Sample records for adipic acid

  1. 21 CFR 582.1009 - Adipic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adipic acid. 582.1009 Section 582.1009 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Product. Adipic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is... foods at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice in accordance with § 184.1(b)(1...

  3. Urea–adipic acid (2/1) (United States)

    Chang, Hai-Sheng; Lin, Jian-Li


    The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, 2CH4N2O·C6H10O4, contains two urea mol­ecules and two half-mol­ecules of adipic acid; the latter are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a chain along [110]. Additional weak inter-chain O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O inter­molecular inter­actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:21754715

  4. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings


    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  5. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta


    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  6. Computer Aided Synthesis of Innovative Processes: Renewable Adipic Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengarta, Alessandro; Bertran, Maria-Ona; Manenti, Flavio


    A promising biotechnological route for the production of adipic acid from renewables has been evaluated, applying a systematic methodology for process network synthesis and optimization. The method allows organizing in a structured database the available knowledge from different sources (prelimin...... of the results to the change of the production scenarios (e.g. improvement of bacterial productivity). Thus, this method can support R&D strategy definition, targeting the research efforts on precise short-term objectives, set by the full-scale process feasibility....... (preliminary scientific studies, techno-economic process specifications), generating a network of process alternatives and solving it as a MILP. The best processing route provides also an estimate of the production cost of bio-adipic acid at the current state of the art, assessing the sensitivity...

  7. Study on the Effects of Adipic Acid on Properties of Dicyandiamide-Cured Electrically Conductive Adhesive and the Interaction Mechanism (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Chao; Fu, Yonggao; Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Xiaojian; Li, Mingyu


    A small quantity of adipic acid was found to improve the performance of dicyandiamide-cured electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) by enhancing its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The mechanism of action of the adipic acid and its effects on the ECA were examined. The results indicated that adipic acid replaced the electrically insulating lubricant on the surface of the silver flakes, which significantly improved the electrical conductivity. Specifically, one of the acidic functional groups in adipic acid reacted with the silver flakes, and an amidation reaction occurred between the other acidic functional group in adipic acid and the dicyandiamide, which participated in the curing reaction. Therefore, adipic acid may act as a coupling agent to improve the overall ECA performance.

  8. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks. (United States)

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M


    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Poly(glycerol adipate)-fatty acid esters as versatile nanocarriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Verena M; Naolou, Toufik; Hause, Gerd


    Poly(glycerol adipate) (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer with promising features for nanoparticulate drug carrier systems. By acylation of PGA with fatty acids, composite systems with amphiphilic properties can be obtained. Variation of the fatty acid (laurate, stearate and behenate) and their sub......Poly(glycerol adipate) (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer with promising features for nanoparticulate drug carrier systems. By acylation of PGA with fatty acids, composite systems with amphiphilic properties can be obtained. Variation of the fatty acid (laurate, stearate and behenate...

  10. Production of Adipic Acid from Mixtures of Cyclohexanol-Cyclohexanone using Polyoxometalate Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani


    Full Text Available Adipic acid production through catalytic conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone using polyoxometalate H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] as catalysts was carried out systematically. Polyoxometalates H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] were synthesized using an inorganic synthesis method and were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Adipic acid was formed from conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone and was characterized by using melting point measurement, identification of functional group using FTIR spectrophotometer, analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometer. This research investigated the influence of reaction time and temperature on the conversion. The results showed that adipic acid was formed successfully with a yield of 68% by using H5[a-BW12O40] as the catalyst with a melting point of 150-152 °C after optimization. In contrast, using H4[a-SiW12O40] as the catalyst, the formation was only 3.7%. Investigation of time and temperature showed 9 h as the optimum reaction time and 90 °C as the optimum temperature for conversion of up to 68%. Identification using FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR showed that the adipic acid from conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone was in agreement with the standard adipic acid data in the literatures. GC-MS analysis indicated that several by-products were formed in conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone using H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] as the catalysts.

  11. Highly efficient chemical process to convert mucic acid into adipic acid and DFT studies of the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration. (United States)

    Li, Xiukai; Wu, Di; Lu, Ting; Yi, Guangshun; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen


    The production of bulk chemicals and fuels from renewable bio-based feedstocks is of significant importance for the sustainability of human society. Adipic acid, as one of the most-demanded drop-in chemicals from a bioresource, is used primarily for the large-volume production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. It is highly desirable to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly processes for the production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks. However, currently there is no suitable bio-adipic acid synthesis process. Demonstrated herein is the highly efficient synthetic protocol for the conversion of mucic acid into adipic acid through the oxorhenium-complex-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction and subsequent Pt/C-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Quantitative yields (99 %) were achieved for the conversion of mucic acid into muconic acid and adipic acid either in separate sequences or in a one-step process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid. (United States)

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram


    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80-100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  13. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

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    Pouria Falamarzpour


    Full Text Available Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured, chemically cross-linked (cured, and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  14. cis,cis-Muconic acid: separation and catalysis to bio-adipic acid for nylon-6,6 polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardon, Derek R.; Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Salvachúa, Davinia; Settle, Amy E.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Menart, Martin J.; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Dorgan, John R.; Beckham, Gregg T.


    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a polyunsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be produced renewably via the biological conversion of sugars and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Subsequently, muconic acid can be catalytically converted to adipic acid -- the most commercially significant dicarboxylic acid manufactured from petroleum. Nylon-6,6 is the major industrial application for adipic acid, consuming 85% of market demand; however, high purity adipic acid (99.8%) is required for polymer synthesis. As such, process technologies are needed to effectively separate and catalytically transform biologically derived muconic acid to adipic acid in high purity over stable catalytic materials. To that end, this study: (1) demonstrates bioreactor production of muconate at 34.5 g L-1 in an engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, (2) examines the staged recovery of muconic acid from culture media, (3) screens platinum group metals (e.g., Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) for activity and leaching stability on activated carbon (AC) and silica supports, (4) evaluates the time-on-stream performance of Rh/AC in a trickle bed reactor, and (5) demonstrates the polymerization of bio-adipic acid to nylon-6,6. Separation experiments confirmed AC effectively removed broth color compounds, but subsequent pH/temperature shift crystallization resulted in significant levels of Na, P, K, S and N in the crystallized product. Ethanol dissolution of muconic acid precipitated bulk salts, achieving a purity of 99.8%. Batch catalysis screening reactions determined that Rh and Pd were both highly active compared to Pt and Ru, but Pd leached significantly (1-9%) from both AC and silica supports. Testing of Rh/AC in a continuous trickle bed reactor for 100 h confirmed stable performance after 24 h, although organic adsorption resulted in reduced steady-state activity. Lastly, polymerization of bio-adipic acid with hexamethyldiamine produced nylon-6,6 with comparable properties to its petrochemical counterpart

  15. Synthesis and characterization of aliphatic polyesters from glycerol, by-product of biodiesel production, and adipic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de Meireles Brioude


    Full Text Available In the present work, polyesters were prepared from the polycondensation between glycerol and adipic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate as catalyst. Three glycerol: adipic acid molar ratio were used for the bulk polymerization namely: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC and XRD indicated no crystallinity for all the polymers. The morphology of the materials are characterized by globular structure, which may suggest compositional fluctuations throughout the samples.

  16. Engineering a Polyketide Synthase for In Vitro Production of Adipic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, A; Poust, S; De Rond, T; Fortman, JL; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD


    Polyketides have enormous structural diversity, yet polyketide synthases (PKSs) have thus far been engineered to produce only drug candidates or derivatives thereof. Thousands of other molecules, including commodity and specialty chemicals, could be synthesized using PKSs if composing hybrid PKSs from well-characterized parts derived from natural PKSs was more efficient. Here, using modern mass spectrometry techniques as an essential part of the design–build–test cycle, we engineered a chimeric PKS to enable production one of the most widely used commodity chemicals, adipic acid. To accomplish this, we introduced heterologous reductive domains from various PKS clusters into the borrelidin PKS’ first extension module, which we previously showed produces a 3-hydroxy-adipoyl intermediate when coincubated with the loading module and a succinyl-CoA starter unit. Acyl-ACP intermediate analysis revealed an unexpected bottleneck at the dehydration step, which was overcome by introduction of a carboxyacyl-processing dehydratase domain. Appending a thioesterase to the hybrid PKS enabled the production of free adipic acid. Using acyl-intermediate based techniques to “debug” PKSs as described here, it should one day be possible to engineer chimeric PKSs to produce a variety of existing commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as thousands of chemicals that are difficult to produce from petroleum feedstocks using traditional synthetic chemistry.

  17. Poly(lactic acid/thermoplastic starch sheets: effect of adipate esters on the morphological, mechanical and barrier properties

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    Marianne Ayumi Shirai


    Full Text Available Abstract Blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA and thermoplastic starch (TPS plasticized with adipate esters (diisodecyl adipate and diethyl adipate having different molecular weight were used to produce sheets. The calendering-extrusion process at a pilot scale was used, and the mechanical, barrier, and morphological characterization of the obtained materials were performed. The increase in the TPS content affected the mechanical properties of the sheets by increasing the elongation and decreasing the rigidity. TPS conferred a more hydrophilic character to the sheets, as observed from the water vapor permeability results. The sheets plasticized with diisodecyl adipate (DIA, having a higher molecular weight, had better mechanical and barrier properties than diethyl adipate (DEA plasticized sheets, indicating that DIA was more effective as plasticizer. Micrographs obtained by confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed different morphologies when different proportions of PLA and TPS were used (dispersed or co-continuous structures, which were strongly associated with the mechanical and barrier properties.

  18. Development of biodegradable flexible films of starch and poly(lactic acid) plasticized with adipate or citrate esters. (United States)

    Shirai, M A; Grossmann, M V E; Mali, S; Yamashita, F; Garcia, P S; Müller, C M O


    Biodegradable films were produced from blends contained a high amount of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) plasticized with different adipate or citrate esters. It was not possible to obtain pellets for the production of films using only glycerol as a plasticizer. The plasticization of the PLA with the esters and mixture stages added through extrusion was critical to achieve a blend capable of producing films by blow extrusion. Adipate esters were the most effective plasticizers because they interacted best with the PLA and yielded films with appropriate mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous-flow synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene using hydrogen peroxide in high-temperature explosive regimes. (United States)

    Damm, Markus; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver


    Safe only in a microreactor! The synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene by tungstic acid-catalyzed oxidation using hydrogen peroxide following the classical Noyori protocol can be accomplished in good yields with residence times as short as 20 min at 140 °C using a safe and scalable microreactor environment. Under these intensified conditions the use of a phase-transfer catalyst is not required. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Properties of collagen gels cross-linked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid deriviate. (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wentao; Tian, Zhenhua; Li, Conghu; Li, Guoying


    In order to improve the properties of collagen gel, N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid derivative (NHS-AA) was introduced into the formation of collagen fibrils. NHS-AA with different [NHS-AA]/[NH2] ratios (0.1-1.5, calculated by [ester group] of NHS-AA and [NH2] of lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen) was added after, simultaneously with or before the formation of collagen fibrils (abbreviated CAF, CSF and CBF, respectively) to obtain different collagen gels. With the same dose of NHS-AA, the cross-linking degree for CAF was lower than those for CSF and CBF. The formation of collagen fibrils was restrained by NHS-AA for CSF and CBF while that for CAF was unaffected. When the dose of NHS-AA increased from 0.1 to 1.5, the water contents of CSF and CBF increased while that of CAF had no obvious change. With lower dose of NHS-AA (0.1), CAF possessed higher value of G' (87.3Pa) and the best thermal stability (47.6°C). As the ratio of [NHS-AA]/[NH2] increased to 1.5, CSF had the maximum value of G' (288.8Pa) and CAF had the best thermal stability (52.9°C). These results showed collagen gels with different properties could be prepared by adding NHS-AA with different adding sequence and dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Superconducting properties of adipic-acid-doped bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajpayee, Arpita; Awana, V P S; Kishan, H [Superconductivity and Cryogenics Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Bhalla, G L [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Bhobe, P A; Nigam, A K [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)], E-mail:


    We report the effect of adipic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O{sub 4}) doping on lattice parameters, microstructure, critical temperature (T{sub c}), current density (J{sub c}) and irreversibility field (H{sub irr}) for an MgB{sub 2} superconductor. Actual carbon (C) substitution level for boron (B) is estimated to be from 0.40 at.% to 2.95 at.% for different doping levels. A reduction in T{sub c} from 38.43 to 34.93 K and in lattice parameter a from 3.084(3) A to 3.075(6) A is observed for the 10 wt% C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O{sub 4} doped sample in comparison to pristine MgB{sub 2}. This is an indication of C substitution at boron sites, with the C coming from the decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O{sub 4} at the time of reaction. Interestingly the doped samples have resulted in significant enhancement of J{sub c} and H{sub irr}. All the doped samples exhibit the J{sub c} value of the order of 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and 8 T, which is higher by an order of magnitude as compared to the undoped sample. This result indicates that C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O{sub 4} is a promising material for MgB{sub 2} for obtaining the excellent J{sub c} values under higher magnetic fields.

  2. A green two-step process for adipic acid production from cyclohexene. A study on parameters affecting selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavani, F.; Macchia, F.; Pino, R.; Raabova, K.; Rozhko, E. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Alini, S.; Accorinti, P.; Babini, G. [Radici Chimica SpA, Novara (Italy)


    In this paper, we report about the effect of reaction parameters on catalytic behavior in a twostep process aimed at the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene. In the first step, cyclohexene reacts with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, under conditions leading to the formation of trans-1,2-cyclohexandiol as the prevailing product; the reaction is catalysed by tungstic acid, in the presence of phosphoric acid and of a PT agent. In the second step, 1,2-cyclohexandiol is oxidized with air, in the presence of an heterogeneous catalyst made of alumina-supported Ru(OH){sub 3}. This process is aimed at using the minimal amount of the costly hydrogen peroxide, since only one mole is theoretically needed per mole of cyclohexene. The first step afforded very high yield to the glycol, using only a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. However, the second step turned out to be the more critical one, since the selectivity to adipic acid was very low because of the concomitant occurrence of several undesired side reactions. The latter were in part due to the reaction conditions used, which were necessary for the activation of cyclohexandiol. (orig.)

  3. Valorization of nitrous oxide emitted by adipic acid unit; Valorisation du protoxyde d'azote emis par des unites d'acide adipique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, F. [Rodhia Alsachimie Usine de Chalampe, 68 - Mulhouse (France)


    The industrial process for the production of adipic acid through the oxidation of the mixture of cyclohexanol and of cyclohexanone with nitric acid leads to the inevitable production of nitrogen oxides amongst which are nitrous oxide which is generated in notable qualities. Other nitrogen oxides can be recuperated by oxido-absorption in water to re-make nitric acid, but N{sub 2}O constitutes an effluent: it is rejected into the atmosphere in a gas flow presenting a concentration level of around 30 to 40% in volume of N{sub 2}O combined with other gases (mainly nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide). At the beginning of the 1990's, when the scientific community was becoming aware of the problem of greenhouse gases, the main producers of adipic acid (DU PONT, RHODIA - which was part of RHONE POULENC at the time -, BASF, BAYER, ICI, ASAHI, etc.) got together and decided to start studies into the elimination of nitrous oxide from their flue gases before the year 2000. Several technical meetings took place from 1991 to 1994 to exchange information on the state of progress of their respective work. According to the information we have, this work led, for the companies concerned, to technical solutions enabling the industrial destruction of N{sub 2}O from adipic acid plants. (author)

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the substance adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071‐93‐8, for use in food contact materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) deals with the risk assessment of adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071‐93‐8, FCM substance No 987 for use as a crosslinker for acrylic polymer with keto side groups coated on polyolefins and adhesives in laminates made from plastics...

  5. Electrospun Scaffolds from Low Molecular Weight Poly(ester amides Based on Glycolic Acid, Adipic Acid and Odd or Even Diamines

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    Sara Keiko Murase


    Full Text Available Electrospinning of regular poly(ester amides (PEAs constituted by glycolic acid, adipic acid and diamines with five and six carbon atoms has been carried out. Selected PEAs were constituted by natural origin products and could be easily prepared by a polycondensation method that avoids tedious protection and deprotection steps usually required for obtaining polymers with a regular sequence. Nevertheless, the synthesis had some limitations that mainly concerned the final low/moderate molecular weight that could be attained. Therefore, it was considered interesting to evaluate if electrospun scaffolds could still be prepared taking also advantage of the capability of PEAs to establish intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Results indicated that the crucial factor was the control of polymer concentration in the electrospun solution, being necessary that this concentration was higher than 40% (w/v. The PEA with the lowest molecular weight (Mw close to 8000 g/mol was the most appropriate to obtain electrospun samples with a circular cross-section since higher molecular sized polymers show solvent retention problems derived from the high viscosity of the electrospun solution that rendered ribbon-like morphologies after the impact of fibers into the collector. The studied PEAs were semicrystalline and biodegradable, as demonstrated by calorimetric and degradation studies. Furthermore, the new scaffolds were able to encapsulate drugs with anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic activities like ketoprofen. The corresponding release and bactericide activity was evaluated in different media and against different bacteria. Finally, biocompatibility was demonstrated using both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines.

  6. Improved production of adipate with Escherichia coli by reversal of β-oxidation. (United States)

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Gätgens, Jochem; Lübcke, Marvin; Pietruszka, Jörg; Bott, Michael; Polen, Tino


    The linear C 6 dicarboxylic acid adipic acid is an important bulk chemical in the petrochemical industry as precursor of the polymer nylon-6,6-polyamide. In recent years, efforts were made towards the biotechnological production of adipate from renewable carbon sources using microbial cells. One strategy is to produce adipate via a reversed β-oxidation pathway. Hitherto, the adipate titers were very low due to limiting enzyme activities for this pathway. In most cases, the CoA intermediates are non-natural substrates for the tested enzymes and were therefore barely converted. We here tested heterologous enzymes in Escherichia coli to overcome these limitations and to improve the production of adipate via a reverse β-oxidation pathway. We tested in vitro selected enzymes for the efficient reduction of the enoyl-CoA and in the final reaction for the thioester cleavage. The genes encoding the enzymes which showed in vitro the highest activity were then used to construct an expression plasmid for a synthetic adipate pathway. Expression of paaJ, paaH, paaF, dcaA, and tesB in E. coli BL21(DE3) resulted in the production of up to 36 mg/L of adipate after 30 h of cultivation. Beside the activities of the pathway enzymes, the availability of metabolic precursors may limit the synthesis of adipate, providing another key target for further strain engineering towards high-yield production of adipate with E. coli.

  7. Influence of acids composition in the properties of poly(glycerol citrate-co-adipate); Influencia da composicao dos acidos nas propriedades do poli(glicerol citrato-co-adipato)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, M.M.; Pereira, R.; Fiuza, R.P.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    Synthetic polymers are highly resistant to degradation, being one of the greatest responsible for environment pollution. Consequently, an increase in biodegradable polymers research and development is happening. In this work we propose the synthesis and characterization of polyesters potentially biodegradable using glycerol, citric acid (CA) and adipic acid (AD). The polyesters were prepared by adding the reactants in molar ratio between glycerol:acids (1:1,5), but changing the acids ratio. The system was heated to 150-160 deg C, under nitrogen atmosphere and magnetic stirring, without catalyst adding. The samples were characterized by TGA, DSC, FTIR, XRD e SEM. The results show that the polymers prepared are amorphous polyesters, with two thermal events in 250 deg C and 450 deg C and the surfaces presents smooth and rough regions refers to bonds between glycerol and CA or AD, respectively. (author)

  8. Amended final report of the safety assessment of dibutyl adipate as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Andersen, Alan


    Dibutyl Adipate, the diester of butyl alcohol and adipic acid, functions as a plasticizer, skin-conditioning agent, and solvent in cosmetic formulations. It is reportedly used at a concentration of 5% in nail polish and 8% in suntan gels, creams, and liquids. Dibutyl Adipate is soluble in organic solvents, but practically insoluble in water. Dibutyl Adipate does not absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. Dibutyl Adipate is not toxic in acute oral or dermal animal toxicity tests. In a subchronic dermal toxicity study, 1.0 ml/kg day-1 caused a significant reduction in body weight gain in rabbits, but 0.5 ml/kg/day1 was without effect. In a study with dogs, no adverse effects were observed when an emulsion containing 6.25% Dibutyl Adipate was applied to the entire body twice a week for 3 months. Dibutyl Adipate was tested for dermal irritation using rabbits and mice and a none to minimal irritation was observed. Dibutyl Adipate at a concentration of 25% was not a sensitizer in a guinea pig maximization study. Undiluted Dibutyl Adipate was minimally irritating to the eyes of rabbits and 0.1% was nonirritating. A significant increase in fetal gross abnormalities was observed in rats given intraperitoneal injections of Dibutyl Adipate at 1.75 ml/kg on 3 separate days during gestation, but no effect was seen in animals given 1.05 ml/kg. Dibutyl Adipate was not genotoxic in either bacterial or mammalian test systems. Clinical patch tests confirmed the absence of skin irritation found in animal tests. Clinical phototoxicity tests were negative. Dibutyl Adipate at 0.1% was not an ocular irritant in two male volunteers. In a clinical test of comedogenicity, Dibutyl Adipate produced no effect. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that use of Dibutyl Adipate in suntan cosmetic products will result in repeated, frequent exposure in a leave-on product. The available data demonstrate no skin sensitization or cumulative skin

  9. Effect of addition of lignin in physical-chemical properties of a polyesters based on glycerol, phthalic and adipic acids; Efeito da adicao de lignina nas propriedades fisico-quimicas de poliesteres a base de glicerol e acidos ftalico e adipico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, D.H.; Viana, A.P.M.; Lima, A.S.C.; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Miranda, C.S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), alvador, BA (Brazil)


    In this paper the study of different addition amounts of lignin in the physicochemical properties of polyesters made from glycerol and different amounts of phthalic and adipic acids have been proposed. The following characterizations were made: XRD, FTIR, TGA, DSC and SEM. The variation in the percentage of adipic and phthalic acids had a direct effect on thermal and morphological properties. The thermal analysis showed that there was miscibility between the polyester and lignin, by means of displacement related to the temperature of thermal degradation events. In FTIR analysis was noted displacements of characteristic bands of hydrogen bonds and specific carbonyl ester groups. These shifts were more pronounced as it has larger amounts of phthalic acid as monomer and larger amounts of lignin in the compositions. (author)

  10. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate, poly(butylene succinate and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate under anaerobic and oxygen limited thermophilic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutakan Boonmee


    Full Text Available In order to study the biodegradation behavior of biodegradable plastics in landfill conditions, four types of biodegradable plastics including poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT were tested by burying in sludge mixed soil medium under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions. The experiments were operated at 52 ± 2ºC in dark conditions according to ISO15985. The degree of biodegradation after 75 days was investigated by weight loss determination, visual examination, and surface appearance by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Under both anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions, the complete degradation (100% weight loss was found only in PHBV after 75 days. The plastic degradations were ranked in the order of PHBV> PLA> PBS> PBAT. The percentage of weight losses were significantly different at p ≤ 0.05. However, for all studied plastics, the degradation under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions did not significantly different at 95% confidence.

  11. Pepper protein phosphatase type 2C, CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate ABA signalling and drought response. (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates plant growth and developmental processes, including seed germination and stomatal closing. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel type 2C protein phosphatase, CaADIP1 (Capsicum annuum ABA and Drought-Induced Protein phosphatase 1). The expression of CaADIP1 was induced in pepper leaves by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CaADIP1 (CaADIP1-OX) exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype. We used a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to identify CaRLP1 (Capsicum annuum RCAR-Like Protein 1), which interacts with CaADIP1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast to CaADIP1-OX plants, CaRLP1-OX plants displayed an ABA-hypersensitive and drought-tolerant phenotype, which was characterized by low levels of transpirational water loss and increased expression of stress-responsive genes relative to those of wild-type plants. In CaADIP1-OX/CaRLP1-OX double transgenic plants, ectopic expression of the CaRLP1 gene led to strong suppression of CaADIP1-induced ABA hyposensitivity during the germinative and post-germinative stages, indicating that CaADIP1 and CaRLP1 act in the same signalling pathway and CaADIP1 functions downstream of CaRLP1. Our results indicate that CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate the ABA-dependent defense signalling response to drought stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 78 FR 33748 - Diisopropyl Adipate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance (United States)


    ... modified cellulose; wetting, spreading, and dispersing agents; propellants in aerosol dispensers; microencapsulating agents; and emulsifiers. The term ``inert'' is not intended to imply nontoxicity; the ingredient... results revealed all organs to be normal. The mutagenic potential of adipic acid was evaluated in a Host...

  13. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman


    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  14. New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-(3-β-D-Glucopyranosylglycer-2-yl)-6-N-(oct-2-enyl)-adipate, [orientalin, 1] was isolated as a new metabolite from the polar leaf extracts of Toussaintia orientalis Verdc (Annonaceae), together with the glycoflavonoids afzelin and quercitrin, and the indolidinoids toussaintines A-C. The reversed chalcones 2-hydroxy-3,4 ...

  15. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR


    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 200, 600, 2000, 6000 and 20000 mg di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl

  16. Analysis of Adipate Ester Contents in PVC Plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    Plasticizers are needed in flexible PVC (PolyVinylChloride) products. There is serious concern that commonly used phthalate esters may harm life reproduction systems. To avoid the problems, instead adipate di-esters (AEs) of C8 to C10 alcohols are used as higher prized alternatives; e.g. di-2......-ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll® or di-octyl adipate, DOA, see Fig. 1. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence...... of phthalate esters in PVC can be rapidly analyzed by Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser. Here in this project we report a similar study. The aim was to find out whether FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of adipate esters (AEs) as plasticizers...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (United States)


    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  18. Growth and characterization of L-Lysine adipate crystal (United States)

    Ramya, K.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Raja, C. Ramachandra


    Nonlinear optical crystals of L-Lysine adipate were grown by liquid diffusion method at room temperature. The lattice parameters were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral studies were carried out to confirm functional groups present in the crystal. Optical property of crystal was examined by UV-vis-NIR studies. Molecular structure of grown crystal was established using 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies. Thermal stability and decomposition were analyzed using Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal analysis. Second harmonic generation efficiency of crystal was determined by Kurtz Perry powder technique.

  19. Properties of acyl modified poly(glycerol-adipate) comb-like polymers and their self-assembly into nanoparticles. (United States)

    Taresco, Vincenzo; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Creasey, Rhiannon; Burley, Jonathan C; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Alexander, Cameron; Treacher, Kevin; Booth, Jonathan; Garnett, Martin C


    There is an increasing need to develop bio-compatible polymers with an increased range of different physicochemical properties. Poly(glycerol-adipate) (PGA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable amphiphilic polyester routinely produced from divinyl adipate and unprotected glycerol by an enzymatic route, bearing a hydroxyl group that can be further functionalized. Polymers with an average Mn of ∼13 kDa can be synthesized without any post-polymerization deprotection reactions. Acylated polymers with fatty acid chain length of C4, C8, and C18 (PGAB, PGAO, and PGAS, respectively) at different degrees of substitution were prepared. These modifications yield comb-like polymers that modulate the amphiphilic characteristics of PGA. This novel class of biocompatible polymers has been characterized through various techniques such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, surface, thermal analysis, and their ability to self-assemble into colloidal structures was evaluated by using DLS. The highly tunable properties of PGA reported herein demonstrate a biodegradable polymer platform, ideal for engineering solid dispersions, nanoemulsions, or nanoparticles for healthcare applications. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2016, 54, 3267-3278.

  20. Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov., an adipate-degrading, gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacterium. (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Stackebrandt, E; Tohyama, S; Eguchi, T


    A novel, mesophilic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic digestor for municipal wastewater. The bacterium degraded adipate in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. (E)-2-Hexenedioate accumulated transiently in the degradation of adipate. (E)-2-Hexenedioate, (E)-3-hexenedioate, pyruvate, lactate, C1-C12 straight-chain fatty acids and C2-C10 straight-chain primary alcohols were also utilized as electron donors. 3-Phenylpropionate was oxidized to benzoate. The G + C content of the DNA was 60 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the new isolate clustered with species of the genus Syntrophobacter and Desulforhabdus amnigenus. Strain TsuAS1T resembles Desulforhabdus amnigenus DSM 10338T with respect to the ability to utilize acetate as an electron donor and the inability to utilize propionate without sulfate in co-culture with Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864. Strains TsuAS1T and DSM 10338T form a 'non-syntrophic subcluster' within the genus Syntrophobacter. Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the newly isolated bacterium, with strain TsuAS1T (= DSM 12016T) as the type strain.

  1. Multifunctional nanobiocomposite of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] and clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA


    Full Text Available The processing and characterization of multifunctional nanobiocomposite of biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) and organically modified synthetic fluorine mica (OSFM) are reported. The nanobiocomposite of PBSA with OSFM...

  2. Poly(Butylene Succinate) and Poly[(Butylene Succinate)-co-Adipate] Nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O


    Full Text Available , and properties of nanoclay-containing composites of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA). Various nanocomposite structures arising from the incorporation of layered silicate particles, both pristine...

  3. Metabolic network analysis of an adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: Elucidation of adipate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens


    An adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing, recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum was characterized by metabolic network analysis, with special focus on the degradation of adipate and determination of the metabolic fluxes. Degradation of the side-chain precursor, adipate, causes an undesired consumption...... of adipate in the production of 7-ADCA. Using C-13-labeled glucose and measurement of metabolite labeling patterns, it was shown that adipate was degraded by beta-oxidation to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. The labeling analysis indicated that degradation of adipate was taking place in the microbodies...... and the formed acetyl-CoA was metabolized in the glyoxylate shunt. This hypothesis was further substantiated by an enzyme assay, which showed activity of the key enzyme in the glyoxylate shunt. Flux estimations in two chemostat cultures, one with and one without adipate in the feed, revealed that degradation...

  4. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.


    The influence of adipate concentration and dissolved oxygen on production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) by a recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied in glucose-limited continuous cultures....... from 15 to 7%AS, r(p) (total) increased to 25 mumol g DW-1 h(-1), mainly due to a two-fold increase in the adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid (ad-6-APA) specific productivity....

  5. Long-term experience with maleic acid in a hard coal-fired FGD unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole [Vattenfall A/S, Vodskov (Denmark). Chemistry and Materials


    The addition of adipic acid to increase the gas cleaning efficiency of lime water in brown coal power plants is the state-of-the-art approach. In hard coal power plants, functional considerations mean that adipic acid is used less frequently. In Block 3 of the Nordjyllandsvaerket hard coal power plant, maleic acid was used over an 8-year period with great success, improving the desulphurisation capacity and simultaneously reducing operating costs. The greatest advantage of maleic acid as opposed to adipic acid is its exceptional biological stability in the flue gas desulphurising plant. (orig.)

  6. Development of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate nanocomposite as an antibacterial coating for fruit storage (United States)

    A novel nanocomposite of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate (Ag/TiO2/CS) was developed through photochemical reduction using a chitosan adipate template. Chitosan served as a reducing agent for the metal ions, and anchored metal ions by forming Ag–N coordination bonds and electrostatic attract...

  7. Development of poly(glycerol adipate) nanoparticles loaded with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahab, A.; Favretto, M.E.; Onyeagor, N.D.; Khan, G.M.; Douroumis, D.; Casely-Hayford, M.A.; Kallinteri, P.


    The aim of this study was to assess acylated and non-acylated poly(glycerol adipate) polymers (PGA) as suitable nanoparticulate systems for encapsulation and release of ibuprofen, ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU-Na) and ketoprofen as model drugs. Drug encapsulated nanoparticles were prepared using the

  8. Viscoelastic properties of poly(butylene succinate)-co-adipate) nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA


    Full Text Available This article reports the viscoelastic properties of poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites of PBSA with various loadings of organically modified clay were prepared by melt-mixing in a batch-mixer. The solid...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo


    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs...... plastics sample does not contain significant amounts of phthalate esters because these plasticizers do have strong bands at around 1060 cm-1. Furthermore it must be remembered that bands may occur at around 1040 cm1 in a PVC sample for other reasons than phthalate ester content....

  10. Catalytic routes towards acrylic acid, adipic acid and epsilon-caprolactam starting from biorenewables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.


    The majority of bulk chemicals are derived from crude oil, but the move to biorenewable resources is gaining both societal and commercial interest. Reviewing this transition, we first summarise the types of today's biomass sources and their economical relevance. Then, we assess the biobased

  11. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance... (United States)


    ... manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not...) filed by Advance Polymer Technology, 109 Conica Lane, P.O. Box 160, Harmony, PA 16037. The petition... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22...

  12. urea as a host for distinction of phthalic acid and terephthalic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and adipic acid interact with 1, led to cocrystals with the host 1 through hydrogen bond interactions. The hydrogen bonds that ... cases anions interacts with the urea portion of the host, while in the co-crystals the hydrogen bonded urea taps are retained. ... and synthesis of hosts for selective binding of car- boxylic acids have ...

  13. Effect of diisodecyl adipate concentration in hybrid films applied to tinplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunst Sandra Raquel


    Full Text Available Siloxane hybrid films are fragile and have low mechanical strength due to their vitreous material properties. Hence, a new formulation incorporating a plasticizer agent was developed in order to increase the layer thickness of a uniform and homogeneous hybrid film on tinplate, and to provide flexibility to the polymeric matrix. Tinplate sheets were coated with a hybrid film obtained from a sol-gel process, constituted by t+he addition of the following alkoxide precursors: 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate and tetraethoxysilane with 0.01 mol L-1 cerium nitrate addition. The influence of the diisodecyl adipate plasticizer con-centration was evaluated. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, open circuit potential monitoring, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that all films with diisodecyl adipate had higher electrochemical performance compared to uncoated tinplate. However, the film with the 2% plasticizer concentrations had the best performance in the electrochemical tests, although it had thinner layer.

  14. Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarfelt, K.; Dalgaard, M.; Hass, Ulla


    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a well-known testicular toxicant inducing adverse effects in androgen responsive tissues. Therefore, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DERA) is currently being evaluated as a potential substitute for DEHP. Similarities in structure and metabolism of DERP and DEHA have...... in the reproductive system than males receiving DERP alone. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  15. Production of rotary jet spun ultrathin fibers of poly-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) filled with nanocomposites (United States)

    Andrade, P. O.; Santo, A. M. E.; Costa, M. M.; Lobo, A. O.


    Composite fibers of bioabsorbable poly-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) reinforced with superhydrophilic carbon nanotubes and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were obtained by rotary jet spinning technique (RJS). The fibers were morphologically and biologically analyzed and found of potential use as scaffold for hard tissue engineering.

  16. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and sunflower head residue composites: Effects of composition and compatibilization on properties (United States)

    Utilizing the abundant byproducts generated from processing of agricultural materials has sustainable and cost–saving potential benefits. In this work, Sunflower Head Residues (SHR) in 3 different compositions were introduced into biodegradable Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) matrices...

  17. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.


    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer

  18. The influence of pressure on the photoluminescence properties of a terbium-adipate framework (United States)

    Spencer, Elinor C.; Zhao, Jing; Ross, Nancy L.; Andrews, Michael B.; Surbella, Robert G.; Cahill, Christopher L.


    The influence of pressure (over the 0-4.7 GPa range) on the photoluminescence emissions and crystal structure of the known 3D terbium-adipate metal-organic framework material Tb-GWMOF6 has been evaluated by high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. The results from this study show that this complex lanthanide framework structure undergoes three phase transitions within the 0-4 GPa pressure range that involve alterations in the number of symmetry independent Tb3+ ion sites within the crystal lattice. These pressure induced modifications to the structure of Tb-GWMOF6 lead to pronounced changes in the profiles of the 5D4→7F5 emission spectra of this complex.

  19. Influence of Teflon substrate on crystallization and enzymatic degradation of polymorphic poly(butylene adipate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ning, Zhenbo; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Zhao, Lifen


    Oriented and non-oriented Teflon films, which were found to have the same crystalline structure, but different surface morphologies, were used to sandwich poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) films during isothermal crystallization. It was found that both the Teflon surface structure and the PBA...... polymorphic structure are the determining factors to induce epitaxial crystallization. The oriented Teflon film was able to induce epitaxial crystallization of PBA alpha crystal, while the non-oriented Teflon did not induce any epitaxial crystallization of PBA. Epitaxial crystallization did not occurred...... for PBA beta crystals between neither the oriented nor the non-oriented Teflon films. The enzymatic degradation rate of PBA films was not determined by the epitaxial crystallization, in fact it was still dependent on the polymorphic crystal structure of PBA. The morphological changes of PBA films after...

  20. Poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)/cellulose nanocrystal composites modified with phthalic anhydride. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong


    As a kind of biomass nanofiller for polymers, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has good mechanical properties and reinforcing capability. To improve the compatibility of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA)/CNC composites, phthalic anhydride was used as a compatilizer during melt mixing, leading to the significant improvement of the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites, which is related to the better dispersion of CNC in the composites. The addition of phthalic anhydride could accelerate the crystallization of PBSA component as evidenced by the curves of isothermal crystallization of the composites, but had little effect on the crystalline polymorphs of PBSA component. The addition of phthalic anhydride could strongly improve the hydrophobicity of the composites. The good mechanical properties, fast crystallization and improved hydrophobicity of PBSA/CNC composites with phthalic anhydride are favor to their practical commercial utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unique cold-crystallization behavior and kinetics of biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co adipate] nanocomposites: a high speed differential scanning calorimetry study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J


    Full Text Available The poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) nanocomposites (PBSANCs) with five different loadings of organoclay were prepared by melt-blending. The morphological investigation revealed that the degree of dispersion of silicate layers...

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite of maleated poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with organoclay. (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hung; Yang, Ming-Chien


    Nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were prepared via melt blending. Natural MMT was modified by either octadecylamine (ODA) or dihexylamine (DHA). Neat PBAT was grafted with maleic anhydride via melt grafting process. Intercalation of the organoclay in the PBAT matrix was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the results of transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dispersion of ODA-modified MMT in the PBAT matrix was more homogeneous than that of neat MMT. The addition of organoclay can increase the cooling crystallization temperature of PBAT, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the results of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that the addition of ODA-modified MMT can improve the thermal stability of PBAT nanocomposites. The tensile strength was little affected, while the Young's modulus was increased with the addition of nanoclays. The grafting of PBAT with MA resulted in improved interaction between polymer matrix and the silicate layer due to the formation of chemical/physical bonds, thus the dispersion of organoclays was enhanced. By grafting PBAT with MA, the enzymatic biodegradation of the nanocomposite was increased, while the photodegradation of PBAT was little affected. Furthermore, the transmission of water vapor was reduced by the addition of organically modified MMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Starch/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate/montmorillonite films produced by blow extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. L. Santos


    Full Text Available This study aims to prepare biodegradable films from cassava starch, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, and montmorillonite (MMT using blow-extrusion process and analyze the effects of different types and concentrations of MMT on the microstructure, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of the resulting films. The films were produced by blending 30% of PBAT with glycerol (17.5%, starch (49.0-52.5%, and four different types of montmorillonite (Cloisite® Na+, 10A, 15A, and 30B at two different concentrations (1.75% and 3.5%. All the films prepared in this study showed an increase in the basal spacing of MMT layers. In particular, the films with 10A and 30B showed the highest increase in intercalation basal spacing, suggesting the formation of intercalated composites. The addition of nanoclays decreased the elongation of films. The addition of Cloisite® 10A resulted in films with the lowest WVP values and the highest stability to water adsorption under different RH conditions.

  4. Structure and properties of organically modified poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) based nanocomposites (United States)

    Rasyida, A.; Fukushima, K.; Yang, M.-C.


    Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending PBAT with 5 wt.% of modified or unmodified montmorillonites (MMT). The effect of the presence of organic modifiers in MMT on the morphological, crystalline, thermal, and mechanical properties of PBAT nanocomposites was evaluated. The dispersion and distribution of the clays were studied by using wide angle X-ray analysis (WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Materials characterization techniques included: contact angle measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA) and surface hardness analysis. As general results, nanocomposites exhibited different level of clay dispersion depending on the clay/organic modifier’s chemical affinity with the polymer. Contact angle measurements show increases in the hydrophobicity level of PBAT based CLO30B, this could depict its high potential for packaging applications. In addition, Thermal analysis showed that clays partially hindered kinetics and extent of PBAT crystallization on cooling. In general, thermal properties of PBAT were improved by addition of clays, for a barrier effect of the nanoparticle towards polymer decomposition products ablation. In parallel, addition of clays led to enhancements in polymer hardness. These properties were found to be apparently influenced by clay dispersion level and chemical compatibility between the organic modifier and polymer matrix.

  5. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite of maleated poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with organoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jung-Hung [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ming-Chien, E-mail: [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)


    Nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were prepared via melt blending. Natural MMT was modified by either octadecylamine (ODA) or dihexylamine (DHA). Neat PBAT was grafted with maleic anhydride via melt grafting process. Intercalation of the organoclay in the PBAT matrix was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the results of transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dispersion of ODA-modified MMT in the PBAT matrix was more homogeneous than that of neat MMT. The addition of organoclay can increase the cooling crystallization temperature of PBAT, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the results of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that the addition of ODA-modified MMT can improve the thermal stability of PBAT nanocomposites. The tensile strength was little affected, while the Young's modulus was increased with the addition of nanoclays. The grafting of PBAT with MA resulted in improved interaction between polymer matrix and the silicate layer due to the formation of chemical/physical bonds, thus the dispersion of organoclays was enhanced. By grafting PBAT with MA, the enzymatic biodegradation of the nanocomposite was increased, while the photodegradation of PBAT was little affected. Furthermore, the transmission of water vapor was reduced by the addition of organically modified MMT. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites of PBAT and clay nanoparticles were prepared via melting blending. • Maleated PBAT/organoclays exhibited higher Young's moduli than neat PBAT/neat MMT. • The enzymatic degradation of PBAT composites was improved by maleation. • Maleation caused little effect on the photodegradation of PBAT. • Organoclays retarded the permeation of water vapor through PBAT composites.

  6. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and... (United States)


    ... controlled release agent) in honeybee hive miticide formulations under regulations for inert ingredients used... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting establishment of an exemption from the... ingredient (component of controlled release agent) in miticide formulations applied to honeybee hives. That...

  7. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neppalli, Ramesh; Causin, Valerio; Benetti, Edmondo Maria; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Esposito, Antonella; Wanjale, Santosh; Birajdar, Mallinath; Saiter, Jean-Marc; Marigo, Antonio


    In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO2) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior of such materials were investigated, finding that, as a

  8. Effect of nanoclay on the nonisothermal crystallization of poly(propylene) and its blend with poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J


    Full Text Available The non-isothermal crystallization behaviour and kinetics of neat poly(propylene)(PP), PP/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PP/PBSA) blend and its composite with nanoclay was studied by differential scanning calorimetry at six different cooling...

  9. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neppalli, R


    Full Text Available In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO(sub2)) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior...

  10. Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Alireza Javadi; Srikanth Pilla; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Craig Clemons; Jun Peng


    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resin is one of the most widely used thermoplastics, especially in packaging. Because thermal and hydrolytic degradations, recycled PET (RPET) exhibits poor mechanical properties and lacks moldability. The effects of adding elastomeric modifiers, chain extenders (CE), and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, as a toughener...

  11. Effects of chemical versus enzymatic processing of kenaf fibers on poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) composite properties (United States)

    The effect of fiber retting on crystallization and mechanical performance was investigated. A poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend in a 80/20 ratio was modified using 5% by weight kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber. Fibers were retted us...

  12. Study of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Biodegradable Poly(ethylene adipate/SiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Memarzadeh


    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene adipte and poly(ethylene adipate/silica nanocomposite (PEAd/SiO2 containing 3 wt. % SiO2  were prepared by an in situ method. The examinations on the non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior have been conducted by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The Avrami, Ozawa, and combined Avrami and Ozawa equations were applied to describe the crystallization kinetics and to determine the crystallization parameters of the prepared PEAd/SiO2 nanocomposites. It is found that the inclusion of the silica nanoparticles can accelerate the nucleation rate due to heterogeneous nucleation effect of silica on the polymer matrix. According to the obtained results, the combined Avrami and Ozawa equation shown that the better model for examination of this system.

  13. Influence of end groups in hyperbranched polyesters used as modifiers in the characteristics of epoxy thermosets cured by adipic dihydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serra


    Full Text Available Mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA resin and different ratios of aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyester (HBP were cured by a latent curing agent, adipic dihydrazide (AH. The HBPs prepared have hydroxyl groups or 10-undecenoyl or allyl groups as chain ends. The curing mixtures were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to study the curing process and to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the different formulations. These studies suggest that HBPs decrease the curing rate of epoxy/AH in the case of vinyl terminated HPB, whereas OH terminated HBP accelerates the first stages and delays the lasts. The thermosets obtained showed an improvement in microhardness and impact strength without any reduction of the Tg and thermal parameters. Microparticle phase separation was observed with the undecenoyl HBP derivatives or when a 10% of allyl HBP derivative was in the formulation.

  14. Ionic liquids as surfactants for layered double hydroxide fillers: effect on the final properties of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Livi, S.; Lins, L. C.; Peter, Jakub; Beneš, Hynek; Kredatusová, Jana; Donato, R. K.; Pruvost, S.


    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku 297. ISSN 2079-4991 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08273S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ionic liquids * poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) * layered double hydroxide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.553, year: 2016

  15. Production and characterization of novel starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)-based materials and their applications (United States)

    Stagner, Jacqueline Ann

    This work focuses on the production and characterization of blends of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate) and their application for use as thermoformed objects, films, and foams. First, by the production and characterization of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) synthesized by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder, a better understanding of MTPS was gained. This reactive thermoplastic starch was prepared with glycerol as the plasticizer, maleic anhydride (MA), and free-radical initiator, 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox 101). Dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), soxhlet extraction in acetone, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were performed to determine the effect of maleation, extrusion temperature, initiator concentration, and maleic anhydride concentration on the resulting MTPS. Next, maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) were reactively blended in a twin-screw extruder with a biodegradable polyester, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). The blends were extruded to produce thermoformable sheets. The mechanical properties of the sheets were characterized by tensile and puncture tests. Proof of grafting was determined by soxhlet extraction in dichloromethane and FTIR analysis. Observations of the thermal properties were made using DSC, while the surface of the sheets was imaged using ESEM. Blends of MTPS and PBAT were also extruded to produce films. Mechanical testing (tensile and puncture tests) and barrier performance testing (carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor permeability) were performed on the films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image the blends and to view the dispersion of the various phases. Finally, blends of MTPS and PBAT were extruded with an endothermic chemical blowing agent to produce foams. The foams were

  16. Crosslinking of epoxy-oligoesteric mixtures in the presence of dioxydiphenylpropane diglycidyl ether modified with adipic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bratychak, M.; Zubal, O.; Bashta, Bogdana; Ivashkiv, O.; Shyshchak, O.; Haponiuk, J.


    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2017), s. 180-187 ISSN 1996-4196 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : crosslinking * polymer films * epoxy resin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  17. Effect of organo-modified montmorillonite on poly(butylene succinate/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The composite material based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT were prepared by melt blending technique and characterized. Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT was successfully modified by octadecylammonium (ODA and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDOA salts to become OMMT through cation exchange technique which is shown by the increase of basal spacing of clay by XRD. The addition of the OMMT to the PBS/PBAT blends produced nanocomposites which is proved by XRD and TEM. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength and modulus which is attributed to the existence of strong interactions between PBS/PBAT and clay, particularly with OMMT. Highest tensile strength of nanocomposite was observed at 1 wt% of OMMT incorporated. TGA study showed that the thermal stability of the blend increased after the addition of clays. SEM micrographs of the fracture surfaces show that the morphology of the blend becomes homogeneous and smoother with presence of OMMT.

  18. Toughening of biodegradable polylactide/poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) blends via in situ reactive compatibilization. (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Sadiku, Rotimi


    Polylactide and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PLA/PBSA) were melt-blended in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP). An increase in the torque during melt mixing was used to monitor the changes in viscosity as compatibilization of the blends occurred. Scanning electron micrographs showed not only a reduction in the dispersed-phase size with increased TPP content but also fibrillated links between the PLA and PBSA phases, signifying compatibilization. Moreover, optimization of parameters such as the mixing sequence and time, TPP content, and PBSA concentration revealed that blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA and 2 wt % TPP, which were processed for 30 min, were optimal in terms of thermomechanical properties. The impact strength increased from 6 kJ/m(2) for PLA to 11 and 16 kJ/m(2) for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively, whereas the elongation-at-break increased from 6% for PLA to 20 and 37% for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively. Upon compatibilization, the failure mode shifted from the brittle fracture of PLA to ductile deformation, effected by the debonding between the two phases. With improved phase adhesion, compatibilized blends not only were toughened but also did not significantly lose tensile strength and thermal stability.

  19. γ-Glutamyl semialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde: biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneshvar, B.; Frandsen, H.; Autrup, Herman


    Reactive oxygen species are formed in the body by several natural processes and by induced oxidative stress. The reactive oxygen species may react with the various biomolecules of the body, including proteins. In order to assess the impact of oxidative damage to proteins, we have tried to identify...... or Pro, while AAS is an oxidation product of Lys. When oxidative stress was induced in rats by treatments with t-butyl hydroperoxide or acrolein, rat plasma protein levels of GGS and AAS were found to be significantly higher compared with control rats. The AAS-content in serum albumin or in total plasma...... oxidized amino acids in blood proteins which might serve as biomarkers of oxidative damage. When oxidative damage is induced into bovine serum albumin by metal-catalysed oxidation systems, the aldehyde groups formed can be derivatized by fluoresceinamine (FINH2). Following acid hydrolysis of FINH2...

  20. Crystal structure, thermal behavior and enzymatic degradation of poly(tetramethylene adipate) solution-grown chain-folded lamellar crystals. (United States)

    Iwata, Tadahisa; Kobayashi, Shiomi; Tabata, Kenji; Yonezawa, Noriyuki; Doi, Yoshiharu


    Solution-grown chain-folded lamellar single crystals of poly(tetramethylene adipate) (PTMA) were prepared from a dilute solution of 2-methyl-1-propanol by isothermal crystallization. PTMA crystals were hexagonal-shaped and polyethylene decoration of the crystals resulted in a "six cross-sector" surface morphology and showed that the average direction of chain folding is parallel to the crystal growth planes of [110] and [010]. Chain-folded lamellar crystals gave well-resolved electron diffraction diagrams corresponding to all the equatorial reflections of the X-ray fiber diagram obtained from stretched PTMA melt-quenched film (beta structure). The unit cell parameters of the beta structure of PTMA were determined as a = 0.503 nm, b = 0.732 nm and c (fiber axis) = 1.442 nm with an orthorhombic crystal system. The fiber repeat distance is appropriate for an all-trans backbone conformation for the straight stems. The setting angle, with respect to the a axis, is +/-46 degrees for the corner and center chains. Thermal behavior of lamellar crystals has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lamellar thickness at the edges of the crystal increased after thermal treatment with taking the molecular chains into recrystallization parts; the holes then opened up at the thickening front of the crystal. The morphological changes of lamellar crystals after enzymatic degradation by Lipase type XIII from Pseudomonas sp. and water-soluble products were characterized by TEM, AFM, gel permeation chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The degradation progressed mainly from the edges of the lamellar crystals without decreasing the molecular weights and the lamellar thicknesses. The central portion of single crystals was often degraded by enzymatic attacks. This result combined with thermal behavior indicates that the loosely chain-packing region exists

  1. Effect of molar ratio on thermal mass loss kinetics of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone-b-propylene adipate) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanaki, Stavroula G. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Chrissafis, K. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N., E-mail: [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece)


    Research highlights: {yields} Thermal decomposition behaviour of PCL-b-PPAd block copolymers was estimated. {yields} The prepared copolymers have higher thermal stability than neat polymers. {yields} In copolymers the evaporation of PPAd short blocks and formed {epsilon}-CL is delayed. {yields} This is because copolymers degrade with a different mechanism than neat polymers. - Abstract: Poly({epsilon}-caprolactone-b-propylene adipate) copolymers were synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and ring opening polymerisation. GPC was used for molecular weight determination. {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy was also used for copolymer characterization and composition, which was found similar to the feeding ratio. DSC study was used in order to define T{sub g}, T{sub m} and {Delta}H{sub m} values of neat polymers and copolymers. Mass loss upon heating kinetics of neat polymers and their copolymers were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that copolymers have almost the same thermal stability as PCL, which is the most stable part. The influence of PPAd in copolymers can mainly be seen at the beginning of mass loss where a small overlapped peak can be observed. The kinetic parameters of mass loss upon heating of all polyesters were calculated while the activation energies were estimated using the Ozawa, Flynn and Wall (OFW) and Friedman methods. Mass loss upon heating was found to be described by two mechanisms that follow each other. The first mechanism is attributed to a small mass loss, while the second mechanism is attributed to the main mass loss as in autocatalysis n{sup th}-order (reaction model Cn) or n{sup th} order (reaction model Fn).

  2. Concurrent Enhancement of Multiple Properties in Reactively Processed Nanocomposites of Polylactide/Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] Blend and Organoclay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ojijo2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1813 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ojijo2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Macromolecular Materials and Engineering Vol. 299(5), pp 596- 608 Concurrent Enhancement of Multiple Properties in Reactively Processed Nanocomposites of Polylactide/Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] Blend and Organoclaya Vincent Ojijo, Suprakas Sinha...

  3. Comparative Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven- and Woven-Flax-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Adipate-Co-Terephthalate)-Based Composite Laminates (United States)

    Phongam, N.; Dangtungee, R.; Siengchin, S.


    Textile biocomposites made from woven- and nonwoven-flax-fiber-reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were prepared by compression molding using the film stacking method, and their tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and modulus, and impact strength were determined experimentally. The PBAT-based composites were subjected to water absorption tests. The mechanical properties of pure PBAT and the textile composites were compared, and the influence of flax weave styles on the properties were evaluated. The biocomposite reinforced with 4 × 4-plain weave fibers showed the highest strength and stiffness compared with those of the other textile biocomposites and pure PBAT.

  4. Poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone) spray-dried microparticles as sustained release carriers for pulmonary delivery. (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham; Khidr, Sayed; Samy, Eman; Ahmed, Sayed; Murphy, Mark; Mohammed, Afzaal; Shabir, Anjum; Hutcheon, Gillian; Saleem, Imran


    The aim of this work was to optimize biodegradable polyester poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles as sustained release (SR) carriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Microparticles were produced by spray drying directly from double emulsion with and without dispersibility enhancers ((L)-arginine and (L)-leucine) (0.5-1.5%w/w) using sodium fluorescein (SF) as a model hydrophilic drug. Spray-dried microparticles without dispersibility enhancers exhibited aggregated powders leading to low fine particle fraction (%FPF) (28.79 ± 3.24), fine particle dose (FPD) (14.42 ± 1.57 μg), with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.86 ± 0.24 μm. However, (L)-leucine was significantly superior in enhancing the aerosolization performance ((L-)arginine:%FPF 27.61 ± 4.49-26.57 ± 1.85; FPD 12.40 ± 0.99-19.54 ± 0.16 μg and MMAD 2.18 ± 0.35-2.98 ± 0.25 μm, (L)-leucine:%FPF 36.90 ± 3.6-43.38 ± 5.6; FPD 18.66 ± 2.90-21.58 ± 2.46 μg and MMAD 2.55 ± 0.03-3.68 ± 0.12 μm). Incorporating (L)-leucine (1.5%w/w) reduced the burst release (24.04 ± 3.87%) of SF compared to unmodified formulations (41.87 ± 2.46%), with both undergoing a square root of time (Higuchi's pattern) dependent release. Comparing the toxicity profiles of PGA-co-PDL with (L)-leucine (1.5%w/w) (5 mg/ml) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (5 mg/ml) spray-dried microparticles in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o- cell lines, resulted in cell viability of 85.57 ± 5.44 and 60.66 ± 6.75%, respectively, after 72 h treatment. The above data suggest that PGA-co-PDL may be a useful polymer for preparing SR microparticle carriers, together with dispersibility enhancers, for pulmonary delivery.

  5. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.


    . Operating conditions were maintained constant but the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOC) were varied separately in a range from I to 37.5 g l(-1) and from 2% to 125% air saturation (%AS), respectively. The total beta-lactams specific productivity, r(p) (total) was not significantly changed...

  6. Synthesis and NMR characterization of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters by reaction of poly(ethylene terephthalate post-consumer and poly(ethylene adipate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Baldissera


    Full Text Available An aliphatic-aromatic copolyester of poly(ethylene terephthalate, PET, and poly(ethylene adipate, PEA, PET-co-PEA, was synthesized by the high temperature melt reaction of post-consumer PET and PEA. As observed by NMR spectroscopy, the reaction yielded random copolyesters in a few minutes through ester-interchange reactions, even without added catalyst. The copolyesters obtained in the presence of a catalyst presented higher intrinsic viscosity than that obtained without the addition of catalyst, due to simultaneous polycondensation and ester-interchange reactions. The structure of the aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters obtained in different PET/PEA ratio is random as observed by NMR analysis.

  7. Phase diagrams in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid with various aliphatic polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Phase behavior with immiscibility, miscibility, crystalline morphology, and kinetic analysis in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB with aliphatic polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate (PBA, poly(ethylene adipate (PEA, poly(trimethylene adipate (PTA, or poly(ethylene succinate (PESu, respectively, were explored mainly using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM. Immiscibility phase behavior with reversible upper-critical-solution-temperature (UCST is common in the PHB/polyester blends. The polyester/polyester blend of PHB/PTA is partially miscible with no UCST in melt and amorphous glassy states within a composition range of PTA less than 50 wt%. The miscible crystalline/crystalline blend exhibits ring-banded spherulites at Tc = 50~100°C, with inter-ring spacing dependent on Tc. All immiscible or partially miscible PHB/polyester blends, by contrast, exhibit disrupted ringbanded spherulites or discrete spherical phase domains upon cooling from UCST to crystallization. The blends of PHB with all other aliphatic polyesters, such as PESu, PEA, PBA, etc. are only partially miscible or immiscible with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST at 180~221°C depending on blend composition. UCST with reversibility was verified.

  8. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, John N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Investigation on Polylactide (PLA/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT/Bark Flour of Plane Tree (PF Eco-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Dou


    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT/bark flour of plane tree (PF eco-composites were prepared via melt blending. The morphologies, mechanical properties, crystal structures and melting and crystallization behaviors of the eco-composites were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mechanical tests, polarized light microscopy (PLM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. It is shown that the interfacial adhesion between PLA matrix and PF is weak and the mechanical properties of PLA/PF eco-composites are poor. The titanate treatment improves the adhesion between the matrix and the filler and enhances the stiffness of the eco-composites. The toughness is improved by PBAT and ductile fractured surfaces can be found. The spherulitic size of PLA is decreased by the addition of PF. The α crystalline form of PLA remains in the composites. Compared with PF, T-PF (PF treated by a titanate coupling agent and PBAT have negative effects on the crystallization of PLA.

  10. Controlling the biodegradability of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) by solvents used in the dried-gel process (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hana; Kamitabira, Saya; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    Considering an environmentally friendly material, poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)(PBSA) is one of the attractive biodegradable plastics that can be eventually degraded into H2O and CO2 by neighboring water molecules and microorganisms after the disposal. In order to expand the application of PBSA, the precise control of the biodegradability of PBSA is necessary. In this study, the dried-gel process was introduced to control the biodegradability of PBSA. The dried PBSA gels were prepared by using three different solvents (toluene, cyclohexanone, and o-dichlorobenzene). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the PBSA prepared by toluene had smaller spherocrystals than the other PBSA dried-gels prepared by cyclohexanone or o-dichlorobenzene. The biodegradability testing by immersing the three types of PBSA in NaOH aq. showed that the percentage of the weight loss of the PBSA produced by toluene was the highest. The results indicated that the microstructures of PBSA could be controlled by changing solvents during the gel preparations, and that the biodegradability of PBSA could therefore be efficiently modified by changing solvents. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI\\x9D.

  11. Structure-barrier property relationship of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] nanocomposites: influence of the rigid amorphous fraction. (United States)

    Charlon, S; Marais, S; Dargent, E; Soulestin, J; Sclavons, M; Follain, N


    Composites composed of polyesters, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) or poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] (PBSA), and 5 wt% of montmorillonite (CNa) or organo-modified montmorillonite (C30B) were melt-processed and transformed into films by either compression-molding or extrusion-calendering. XRD, rheological measurements and TEM images clearly indicated that films containing CNa are microcomposites, while nanocomposites were observed for those containing C30B. Using Flash DSC, it was possible, for the first time, not only to measure the heat capacity step at the glass transition of these two materials in their amorphous state, but also to investigate whether the preparation technique influenced the Rigid Amorphous Fraction (RAF) in our PBS- and PBSA-based nanocomposites. In this work, we have successfully shown the correlation between the microstructure of the films and their barrier properties, and especially the role played by the RAF. Indeed, the lowest permeabilities to gases and to water were determined in the films containing the highest RAF in both PBS- and PBSA-based materials.

  12. Investigation on sodium benzoate release from poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/organoclay/sodium benzoate based nanocomposite film and their antimicrobial activity. (United States)

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhowmick, Biplab; Maity, Dipanwita; Mollick, Md Masud R; Rana, Dipak; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar


    Polymeric nanocomposites embedded with nontoxic antimicrobial agents have recently gained potential industrial significance, mainly for their applicability to preserve food quality and ensure safety. In this study, a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/organoclay (CMMT) based nanocomposite film doped with sodium benzoate (SB) as antimicrobial agent was prepared by a solution mixing process. A homogenous dispersion of organoclay (cetyltrimethylammonium-modified montmorillonite [CMMT]) in PBAT matrix was observed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PBAT/CMMT nanocomposite film showed higher barrier properties against water and methanol vapor compared to the PBAT film. The release of SB from PBAT and its nanocomposite film was measured and the relevant data were fitted to the Weibull model. The higher values of Weibull's shape factor and scale parameter as corroborated by experimental findings indicated faster rate of SB release from PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film, when compared to the pristine PBAT film. Bacterial inhibition studies were accomplished against 2 food pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, by determining the zone of inhibition and corresponding growth profiles. Both bacterial inhibition studies and growth profiles established that PBAT/CMMT/SB demonstrated better antimicrobial activity than PBAT/SB film. Therefore, PBAT/CMMT/SB nanocomposite film can be used for food packaging application as it showed good barrier properties and antimicrobial activity against food pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] blend composites. (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi


    Polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA)-organoclay composites were prepared via melt compounding in a batch mixer. The weight ratio of PLA to PBSA was kept at 70:30, while the weight fraction of the organoclay was varied from 0 to 9%. Small angle X-ray scattering patterns showed slightly better dispersion in PBSA than PLA, and there was a tendency of the silicate layers to delaminate in PBSA at low clay content. Thermal analysis revealed that crystallinity was dependent on the clay content as well its localization within the composite. On the other hand, thermal stability marginally improved for composites with 2 wt %. Tensile properties showed dependence on clay content and localization. Composite with 2 wt % clay content showed slight improvement in elongation at break. Overall, the optimum property was found for a composite with 2 wt % of the organoclay. This paper therefore has demonstrated the significance of the clay content and localization on the properties of the PLA/PBSA blends.

  14. Role of specific interfacial area in controlling properties of immiscible blends of biodegradable polylactide and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate]. (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi


    Binary blends of two biodegradable polymers: polylactide (PLA), which has high modulus and strength but is brittle, and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA), which is flexible and tough, were prepared through batch melt mixing. The PLA/PBSA compositions were 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100. Fourier-transform infrared measurements revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between the two polymers, resulting in a phase-separated morphology as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed that PLA-rich blends had smaller droplet sizes when compared to the PBSA-rich blends, which got smaller with the reduction in PBSA content due to the differences in their melt viscosities. The interfacial area of PBSA droplets per unit volume of the blend reached a maximum in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were not only affected by the composition of the blend, but also by the interfacial area between the two polymers. Through differential scanning calorimetry, it was shown that molten PBSA enhanced crystallization of PLA while the stiff PLA hindered cold crystallization of PBSA. Optimal synergies of properties between the two polymers were found in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend because of the maximum specific interfacial area of the PBSA droplets.

  15. A triclinic polymorph of hexanedioic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hexanedioic acid (or adipic acid, C6H10O4, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent half-molecules in the asymmetric unit of the triclinic unit cell, space group Poverline{1}, as each molecule lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. A monoclinic polymorph has been reported previously, most recently by Ranganathan, Kulkarni & Rao [J. Phys. Chem. A, (2003, 107, 6073–6081]. The molecules adopt the expected zigzag structure and are linked via centrosymmetric pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming infinite one-dimensional chains along [011]. These chains are stacked along the a axis. The crystal is further stabilized by weak C—H...O interactions.

  16. Biodegradable polyesters based on succinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.


    Full Text Available Two series of aliphatic polyesters based on succinic acid were synthesized by copolymerization with adipic acid for the first series of saturated polyesters, and with fumaric acid for the second series. Polyesters were prepared starting from the corresponding dimethyl esters and 1,4-butanediol by melt transesterification in the presence of a highly effective catalyst tetra-n-butyl-titanate, Ti(0Bu4. The molecular structure and composition of the copolyesters was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effect of copolymer composition on the physical and thermal properties of these random polyesters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of crystallinity was determined by DSC and wide angle X-ray. The degrees of crystallinity of the saturated and unsaturated copolyesters were generally reduced with respect to poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The melting temperatures of the saturated polyesters were lower, while the melting temperatures of the unsaturated copolyesters were higher than the melting temperature of PBS. The biodegradability of the polyesters was investigated by enzymatic degradation tests. The enzymatic degradation tests were performed in a buffer solution with Candida cylindracea lipase and for the unsaturated polyesters with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. The extent of biodegradation was quantified as the weight loss of polyester films. Also the surface of the polyester films after degradation was observed using optical microscopy. It could be concluded that the biodegradability depended strongly on the degree of crystallinity, but also on the flexibility of the chain backbone. The highest biodegradation was observed for copolyesters containing 50 mol.% of adipic acid units, and in the series of unsaturated polyesters for copolyesters containing 5 and 10 mol.% of fumarate units. Although the degree of crystallinity of the unsaturated polyesters decreased slightly with increasing unsaturation, the biodegradation

  17. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass. (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  18. Effect of Fiber Esterification on Fundamental Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaki AB Rahman


    Full Text Available A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24% compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/differential thermogravimetric (DTG thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites’ thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.

  19. Osteoconductive bio-based meshes based on Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nar, Mangesh; Staufenberg, Gerrit; Yang, Bing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Robertson, Lesli [Department of Fibers, College of Visual Arts and Design, 1155 Union Circle #305100, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Patel, Rinkesh H. [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis, Texas A and M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); Varanasi, Venu G., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis, Texas A and M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); D' Souza, Nandika Anne, E-mail: [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle # 311098, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)


    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) are biopolymers that have the potential to be used in applications of bone healing. In this study, it is hypothesized that the polymer blend has the combined strength and osteoconductivity to support osteoblast collagen formation. PBAT (PBAT 100), and a blend with 20% PHBV (PBAT 80) were extruded in the form of fibers and then knitted in the form of mesh. These were tested in the warp as well as weft direction for the tensile properties; these showed that the weft direction had higher performance than the warp. The individual fibers were kept in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) over the period of 8 weeks and were tested for the storage and loss modulus using a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). The results indicated that mechanical relaxation strength showed a decrease and then an increase. In vitro osteoconductivity studies were done by using differentiating osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells). Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) showed that pre-soaking the samples in α-MEM for two weeks resulted in cell attachment and growth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the change in structure of polymers due to in vitro degradation for two weeks. Raman spectroscopy showed that all scaffolds supported the formation of a collagenous network over the scaffold surfaces. For a combination of knittable manufacturing, mechanical performance and osteoconductivity, blends offer an effective route. - Highlights: • PBAT and PHBV blend can be knitted to form mesh with good mechanical properties. • PBAT and PHBV blend do not show significant weight loss over a period of 8 weeks in PBS. • Osteoblast cell culture was done on these samples. • They support extracellular matrix and growth and hence are osteoconductive.

  20. Determination of higher carboxylic acids in snow samples using solid-phase extraction and LC/MS-TOF. (United States)

    Kippenberger, Matthias; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K


    The objective of this work was to develop a method to determine the concentrations of higher organic acids in snow samples. The target species are the homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids from C(5) to C(13), pinonic acid, pinic acid and phthalic acid. A preconcentration procedure utilizing solid phase extraction was developed and optimized using solutions of authentic standards. The influences of different parameters such as flow rate during extraction and the concentration of the eluent on the efficiency of the extraction procedure were investigated. The compounds of interest were separated by HPLC and detected by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). The recovery rate (extraction efficiency) of the extraction procedure was found to vary between 41% for tridecanedioic acid and 102% for adipic acid. The limits of detection were determined for all compounds and were between 0.9 nmol/L (dodecanedioic acid) and 29.5 nmol/L (pinonic acid). An exception is pinic acid, for which a considerably higher detection limit of 103.9 nmol/L was calculated. Snow samples were collected in December 2006 and January 2007 at the Fee glacier (Switzerland) from locations at heights from 3056 to 3580 m asl and from different depths within the snow layer. In total, the analysis of 61 single snow samples was performed, and the following compounds could be quantified: homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids with 5-12 carbon atoms and phthalic acid. Tridecanedioic acid, pinonic and pinic acid were identified in the samples but were not quantified due to their low concentrations. The three most abundant acids found in the molten snow samples were glutaric acid (C(5)-di; 3.90 nmol/L), adipic acid (C(6)-di; 3.35 nmol/L) and phthalic acid (Ph; 3.04 nmol/L).

  1. Organic-acid effect on the structures of a series of lead(II) complexes. (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng; Batten, Stuart R


    An investigation into the dependence of coordination polymer architectures on organic-acid ligands is reported on the basis of the reaction of Pb(NO3)2 and eight structurally related organic-acid ligands in the presence or absence of N-donor chelating ligands. Eight novel lead(II)-organic architectures, [Pb(adip)(dpdp)]2 1, [Pb(glu)(dpdp)] 2, [Pb(suc)(dpdp)] 3, [Pb(fum)(dpdp)] . H2O 4, [Pb2(oba)(dpdp)2] . 2(dpdp).2(NO3).2H2O 5, [Pb2(1,4-bdc)2(dpdp)2] . H2O 6, [Pb(dpdc)(dpdp)] 7, and [Pb(1,3-bdc)(dpdp)] . H2O 8, where dpdp = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]-phenazine, H2adip = adipic acid, H2glu = glutaric acid, H2suc = succinic acid, H2fum = fumaric acid, H2oba = 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid), 1,4-H2bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2dpdc = 2,2'-diphenyldicarboxylic acid, and 1,3-H2bdc = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions through varying the organic-acid linkers and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-8 crystallize in the presence of organic-acid linkers as well as secondary N-donor chelating ligands. Diverse structures were observed for these complexes. 1 and 5 have dinuclear structures, which are further stacked via strong pi-pi interactions to form 2D layers. 2-3 and 6-8 feature chain structures, which are connected by strong pi-pi interactions to result in 2D and 3D supramolecular architectures. Compound 4 contains 2D layers, which are further extended to a 3D structure by pi-pi interactions. A systematic structural comparison of these 8 complexes indicates that the organic-acid structures have essential roles in the framework formation of the Pb(II) complexes.

  2. Influence of low contents of superhydrophilic MWCNT on the properties and cell viability of electrospun poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno V.M.; Silva, Aline S. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melo, Gabriela F.S.; Vasconscellos, Luana M.R. [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco Jose Longo 777, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda R. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lobo, Anderson O., E-mail: [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    The use of poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in tissue engineering, more specifically in bone regeneration, has been underexplored to date due to its poor mechanical resistance. In order to overcome this drawback, this investigation presents an approach into the preparation of electrospun nanocomposite fibers from PBAT and low contents of superhydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (sMWCNT) (0.1–0.5 wt.%) as reinforcing agent. We employed a wide range of characterization techniques to evaluate the properties of the resulting electrospun nanocomposites, including Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM), tensile tests, contact angle measurements (CA) and biological assays. FE-SEM micrographs showed that while the addition of sMWCNT increased the presence of beads on the electrospun fibers' surfaces, the increase of the neat charge density due to their presence reduced the fibers' average diameter. The tensile test results pointed that sMWCNT acted as reinforcement in the PBAT electrospun matrix, enhancing its tensile strength (from 1.3 to 3.6 MPa with addition of 0.5 wt.% of sMWCNT) and leading to stiffer materials (lower elongation at break). An evaluation using MG63 cells revealed cell attachment into the biomaterials and that all samples were viable for biomedical applications, once no cytotoxic effect was observed. MG-63 cells osteogenic differentiation, measured by ALP activity, showed that mineralized nodules formation was increased in PBAT/0.5%CNTs when compared to control group (cells). This investigation demonstrated a feasible novel approach for producing electrospun nanocomposites from PBAT and sMWCNT with enhanced mechanical properties and adequate cell viability levels, which allows for a wide range of biomedical applications for these materials. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites from PBAT and superhydrophilic MWCNT (sMWCNT) were successfully prepared by electrospinning

  3. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik


    . The wet FGD model of Kill et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 37 (1998) 2792) was extended to include buffer systems and verified against experimental data. Subsequently, the model was used as a tool to identify the optimal organic acid dissociation constants (as pK(a) values) and concentration levels......The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum...... has been the aim of the work. In contrast to earlier investigations with organic acids, all essential process parameters (i.e. gas phase concentration profiles of SO(2), slurry pH profiles. and residual limestone in the gypsum) were considered. Slurry concentrations of adipic acid in the range of 0...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of polyamide and polyester, from glycerol and dicarboxylic acids, polymeric blends;Preparacao e caracterizacao de blendas de poliamida e poliesteres a base de glicerol e acidos dicarboxilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, Michel M.; Bresciani, Danusa; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Jose, Nadia M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Prado, Luis A.S.A. [Technische Universitaet Hamburg, Harburg (Germany). Inst. of Polymer and Composites


    In this work were prepared and characterized polyamide and polyester blends. The polyester, called PAT, was produced in a becker equipped with high-torque mechanical stirrer, thermometer and condenser Claisen, by adding of glycerol, adipic acid, terephthalic acid and catalyst. The blends films were prepared by physical mixture followed by thermal compression. The polymeric blends and the pure materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the blends are semi-crystalline and have good thermal behavior, besides, it evidences that the PAT and polyamide phases are immiscible. (author)

  5. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega


    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  6. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  7. Computational and electrochemical investigation for corrosion inhibition of nickel in molar sulfuric acid by dihydrazide derivatives. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry


    Full Text Available Correlation of the efficiency of some dihydrazide derivatives, namely malonic acid (MAD, succinic acid (SAD and adipic acid (AAD dihydrazide, against the corrosion of nickel in 1 M sulfuric acid solution is discussed using electrochemical polarization method and quantum chemical calculations based on the ab initio method. The quantum chemical parameters calculated are, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, the gap energy (ΔE, the dipole moment (μ, the softness (σ and the total energy (TE. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices. Dihydrazide inhibitor (AAD exhibited the highest inhibition efficiency.

  8. The Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decomposition of Benzoic Acid and Adipic Acid on Platinized TiO2 Powder. The Photo-Kolbe Decarboxylative Route to the Breakdown of the Benzene Ring and to the Production to Butane. (United States)


    Overberger, C.G.; Kabasakalian, P. J. Am. Chem. _.oc. 1957, 79, 3182. 27. (a) Kuhnle, J.A.; Lundin , R.E.; Waiss, A.C. Jr. J. Chem. Soc. 1972, Chem. Commun...S. Clark Street San Diego, California 92152 1 Chicago, Illinois 60605 1 Naval Weapons Center ... es-ef-f - Attn: Dr. A. B. Amster, At... . f DCp...Joseph Singer, Code 302-1 Electrochimica Corporation NASA-Lewis Attention: Technical Library 21000 BrookDark Road 2485 Charleston Poad Cleveland, Ohio

  9. Use of dicarboxylic acids to improve and diversify the material properties of porous chitosan membranes. (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hui; Kuo, Ting-Yun; Liu, Fang-Hsuan; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ho, Ming-Hua; Wang, Da-Ming; Lai, Juin-Yih; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen


    Several nontoxic dicarboxylic acid solutions (oxalic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and adipic acid solutions) instead of an acetic acid solution were used as solvents for chitosan dissolution. The amount of free amino groups of the chitosan in the solution decreased due to the ionic cross-linking of the dicarboxylic acids with chitosan. These solutions were used to fabricate porous chitosan membranes. Replacing acetic acid with these dicarboxylic acids for membrane preparation improved the water uptake (by 35% at most), tensile strength (by 110% at most), and elongation capability (by 50% at most) of the membranes. These dicarboxylic acid solutions not only act as solvents but also improve the material properties of the chitosan membranes due to the ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bond formation. In brief, a nontoxic and straightforward cross-linking method has been developed for chitosan material; this method does not result in a brittle product, thus making it better than the use of toxic cross-linking reagents.

  10. Development of starch biofilms using different carboxylic acids as plasticizers; Desenvolvimento de biofilmes de amido utilizando como plastificantes diferentes acidos carboxilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, L.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Santos, W.J. dos; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Oliveira, J.C.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais


    Biodegradable films have become a widely exploited issue among scientists because of their positive environmental impact, besides their potential to promote better food conservation and an increase in shelf life. Starch has been studied in this field due to its availability, low cost and biodegradability. However, starch films tend to be brittle and they need addition of a plasticizer to enable their usage. In this work, starch films were synthesized with different carboxylic acids as plasticizers, aiming to observe the effect of the acids chain size in the final films properties. The acids used were: oxalic, succinic and adipic. The materials were produced by casting and characterized by DSC, TG, DRX e FTIR. It was observed that the acids chain size influenced on the thermal and structural properties of the films. (author)

  11. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla


    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  12. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková


    Full Text Available A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica, which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2, malonic (C3, succinic (C4 and maleic (C4 acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  13. 75 FR 12489 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions (United States)


    ... production facilities. 112330 Turkey production. 112320 Broilers and other meat type chicken production... Indian Country. Adipic Acid Production 325199 Adipic acid manufacturing facilities. Aluminum Production 331312 Primary aluminum production facilities. Ammonia Manufacturing 325311 Anhydrous and aqueous ammonia...

  14. 75 FR 48743 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (United States)


    ... production facilities. 112330 Turkey Production. 112320 Broilers and other meat type chicken production.... Adipic Acid Production 325199 Adipic acid manufacturing facilities. Aluminum Production 331312 Primary aluminum production facilities. Ammonia Manufacturing 325311 Anhydrous and aqueous ammonia production...

  15. 75 FR 79091 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (United States)


    ... and pig farms. 112310 Chicken egg production facilities. 112330 Turkey Production. 112320 Broilers and... Country. Adipic Acid Production......... 325199 Adipic acid manufacturing facilities. Aluminum Production 331312 Primary aluminum production facilities. Ammonia Manufacturing 325311 Anhydrous and aqueous ammonia...

  16. 75 FR 18455 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (United States)


    .... 112330 Turkey Production. 112320 Broilers and Other Meat type Chicken Production. Suppliers of Coal Based... located in Indian Country. Adipic Acid Production 325199 Adipic acid manufacturing facilities. Aluminum Production 331312 Primary Aluminum production facilities. Ammonia Manufacturing 325311 Anhydrous and aqueous...

  17. Muconic Acid Production via Alternative Pathways and a Synthetic "Metabolic Funnel". (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Pugh, Shawn; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R


    Muconic acid is a promising platform biochemical and precursor to adipic acid, which can be used to synthesize various plastics and polymers. In this study, the systematic construction and comparative evaluation of a modular network of non-natural pathways for muconic acid biosynthesis was investigated in Escherichia coli, including via three distinct and novel pathways proceeding via phenol as a common intermediate. However, poor recombinant activity and high promiscuity of phenol hydroxylase ultimately limited "phenol-dependent" muconic acid production. A fourth pathway proceeding via p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol was accordingly developed, though with muconic acid titers by this route reaching just 819 mg/L, its performance lagged behind that of the established, "3-dehydroshikimiate-derived" route. Finally, these two most promising pathways were coexpressed in parallel to create a synthetic "metabolic funnel" that, by enabling maximal net precursor assimilation and flux while preserving native chorismate biosynthesis, nearly doubled muconic acid production to up to >3.1 g/L at a glucose yield of 158 mg/g while introducing only a single auxotrophy. This generalizable, "funneling" strategy is expected to have broad applications in metabolic engineering for further enhancing production of muconic acid, as well as other important bioproducts of interest.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyacids from palm acid oil and sunflower oil via addition reaction. (United States)

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Nor, Hussin Mohd; Kamarul, Tunku; Djordjevic, Ivan


    In this study aliphatic polyacids were synthesized using palm acid oil (PAO) and sunflower oil (SFO) via addition reaction technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mixing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide with PAO or SFO at the ratio 3:10:1 produced the lowest iodine value of 10.57 and 9.24 respectively, indicating the increase in epoxidization of both oils. Adding adipic acid to the epoxidized oils at a ratio of 1:10 increases the acid values of SFO and PAO to 11.22 and 6.73 respectively. The existence of multi-acid groups present in synthesized polyacid was confirmed by MALD-ToF-MS. This feature indicates a possible value to the biomaterials development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes. (United States)

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka


    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carboxylic acids in gas and PM2.5 particulate phase at a rural mountain site in northeastern United States (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Khan, A. R.; Khwaja, H. A.


    Low molecular weight carboxylic acids are important constituents of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter in rural and polluted regions. The knowledge on their source is sparse, however, and organic aerosols in general need to better characterized. Atmospheric gas- and particle-phase carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, pyruvic, glyoxalic, benzoaic, adipic, succinic, malonic, and oxalic) and related compounds were measured during August 2002 at a rural site, Whiteface Mountain, NY. Formic and acetic acids were present in the PM2.5 fraction and in the gas phase. Other seven carboxylic acids were below the detection limit in all samples. Formic and acetic acid were present in the atmosphere mostly in the gaseous form with less than 10% in the PM2.5 fraction. Concentrations of formic acid and acetic acid were in the 0.5 - 2.4 ppbv and 0.6 - 1.9 ppbv ranges, respectively. Formic-to-acetic acid ratios less than one (0.88) were recorded, likely due to an increase in acetic acid contribution from direct emissions. In the fine particulate mode (PM2.5 ) the concentrations for acetic acid and formic acid were 120 - 400 and 10 - 180 ng/m3 , respectively. Backward trajectory data indicate that air mass originated at midwestern region on August 5th and gradually moved towards north on August 9th. Correlation of formic acid with sulfate was investigated to interpret their possible secondary formation pathways. A strong correlation (0.73) was observed between formic acid and sulfate in PM2.5 particulates. Since the source of sulfate found at Whiteface Mountain widely accepted as anthropogenic, its association with formic acid indicated that the later might have anthropogenic source.

  1. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.


    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability

  2. Enhanced biological stability of collagen porous scaffolds by using amino acids as novel cross-linking bridges. (United States)

    Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou; Mao, Zhengwei; Zhou, Jie; Shen, Jiacong


    Collagen porous scaffolds have been widely employed as a dermal equivalent to induce fibroblasts infiltration and dermal regeneration. To eliminate the disadvantageous drawback of the fast degradation speed, a cross-linking method was adopted by using a water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDAC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in the presence of amino acids (glycin, glutamic acid or lysine), which function as cross-linking bridge between collagen molecular chains. In vitro assessment of the biological stability of the cross-linked collagen scaffolds found that the collagenase biodegradation degree was greatly decreased when lysine was added, resulting in a more biological stable scaffold. On the other hand, the biodegradation degree was accelerated compared with the purely cross-linked when glutamic acid was added, while less influenced by glycin addition. By comparing the biodegradation degree of the scaffolds added with amino acids and their model compounds, i.e. adipic acid and hexane diamine, the key factor influencing the biological stability was further investigated. The results indicated that the crucial factor is dependent on the ratio of amino groups to carboxyl groups in the cross-linking system. At optimal ratio the lowest biodegradation degree is achieved. Scanning electron microscopy measurements prove that the three-dimensional structure of the scaffolds was largely preserved. Preliminary in vitro culture of fibroblasts in the collagen scaffold cross-linked with EDAC/NHS in the presence of lysine has shown that the original good cytocompatibility of collagen was retained.

  3. Injectable Hydrogel with Slow Degradability Composed of Gelatin and Hyaluronic Acid Cross-Linked by Schiff's Base Formation. (United States)

    Hozumi, Takuro; Kageyama, Tatsuto; Ohta, Seiichi; Fukuda, Junji; Ito, Taichi


    We developed an injectable gelatin/hyaluronic acid hydrogel with slow degradability, which consisted of carbohydrazide-modified gelatin (Gel-CDH) and hyaluronic acid monoaldehyde (HA-mCHO). Gel-CDH/HA-mCHO hydrogels were degraded much more slowly in phosphate-buffered saline than the other Schiff's base cross-linked gelatin/hyaluronic acid hydrogels that were comprised of native gelatin, adipic acid dihydrazide-modified gelatin, or hyaluronic acid dialdehyde because of stable Schiff's base formation between aldehyde and carbohydrazide groups, and suppression of ring-opening oxidation by monoaldehyde modification. This prolonged degradation would be suitable for inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, the Gel-CDH/HA-mCHO hydrogels were sufficiently stable during the angiogenesis process. In addition, the hydrogel had a pore size of 15-55 μm and a shear storage modulus of 0.1-1 kPa, which were appropriate for scaffold application. Ex vivo rat aortic-ring assay demonstrated the concentration dependency of microvascular extension in the Gel-CDH/HA-mCHO hydrogel. These results demonstrated the potential usefulness of Gel-CDH/HA-mCHO hydrogel for tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  4. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg


    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethaneurea Composed of Dimer Fatty Acid Polyester Polyol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A series of polyurethaneurea (PUU aqueous dispersions, which were stable at ambient temperature for more than 1 year, were prepared with C 36 -dimer-fatty-acid-based polyester polyol, isophorone diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid, and ethylenediamine. The particle size of all these PUU (DPU aqueous dispersions ( <100 nm was less than that of comparable specimens, that is, poly-(neopentyl glycol adipate polyester-polyol-based PUU (APU aqueous dispersions, and the polydispersity index was very narrow ( ≤1.13 . The films prepared with the DPU aqueous dispersions exhibited excellent waterproof performance, such as low amount of water absorption (1.3 wt%, and good mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength, resulting from the strong hydrogen bonding in urea carbonyl groups and the perfect ordered structure of hard segments compared with those prepared with the APU aqueous dispersions. The surface hydrophobicity of the films prepared with modified DPU aqueous dispersions, which were modified with a fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion, was excellent, as the water contact angle on the surface of such films rose up to 100. The mechanical properties of such modified DPU films were further enhanced.

  6. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch


    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  7. Ascorbic Acid (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  8. Acid mucopolysaccharides (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  9. Mefenamic Acid (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  10. Obeticholic Acid (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  11. Ethacrynic Acid (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  12. Amino acids (United States)

    ... this page: // Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  13. Mitochondrial Targeted Doxorubicin-Triphenylphosphonium Delivered by Hyaluronic Acid Modified and pH Responsive Nanocarriers to Breast Tumor: in Vitro and in Vivo Studies. (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Na; Guo, Ning-Ning; Wang, Tian-Tian; Guo, Wang-Wei; Lin, Meng-Ting; Huang-Fu, Ming-Yi; Vakili, Mohammad Reza; Xu, Wen-Hong; Chen, Jie-Jian; Wei, Qi-Chun; Han, Min; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Gao, Jian-Qing


    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle for chemotherapy. In a previous study, we have successfully synthesized a novel doxorubicin (DOX) derivative modified by triphenylphosphonium (TPP) to realize mitochondrial delivery of DOX and showed the potential of this compound to overcome DOX resistance in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells.1 To introduce specificity for DOX-TPP to cancer cells, here we report on the conjugation of DOX-TPP to hyaluronic acid (HA) by hydrazone bond with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the acid-responsive linker, producing HA-hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural water-soluble linear glycosaminoglycan, which was hypothesized to increase the accumulation of nanoparticles containing DOX-TPP in the mitochondria of tumor cells upon systemic administration, overcoming DOX resistance, in vivo. Our results showed HA-hydra-DOX-TPP to self-assemble to core/shell nanoparticles of good dispersibility and effective release of DOX-TPP from the HA-hydra-DOX-TPP conjugate in cancer cells, which was followed by enhanced DOX mitochondria accumulation. The HA-hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles also showed improved anticancer effects, better tumor cell apoptosis, and better safety profile compared to free DOX in MCF-7/ADR bearing mice.

  14. Identification of three new phase II metabolites of a designer drug methylone formed in rats by N-demethylation followed by conjugation with dicarboxylic acids. (United States)

    Židková, Monika; Linhart, Igor; Balíková, Marie; Himl, Michal; Dvořáčková, Veronika; Lhotková, Eva; Páleníček, Tomáš


    1. Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, MDMC), which appeared on the illicit drug market in 2004, is a frequently abused synthetic cathinone derivative. Known metabolic pathways of MDMC include N-demethylation to normethylone (3,4-methylenedioxycathinone, MDC), aliphatic chain hydroxylation and oxidative demethylenation followed by monomethylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid and/or sulphate. 2. Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC.HCl (20 mg/kg body weight) by LC-ESI-HRMS using synthetic reference standards to support identification. 3. The main portion of administered MDMC was excreted unchanged. Normethylone, was a major urinary metabolite, of which a minor part was conjugated with dicarboxylic acids. 4. Previously identified ring-opened metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethcathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-MC), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxymeth-cathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-MC) and 3,4-dihydroxymethcathinone (3,4-di-OH-MC) mostly in conjugated form with glucuronic and/or sulphuric acids were also detected. 5. Also, ring-opened metabolites derived from MDC, namely, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-C), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-C) and 3,4-dihydroxycathinone (3,4-di-OH-C) were identified for the first time in vivo.

  15. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  16. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte


    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  17. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K


    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cycloaliphatic hydrophilic polyurethanes, modified with l-ascorbic acid, as materials for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Strankowski, M; Cieśliński, H; Filipowicz, N; Janik, H


    In this paper we described synthesis and characteristic of obtained hydrophilic polyurethanes (PURs) modified with ascorbic acid (commonly known as vitamin C). Such materials may find an application in the biomedical field, for example in the regenerative medicine of soft tissues, according to ascorbic acid wide influence on tissue regeneration Flora (2009), Szymańska-Pasternak et al. (2011), Taikarimi and Ibrahim (2011), Myrvik and Volk (1954), Li et al. (2001), Cursino et al. (2005) . Hydrophilic PURs were obtained with the use of amorphous α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) (dHEBA) polyol, 1,4-butanediol (BDO) chain extender and aliphatic 4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI). HMDI was chosen as a nontoxic diisocyanate, suitable for biomedical PUR synthesis. Modification with l-ascorbic acid (AA) was performed to improve obtained PUR materials biocompatibility. Chemical structure of obtained PURs was provided and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 HNMR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to indicate the influence of ascorbic acid modification on such parameters as glass transition temperature, melting temperature and melting enthalpies of obtained materials. To determine how these materials may potentially behave, after implementation in tissue, degradation behavior of obtained PURs in various chemical environments, which were represented by canola oil, saline solution, distilled water and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was estimated. The influence of AA on hydrophilic-hydrophobic character of obtained PURs was established by contact angle study. This experiment revealed that ascorbic acid significantly improves hydrophilicity of obtained PUR materials and the same cause that they are more suitable candidates for biomedical applications. Good hemocompatibility characteristic of studied PUR materials was confirmed by the hemocompatibility test with

  19. Topological aspects of lanthanide–adipate–aqua compounds: Close packed and open framework structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhuri, Durga Sankar; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Hazari, Debdoot [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India); Zangrando, Ennio, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Via L. Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalai, Sudipta, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)


    A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) for lanthanide complexes with adipate [OOC(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}COO]{sup 2−} and aqua ligands retrieved a fair number of compounds. To this dataset a new lanthanum metal–organic framework, ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid), synthesised and structurally characterized in these labs, was included. The crystal structures of these coordination polymers, of general formulation [Ln{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub x}], exhibit a variety of topologies and dimensionality, which were clustered in different classes and described in detail. It was explored that the majority of these evidences the presence of metal chains or dinuclear Ln{sub 2} entities (separated in both cases by 4.0–4.8 Å), where lanthanide ions are differently connected by carboxylate groups with chelating or oxygen-bridging mode. The different amount of coordinated water molecules appear to affect the solid state networks. Moreover the crystal packing of these compounds shows peculiar aspects and examples were reported in the literature where the long alkyl chain of adipate connectors give rise to interpenetrated structures, or to porous material where lattice water or neutral larger molecules are clathrated. - Graphical abstract: A survey of structures and topologies of lanthanide adipate compounds is presented. A newly synthesized lanthanium adipate complex ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid) is also reported. - Highlights: • The use of lanthanide and adipic acid demonstrate the possibility to construct coordination polymer of different dimensionality. • The number of coordination and adipate conformation influence the different topologies. • The ionic radii of the rare earth cations seem also to affect the architecture observed.

  20. Valproic Acid (United States)

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any ...

  1. Carnosic acid. (United States)

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc


    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Acid Precipitation (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.


    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  3. Folic Acid (United States)

    ... okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and lemons) beans, yeast, mushrooms, meat (such as beef liver ... after angioplasty. There is inconsistent evidence on the benefits of taking folic acid after a procedure to ...

  4. Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase deficiency: urinary organic acid profiles and expanded spectrum of mutations. (United States)

    Pitt, James J; Peters, Heidi; Boneh, Avihu; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Wieser, Stefanie; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Johnson, David; Zschocke, Johannes


    Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMCS2) deficiency results in episodes of hypoglycemia and increases in fatty acid metabolites. Metabolite abnormalities described to date in HMCS2 deficiency are nonspecific and overlap with other inborn errors of metabolism, making the biochemical diagnosis of HMCS2 deficiency difficult. Urinary organic acid profiles from periods of metabolic decompensation were studied in detail in HMCS2-deficient patients from four families. An additional six unrelated patients were identified from clinical presentation and/or qualitative identification of abnormal organic acids. The diagnosis was confirmed by sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of the HMGCS2 gene. Seven related novel organic acids were identified in urine profiles. Five of them (3,5-dihydroxyhexanoic 1,5 lactone; trans-5-hydroxyhex-2-enoate; 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone; 5-hydroxy-3-ketohexanoate; 3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate) were identified by comparison with synthesized or commercial authentic compounds. We provisionally identified trans-3-hydroxyhex-4-enoate and 3-hydroxy-5-ketohexanoate by their mass spectral characteristics. These metabolites were found in samples taken during periods of decompensation and normalized when patients recovered. When cutoffs of adipic >200 and 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone >20 μmol/mmol creatinine were applied, all eight samples taken from five HMCS2-deficient patients during episodes of decompensation were flagged with a positive predictive value of 80% (95% confidence interval 35-100%). Some ketotic patients had increased 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone. Molecular studies identified a total of 12 novel mutations, including a large deletion of HMGCS2 exon 1 in two families, highlighting the need to perform quantitative gene analyses. There are now 26 known HMGCS2 mutations, which are reviewed in the text. 4-Hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone and related metabolites are markers for HMCS2 deficiency. Detection of these metabolites

  5. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok


    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  6. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Wexler, P.


    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  7. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła


    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  8. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  9. new glucopyranosylglyceryl-n-octenyl adipate and bioactivity of retro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    cytotoxic activity at varying efficacy levels, the reversed chalcone 2 demonstrating anti- inflammatory potency against COX-2 enzyme that ... antiviral marine sponge metabolites (Ichiba et al. 1995, Searle and Molinski 1995,. Carroll et al. ..... activity and antioxidant inhibition. The agar diffusion method was used to determine.

  10. new glucopyranosylglyceryl-n-octenyl adipate and bioactivity of retro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    induced luminescence has been shown to be an index of the real-time catalytic activity and demonstrated the turnover inactivation of the enzyme (Forghani et al. 1998). The chemiluminescent COX assay induces both. COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in order to screen isoenzyme-specific inhibitors. Preparation of reagents: All ...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3690 - Pentaerythritol adipate-stearate. (United States)


    ... food with alcohol content greater than 8 percent under conditions of use of E, F, and G described in... specifications: (1) Melting point (dropping) of 55-58 °C as determined by ASTM method D566-76 (Reapproved 1982... not to exceed 15 as determined by ASTM method D1386-78, “Standard Test Method for Saponification...

  12. Ferrocenylphosphonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhang Yang


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C5H6O3P], the phosphate group is bonded to the ferrocene unit with a P—C bond length of 1.749 (3 Å. In the crystal, six ferrocenylphosphonic acid molecules are connected by 12 strong intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a highly distorted octahedral cage. The volume of the octahedral cage is about 270 Å3.

  13. Hidrofilicidade de filmes de amido/poli(butileno adipato co-tereftalato (Pbat adicionados de tween 80 e óleo de soja Hydrophilicity of starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (Pbat films containing tween 80 and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Herrera Brandelero


    Full Text Available A incorporação de amido ao polímero poli (butilenoadipatoco-tereftalato (PBAT através de blendas com alto teor de amido pode ser uma alternativa para obter embalagens biodegradáveis, minimizar custos e o uso de recursos não renováveis. No entanto, a adição de amido aumenta a permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA. A incorporação em filmes com amido de substâncias como óleos vegetais e surfactantes pode diminuir a hidrofilicidade, favorecendo as aplicações destes como embalagens. A hidrofilicidade dos filmes elaborados por blendas de amido/PBAT adicionados de óleo de soja (OS e tween 80 (TW foi avaliada considerando o efeito do OS e TW nas isotermas de sorção dos filmes, na PVA e nos coeficientes de difusão (Dw e solubilidade (β do vapor de água. Filmes com OS com ou sem TW apresentaram menor quantidade de água de sorção, sendo os filmes com menores quantidades de OS e sem TW menos hidrofílicos e menos permeáveis aos vapores de água. A adição de OS reduziu os valores de β e Dw dos filmes de amido/PBAT. O efeito foi relacionado com o aumento das porções hidrofóbicas e da compatibilidade entre o amido e PBAT na presença de OS.Incorporating starch into the poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT polymer by means of blends with high starch contents is a possible option for producing biodegradable packaging using renewable resources and reducing costs. However, the addition of starch increases the water vapour permeability (WVP. The incorporation of substances as lipids and surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicity of films containing starch, favouring their use as packaging. The hydrophilicity of films produced from blends of starch/PBAT with added soybean oil (SO and tween 80 (TW was studied. The effects of these substances on the sorption isotherm, on the WVP and on the water vapour diffusion (Dw and solubility (β coefficients of the films were evaluated. The water sorption in films with SO, with or without TW

  14. Folic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  15. New bioactive fatty acids (United States)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  16. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.


    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations are synthe...

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of zirconium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    case the formula of the derivative should contain the monoanionic adipate fragment: (OOC-(CH2)4-COOH). This formula is in agreement with TGA and elemental analysis. With respect to intercalation properties, the synthesized adipate-solid phase has a higher acidic character and a larger gallery height in comparison to.

  18. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria]. (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K


    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  19. Uric acid test (image) (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  20. Uric acid - urine (United States)

    ... this page: // Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  1. Methylmalonic acid blood test (United States)

    ... page: // Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  2. Plasma amino acids (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  4. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.


    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  5. Organic-Acid-Assisted Fabrication of Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2) for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil


    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2 (0.4Li(2)MnO(3-)0.6LiFe(1/3)Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2)) was synthesized by a solgel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical alpha-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3 m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.54.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the solgel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Liion batteries.

  6. Farmacologia da niacina ou ácido nicotínico Pharmacology of niacin or nicotinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Santos


    Full Text Available Niacina ou ácido nicotínico é uma vitamina solúvel com propriedades hipolipemiantes. Niacina reduz triglicérides (20% - 50%, LDL (5% - 25%, e aumenta HDL (15% - 35%. O estudo Coronary Drug Project mostrou que o uso de niacina foi associado com redução de eventos coronários e mortalidade total, e mais recentemente, foi demonstrado que niacina combinada com outras drogas hipolipemiantes pode atenuar a progressão da aterosclerose coronária. A niacina parece reduzir a mobilização de ácidos graxos livres dos adipócitos, agindo em receptores específicos, diminuindo a formação de lipoproteínas ricas em triglicérides pelo fígado. Existem duas formas de niacina, uma de absorção rápida (cristalina, mais comumente associada com flushing, e outra de liberação extendida, recentemente referida como de melhor tolerabilidade. O uso de niacina pode associar-se com dispepsia, aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de enzimas hepáticas e também com modestas elevações na glicose e ácido úrico, ao menos na utilização de doses até 2g / dia da forma de liberação prolongada.Niacin or nicotinic acid is a soluble vitamin with hypolipidemic properties. Niacin reduces triglycerides (20 50%, LDL-c (5-25%, and raises HDL c (15-35%. The Coronary Drug Project study showed that the use of niacin was associated with reduction on coronary events and total mortality, and more recently it has been demonstrated that niacin combined with other hypolipidemic drugs can attenuate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Niacin appears to reduce the mobilization of free fatty acids from the adipocytes, acting on specific receptors, diminishing the liver formation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. There are two forms of niacin, one of rapid absorption (crystalline, more commonly associated with flushing, and another of extended release, recently reported to be better tolerated. The use of niacin can be associated with dyspepsia, increased plasma levels

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  8. Uric Acid Test (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Uric Acid Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... Also Known As Serum Urate UA Formal Name Uric Acid This article was last reviewed on May 17, ...

  9. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  10. Methylmalonic Acid Test (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  11. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  12. Acid-fast stain (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  13. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... questions. We have answers. Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid and Pregnancy Wednesday, 01 July 2015 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  14. Azelaic Acid Topical (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  15. Zoledronic Acid Injection (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  16. Deoxycholic Acid Injection (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Aminocaproic Acid Injection (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  18. The Nucleic Acid Database. (United States)

    Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John; Feng, Zukang; Iype, Lisa; Schneider, Bohdan; Zardecki, Christine


    The Nucleic Acid Database was established in 1991 as a resource to assemble and distribute structural information about nucleic acids. Over the years, the NDB has developed generalized software for processing, archiving, querying and distributing structural data for nucleic acid-containing structures. The architecture and capabilities of the Nucleic Acid Database, as well as some of the research enabled by this resource, are presented in this article.

  19. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  20. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.


    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  1. Stomach acid test (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  2. The Acid Rain Reader. (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  3. Acid Rain Study Guide. (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  4. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Barnathan


    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  5. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease. (United States)

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M


    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  6. Strategy for constructing vascularized adipose units in poly(l-glutamic acid) hydrogel porous scaffold through inducing in-situ formation of ASCs spheroids. (United States)

    Zhang, Kunxi; Song, Li; Wang, Jia; Yan, Shifeng; Li, Guifei; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo


    Vascularization is of great importance to adipose tissue regeneration. Here we introduced a paradigm that using scaffold to induce ASC spheroids, so to promote vascularized adipose tissue regeneration. Poly (l-glutamic acid) (PLGA) was activated by EDC, followed by being cross-linked by Adipic dihydrazide (ADH) to form a homogeneous hydrogel. Lyophilization was then carried out to create porous structure. The PLGA hydrogel scaffold possessed a significant swollen hydrophilic network to weaken cell-scaffold adhesion but drive ASCs to aggregate to form spheroids. Increase of seeding cell density was proved to result in the increase of spheroid size, upregulating angiogenic genes (VEGF and FGF-2) expression by enhancing the hypoxia-induced paracrine secretion. Also, the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs was achieved in spheroids in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo vascularized adipose tissue regeneration was evaluated in the dorsum of nude mice. After 12weeks post-implantation, the significant angiogenesis was found in both adipogenic induced and non-induced engineered tissue. In adipogenic induced group, the clear ring-like morphology, the large vacuole in the middle of the cell and the Oil red O staining demonstrated adipose tissue formation. Vascularization is of great importance to adipose tissue regeneration. Adipose derived stem cell (ASC) spheroids possessed not only the high efficiency of vascularization, but also the improved differentiation ability. Several research works have illustrated the advantage of ASC spheroids in vascularization. However, in adipose regeneration, ASC spheroid was rarely used. Even so, it is reasonable to believe that ASC spheroids hold a great promise in vascularized adipose tissue engineering. Thus in the present study, we introduced a method to create lots of ASC spheroids that acted as lots of individual adipogenesis and angiogenesis units inside of a porous hydrogel scaffold. Then, the scaffold carrying ASC spheroids was implanted

  7. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI


    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  8. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett


    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  9. Comparison of Flow-Through Cell and Paddle Methods for Testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium hydroxide and disodium hydrogen phosphate were obtained from Chempur, Piekary Slaskie,. Poland. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was ... monohydrate, potato starch, adipic acid, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Academic Award (Draths and Frost) (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winners, Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, used benign, genetically engineered microbes and sugars (instead of benzene) to synthesize adipic acid and catechol.

  11. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Romance of HMDA. (United States)

    Wittcoff, Harold


    Describes the source of hexamethylenediamine (HMDA). The process of the original synthesis HMDA for nylon manufacture which started with adipic acid and the estimated production cost for alternative HMDA processes are included. (HM)

  12. Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2% (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Elena


    Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment. PMID:21938272

  13. Lewis Acid Organocatalysts (United States)

    Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

    The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

  14. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  15. Facts about Folic Acid (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  16. Folic Acid Quiz (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  17. USGS Tracks Acid Rain (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  18. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids. (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John


    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  19. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene


    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...

  20. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie


    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper


    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic physioc...

  5. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.


    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Salicylic Acid Topical (United States)

    ... product less often. Talk to your doctor or check the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product ... in salicylic acid products. Ask your pharmacist or check the package label for a list of the not apply any of the following products to the skin ...

  8. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  9. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher


    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  10. Trans Fatty Acids (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin


    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  12. Citric acid production. (United States)

    Berovic, Marin; Legisa, Matic


    Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed.

  13. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter


    , chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  14. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K


    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  15. Acid Lipase Disease (United States)

    ... offers free searches of biomedical literature through an Internet service called PubMed. To search, go to: . The NLM also offers extensive ... Publications Definition Acid ...

  16. Acid rain: An overview (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  17. Boric acid poisoning (United States)

    ... Skin lotions Some paints Some rodent and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye ... 1031. National Library of Medicine, Specialized Information Services, Toxicology Data Network. Boric acid. ...

  18. Alpha Hydroxy Acids (United States)

    ... sensitivity. FDA also has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to assess the safety of the long-term use of AHAs. This study determined that glycolic acid did not affect photocarcinogenesis ( ...

  19. Folic acid in diet (United States)

    ... Pregnant females of all ages: 600 mcg/day Breastfeeding females of all ages: 500 mcg/day Alternative Names Folic acid; Polyglutamyl folacin; Pteroylmonoglutamate; Folate Images Vitamin B9 benefits Vitamin B9 source References Institute of Medicine, Food ...

  20. Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indira Padmalayam; Sumera Hasham; Uday Saxena; Sivaram Pillarisetti


    Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY) A Novel Role in Inflammation, Mitochondrial Function, and Insulin Resistance Indira Padmalayam 1 , Sumera Hasham 2 , Uday Saxena 1 and Sivaram Pillarisetti 1 1 Discovery Research, ReddyUS...

  1. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    of 2,5-anhydrides and not the expected 2-acetamido-2-deoxy aldose phenylhydrazones. The acetylated phenylhydrazones were found to eliminate acetic acid when heated in aqueous ethanol and 1-phenylazoalkenes could be isolated by crystallisation. By this method the 17, 20, 23 and 25 were prepared from....... The aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79....... These compounds did not react with 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl amine 105. Instead the commercially available unsubstituted 4-carboxyl tetronolactone 108 was converted into the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl amides 110 and 111 in two steps. These amides were cyclised by the Bischler-Napieralski cyclisation to give...

  2. Amino Acids and Chirality (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.


    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a...... a group consisting of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases, including 2,6-diaminopurine, attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain alkyl amine side chains....

  4. Folic acid in pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Carolyn


    ... it was isolated from spinach in 1941, hence being named ‘folic acid’ (from the Latin word folium for leaf ). By the mid‐1940s a team of biochemists, ‘the folic acid boys’, working at the Lederle Laboratory in Pearl River, New York, USA were able to synthesise folic acid in a pure crystalline form, allowing more detailed evaluation of its properties. I...

  5. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.


    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  6. Acidification and Acid Rain (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.


    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  7. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. (United States)

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang


    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... Key words: Betulinic acid, HL 60, cytotoxicity, MTT assay, DNA laddering, Cell cycle PI. INTRODUCTION. Betulinic acid ... Chemical structure of betulinic acid and its derivatives. (Fulda et al., 1999) and leukemia cells ... feature makes betulinic acid unique in comparison to compounds that are currently used ...

  9. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis]. (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua


    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  10. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele


    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  11. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  12. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.


    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  13. Analysis of Bile Acids (United States)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus). (United States)

    Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G


    Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid.

  15. acetyl amino acids and dipeptides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemistry. 2-(2'-Isopropyl-5'-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (1) was prepared by phenoxylation of thymol by using chloroacetic acid in alkaline conditions. Dipeptides Boc-Gly-Gly-OMe, Boc-Pro-Pro-. OMe and Boc-Ala-Leu-OMe were prepared from the corresponding amino acid methyl esters and Boc-amino acids using DCC ...

  16. Acid rain in Asia (United States)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.


    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  17. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  18. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan


    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  19. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.


    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  20. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.


    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  1. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John


    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  2. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids]. (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang


    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  3. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction


    Yao,Kenzabroh; Ubuka,Toshihiko


    A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by c...

  4. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ,12,13-. THODA. It has recently been shown that the enzyme peroxygenase is involved in the synthe- sis of 9,12,13-THODA in tomato fruits and that this trihydroxy fatty acid was probably further broken down or converted into other metabo-.

  5. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou


    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  6. Fenofibric acid for hyperlipidemia. (United States)

    Saurav, Alok; Kaushik, Manu; Mohiuddin, Syed M


    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins) are the mainstay of therapy for hyperlipidemia, as per the current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation. However, the role of other agents, such as the fibrates, is continually being debated in the context of incremental risk reduction, especially in the setting of mixed dyslipidemia. Results from the ACCORD Trial have further added to the confusion. Fibrates also have a role to play in familial hyperlipidemias and in hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibric acid is one of the newly approved forms of fenofibrate with enhanced bioavailability and was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administation (FDA) for the treatment of various types of hyperlipidemia, in conjunction with statins. This article reviews the role of fenofibric acid in the context of results from recent randomized trials on fenofibrate, including the ACCORD Trial. It discusses the current status of fenofibric acid in the management of dyslipidemia, especially in combination with statins, and also addresses the comparative efficacy and safety profile of this new molecule against other agents in its class. Fenofibric acid in combination with low- to moderate-dose statins is an effective and safe option in the treatment of mixed dyslipidemia, although the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk reduction need to be explored further.

  7. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H


    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  8. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  9. Pantothenic acid and biotin (United States)

    ... Function Pantothenic acid and biotin are needed for growth. They help the body break down and use ... pregnancy Lactation: 7 mg/day *Adequate Intake (AI) Dietary Reference Intakes ... best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced ...

  10. furfural and acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the effects of two lignocellulose degradation by-products (furfural and acetic acid) on ethanol fermentations by six ethanologenic yeast strains. ... Among the tested yeast strains, 1300 exhibited the highest growth rate, thus can be a promising candidate for mass production of bioethanol. Three important ...

  11. Nanoclusters of Cyanuric Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen bonding; molecular clusters; cyanuric acid; self-assembly; symmetry. ... Chemical Laboratory, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; Indian Institute of Science Education and ...

  12. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  13. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert


    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  14. Fatty acid-producing hosts (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M


    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at C. are also described.

  15. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373


    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA...

  16. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  17. Animosity towards Acid Attacks - Critical Study on Acid Victimization


    Chandrashekar, S.V; Eldo Johny


    Animosity to acid attacks is deliberated as foulest acts, a form of gender terrorism within the feminist read. It’s a form of vicious violence outlined as acid throwing or Vitriolage. In India, there are component varied incident were reported, as most precarious victimization of individuals by deforming their body. The condition of victims of acid attacks is unit in serious frustrating their entire life. Acid victimization has deliberated globally and even several countries area unit sensiti...

  18. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine. (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A


    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  19. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Keywords. Acidic amino acids; bromamine-B; oxidation kinetics, acid medium. 1. Introduction. The chemistry of aromatic sulphonyl haloamines has evoked considerable interest, as they are sources of halonium cations, hypohalite species, and N-anions which act both as bases and nucleophiles. The prominent members of ...

  20. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo


    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  1. Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for determining iron and other metallic elements in green vegetables. ... Therefore, the inclusion of HF in the acid decomposition mixtures would ensure total and precise estimation of Fe in plant materials, but not critical for analysis of Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca.

  2. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of tartaric acid to succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiayi [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; Vasiliadou, Efterpi S. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Goulas, Konstantinos A. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Saha, Basudeb [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation


    A novel one-step process for the selective production of succinic acid from tartaric acid is developed. High succinic yield is achieved in an efficient catalytic system comprised of MoOx/BC, HBr and acetic acid under hydrogen atmosphere.

  3. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 9, 2014 ... of the three LAB strains to utilize amino acids for growth and lactic acid production were employed to ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used for the .... broth. These findings confirm that L. salivarius released alanine and glycine, which are non-essential for the growth of this bacterium. P. acidilactici ...

  4. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 4. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide in acid medium: A mechanistic approach ... Department of Post-Graduate Studies in Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001, India ...

  5. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain". (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J


    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  6. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas


    and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  7. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  8. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)


    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  10. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.


    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  11. Humic acid protein complexation


    Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van, J.F.; Norde, W.


    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA¿LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA¿LSZ interaction ...

  12. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The MMS medium was a mixture of 2.15 g of Murashige and Skoog me- dium, 0.97g of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulphonic acid and 10 g of saccharose in. 500 ml of distilled water. The pH of the MMS medium was adjusted to 5.6 with 1 M KOH solution. Plant material and treatments. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ...



    Buriticá, Jorge Eduardo; Jorge Eduardo Buriticá: Cirujano General U. de Caldas, Profesor de Cirugía U. de Manizales. Profesor pregrado y postgrado U. de Caldas.; Becerra, Luis Fernando; Luis Fernando Becerra : Cirujano general CES Medellín, Docente U de Manizales, U de Caldas.; Salazar Osorio, Alejandro; Alejandro Salazar Osorio: Médico General U. de Manizales.


      Acid peptic disease (PAD) constitutes one of the most frequent queries in general medical practice, both in the emergency department and outpatient external; for this reason it is essential for good general practitioner, snagging a concrete and firm knowledge about this subject. Moreover, not only about this specific pathology but from its complications such as the digestive bleeding, although this would be a different item for which we are concerned in this review. There are areas of predo...

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bilska


    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  16. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G


    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  17. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.


    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  18. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid]. (United States)

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F


    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  19. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B


    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  20. Acid precipitation and forest soils (United States)

    C. O. Tamm


    Many soil processes and properties may be affected by a change in chemical climate such as that caused by acidification of precipitation. The effect of additions of acid precipitation depends at first on the extent to which this acid is really absorbed by the soil and on the changes in substances with actual or potential acidity leaving the soil. There is for instance...

  1. Hyaluronic Acid in Dermatology. (United States)

    Keen, Mohammad Abid


    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix of the skin and plays an important role in the metabolism of the dermis. It has a key position in wound healing and tissue repair processes owing to its ability to maintain a humid environment favorable to healing and the stimulation of growth factors, cellular constituents, and the migration of various cells essential for healing. This review aims to describe briefly the physical, chemical, and biologic properties of HA, together with some details of the dermatologic indications of this unique molecule.

  2. Crassulacean acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Geydan


    Full Text Available A review of Crassulacean acid metabolism is presented, characterized by showing the occurrence, activity and plasticity of these complex mechanism at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level, framed by the presence of the denominated four phases in CAM and its repercussion and expression due to different stresses in an ecological context. The basic enzymes, and metabolites necessary for the optional functioning of CAM are presented as well as their mode of action and cellular control. Finally, it is shown how environmental conditions and molecular signalling mediate the phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Protonation study of peroxynitric acid and peroxynitrous acid (United States)

    Santiano, Randy L.; Francisco, Joseph S.


    The equilibrium structures and harmonic vibrational frequencies of peroxynitric acid (HOONO2) and seven structures of protonated peroxynitric acid, along with peroxynitrous acid (HOONO) and its 12 protonated peroxynitrous acid structures, have been investigated using several ab initio and density functional methods. The ab initio methods include second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, quadratic configuration interaction, including single and double excitations theory (QCISD), and the QCISD(T) methods, which incorporate a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitation. The Becke three-parameter hybrid functional combined with Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation function is the density functional method used. The lowest energy form of protonated peroxynitric acid is a complex between H2O2 and NO+ rather than between H2O and NO2+. For peroxynitrous acid, a complex between H2O2 and NO2+ is found to be the lowest energy structure. The ab initio proton affinity (PA) of HOONO and HOONO2 is predicted to be 182.1 and 175.1 kcal mol-1, respectively, at the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. The results are contrasted with an earlier study on nitrous acid, and is shown that peroxynitric acid and peroxynitrous acid have a smaller PA than nitrous acid.

  4. Adsorption of humic acid on acid-activated Greek bentonite. (United States)

    Doulia, Danae; Leodopoulos, Ch; Gimouhopoulos, K; Rigas, F


    The adsorption of humic acid on bentonite from Milos Island (Greece) acid-treated with dilute H(2)SO(4) solutions over a concentration range between 0.25 and 13M has been studied. Bentonite activated with 3M sulfuric acid (AAS) showed a higher efficiency in removing humic acid from aqueous solutions and was selected for further investigation. The specific surface area of acid-activated bentonite was estimated using the methylene blue adsorption method. The morphology of untreated, activated, and HA-sorbed bentonite was studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of contact time, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of humic acid onto bentonite activated with 3M H(2)SO(4) were studied using a batch adsorption technique. Acidic pH and high ionic strength proved to be favorable for the adsorption efficiency. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations and the isotherm constants were determined. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(o), DeltaS(o), and DeltaG(o)) of adsorption of humic acid onto acid-activated bentonite with 3M sulfuric acid were also evaluated.

  5. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.


    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  6. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. (United States)

    Cham, B E; Bochner, F; Imhoff, D M; Johns, D; Rowland, M


    We have developed a specific and sensitive method for the determination of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Any proteins present are precipitated with methyl cyanide. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernate is directly injected into an octadecyl silane reversed-phase chromatographic column, then eluted with a mixture of water, butanol, acetic acid, and sodium sulfate, and quantitated at 313 nm by ultraviolet detection according to peak-height ratios (with internal standard, o-methoxybenzoic acid) or peak heights (no internal standard). The method allows estimates within 25 min. Sensitivity was 0.2 mg/L for gentisic acid, and 0.5 mg/L for both salicyluric and salicylic acid (20-micro L injection volume); response was linear with concentration to at least 2.000 g/L for salicylic acid and metabolites. Analytical recovery of salicylic acid and metabolites from urine is complete. Intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation) is 5.52% at 7.5 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.01% at 9.33 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.07% at 7.96 mg/L for gentisic acid. Interassay precision is 7.32% at 7.51 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.52% at 8.58 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.97% at 8.32 mg/L for gentisic acid. We saw no significant interference in urine from patients being treated with various drugs other than aspirin.

  7. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth


    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  8. Bile Acid Physiology. (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Garruti, Gabriella; Baccetto, Raquel Lunardi; Molina-Molina, Emilio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Wang, David Q-H; Portincasa, Piero


    The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have revealed the metabolic pathways of FXR and GPBAR-1 involved in the biosynthesis and enterohepatic circulation of BAs and their functions as signaling molecules on lipid and glucose metabolism.


    Crozier, W J


    Measurements of the penetration of tissue from Chromodoris zebra are believed to show that a determining factor in penetration involves the establishment of a critical pH (near 3.5) in relation to superficial cell proteins. The rapidity with which this state is produced depends upon acid strength, and upon some property of the acid influencing the speed of absorption; hence it is necessary to compare acids within groups of chemical relationship. The actual speed of penetration observed with any acid is dependent upon two influences: preliminary chemical combination with the outer protoplasm, followed by diffusion. The variation of the temperature coefficient of penetration velocity with the concentration of acid, and the effect of size (age) of individual providing the tissue sample agree in demonstrating the significant part played by diffusion. In comparing different acids, however, their mode of chemical union with the protoplasm determines the general order of penetrating ability.

  10. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi


    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  11. Citric acid production patent review. (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V


    Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today

  12. Interactions of methylamine and ammonia with atmospheric nucleation precursor H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and common organic acids: Thermodynamics and atmospheric implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Jiang, L.; Bai, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Nadykto, A. B., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN”, Vadkovsky per. 1, Moscow 127055 (Russian Federation); Atmospheric Science Research Center, State University of New York at Albany, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)


    Interactions of the two common atmospheric bases, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and methylamine MA (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}), which are considered to be important stabilizers of binary clusters in the Earth’s atmosphere, with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the key atmospheric precursor, and 14 common atmospheric organic acids (COA) (formic (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), acetic (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}), oxalic (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}), malonic (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}), succinic (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 4}), glutaric acid (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O{sub 4}), adipic (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O{sub 4}), benzoic (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COOH), phenylacetic (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}COOH), pyruvic (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O{sub 3}), maleic acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}), malic (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 5}), tartaric (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 6}) and pinonic acid (C{sub 10}H{sub 16}O{sub 3})) have been studied using the composite high-accuracy G3MP2 method. The thermodynamic stability of mixed (COA) (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), (COA)(B1) and (COA)(B2) dimers and (COA) (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) (B1) and (COA) (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) (B1) trimers, where B1 and B2 represent methylamine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), respectively, have been investigated and their impacts on the thermodynamic stability of clusters containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} have been analyzed. It has been shown that in many cases the interactions of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with COA, ammonia and methylamine lead to the formation of heteromolecular dimers and trimers, which are certainly more stable than (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub 2} and (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. It has also been found that free energies of (COA) (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4})+ CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}⇔(COA) (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4})(CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) reactions exceed 10-15 kcal mol{sup −1}. This is a clear indication that mixed trimers composed of COA, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and methylamine are very stable and can thus serve as possible nucleation sites. The present study leads us to conclude that the interactions of COA coexisting with H

  13. Microbial production of tenuazonic acid analogues. (United States)

    Gatenbeck, S; Sierankiewicz, J


    The fungus Alternaria tenuis normally produces tenuazonic acid (3-acetyl-5-secbutyltetramic acid). On supplementation of the culture substrate with l-valine and l-leucine, the organism formed two new tetramic acids, 3-acetyl-5-isopropyltetramic acid and 3-acetyl-5-isobutyltetramic acid, respectively. l-Phenylalanine was not utilized by the organism as a tetramic acid precursor.

  14. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  15. Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel


    Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated fatty acids are still considered as having a "neutral" status, but any benefits may be related to the chemical environment of the source food or the associated overall food pattern. Controversy surrounds omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, because even though they lower LDL cholesterol levels, excessive intakes do not appear to be correlated with cardiovascular benefit. The omega-3 fatty acids are known to exert cardiovascular protective effects. Dairy fat and its cardiovascular impact are being evaluated. This review examines the existing literature on the relationships between the different fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Intended and unintended targeting of polymeric nanocarriers: the case of modified poly(glycerol adipate) nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, V. M.; Lucas, H.; Mueller, T.; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Naolou, T.; Kressler, J.; Mäder, K.


    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-11, č. článku 1700240. ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28600A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : adrenals * biodegradable polymers * bones Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2016

  17. Listeria monocytogenes DNA glycosylase AdiP affects flagellar motility, biofilm formation, virulence, and stress responses (United States)

    The temperature-dependent alteration of flagellar motility gene expression is critical for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to respond to a changing environment. In this study, a genetic determinant, L. monocytogenes f2365_0220 (lmof2365_0220), encoding a putative protein that is struct...

  18. Acid mine drainage (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  19. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids. (United States)

    Enser, M


    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0.01-5.0mm showed a maximum at 0.1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0.5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0.01-5.0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0.5-0.6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0.8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0.01-2.5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0.01-0.4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0.4 and 1.0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2.5 and 5.0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa.

  20. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel


    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors...

  1. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega


    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  2. Amino acids and gut function. (United States)

    Wang, W W; Qiao, S Y; Li, D F


    The intestine is not only critical for the absorption of nutrients, but also interacts with a complex external milieu. Most foreign antigens enter the body through the digestive tract. Dietary amino acids are major fuels for the small intestinal mucosa, as well as important substrates for syntheses of intestinal proteins, nitric oxide, polyamines, and other products with enormous biological importance. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific amino acids (including glutamine, glutamate, arginine, glycine, lysine, threonine, and sulfur-containing amino acids) in gut-related diseases. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of amino acids on gut integrity, growth, and health in animals and humans.

  3. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup


    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  5. Lipoic acid and diabetes: Effect of dihydrolipoic acid administration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relative α-lipoic acid content of diabetic livers was considerably less than that of normal livers as determined by gas chromatography. It was not possible to detect any dihydrolipoic acid in the livers. Biochemical abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia, ketonemia, reduction in liver glycogen and impaired incorporation of ...

  6. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete


    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...

  7. Biobased methacrylic acid via selective catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic acid (United States)

    We report a bio-based route to methacrylic acid via selective decarboxylation of itaconic acid utilizing catalytic ruthenium carbonyl propionate in an aqueous solvent system. High selectivity (>90%) was achieved at low catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) with high substrate concentration (5.5 M) at low tem...

  8. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  9. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  10. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte; Pieterse, Corné M J; van Wees, Saskia C M


    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  11. 75 FR 60447 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information (United States)


    ... Polymer (S) Base polymer for (S) Carbonic acid, Technologies, LLC coatings dimethyl ester, polymer with 2...) Lubricant (G) Fatty acids, reaction product with adipic and trifunctional alcohol. P-10-0461 07/26/10 10/23.../10 10/20/10 Lubrigreen (G) Biobased (S) 9-octadecenoic lubricant base oil acid (9Z)-, 2- ethylhexyl...

  12. Fatty Acid Esterification with Polyols over Acidic Montmorillonite. (United States)

    Chaari, Asma; Neji, Soumaya Bouguerra; Frikha, Mouhamed Hedi


    The production of fatty acid esters from stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids and polyols (ethylene glycol and glycerol) was investigated in this work. A series of montmorillonite-based clays catalysts (KSF, KSF/0, KP10, and K10), having different physicochemical properties, were used as acidic catalysts. The influence of the specific surface area and the acidity of the catalysts on the esterification rate were explored. The best catalytic activities were obtained with KSF catalyst. The optimization of various factors on the reaction was also studied, including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and molar ratio (polyol / fatty acid). The yield rate reached 94% under the optimum conditions and the recovery rate maintained more than 96% after 5 batches.

  13. Acid-base balance in lake water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosset, C.


    As expected, the acid-base content of lake water is composed of strong base or acid, weak acids (mainly fulvic acid) and carbonic acid. All of these may be determined by using a simple titration method. The concentration of undissociated carbonic acid sometimes appears not to be in equilibrium with the CO/sub 2/-concentration in air. Observed supersaturation seems to be connected to the concentration of fulvic acid.

  14. New look at sandstone acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidley, J.L.


    The acid mutual solvent (AMS) technique is a 3-step process which involves a preflush, a mixed HF-HCl stage, and an afterflush employing the mutual solvent. The preflush is normally regular hydrochloric acid (15% HCl). This step is designed to serve as a buffer between formation water and hydrofluoric acid. Normally an adequate preflush is 50 gal of regular acid per ft of perforated interval. The mud-acid stage commonly consists of a mixture 3% HF and 12% HCl, although other concentrations may be used. Unfortunately this acid formulation is capable of producing by-products which as insoluble residues, reduce formation permeability or alter wettability in a way that lower relative permeability to oil. Effective treatments are sometimes conducted with as little as 10 to 20 gal of mud acid per ft of perforated interval. Third treatment stage, the afterflush, is composed of diesel oil containing 10% or more of a mutual solvent. A solvent of particular interest is ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGMBE). The EGMBE appears to improve cleanup to such an extent that an appreciable increase in well productivity is noticed. Tabular data show comparisons of multiple field treatments employing mud acid with and without the mutual solvent in the afterflush.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids (image) (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega- ... fish including tuna, salmon, and mackerel. Other important omega 3 fatty acids are found in dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed ...

  16. Acid rain: a background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.


    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. [Phylogenetic vision of bile acids]. (United States)

    Reyes, H


    Bile acids are the most important solutes of bile: they are essential in cholesterol degradation, solubilization and excretion; they are determinants of bile flow and secretion; and their role is crucial in the intestinal absorption of lipids and lipid soluble vitamins. In amphibia and in cartilaginous fish, the 27C cholestane molecule is hydroxylated to alcohols. In birds, the terminal 27C-OH group is oxydated to cholestanoic acids. In vertebrates of a more recent evolutionary origin, the lateral chain is shortened to 24C and oxydated to cholestanoic acids. Further transformations include chemical changes in the cholestane skeleton and in the lateral chain (hydroxylations, dehydroxylations, epimerization, etc). In the intestinal lumen, the saprophytic flora provides enzymes catalysing new changes that originate "secondary" bile acids. During entero-hepatic circulation, another variety of bile acids appear, commonly termed "tertiary" bile acids. A recent study of Lee R Hagey characterized bile acid composition of over 600 species of vertebrates, showing that bile acid composition of bile has been the subject of an interesting evolutionary phenomenon and that it is a chemical marker of biodiversity in vertebrates.

  19. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences. (United States)

    Babich, Harvey; And Others


    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  20. utilisation of synthetic amino acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Crystalline amino acids are used increasingly to meet the lysine, methionine and threonine requirements of poultry. Initially this was on economic grounds but their use is now being encouraged by concerns over N-pollution (Fisher, 2000). When modelling the amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens, a question that ...

  1. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry


    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  2. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  3. Fumaric acid esters. (United States)

    Rostami Yazdi, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich


    Several clinical studies have shown that systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is effective and has a good long-term safety profile. For therapeutic use, tablets with a defined mixture of FAEs (dimethylfumarate [DMF] and three different salts of monoethylfumarate) are registered in Germany. There is evidence that DMF is the most essential component in this formulation with an antipsoriatic effect. Currently, there are few data on the pharmacokinetics of fumarates in human beings. DMF seems to act as a prodrug for its main metabolite: monomethylfumarate. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that only monomethylfumarate was detected in the plasma of human beings after the oral administration of FAEs. FAEs have been tested in different biological assays, and effects such as inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway or induction of apoptosis by DMF have been described. For these data, the role of DMF as a modulator of intracellular glutathione plays an important role.

  4. Antioxidants based on fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalk Christian


    Full Text Available Autoxidation is the cause for deterioration of organic materials. Many commercial products react with atmospheric oxygen under loss of quality. To retard unwanted oxidative damage and to prolong the useful life of the substrates, antioxidants are used to protect the organic matter. We linked phenolic compounds with fatty acids to obtain fatty acid conjugates with antioxidative action. The conjugates have a similar constitution like hindered phenols e.g. tert.-butyl-hydroxy-anisole (BHA and show good antioxidative action in the Rancimat-test. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and a strong reducing agent. Its action is based on a ketoene-diol structure. We were able to insert an analogous structure into a fatty acid chain. The products we obtained have similar oxidation potentials as ascorbic acid

  5. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo


    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  6. Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.


    A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform to a bidentate chelating binding site kinetic analysis, from which rate and equilibrium parameters have been obtained. From comparison of rate and equilibrium constants of aluminum-salicyclic acid complexation, the authors conclude that the faster reacting component of fulvic acid probably contains salicyclic acid type aluminum binding sites. Results are also compared with those of an aluminum-fluoride kinetic study. Fulvic acid and fluoride react with aluminum by the same mechanism and therefore have the same pH dependence. The dependence of the rate on temperature is, however, quite different for the two reactions. The environmental implications of these findings are discussed. 45 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Isolation and characterization of aquatic humic acid and fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, D.S. [Kangwon National University, Chunchon (Korea)


    The dissolved organic carbon extracted from groundwater is separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. They are characterized for their chemical composition, spectroscopic characteristics using UV/VIS, IR and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy, proton exchange capacity and molecular size distribution. The results are comparable with the literature data. The study explains that the aquatic humic and fulvic acid in this experiment are site-specipic and polydisperse natural organic matter with considerable proton exchange capacity. (author). 16 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren


    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  9. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives | Govender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acid fluoride is required for activation of the cage amino acid in SPPS. Esterification of the sterically hindered trishomocubane amino acid is also reported, indicating sufficient reactivity of the acid function for potential use in SPPS. Keywords: Trishomocubane amino acid, hydantoin, Fmoc protection, t-Boc protection, ...

  10. Phytic acid in green leaves. (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G


    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Insect acid-base physiology. (United States)

    Harrison, J F


    Acid-base status influences many aspects of insect biology, including insect distributions in aquatic systems, insect-plant and insect-pathogen interactions, membrane transport phenomena, and the mode of action of pesticides. Acid-base status in the hemolymph and gut lumen of insects is generally well regulated but varies somewhat within individuals owing to effects of temperature, activity, discontinuous ventilation, and diet. The pH of the midgut lumen varies with the phylogeny and feeding ecology. Insect fluids have buffer values similar to those of vertebrates. The respiratory system participates in acid-base homeostasis primarily by regulating the internal carbon dioxide (partial) pressure via changes in spiracular opening and convective ventilation. The epithelia of the renal system and gut participate in hemolymph acid-base regulation by varying acid-base transport in response to organismal acid-base status. Evidence to date suggests that the dominant mechanisms for control of renal acid-base excretion involve hormonal regulation of H+-V-ATPase activity.

  12. Ascorbic acid induced atrazine degradation. (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi


    In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation efficiency and the degradation mechanism of atrazine in the presence of ascorbic acid at different pH values. Although atrazine could be degraded by ascorbic acid in a wide pH range from 4 to 12, its degradation under either acidic (pH≤4) or alkaline (pH≥12) condition was more efficient than under neutral condition (pH=7). This pH dependent atrazine degradation was related to the reactive characteristic of atrazine and the reductive activity of ascorbic acid. The ascorbic acid induced atrazine degradation pathways at different pH were investigated by comparing the atrazine degradation intermediates with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography. It was found that more products were detected in presence of ascorbic acid at alkaline condition. The appearance of chloride ions confirmed the dechlorination of atrazine by ascorbic acid in the absence of molecular oxygen, while its dechlorination efficiency reached highest at pH 12. These results can shed light on the application of AA for the organic pollutant remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    carboxycyclohexylacetic acid. ... developed by Barton (1969 Chemistry Nobel Prize) to the solution of an important configurational problem, ... organic chemistry' and of the theoretical treatment of the chemical bond, essential to an understanding of ...

  14. Renal handling of terephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.


    By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

  15. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts


    Bahri, Sana; Mies, Fr?d?rique; Ben Ali, Ridha; Mlika, Mona; Jameleddine, Saloua; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Shlyonsky, Vadim


    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF) viability with IC50 value of 17.13?1.06 ?M, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 ?M of RA, dose-response for CA shifted...

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...... of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain alkylamine side chains....

  17. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.


    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis.

  18. Synthesis of tenuazonic acid analogues. (United States)

    Soliman, F S


    The synthesis of two 1.5-diaryltetramic acids, aryl analogues of tenuazonic acid, is described. The reactivity of position 4 of these tetramic acids towards primary and secondary amines, and o-methylation led to the synthesis of 4-substituted-delta3-pyrroline-2-one. Further, reactivity of position 3 has been indicated by the formation of 3-arylidenepyrrolidine-2.4-diones and by diazo-coupling. The structures assigned to the new compounds are substantiated by IR and NMR data.

  19. Amino Acids from a Comet (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  20. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai


    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  2. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD, VSM, ...

  3. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect a ...

  4. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus


    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  7. Biotechnological production of citric acid. (United States)

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel


    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  8. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.


    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  9. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics (United States)

    ... blood folate levels and are less likely to consume foods fortified with folic acid. [ Read article ] Are ... Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  10. Biotechnological production of citric acid (United States)

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel


    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  11. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel


    .... Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus...

  12. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET. (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara


    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  13. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  14. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max


    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.


    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  16. Macrophages in Mildly Acid Microenvironment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid caused by anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxia, seem to be the main cause. In consequence, pH. 6.6 and 6.8 were used as experimental group to present the mildly acid microenvironment of tumor tissues, and pH 7.2 was taken as control group in our study. Table 1: Effect of TP concentration and time on the proliferation of ...

  17. Microbial production of citric acid


    Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Soccol,Carlos R.; Pandey, Ashok; Lebeault, Jean-Michel


    Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch based media. However, other fermentation techniques, e.g. solid state fermentation and surface fermentation, and alternative sources of carbon such as agro-industrial residues have been intensively studied showi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar


    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  19. [Women's knowledge of folic acid]. (United States)

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle


    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (Pfolic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman


    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  1. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids. [Hydroxy acids: acetylsalicylic, gallic, lactic, salicyclic, orotic,. gamma. -hydroxybutyric acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen' eva, T.I. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))


    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, ..gamma..-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp/sub 2/, VOCOR or CpV (OCOR)/sub 2/ type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented.

  2. Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids. (United States)

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario


    The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine.

  3. Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion


    Teyssen, Stephan; González-Calero, Gloria; Schimiczek, Michael; Singer, Manfred V


    Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunt...

  4. Kinetic and safety assessment for salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid system. (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R


    The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of polynitration reactions. Isothermal experiments are carried out in various conditions to assess the involved reaction network and reaction kinetics.

  5. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review]. (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing


    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  6. Chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid. (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Engfeldt, Malin; Svedman, Cecilia; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Hindsén, Monica; Bruze, Magnus


    Trifluoroacetic acid is a very strong carboxylic acid. The acid has been suspected to have similar toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid on skin contact. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic, owing to skin penetration by fluoride ions. A spill of hydrofluoric acid on the skin may be fatal. As trifluoroacetic acid contains fluorine, patients with chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid have been given particular attention when treated in the hospital. To gather the known cases of trifluoroacetic acid burns from our department to give an overview of how they were exposed, the clinical presentation, and treatment. Five patients with chemical skin burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid were reviewed with regard to the extent of the burn, treatment, blood samples taken, and systemic effects. The chemical burns reported were limited (burns healed as expected for chemical burns caused by acids. None of the patients showed any symptoms or signs that are typical for hydrofluoric acid burns. Localized chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid should be regarded as being similar to burns from other acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. To our knowledge, there are no indications that trifluoroacetic acid causes the same toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. History of retinoic acid receptors. (United States)

    Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann


    The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, α, β and ɣ. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease.

  8. Influence of polydispersity of crystallizable segments on the properties of segmented block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.


    Poly(ether-ester-amide)s (PEEAs) based on poly(tetramethylene oxide) and tetra-amide segments were synthesized by a solution/melt polymerization. The tetra-amide segments (T6A6T) were based on adipic acid (A), terephthalic acid (T), and hexamethylene diamine (6), and were synthesized prior to the

  9. Poly(ether amide) segmented block copolymers with adipicacid based tetra amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.


    Poly(tetramethylene oxide)-based poly(ether ester amide)s with monodisperse tetraamide segments were synthesized. The tetraamide segment was based on adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and hexamethylenediamine. The synthesis method of the copolymers and the influence of the tetraamide concentration,

  10. A comparison of the influence of catholyte vs phosphate detergent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    orientated polymer system (Gohl & Vilensky,. 1983:104), which is synthesized by conden- sation polymerization of 1,6-diaminohexane and hexandioic acid (adipic acid) to form a macromolecule (Wynne, 1997:86). ..... Journal of Thermoplastic Composite. Materials 23:313-336. GOHL, EPG & VILENSKY, LD. 1983. Textile.

  11. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.


    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  12. Nucleic acid based molecular devices. (United States)

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C


    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli


    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  16. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  17. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)


    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  18. Biotechnological production of itaconic acid. (United States)

    Willke, T; Vorlop, K D


    Itaconic acid (IA) is an unsaturated dicarbonic organic acid. It can easily be incorporated into polymers and may serve as a substitute for petrochemical-based acrylic or methacrylic acid. It is used at 1-5% as a co-monomer in resins and also in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, in coatings, adhesives, thickeners and binders. The favoured production process is fermentation of carbohydrates by fungi, with a current market volume of about 15,000 t/a. Due to the high price of about US$ 4/kg, the use of IA is restricted. At present, the production rates do not exceed 1 g l(-1) h(-1), accompanied by product concentrations of about 80 g l(-1). New biotechnology approaches, such as immobilisation techniques, screening programmes and genetic engineering, could lead to higher productivity. Also, the use of alternative substrates may reduce costs and thus open the market for new and increased applications.

  19. Sialic Acid Receptors of Viruses. (United States)

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Herrler, Georg; Klenk, Hans Dieter


    Sialic acid linked to glycoproteins and gangliosides is used by many viruses as a receptor for cell entry. These viruses include important human and animal pathogens, such as influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, corona, noro, rota, and DNA tumor viruses. Attachment to sialic acid is mediated by receptor binding proteins that are constituents of viral envelopes or exposed at the surface of non-enveloped viruses. Some of these viruses are also equipped with a neuraminidase or a sialyl-O-acetyl-esterase. These receptor-destroying enzymes promote virus release from infected cells and neutralize sialic acid-containing soluble proteins interfering with cell surface binding of the virus. Variations in the receptor specificity are important determinants for host range, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses.

  20. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility]. (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S


    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  2. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BA and BAAC have been shown to induce a time dependant increase in the sub G1 peak indicating apoptotic phenomenon as obtained from the DNA content histogram analysis. Thus, betulinic acid isolated from Malaysia plant showed good potential as an anti-cancer compound with less toxicity to human normal cells.

  3. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  4. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  5. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  6. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  7. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra. Malaysia, 43400, Serdang ... analysis. Thus, betulinic acid isolated from Malaysia plant showed good potential as an anti-cancer compound with less toxicity to human normal cells. Key words: ...

  8. Spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polowczyk Izabela


    Full Text Available In this paper spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid was described. In the first step, the system of good and poor solvents as well as bridging liquid was selected. As a result of a preliminary study, ethyl alcohol, water and carbon tetrachloride were used as the good solvent, poor one, and bridging liquid, respectively. Then, the amount of acetylsalicylic acid and the ratio of the solvents as well as the volume of the bridging liquid were examined. In the last step, the agglomeration conditions, such as mixing intensity and time, were investigated. The spherical agglomerates obtained under optimum conditions could be subjected to a tableting process afterwards.

  9. Exosomes as nucleic acid nanocarriers. (United States)

    van den Boorn, Jasper G; Dassler, Juliane; Coch, Christoph; Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Gunther


    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced naturally by many cell types. They are specifically loaded with nucleic acid cargo, dependent on the exosome-producing cell and its homeostatic state. As natural intercellular shuttles of miRNA, exosomes influence an array of developmental, physiological and pathological processes in the recipient cell or tissue to which they can be selectively targeted by their tetraspanin surface-domains. By a review of current research, we illustrate here why exosomes are ideal nanocarriers for use in the targeted in vivo delivery of nucleic acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vanadyl complexes with ethylenedithiodiacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, A. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimia Analitica)


    The complex formation between vanadyl ions and ethylenedithiodiacetic acid (H/sub 2/L) has been studied at 25/sup 0/C in 0.5 M-NaClO/sub 4/ as inert medium, by measuring the hydrogen ion concentration with a glass electrode. In acidic medium and in the investigated concentration ranges (2.07 mM<=Csub(M)<=7.50 mM, Csub(L) up to 12.5 mM)sup(*) the emf data can be explained assuming the equilibrium: VO/sup 2 +/ + L/sup 2 -/ reversible VOL log..beta.. /sub 101/ = 2.68 +-0.03.


    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic action (MOA) for DMAV including a consideration of the key events for bladder tumor formation in rats, other potential modes of action; and also considers the human relevance of the proposed animal MOA. As part of tolerance reassessment under the Food Quality Protection Act for the August 3, 2006 deadline, the hazard of cacodylic acid is being reassessed.

  12. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  13. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Laurate SE, Glyceryl Laurate/Oleate, Glyceryl Adipate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Citrate/Lactate/Linoleate/Oleate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Collagenate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Soyate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isopalmitate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Isostearate/Myristate, Glyceryl Isostearates, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Montanate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Isotridecanoate/Stearate/Adipate, Glyceryl Oleate SE, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Palmitate/Stearate, Glyceryl Palmitoleate, Glyceryl Pentadecanoate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Sesquioleate, Glyceryl/Sorbitol Oleate/Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, Glyceryl Stearate/Maleate, Glyceryl Tallowate, Glyceryl Thiopropionate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate. (United States)


    The safety of 43 glyceryl monoesters listed as cosmetic ingredients was reviewed in a safety assessment completed in 2000. Additional safety test data pertaining to Glyceryl Rosinate and Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate were received and served as the basis for this amended report. Glyceryl monoesters are used mostly as skin-conditioning agents--emollients and/or surfactant--emulsifying agents in cosmetics. The following 20 glyceryl monoesters are currently reported to be used in cosmetics: Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate. Concentration of use data received from the cosmetics industry in 1999 indicate that Glyceryl Monoesters are used at concentrations up to 12% in cosmetic products. Glyceryl Monoesters are not pure monoesters, but are mostly mixtures with mono-, di-, and tri-esters. The purity of commercial and conventional Monoglyceride (Glyceryl Monoester) is a minimum of 90%. Glyceryl Monoesters (monoglycerides) are metabolized to free fatty acids and glycerol, both of which are available for the resynthesis of triglycerides. Glyceryl Laurate enhanced the penetration of drugs through cadaverous skin and hairless rat skin in vitro and has been described as having a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A low-grade irritant response was observed following inhalation of an aerosol containing 10% Glyceryl Laurate by test animals. Glyceryl monoesters have little acute or short-term toxicity in animals, and no toxicity was noted following chronic administration of a mixture consisting mostly of glyceryl di- and mono- esters. Glyceryl Laurate did have strong hemolytic

  14. Are teeth evidence in acid environment


    Makesh Raj; Karen Boaz; N Srikant


    Aim: Teeth are the most durable structures that resist destruction more than skeletal tissue Commercially available acids can be used to destroy the body or a part, to mask human identification. The present study examines the effect of caustic acids on human dentition. Materials and Methods: Ten upper anterior teeth each were immersed in 37% hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl), 65% nitric acid (conc. HNO 3 ) and 96% sulfuric acid (conc. H 2 SO 4 ). Teeth were retrieved, washed in distilled water, d...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  16. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad


    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help! (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  18. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.


    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  19. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  20. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.W.A.; Teixeira De Mattos, M.J.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Brul, S.


    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances,

  1. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study (United States)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  2. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal


    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  3. Chlorogenic acid versus amaranth's caffeoylisocitric acid - Gut microbial degradation of caffeic acid derivatives. (United States)

    Vollmer, Maren; Schröter, David; Esders, Selma; Neugart, Susanne; Farquharson, Freda M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Schreiner, Monika; Louis, Petra; Maul, Ronald; Rohn, Sascha


    The almost forgotten crop amaranth has gained renewed interest in recent years due to its immense nutritive potential. Health beneficial effects of certain plants are often attributed to secondary plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds. As these compounds undergo significant metabolism after consumption and are in most cases not absorbed very well, it is important to gain knowledge about absorption, biotransformation, and further metabolism in the human body. Whilst being hardly found in other edible plants, caffeoylisocitric acid represents the most abundant low molecular weight phenolic compound in many leafy amaranth species. Given that this may be a potentially bioactive compound, gastrointestinal microbial degradation of this substance was investigated in the present study by performing in vitro fermentation tests using three different fecal samples as inocula. The (phenolic) metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were carried out to study the influence on the microbiome and its composition. The in vitro fermentations led to different metabolite profiles depending on the specific donor. For example, the metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was observed in one fermentation as the main metabolite, whereas 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was identified in the other fermentations as important. A significant change in selected microorganisms of the gut microbiota however was not detected. In conclusion, caffeoylisocitric acid from amaranth, which is a source of several esterified phenolic acids in addition to chlorogenic acid, can be metabolized by the human gut microbiota, but the metabolites produced vary between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids. (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan


    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  5. Liquid chromatography of organophosphorus acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, A.; Kientz, C.E.; Berg, J. van den


    The applicability of different liquid chromatographic systems such as ion-exchange, ion-exclusion, reversed phase and ion-pair partition was studied for the analysis of a number of simple structurally related organophosphorus acids which lack a chromophoric group. Preliminary experiments based on

  6. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corey [1]. They kindly made'their manuscript available to us in advance of publication. Their model consists of three inter-twined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis, and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is unsatisfactory ...

  7. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  8. Deoxyribonucleic acid in Nitrobacter carboxysomes. (United States)

    Westphal, K; Bock, E; Cannon, G; Shively, J M


    Carboxysomes were isolated from Nitrobacter winogradskyi and Nitrobacter agilis. The icosahedral particles contained double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In the presence of ethidium bromide and cesium chloride, the particle-bound DNA had a buoyant density of rho 25 = 1.701 g/cm3. Electron microscopy revealed the DNA to be a 14-micron circular molecule.

  9. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi


    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  10. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  11. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.


    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  12. Boric Acid in Kjeldahl Analysis (United States)

    Cruz, Gregorio


    The use of boric acid in the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is a variant of the original method widely applied in many laboratories all over the world. Its use is recommended by control organizations such as ISO, IDF, and EPA because it yields reliable and accurate results. However, the chemical principles the method is based on are not…

  13. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production. (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  14. Folic Acid Questions and Answers (United States)

    ... programs 2-6 . Folic acid also prevents a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia . Some vitamins (such as vitamin ... another B vitamin – vitamin B12 – can develop a type of anemia called pernicious anemia, and eventually they might have ...

  15. Biogenesis of rosmarinic acid in Mentha (United States)

    Ellis, B. E.; Towers, G. H. N.


    The biogenesis of rosmarinic acid (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid), the second most common ester of caffeic acid in the plant kingdom, was studied in Mentha arvense and Mentha piperita. Administration of 14C-labelled compounds showed that, whereas the caffeoyl moiety was formed from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid moiety was formed from tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Time-course studies and the use of labelled rosmarinic acid showed that endogenous rosmarinic acid had a low turnover rate. The caffeoyl moiety did not appear to contribute to the formation of insoluble polymers, as has been suggested for chlorogenic acid in other plants. PMID:5484678

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder


    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  17. Formation of formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid from decomposition of citric acid by coal ash particles at room temperature. (United States)

    Nakui, Hiroyuki; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Rokuro


    It was found for the first time that citric acid was decomposed to formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid in the presence of coal ash particles at pH 3 at 20 degrees C, while it was not decomposed at more than pH 5. The yield of organic acid at stirring time of 60 min is in the order of formic acid>acetic acid>lactic acid. Since citric acid dissociates to citric anion at more than pH 5, it was suggested that citric anion and negatively charged coal ash particles repelled electrically each other at more than pH 5, resulting in that citric acid could not be adsorbed and not be decomposed on coal ash. Based on the obtained results, the decomposition of citric acid at pH 3 was suggested to be due to catalytic effects of coal ash. Since formic acid and acetic acid can be used as a material of hydrogen fermentation, coal ash could be used as a catalyst to synthesize the important material for hydrogen fermentation from wastewater of citric acid.

  18. Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki


    The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.

  19. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  20. Highly Selective Deoxydehydration of Tartaric Acid over Supported and Unsupported Rhenium Catalysts with Modified Acidities. (United States)

    Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen


    The deoxydehydration (DODH) of sugar acids to industrially important carboxylic acids is a very attractive topic. Oxorhenium complexes are the most-often employed DODH catalysts. Because of the acidity of the rhenium catalysts, the DODH products of sugar acids were usually in the form of mixture of free carboxylic acids and esters. Herein, we demonstrate strategies for the selective DODH of sugar acids to free carboxylic acids by tuning the Lewis acidity or the Brønsted acidity of the rhenium-based catalysts. Starting from tartaric acid, up to 97 % yield of free maleic acid was achieved. Based on our strategies, functional polymer immobilized heterogeneous rhenium catalysts were also developed for the selective DODH conversion of sugar acids. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Changes in SAM2 expression affect lactic acid tolerance and lactic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dato, Laura; Berterame, Nadia Maria; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Paganoni, Paola; Palmieri, Luigi; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola


    ...) for the production of biodegradable plastics. Yeasts can be considered as alternative cell factories to lactic acid bacteria for lactic acid production, despite not being natural producers, since they can better tolerate acidic environments...

  2. Chemical peeling--glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma. (United States)

    Kalla, G; Garg, A; Kachhawa, D


    Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55-75% glycolic acid (68 patients) and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients). Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  3. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G


    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  4. [Biology of essential fatty acids (EFA)]. (United States)

    Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof


    Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), are unsaturated fatty acids not produced by human being, but essential for proper functioning of the human body. To EFA-s belongs: linoleic acid (LA) (18:2,cis detla(9,12), omega6)--precursor o f gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3,cisA6,9,12, )6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)(18:3,cisdelta(9, 12, 15), omega3)--product of dehydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Most important EFA is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)--18 carbons, one-carboxylic, non-branched fatty acid with 3 double cis-bonds (the last is situated by 6-th carbon from methylic end). The diet devoided of EFA leads to decreased growth, skin and kidney injury and infertility. Modern research of GLA and others EFA's is concerned mainly on therapeutic impact on the inflammatory process. The biogenic amines, cytokines, prostaglandins, tromboxanes and leukotrienes are the main inflammatory mediators. The last three are described with the common name eicosanoides (eico-twenty). Eicosanoides are synthesized from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids: dihomo-gamma-linoleic (DGLA) (20:3, cis delta(8,11,14), omega6), arachidonic acid (AA-20:4, cis delta(5,8,11,14), omega6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-20:5, cis delta(5,8,11,14,17, omega3). Derivatives of gamma and gamma-linolenic acids regulate the inflammatory process, through their opposed activity. PG2, leucotrien C4 and tromboxan A2 have the strongest proinflammatory action. Derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid 15-HETE and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have weak pro-inflammatory action, or even anti-inflammatory (PGE1), and additionally, they inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid (AA) to leukotriens. delta6-desaturase (transformes linolenic acid into gamma-linolenic acid by making additional double bond) is the slowest step of the fatty acid metabolism. It's activity is impaired by many physiological and pathologic factors and leads to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) deficiency. The gamma-linolenic acid

  5. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis


    van Beilen, J. W. A.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. J.; Hellingwerf, K. J.; Brul, S.


    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated aci...

  6. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska


    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  7. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid. (United States)

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Hung, Yi-chih; Hu, Lihong; Lee, Yi-ju; Yin, Mei-chin


    Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  8. Spontaneous curvature of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid. (United States)

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; Fuller, Nola L; Kozlov, Michael M; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J; Rand, Peter R


    The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To examine this possibility, we determined the spontaneous radius of curvature (R(0p)) of PA and LPA, carrying oleoyl fatty acids, using well-established X-ray diffraction methods. We found that, under physiological conditions of pH and salt concentration (pH 7.0, 150 mM NaCl), the R(0p) values of PA and LPA were -46 A and +20 A, respectively. Thus PA has considerable negative spontaneous curvature while LPA has the most positive spontaneous curvature of any membrane lipid measured to date. The further addition of Ca(2+) did not significantly affect lipid spontaneous curvature; however, omitting NaCl from the hydration buffer greatly reduced the spontaneous curvature of PA, turning it into a cylindrically shaped lipid molecule (R(0p) of -1.3 x 10(2) A). Our quantitative data on the spontaneous radius of curvature of PA and LPA at a physiological pH and salt concentration will be instrumental in developing future models of biomembrane fission.

  9. Characterization of acidic polysaccharides from the mollusks through acid hydrolysis. (United States)

    Cao, Jiuling; Wen, Chengrong; Lu, Jiaojiao; Teng, Nan; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei


    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exist widely in nature. Herein we propose an elegant methodology to identify UACPs by analyzing their disaccharides produced from the acid hydrolysis using HPLC-MS(n) upon 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Based on the optimization of experimental conditions by the single factor experiment and orthogonal test design, the combination of 1.3M TFA at 105°C for 3h is found to be the optimum. Subsequently, these conditions were applied to investigate the distribution of UACPs in 20 selected species of edible Bivalvia and Gastropoda. PMP-disaccharides derived from UACPs in mollusks were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of the reference PMP-disaccharides from hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), and AGSP with →4)-GlcA(1→2)-Man(1→ repeating units. The analysis reveals the prevalence of CS in the shellfishes as well as the HP, and existence of three non-GAG UACPs in 7 mollusks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu


    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  11. Effect of citric acid and acetic acid on the performance of broilers


    Islam, M. Z.; Khandaker, Z.H; Chowdhury, S D; Islam, K.M.S


    An experiment was conducted with commercial broilers to investigate the effects of feeding citric acid, acetic acid and their combination on their performance and to determine the economic competence of using citric acid and acetic acid in broiler rations. A total number of 108 one day old straight run broiler chicks were distributed to four dietary treatments i.e. 0 % citric or acetic acid (A) , 0.5% citric acid (B), 0.5% acetic acid (C) and their combinations 0.5% citric acid and 0.5% aceti...

  12. Fatty acid synthesis is a target for antibacterial activity of unsaturated fatty acids. (United States)

    Zheng, Chang Ji; Yoo, Jung-Sung; Lee, Tae-Gyu; Cho, Hee-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Won-Gon


    Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, show antibacterial activity and are the key ingredients of antimicrobial food additives and some antibacterial herbs. However, the precise mechanism for this antimicrobial activity remains unclear. We found that linoleic acid inhibited bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), an essential component of bacterial fatty acid synthesis, which has served as a promising target for antibacterial drugs. Additional unsaturated fatty acids including palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid also exhibited the inhibition of FabI. However, neither the saturated form (stearic acid) nor the methyl ester of linoleic acid inhibited FabI. These FabI-inhibitory activities of various fatty acids and their derivatives very well correlated with the inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis using [(14)C] acetate incorporation assay, and importantly, also correlated with antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the supplementation with exogenous fatty acids reversed the antibacterial effect of linoleic acid, which showing that it target fatty acid synthesis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the antibacterial action of unsaturated fatty acids is mediated by the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis.

  13. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide. (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia


    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  14. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.


    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  15. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  16. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  17. Amino acids in sheep production. (United States)

    McCoard, Susan A; Sales, Francisco A; Sciascia, Quentin L


    Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of amino acids in sheep production and the potential for supplementation strategies to influence on-farm survival and growth of lambs.

  18. Fragmentation of Chitosan by Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kasaai


    Full Text Available Fragmentation of chitosan in aqueous solution by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The kinetics of fragmentation, the number of chain scissions, and polydispersity of the fragments were followed by viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure and the degree of N-acetylation (DA of the original chitosan and its fragments were examined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The kinetic data indicates that the reaction was of first order. The results of polydispersity and the DA suggest that the selected experimental conditions (temperature and concentration of acid were appropriate to obtain the fragments having the polydispersity and the DA similar to or slightly different from those of the original one. A procedure to estimate molecular weight of fragments as well as the number of chain scissions of the fragments under the experimental conditions was also proposed.

  19. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology


    Uwe Wollina


    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like gra...

  20. Lactic acid fermentation-aided biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.M. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry


    The preservation of fisheries biomass by lactic acid fermentation is discussed. This method is favourably compared to acid ensiling and fish meal production in terms of safety considerations, energy requirements, simplicity of process and product quality. (Author)

  1. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C


    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  2. Interaction between humic acids and anthraquinone dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, N.; Lee, C. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    Interactions between humic acids and anthraquinone disperse-dyes were studied. A humic acid extracted from a marine sediment and a commercial one were used to solubilized dyes sparingly soluble in water. The dye solubility in humic acid solution increases with humic acid concentration and enhancement was marked for solution of Aldrich humic acid. The addition of salts decreased the solubility of the dye. But the effects were complicated. Dye solubility increased with temperature. Especially, in the case of a 0.1% solution of marine humic acid at high temperature, the solubility increased. The spectrum of the dye were changed by solubilization in humic acid solution, and a twin peak characteristics of 1,4-isomers of polyaminoanthraquinone disappeared and a broad peak appeared. The dye solubilized by humic acid may thus possibly exist as a solid state as a deposit on quartz. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  4. Acid loading test (pH) (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  5. Acid Reflux (GER and GERD) in Adults (United States)

    ... Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults View or Print ... up into your esophagus causing heartburn (also called acid reflux). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a long- ...

  6. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K


    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents...

  7. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  8. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David


    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)


    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),and fluorotelomer alcoholsare surfactants that have wide applications in industrial and consumer products. Various fluorotelomer alcohols are known to be metabolized to perfluo...

  10. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.


    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  11. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.


    O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M


    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  12. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies. (United States)

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M


    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  13. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K


    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  14. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka


    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  15. Distinct effects of sorbic acid and acetic acid on the electrophysiology and metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    van Beilen, J W A; Teixeira de Mattos, M J; Hellingwerf, K J; Brul, S


    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  17. Biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarenac Tanja M.


    Full Text Available Bile acids are steroidal compounds, which contain 24 carbon atoms. They can be classified into two major groups: primary and secondary. The most abundant bile acids: The primary bile acids include cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, while the major secondary bile acids are deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid. Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal absorption of nutrients and are used for biliary lipid secretion, toxic metabolites and xenobiotics. The aim of this paper is to analyze biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids, as preparation for practical usage in laboratory and clinical conditions. Topic: Biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids: The biosynthesis of bile acids is the dominant metabolic pathway for catabolism of cholesterol in humans. The classical route of biosynthesis of bile acids is embarking on the conversion of cholesterol into 7α-hydroxycholesterol using enzyme 7α-cholesterol hydroxylase (CYP7A1. This enzyme is one of the microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme is localized exclusively in the liver. Classical road is the main road in the biosynthesis of bile acids, and its total contribution amounts to 90% for people, and 75% in mice. CYP 7A1 enzyme is considered to be sensitive to the inhibition of carbon monoxide, and the condition for the effect of NADPH, the oxygen, lecithin, and the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Bile acids are important signaling molecules and metabolic controls which activate the nuclear receptor and the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, a signaling lipid regulation of the liver, glucose and energy homeostasis. Also, bile acids maintain metabolic homeostasis. Biotransformation of bile acids: The conversion of cholesterol into bile acids just important for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, but also to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides and toxic metabolites as well as violations of the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of

  18. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid. (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio


    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  19. Rožmarinska kislina: Rosmarinic acid:


    Sova, Matej


    Rosmarinic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, is an active component of several medicinal plants and spices. This article presents the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid and provides a brief description of its main biological activities and potential therapeutic use. Rožmarinska kislina, ester kavne in 3,4-dihidroksifenilmlečne kisline, je aktivna sestavina številnih zdravilnih rastlin in začimb. V prispevku so predstavljeni njena biosinteza, kratek pregled gla...

  20. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.


    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used in food, in accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), at levels not to...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid... meet the specifications in § 172.860(b) of this chapter. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfamic acid. 186.1093 Section 186.1093 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3NO3S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6) is a white crystalline solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and...

  5. 21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formic acid. 573.480 Section 573.480 Food and... Listing § 573.480 Formic acid. Formic acid may be safely used as a preservative in hay crop silage in an.... The top foot of silage stored should not contain formic acid and silage should not be fed to livestock...

  6. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid (United States)

    Bonsignore, P.V.


    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.



    I. S. Chekman; N. A. Gorchakova; H. O. Sirova; O. O. Kazakova; T. I. Nagorna; V. F. Shatornaya


    Review is devoted to the amino acids that could be used for nanostructures creation. The investigation of corresponding properties of amino acids is essential for their role definition in creation of nanomedicines. However, amino acid studying as components of nanostructures is insufficient. Study of nanoparticles for medicines creation was initiated by the development of nanotechnology. Amino acids in complexes with the nanoparticles of organic and inorganic nature play an important role for...

  8. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P


    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  9. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.


    AKTÜMSEK, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin


    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  10. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  11. Elicitation and precursor feeding influence phenolic acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant cell cultures have been industrially used for the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Different elicitors, [jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethephone (E)] and precursors [shicimic acid (SH) and phenylalanine (PHE)] were independently used to enhance the synthesis of phenolics in suspension cultures of Vitis ...

  12. Symmetry Scheme for Amino Acid Codons


    Balakrishnan, J.


    Group theoretical concepts are invoked in a specific model to explain how only twenty amino acids occur in nature out of a possible sixty four. The methods we use enable us to justify the occurrence of the recently discovered twenty first amino acid selenocysteine, and also enables us to predict the possible existence of two more, as yet undiscovered amino acids.

  13. Dietary fatty acid intake after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenberg, Famke; Goede, de Janette; Wanders, A.J.; Zock, Peter L.; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M.


    Background: Replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Whether this replacement is beneficial for drug-treated patients with cardiac disease

  14. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD,.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the stem bark of Quassia africana, two new triterpenoids with the ursolic acid skeleton, characterized as 3-oxo-urs-12-en-27a, 28di-oic acid and its dihydro derivative, 3β-urs-12-en-27α, 28di-oic acid have been isolated. The structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques. KEY WORDS: Quassia africana; ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. Picolinic acid promoted oxidative decarboxylation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics and mechanism of picolinic acid promoted reaction of phenylsulfinylacetic acid (PSAA) with Cr(VI) was carried out in aqueous acetonitrile medium under pseudo first order conditions. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics with respect to PSAA. The catalytic activity by picolinic acid can be ...

  18. A practical synthesis of (-)-kainic acid. (United States)

    Takita, Satoshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru


    A highly practical stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-kainic acid is described. This synthesis features the stereoselective alkylation of an iodolactone intermediate that was efficiently prepared from (+)-carvone and introduction of carboxylic acid by hydrolysis of a nitrile accompanied by epimerizaion. This synthetic route enabled us to obtain 14.6 g of (-)-kainic acid. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Succinic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this work, A. succinogenes 130Z was used to produce succinic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tuber hydrolysate. Results showed that both fructose and glucose in the tuber hydrolysate were utilized for succinic acid production. The sugar utilization was found to be dependent on process control...... that Jerusalem artichoke tubers could be utilized for production of bio-succinic acid....

  20. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van


    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  1. reactions of enolisable ketones with dichloroisocyanuric acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ABSTRACT. Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in ...

  2. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo


    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1011 - Alginic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alginic acid. 184.1011 Section 184.1011 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1011 Alginic acid. (a) Alginic acid is a colloidal, hydrophilic.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  4. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G


    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G


    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetics of proteinases of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    Because it is essential for good growth with concomitant rapid acid production, and for the production of flavorous peptides and amino acids, the proteolytic ability of lactic acid bacteria is of crucial importance for reliable dairy product quality. In view of this importance, considerable research

  7. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1099 - Tartaric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.1099 Section 582.1099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1099 Tartaric acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3041 - Erythorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythorbic acid. 582.3041 Section 582.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3041 Erythorbic acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1061 - Lactic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid. 582.1061 Section 582.1061 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1061 Lactic acid. (a) Product. Lactic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3041 - Erythorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Erythorbic acid. 182.3041 Section 182.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6099 - Tartaric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.6099 Section 582.6099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  18. 21 CFR 558.62 - Arsanilic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilic acid. 558.62 Section 558.62 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.62 Arsanilic acid. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles to sponsors in...), item 3 of this section. (3) To 061133: 90 grams per pound arsanilic acid and 4.6 grams per pound...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3089 - Sorbic acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sorbic acid. 182.3089 Section 182.3089 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3089 Sorbic acid. (a) Product. Sorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1033 - Citric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.1033 Section 582.1033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...