type IV collagen, and various fibrillar collagens. These compo