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Sample records for adip process

  1. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  2. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  3. A green two-step process for adipic acid production from cyclohexene. A study on parameters affecting selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavani, F.; Macchia, F.; Pino, R.; Raabova, K.; Rozhko, E. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Alini, S.; Accorinti, P.; Babini, G. [Radici Chimica SpA, Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report about the effect of reaction parameters on catalytic behavior in a twostep process aimed at the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene. In the first step, cyclohexene reacts with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, under conditions leading to the formation of trans-1,2-cyclohexandiol as the prevailing product; the reaction is catalysed by tungstic acid, in the presence of phosphoric acid and of a PT agent. In the second step, 1,2-cyclohexandiol is oxidized with air, in the presence of an heterogeneous catalyst made of alumina-supported Ru(OH){sub 3}. This process is aimed at using the minimal amount of the costly hydrogen peroxide, since only one mole is theoretically needed per mole of cyclohexene. The first step afforded very high yield to the glycol, using only a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. However, the second step turned out to be the more critical one, since the selectivity to adipic acid was very low because of the concomitant occurrence of several undesired side reactions. The latter were in part due to the reaction conditions used, which were necessary for the activation of cyclohexandiol. (orig.)

  4. Adipic Acid: Vigorous Import Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Adipic acid is mainly used to manufacture nylon 6,6, plasticizers, grease, polyurethane etc. There are three major commercial production processes: cyclohexane process, cyclohexanol process, butadiene carbonylation process, and the air oxidation of cyclohexane process constitute 93% of the total.

  5. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid.

  6. 21 CFR 582.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adipic acid. 582.1009 Section 582.1009 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Product. Adipic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid oxidation...

  8. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  9. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G A; Vanderbist, M J; Meert, F F

    1982-03-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method is described for rapid, quantitative determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate. The adipate group is very labile and, under mild alkaline conditions at ambient temperature, is easily hydrolyzed from the starch. Free adipic acid is formed by acidification of the solution with HCl, and then extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum distillation, and a silyl derivative of the adipic acid is formed. Glutaric acid internal standard is introduced into the original starch sample before hydrolysis. An aliquot of the silylated solution is injected into a gas chromatograph fitted with a column having silicone oil as the active phase. A flame ionization detector is also incorporated. Results correlate well the amount of adipylating reagent used. No adipic acid is detectable when a hydrolyzed, extracted sample of acetylated di-starch adipate is subjected to a second extraction. Recovery levels of adipic acid, from starches fortified with 100-500 ppm, are in the range of 97-102.5%.

  10. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: Manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.; Brehmer, B.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, tol

  11. Concurrent Enhancement of Multiple Properties in Reactively Processed Nanocomposites of Polylactide/Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] Blend and Organoclay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available clay (C20A) and a synthetic mica (MEE)—to enhance the thermal stability, impact toughness, and barrier properties of the PLA. An accelerated increase in the torque during processing indicated catalyzed chain-extension reactions in the clay...

  12. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  13. Thermo stabilisation of poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Paulino Chaves

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate - PBAT is a synthetic biodegradable polymer commonly used for plastic film production from neat polymer or nanocomposites. The PBAT is submitted to high temperatures and shear rate during its processing. In the present study, the thermo stabilisation of PBAT by the addition of two types of stabilisers was studied using a torque rheometer at 60 rpm and two levels of temperature. The stabilisers were used as master batches with a percentage of 10% by weight of additive in the PBAT. Molecular weight, torque values after 10 minutes of mixing, and absorbance at 400 nm were used to evaluate the process of stabilisation. The primary and secondary antioxidant used here had a positive effect on both processing temperatures, 180 and 200 °C. The best results indicate that the primary antioxidant could be used alone to protect PBAT against thermodegradation reactions.

  14. Analysis of Adipate Ester Contents in PVC Plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    -ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll® or di-octyl adipate, DOA, see Fig. 1. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3690 - Pentaerythritol adipate-stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adipic acid and stearic acid and its associated fatty acids (chiefly palmitic), with adipic acid comprising 14 percent and stearic acid and its associated acids (chiefly palmitic) comprising 71 percent of...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (2) Acid...

  16. Poly(lactic acid/thermoplastic starch sheets: effect of adipate esters on the morphological, mechanical and barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ayumi Shirai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA and thermoplastic starch (TPS plasticized with adipate esters (diisodecyl adipate and diethyl adipate having different molecular weight were used to produce sheets. The calendering-extrusion process at a pilot scale was used, and the mechanical, barrier, and morphological characterization of the obtained materials were performed. The increase in the TPS content affected the mechanical properties of the sheets by increasing the elongation and decreasing the rigidity. TPS conferred a more hydrophilic character to the sheets, as observed from the water vapor permeability results. The sheets plasticized with diisodecyl adipate (DIA, having a higher molecular weight, had better mechanical and barrier properties than diethyl adipate (DEA plasticized sheets, indicating that DIA was more effective as plasticizer. Micrographs obtained by confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed different morphologies when different proportions of PLA and TPS were used (dispersed or co-continuous structures, which were strongly associated with the mechanical and barrier properties.

  17. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  18. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds, such as adipic acid, may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they in most cases agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing wet and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The CCN effect of adipic acid coatings on both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Adipic acid particles prepared in a wet state follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The addition of a hydrophilic soluble compound to dry adipic acid eliminates the effect of particle phase, that is, the effect of the deliquescence barrier to CCN activation. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. For the relatively small soot particles (dcore=88 and 102 nm the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  19. Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thiophene on Polyethylene Adipate Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Erturan, Seyfettin; TORAMAN, Burcu YALVAÇ and Sena

    1998-01-01

    Polymerizations of pyrrole and thiophene on a platinum foil coated by polyethylene adipate (PEA) were carried out in acetonitrile by electrochemical methods. Different compositions of semi-conducting composite films of PEA/Polypyrrole(PPy), PEA/Polythiophene(PT) were prepared by the electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole and thiophene on PEA electrode. The polymerization was possible only for a certain thickness of the polyethylene adipate(PEA) on the platinum. Conductivities of PEA/PPy, P...

  20. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth.

  1. Processing and rheological characterization of poly(butylene adipate co-terephalate)/montmorillonite nanocomposites;Processamento e caracterizacao reologica de nanocompositos de poli(butileno adipato co-tereftalato)/montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatrice, Cesar A.G.; Marini, Juliano; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPGUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Branciforti, Marcia C.; Favaro, Marcia M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The rheological steady state and the linear viscoelastic properties of poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT) / nanoclay nanocomposites were investigated. For this study, nanocomposites of PBAT and a chemically modified montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared by melt blending in a Haake Rheomix 600p rheometer at 140 and 160 deg C. The concentration of nanoclay was 5wt%. The samples obtained were characterized by x-ray diffraction (WAXS) and rheological measurements in an ARES (Rheometric Scientific) and AR-G2 (TA) rheometers, both with parallel plates geometry. It was confirmed by WAXS that the platelets of the nanoclay were intercalated in all samples, as the discernible sharp reflection of the (001) clay's diffraction was found in the x-ray diffractions patterns. The storage moduli (G') and the loss moduli (G) of the nanocomposites increased with nanoclay content, at low frequencies. The presence of nanoclay caused these nanocomposites melts to have solid-like behaviors, which can be explained in terms of the development of a percolated network structure. (author)

  2. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1993-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 200, 600, 2000, 6000 and 20000 mg di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzy

  3. cis,cis-Muconic acid: separation and catalysis to bio-adipic acid for nylon-6,6 polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardon, Derek R.; Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Salvachúa, Davinia; Settle, Amy E.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Menart, Martin J.; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Dorgan, John R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-01-01

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a polyunsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be produced renewably via the biological conversion of sugars and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Subsequently, muconic acid can be catalytically converted to adipic acid -- the most commercially significant dicarboxylic acid manufactured from petroleum. Nylon-6,6 is the major industrial application for adipic acid, consuming 85% of market demand; however, high purity adipic acid (99.8%) is required for polymer synthesis. As such, process technologies are needed to effectively separate and catalytically transform biologically derived muconic acid to adipic acid in high purity over stable catalytic materials. To that end, this study: (1) demonstrates bioreactor production of muconate at 34.5 g L-1 in an engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, (2) examines the staged recovery of muconic acid from culture media, (3) screens platinum group metals (e.g., Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) for activity and leaching stability on activated carbon (AC) and silica supports, (4) evaluates the time-on-stream performance of Rh/AC in a trickle bed reactor, and (5) demonstrates the polymerization of bio-adipic acid to nylon-6,6. Separation experiments confirmed AC effectively removed broth color compounds, but subsequent pH/temperature shift crystallization resulted in significant levels of Na, P, K, S and N in the crystallized product. Ethanol dissolution of muconic acid precipitated bulk salts, achieving a purity of 99.8%. Batch catalysis screening reactions determined that Rh and Pd were both highly active compared to Pt and Ru, but Pd leached significantly (1-9%) from both AC and silica supports. Testing of Rh/AC in a continuous trickle bed reactor for 100 h confirmed stable performance after 24 h, although organic adsorption resulted in reduced steady-state activity. Lastly, polymerization of bio-adipic acid with hexamethyldiamine produced nylon-6,6 with comparable properties to its petrochemical counterpart

  4. Engineering a Polyketide Synthase for In Vitro Production of Adipic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Andrew; Poust, Sean; Rond, Tristan de; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-01-15

    Polyketides have enormous structural diversity, yet polyketide synthases (PKSs) have thus far been engineered to produce only drug candidates or derivatives thereof. Thousands of other molecules, including commodity and specialty chemicals, could be synthesized using PKSs if composing hybrid PKSs from well-characterized parts derived from natural PKSs was more efficient. Here, using modern mass spectrometry techniques as an essential part of the design-build-test cycle, we engineered a chimeric PKS to enable production one of the most widely used commodity chemicals, adipic acid. To accomplish this, we introduced heterologous reductive domains from various PKS clusters into the borrelidin PKS' first extension module, which we previously showed produces a 3-hydroxy-adipoyl intermediate when coincubated with the loading module and a succinyl-CoA starter unit. Acyl-ACP intermediate analysis revealed an unexpected bottleneck at the dehydration step, which was overcome by introduction of a carboxyacyl-processing dehydratase domain. Appending a thioesterase to the hybrid PKS enabled the production of free adipic acid. Using acyl-intermediate based techniques to "debug" PKSs as described here, it should one day be possible to engineer chimeric PKSs to produce a variety of existing commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as thousands of chemicals that are difficult to produce from petroleum feedstocks using traditional synthetic chemistry.

  5. Engineering a Polyketide Synthase for In Vitro Production of Adipic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, A; Poust, S; De Rond, T; Fortman, JL; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-26

    Polyketides have enormous structural diversity, yet polyketide synthases (PKSs) have thus far been engineered to produce only drug candidates or derivatives thereof. Thousands of other molecules, including commodity and specialty chemicals, could be synthesized using PKSs if composing hybrid PKSs from well-characterized parts derived from natural PKSs was more efficient. Here, using modern mass spectrometry techniques as an essential part of the design–build–test cycle, we engineered a chimeric PKS to enable production one of the most widely used commodity chemicals, adipic acid. To accomplish this, we introduced heterologous reductive domains from various PKS clusters into the borrelidin PKS’ first extension module, which we previously showed produces a 3-hydroxy-adipoyl intermediate when coincubated with the loading module and a succinyl-CoA starter unit. Acyl-ACP intermediate analysis revealed an unexpected bottleneck at the dehydration step, which was overcome by introduction of a carboxyacyl-processing dehydratase domain. Appending a thioesterase to the hybrid PKS enabled the production of free adipic acid. Using acyl-intermediate based techniques to “debug” PKSs as described here, it should one day be possible to engineer chimeric PKSs to produce a variety of existing commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as thousands of chemicals that are difficult to produce from petroleum feedstocks using traditional synthetic chemistry.

  6. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  7. Improved production of adipate with Escherichia coli by reversal of β-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Gätgens, Jochem; Lübcke, Marvin; Pietruszka, Jörg; Bott, Michael; Polen, Tino

    2017-03-01

    The linear C6 dicarboxylic acid adipic acid is an important bulk chemical in the petrochemical industry as precursor of the polymer nylon-6,6-polyamide. In recent years, efforts were made towards the biotechnological production of adipate from renewable carbon sources using microbial cells. One strategy is to produce adipate via a reversed β-oxidation pathway. Hitherto, the adipate titers were very low due to limiting enzyme activities for this pathway. In most cases, the CoA intermediates are non-natural substrates for the tested enzymes and were therefore barely converted. We here tested heterologous enzymes in Escherichia coli to overcome these limitations and to improve the production of adipate via a reverse β-oxidation pathway. We tested in vitro selected enzymes for the efficient reduction of the enoyl-CoA and in the final reaction for the thioester cleavage. The genes encoding the enzymes which showed in vitro the highest activity were then used to construct an expression plasmid for a synthetic adipate pathway. Expression of paaJ, paaH, paaF, dcaA, and tesB in E. coli BL21(DE3) resulted in the production of up to 36 mg/L of adipate after 30 h of cultivation. Beside the activities of the pathway enzymes, the availability of metabolic precursors may limit the synthesis of adipate, providing another key target for further strain engineering towards high-yield production of adipate with E. coli.

  8. ADIP ORNL contribution: 12th ADIP quarterly progress report for period October-December 1980. [Nb-1Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.; Duncan, D.; Ermi, A.M.; Gelles, D.; Zimmerchied, M.

    1980-01-01

    The following ADIP tasks are reported on: MFE-5 in-reactor fatigue crack growth in 316 SS in ORR, titanium alloy tensile properties after neutron irradiation in EBR-II, voids in neutron-irradiated Ti alloys, fabrication of ferritic alloys for RB-1 experiment in HFIR, microstructural examination of commercial ferritic alloys irradiated to very high fluence, microstructural examination of HT-9 archive material from the AD-2 test, and swelling of commercial alloys irradiated to a very high fluence. (DLC)

  9. Amended final report of the safety assessment of dibutyl adipate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Dibutyl Adipate, the diester of butyl alcohol and adipic acid, functions as a plasticizer, skin-conditioning agent, and solvent in cosmetic formulations. It is reportedly used at a concentration of 5% in nail polish and 8% in suntan gels, creams, and liquids. Dibutyl Adipate is soluble in organic solvents, but practically insoluble in water. Dibutyl Adipate does not absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. Dibutyl Adipate is not toxic in acute oral or dermal animal toxicity tests. In a subchronic dermal toxicity study, 1.0 ml/kg day-1 caused a significant reduction in body weight gain in rabbits, but 0.5 ml/kg/day1 was without effect. In a study with dogs, no adverse effects were observed when an emulsion containing 6.25% Dibutyl Adipate was applied to the entire body twice a week for 3 months. Dibutyl Adipate was tested for dermal irritation using rabbits and mice and a none to minimal irritation was observed. Dibutyl Adipate at a concentration of 25% was not a sensitizer in a guinea pig maximization study. Undiluted Dibutyl Adipate was minimally irritating to the eyes of rabbits and 0.1% was nonirritating. A significant increase in fetal gross abnormalities was observed in rats given intraperitoneal injections of Dibutyl Adipate at 1.75 ml/kg on 3 separate days during gestation, but no effect was seen in animals given 1.05 ml/kg. Dibutyl Adipate was not genotoxic in either bacterial or mammalian test systems. Clinical patch tests confirmed the absence of skin irritation found in animal tests. Clinical phototoxicity tests were negative. Dibutyl Adipate at 0.1% was not an ocular irritant in two male volunteers. In a clinical test of comedogenicity, Dibutyl Adipate produced no effect. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that use of Dibutyl Adipate in suntan cosmetic products will result in repeated, frequent exposure in a leave-on product. The available data demonstrate no skin sensitization or cumulative skin

  10. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. Die respiratorische Katastrophe des adipösen Patienten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staudinger T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beim morbid adipösen Patienten besteht neben der Neigung zu Atelektasen einerseits eine restriktive Lungenerkrankung mit herabgesetzten Lungenvolumina und damit einer deutlich reduzierten Reservekapazität, andererseits das Bild einer chronischen Obstruktion. Der Sauerstoffpartialdruck ist erniedrigt und es liegt häufig eine chronische Hyperkapnie vor. Diese Veränderungen bewirken eine Atmung unter submaximaler Heranziehung kompensatorischer Mechanismen, sodass ein zusätzlicher Trigger, wie z. B. eine Infektion, Bettlägerigkeit oder ein anderer akut krankhafter Prozess, rasch zu einer völligen und lebensbedrohlichen Dekompensation des respiratorischen Systems führen kann. Obwohl adipöse Patienten bei kritischer Erkrankung eine bessere Prognose als Normal- und Untergewichtige haben (so genanntes „Obesity Paradoxon“, leiden morbid Adipöse (BMI 40 an zahlreichen Komorbiditäten, die diesen Effekt wieder zunichtemachen. Spezielle therapeutische Maßnahmen bei respiratorischen Krisen sind eine adäquate Lagerung (Vermeidung von Flachund Kopftieflage, durchgehende Oberkörperhochlagerung bei beatmungspflichtigem Lungenversagen Bauchlagerung, die Verwendung von auf das erhöhte Körpergewicht abgestimmten Materialien wie Spezialbetten, Stühlen und Instrumenten, sowie eine Beatmungstherapie mit adäquat hohem „Positive End-Expiratory Pressure“ (PEEP nach entsprechend gut vorbereiteter endotrachealer Intubation (Aspirationsprophylaxe, Positionierung unter Einbeziehung von Spontanatmungsanteilen und unter Berücksichtigung des idealen (nicht absoluten! Körpergewichts für die Berechnung der Atemzugsvolumina. Dem Wissen um pathophysiologische Veränderungen und spezifische Therapiemaßnahmen bei respiratorischer Insuffizienz kommt im Rahmen des Managements eines Patienten mit Adipositas permagna eine entscheidende Rolle zu und es trägt mit Sicherheit dazu bei, das akute Problem erfolgreich und komplikationsarm zu beherrschen.

  13. TNF-alfa e metabolismo do adipócito

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Chantelle Simões Leite

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A prevalência da obesidade tem vindo a aumentar ao longo dos anos influenciando a qualidade de vida da população, tornando-a mais suscetível ao desenvolvimento de outras patologias como as doenças cardiovasculares e a diabetes. A obesidade é resultante do aumento progressivo do tamanho do tecido adiposo em consequência de maior volume e número de adipócitos, levando a uma crescente síntetese d...

  14. TNF-alfa e metabolismo do adipócito

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Chantelle Simões Leite

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A prevalência da obesidade tem vindo a aumentar ao longo dos anos influenciando a qualidade de vida da população, tornando-a mais suscetível ao desenvolvimento de outras patologias como as doenças cardiovasculares e a diabetes. A obesidade é resultante do aumento progressivo do tamanho do tecido adiposo em consequência de maior volume e número de adipócitos, levando a uma crescente síntetese d...

  15. Selected properties of acetylated adipate of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Kapelko, M

    2014-01-01

    Native potato starch (NS) and retrograded starch (R - obtained via freezing and defrosting of a starch paste) were used to prepare starch acetates: NS-A and R-A, and then acetylated distarch adipates: NS-ADA and R-ADA. The chemically-modified preparations produced from retrograded starch (R-A; R-ADA) were characterized by a higher degree of esterification compared to the modified preparations produced under the same conditions from native potato starch (NS-A; NS-ADA). Starch resistance to amylolysis was observed to increase (to 30-40 g/100 g) as a result of starch retrogradation and acetylation. Starch cross-linking had a significant impact on the increased viscosity of the paste in the entire course of pasting characteristics and on the increased values of rheological coefficients determined from the equations describing flow curves. The produced preparation of acetylated retrograded starch cross-linked with adipic acid (R-ADA) may be deemed an RS3/4 preparation to be used as a food thickening agent.

  16. Effect of cross-linking degree on selected properties of retrograded starch adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Michalski, A; Gryszkin, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the concentration of paste used to produce retrograded starch, and esterification degree, on selected properties of the resultant distarch adipate. Starch paste was prepared from native potato starch (1, 4, 10, 18 or 30 g/100g), frozen, defrosted and dried. Thus produced preparations of retrograded starch were cross-linked with various doses of a cross-linking agent (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ml per 100g of starch). Properties of the produced adipates depended on both the concentration of paste used to produce retrograded starch and the degree of substitution with adipic acid residues. Solubility in water and swelling power of the cross-linked preparations of retrograded starch, as well as pasting temperature and viscosity of produced pastes, all decreased along with the increasing degree of substitution with adipic acid residues.

  17. Poly(Butylene Succinate) and Poly[(Butylene Succinate)-co-Adipate] Nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available , and properties of nanoclay-containing composites of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA). Various nanocomposite structures arising from the incorporation of layered silicate particles, both pristine...

  18. Topological aspects of lanthanide-adipate-aqua compounds: Close packed and open framework structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Durga Sankar; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Hazari, Debdoot; Zangrando, Ennio; Dalai, Sudipta

    2013-07-01

    A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) for lanthanide complexes with adipate [OOC(CH2)4COO]2- and aqua ligands retrieved a fair number of compounds. To this dataset a new lanthanum metal-organic framework, {[La2(adip)3(H2O)2] (1) (adipH2=adipic acid), synthesised and structurally characterized in these labs, was included. The crystal structures of these coordination polymers, of general formulation [Ln2(adip)3(H2O)x], exhibit a variety of topologies and dimensionality, which were clustered in different classes and described in detail. It was explored that the majority of these evidences the presence of metal chains or dinuclear Ln2 entities (separated in both cases by 4.0-4.8 Å), where lanthanide ions are differently connected by carboxylate groups with chelating or oxygen-bridging mode. The different amount of coordinated water molecules appear to affect the solid state networks. Moreover the crystal packing of these compounds shows peculiar aspects and examples were reported in the literature where the long alkyl chain of adipate connectors give rise to interpenetrated structures, or to porous material where lattice water or neutral larger molecules are clathrated.

  19. Metabolic network analysis of an adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: Elucidation of adipate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    An adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing, recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum was characterized by metabolic network analysis, with special focus on the degradation of adipate and determination of the metabolic fluxes. Degradation of the side-chain precursor, adipate, causes an undesired consumption...... and the formed acetyl-CoA was metabolized in the glyoxylate shunt. This hypothesis was further substantiated by an enzyme assay, which showed activity of the key enzyme in the glyoxylate shunt. Flux estimations in two chemostat cultures, one with and one without adipate in the feed, revealed that degradation...... of adipate in the production of 7-ADCA. Using C-13-labeled glucose and measurement of metabolite labeling patterns, it was shown that adipate was degraded by beta-oxidation to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. The labeling analysis indicated that degradation of adipate was taking place in the microbodies...

  20. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4- Butanediol, Adipic... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester... residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4-butanediol, adipic acid,...

  1. Development of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate nanocomposite as an antibacterial coating for fruit storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel nanocomposite of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate (Ag/TiO2/CS) was developed through photochemical reduction using a chitosan adipate template. Chitosan served as a reducing agent for the metal ions, and anchored metal ions by forming Ag–N coordination bonds and electrostatic attract...

  2. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs......) in pure form are reported. We studied if qualitative and quantitative determination of the adipate ester content would be possible based on the use of proper reference samples. It was found that AEs as a group cannot be definitively identified by their characteristic Raman bands because other aliphatic...

  3. Influence of end groups in hyperbranched polyesters used as modifiers in the characteristics of epoxy thermosets cured by adipic dihydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA resin and different ratios of aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyester (HBP were cured by a latent curing agent, adipic dihydrazide (AH. The HBPs prepared have hydroxyl groups or 10-undecenoyl or allyl groups as chain ends. The curing mixtures were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to study the curing process and to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the different formulations. These studies suggest that HBPs decrease the curing rate of epoxy/AH in the case of vinyl terminated HPB, whereas OH terminated HBP accelerates the first stages and delays the lasts. The thermosets obtained showed an improvement in microhardness and impact strength without any reduction of the Tg and thermal parameters. Microparticle phase separation was observed with the undecenoyl HBP derivatives or when a 10% of allyl HBP derivative was in the formulation.

  4. Influence of Teflon substrate on crystallization and enzymatic degradation of polymorphic poly(butylene adipate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ning, Zhenbo; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Zhao, Lifen;

    2014-01-01

    Oriented and non-oriented Teflon films, which were found to have the same crystalline structure, but different surface morphologies, were used to sandwich poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) films during isothermal crystallization. It was found that both the Teflon surface structure and the PBA...

  5. Poly(glycerol adipate)-fatty acid esters as versatile nanocarriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Verena M; Naolou, Toufik; Hause, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Poly(glycerol adipate) (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer with promising features for nanoparticulate drug carrier systems. By acylation of PGA with fatty acids, composite systems with amphiphilic properties can be obtained. Variation of the fatty acid (laurate, stearate and behenate) and their sub...

  6. Development of poly(glycerol adipate) nanoparticles loaded with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahab, A.; Favretto, M.E.; Onyeagor, N.D.; Khan, G.M.; Douroumis, D.; Casely-Hayford, M.A.; Kallinteri, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess acylated and non-acylated poly(glycerol adipate) polymers (PGA) as suitable nanoparticulate systems for encapsulation and release of ibuprofen, ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU-Na) and ketoprofen as model drugs. Drug encapsulated nanoparticles were prepared using the in

  7. Viscoelastic properties of poly(butylene succinate)-co-adipate) nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the viscoelastic properties of poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites of PBSA with various loadings of organically modified clay were prepared by melt-mixing in a batch-mixer. The solid...

  8. Multifunctional nanobiocomposite of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] and clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available and Nanotechnology Vol. 15, 2446-2450 Multifunctional Nanobiocomposite of Poly[(butylene succinate)- co-adipate] and Clay Shaeel A. Al-Thabaiti1, Suprakas Sinha Ray1_ 2_ ∗, Sulaiman Nassir Basahel1, and Mohamed Mokhtar1 1Department of Chemistry, King...

  9. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability fa

  10. Production of Adipic Acid from Mixtures of Cyclohexanol-Cyclohexanone using Polyoxometalate Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid production through catalytic conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone using polyoxometalate H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] as catalysts was carried out systematically. Polyoxometalates H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] were synthesized using an inorganic synthesis method and were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Adipic acid was formed from conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone and was characterized by using melting point measurement, identification of functional group using FTIR spectrophotometer, analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometer. This research investigated the influence of reaction time and temperature on the conversion. The results showed that adipic acid was formed successfully with a yield of 68% by using H5[a-BW12O40] as the catalyst with a melting point of 150-152 °C after optimization. In contrast, using H4[a-SiW12O40] as the catalyst, the formation was only 3.7%. Investigation of time and temperature showed 9 h as the optimum reaction time and 90 °C as the optimum temperature for conversion of up to 68%. Identification using FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR showed that the adipic acid from conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone was in agreement with the standard adipic acid data in the literatures. GC-MS analysis indicated that several by-products were formed in conversion of cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone using H5[a-BW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] as the catalysts.

  11. Effect of Anodic Alumina Oxide Pore Diameter on the Crystallization of Poly(butylene adipate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Fang, Qunqun; Li, Huihui; Ren, Zhongjie; Yan, Shouke

    2016-04-05

    Poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) was infiltrated into the anodic alumina oxide (AAO) templates with the pore diameter of around 30, 70, and 100 nm and PBA nanotubes with different diameters were prepared. The crystallization and phase transition behavior of the obtained PBA nanotubes capped in the nanopores have been explored by using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Only α-PBA crystals form in the bulk sample during nonisothermal crystallization. By contrast, predominant β-PBA crystals form in the AAO templates. The β-PBA crystals formed in the nanopores with pore diameter less than 70 nm prefer to adopt an orientation with their b-axis parallel to the long axis of the pore. During the melt recrystallization, it was found that the critical temperature (Tβ), below which pure β-crystals form, is 20 °C for bulk PBA. It drops down significantly with the pore diameter for the PBA in the AAO template. Moreover, the β-crystals in the porous template exhibit larger lattice parameters compared with the bulk crystals. By monitoring the change of β-crystals in the heating process, it was found that β-crystals in the AAO template with the pore diameter of 30 nm (D30) melt directly while the β-crystals transform to α-crystals in the template with the pore diameter of 100 nm (D100). The intensity of (020) Bragg peak of β-crystals decreases at a similar rate in both D30 and D100 but disappears at a relatively lower temperature in D30. On the other hand, the β(110) peak intensity of β-PBA crystals formed in the D100 template decreases first at slower rate before α crystals appear, and then at a faster rate once the β to α phase transition takes place.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of zirconium phosphate adipate dimethyl sulphoxide: A new lambda-type organic-inorganic layered material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hussein Alhendawi

    2014-07-01

    −Zirconium phosphate adipate dimethyl sulphoxide, -ZrPO4(OOC-(CH2)4-COOH)(CH3)2SO, is prepared by means of topotactic anion exchange of the chloride ligand of -Zirconium phosphate, -ZrPO4Cl(CH3)2SO, with adipate. The samples are characterized by thermal analyses, X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectrophotometry. The used analysis approaches provide strong evidence that the chloride monovalent anions of -Zirconium phosphate are completely exchanged with the carboxylate groups of the adipate monoanionic ligands. Moreover, the adipate ligands replace the chloride anions in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In this case the formula of the derivative should contain the monoanionic adipate fragment: (OOC-(CH2)4-COOH). This formula is in agreement with TGA and elemental analysis. With respect to intercalation properties, the synthesized adipate-solid phase has a higher acidic character and a larger gallery height in comparison to the pristine -Zirconium phosphate (1.47, 1.02 nm, respectively). Therefore, this material is expected to be a suitable host for intercalation of huge basic guests.

  13. Development of a vibrofluidized bed and fluid-dynamic study with dry and wet adipic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Moris V.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrofluidized bed developed in this work, consisting of a transparent plexiglass tube with an inner diameter of 0.1 m and a height of 0.5 m, was designed for the fluidization of adipic acid. The fluidization behavior of dry adipic acid with particle diameters in the range of 75 - 600 mm and a density of 1340kg/m³ was studied using mechanical vibration for different sample loads. Variables studied for the wet material include frequency and amplitude of vibration and moisture content of the particles. On the basis of the quantitative flow curve data and visual observations, it is concluded that the fluid dynamics of the bed with wet sticky particles, both vibrating and not vibrating, is different from that of the bed with dry particles.

  14. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram

    2017-02-13

    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80-100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  15. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Falamarzpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured, chemically cross-linked (cured, and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  16. Toughening of biodegradable polylactide/poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) blends via in situ reactive compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2013-05-22

    Polylactide and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PLA/PBSA) were melt-blended in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP). An increase in the torque during melt mixing was used to monitor the changes in viscosity as compatibilization of the blends occurred. Scanning electron micrographs showed not only a reduction in the dispersed-phase size with increased TPP content but also fibrillated links between the PLA and PBSA phases, signifying compatibilization. Moreover, optimization of parameters such as the mixing sequence and time, TPP content, and PBSA concentration revealed that blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA and 2 wt % TPP, which were processed for 30 min, were optimal in terms of thermomechanical properties. The impact strength increased from 6 kJ/m(2) for PLA to 11 and 16 kJ/m(2) for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively, whereas the elongation-at-break increased from 6% for PLA to 20 and 37% for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively. Upon compatibilization, the failure mode shifted from the brittle fracture of PLA to ductile deformation, effected by the debonding between the two phases. With improved phase adhesion, compatibilized blends not only were toughened but also did not significantly lose tensile strength and thermal stability.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of aliphatic polyesters from glycerol, by-product of biodiesel production, and adipic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de Meireles Brioude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, polyesters were prepared from the polycondensation between glycerol and adipic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate as catalyst. Three glycerol: adipic acid molar ratio were used for the bulk polymerization namely: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC and XRD indicated no crystallinity for all the polymers. The morphology of the materials are characterized by globular structure, which may suggest compositional fluctuations throughout the samples.

  18. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures caused by alpha amino adipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: the first polish case with confirmed biochemical and molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska, Magdalena; Kmiec, Tomasz; Jakobs, Cornelis; Kacinski, Marek; Kroczka, Slawomir; Salomons, Gajja S; Struys, Eduard A; Jozwiak, Sergiusz

    2008-12-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are a rare condition recognized when numerous seizures respond to pyridoxine treatment and recur on pyridoxine withdrawal. For decades the diagnosis was confirmed only with pyridoxine treatment withdrawal trial. Recently described biochemical and molecular pathology improved the diagnostic process for those cases in which seizures are caused by alpha amino adipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. This article presents a girl with recurrent status epilepticus episodes resistant to phenobarbital and phenytoin and partly responding to midazolam. Eventually the seizures were completely controlled with pyridoxine; however, due to the severe condition of this child when seizing, no trial of withdrawal has been performed. The diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent seizures was confirmed with biochemical and molecular testing revealing elevated alpha-AASA excretion and the presence of 2 different mutations in the antiquitin ( ALDH7A1) gene. Due to the availability of reliable laboratory testing, confirmation of the diagnosis was made without the life-threatening trial of pyridoxine withdrawal.

  19. Cellulose nanocrystal and poly[di(ethylene glycol) adipate] blend for tunable lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-U.; Kim, Hyun Chan; Li, Yaguang; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    In these days, consumer electronics and medical device for optical diagnosis are minimalized and mobilized. The focusing part is one of crucial parts of optical diagnosis systems to reduce the size and weight. Thus, demand for tunable lens that change the focus itself is increased. To meet the demand, many tunable lens has been studied by utilizing smart materials that responded under mechanical, magnetic, optical, thermal, chemical, electrical or electrochemical stimuli. This paper reports a cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and poly[di(ethylene glycol) adipate] (PDEGA) blend that is able to respond under electromechanical stimulus. The preparation of CNC/PDEGA and its characterization are illustrated and its actuation behavior is tested . Because the material has high dielectric constant and high reflection index, it is good candidate material for tunable lens.

  20. Facile preparation of biodegradable chitosan derivative having poly(butylene glycol adipate) side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meifang; Fang, Yue'e

    2006-08-15

    Various modes are being explored for the construction of functional materials from nanoparticles. Despite these efforts, the assembly of nanoparticles remains challenging with respect to the requirement of multiple component organization on varying dimensions and length scales. The graft copolymers of chitosan with poly(butylene glycol adipate) (PBGA) were prepared due to the esterification reaction between PBGA and 6-O-succinate-N-phthaloyl-chitosan (PHCSSA) in the presence of toluene as a swelling agent. The graft copolymers are nanoparticles with the size of few hundred nanometers as observed from TEM. It is a potential method to combine chitosan with the hydrophobic synthetic polymers. The grafting reactions were conducted with various PBGA/PHCSSA feed ratios to obtain chitosan-g-PBGA copolymers with various PBGA contents. FT-IR, NMR, XRD, spectrofluorophotometer, and TEM were detected to characterize the copolymers. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Aqueous solubility and Daphnia magna chronic toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, K A; Dufresne, D L; Gorsuch, J W; Stubblefield, W A; Staples, C A; Parkerton, T F

    2008-06-01

    A water solubility of 5.5 (+/-0.22) microg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was measured using the slow-stir method. This value is consistent with computer estimations and over two orders of magnitude lower than that previously determined using the shake-flask method. We performed a 21-day chronic Daphnia magna limit test at an average exposure of 4.4 microg/L in laboratory diluent water to avoid insoluble test material and avoid physical entrapment. One hundred percent of the DEHA-treated organisms survived compared to 90% survival in both the controls and solvent controls. Mean neonate reproduction was 152, 137, and 148 and mean dry weight per surviving female was 0.804, 0.779, and 0.742 mg in the DEHA treatment, control, and solvent control, respectively. No adverse effects were observed.

  2. Drug incorporation and release of water soluble drugs from novel functionalized poly(glycerol adipate) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sanyogita; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Higgins, Sean; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Garnett, Martin C

    2008-01-04

    We have previously demonstrated the ability of poly(glycerol adipate) backbone (PGA) and PGA polymer backbone substituted with varying amounts of pendant C(18) chain length acyl groups to yield Dexamethasone phosphate DXMP loaded nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the underlying principles responsible for good drug incorporation and controlled release of drugs from poly (glycerol adipate) (PGA) nanoparticles. We compared the incorporation of the water soluble drugs DXMP and Cytosine arabinoside (CYT-ARA) in both unmodified and substituted PGA polymers. We investigated the effect of change in acyl group chain length and the degree of substitution on the physicochemical properties, drug loading and release of DXMP and CYT-ARA. Nanoparticles were prepared by the interfacial deposition technique and the simultaneous emulsification method. Amongst the nanoparticles prepared using acylated polymers with varying chain lengths (C(2) to C(10)) for DXMP incorporation, polymers with acyl group chain lengths containing 8 carbon atoms (C(8)) showed maximum drug incorporation. Amongst the C(8) series, polymers with 100% acylation provided both good drug incorporation and a controlled release for DXMP while for CYT-ARA it was the unsubstituted polymer backbone that had maximum drug loading and slower release. A number of inter-related factors are responsible for producing particles with particular size, zeta potential, drug loading and release characteristics. Drug loading and release from nanoparticles are primarily influenced by the nature of interactions between the drug and polymers which in turn depend upon the type of drug used and the physical chemistry of the polymer.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biodegradation Studies of Poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene-adipate-carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S. Chandure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic/alicyclic poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene-adipate-carbonates (PCACs were synthesized by a transesterification from 1,4-cyclohexamethylendimethanol (1,4-CHDM, adipic acid (AA, diethyl carbonate (DEC, and titanium butoxide Ti(OBu4 as a transesterification catalyst. The synthesized PCACs were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, solubility, solution viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM for their structural, physical, thermal, and morphological investigation. The structure of synthesized PCACs was confirmed by FTIR. All TGA curves of PCACs shows 10% weight loss above 270°C, and they reveal good thermal stability. Biodegradability of PCACs was investigated by hydrolytic degradation at (pH 7.2 and 11.5, enzymatic degradation using Rhizopus delemar lips at 37°C in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, and soil burial degradation at 30°C. The hydrolytic degradation shows the greater rate of weight loss in PBS at pH-11.5 than pH-7.2. The hydrolytic and soil burial degradation shows faster rate of weight loss as compared to enzymatic degradation. Biodegradation rate of PCACs follows the order: PCAC-20 > PCAC-40 > PCAC-60. SEM images show that degradation occurred all over the film surface, creating holes and cracks. These biodegradable PCACs may be able to replace conventional polymer in the fabrication of packaging film in near future.

  4. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyzed [3+2] Cycloaddition of Enals with Masked Cinnamates for the Asymmetric One-Pot Synthesis of Adipic Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Yu; Li, Sun; Sheng, He; Liu, Qiang; Jafari, Ehsan; von Essen, Carolina; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2017-09-21

    A novel short entry to 3,4-disubstituted adipic acids has been developed by employing an asymmetric NHC-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of enals with masked cinnammates in moderate to good yields and high stereoselectivities. The synthetic utility of the protocol was demonstrated by the basic conversion of the masked cyclopentanone intermediates to 3S,4S-disubstituted adipic acid precursors of pharmaceutically important gababutins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Poly(lactide)-g-poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) with High Crystallization Capacity and Migration Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Yang; Huan Xu; Karin Odelius; Minna Hakkarainen

    2016-01-01

    Plasticized polylactide (PLA) with increased crystallization ability and prolonged life-span in practical applications due to the minimal plasticizer migration was prepared. Branched plasticized PLA was successfully obtained by coupling poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) to crotonic acid (CA) functionalized PLA. The plasticization behavior of PBSA coupled PLA (PLA-CA-PBSA) and its counterpart PBSA blended PLA (PLA/PBSA) were fully elucidated. For both PLA-CA-PBSA and PLA/PBSA, a decre...

  6. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  7. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy with elevated urinary α-amino adipic semialdehyde in molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struys, Eduard Alexander; Nota, Benjamin; Bakkali, Abdellatif; Al Shahwan, Saad; Salomons, Gajja Sophi; Tabarki, Brahim

    2012-12-01

    α-Amino adipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) accumulates in body fluids from patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy because of mutations in antiquitin (ALDH7A1) and serves as the biomarker for this condition. We have recently found that the urinary excretion of α-AASA was also increased in molybdenum cofactor and sulfite oxidase deficiencies. The seizures in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy are caused by lowered cerebral levels of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), the bioactive form of pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), which can be corrected by the supplementation of pyridoxine. The nonenzymatic trapping of PLP by the cyclic form of α-AASA is causative for the lowered cerebral PLP levels. We describe 2 siblings with clinically evident pyridoxine-responsive seizures associated with increased urinary excretion of α-AASA. Subsequent metabolic investigations revealed several metabolic abnormities, all indicative for molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Molecular investigations indeed revealed a known homozygous mutation in the MOCS2 gene. Based upon the clinically evident pyridoxine-responsive seizures in these 2 siblings, we recommend considering pyridoxine supplementation to patients affected with molybdenum cofactor or sulfite oxidase deficiencies.

  8. Properties of collagen gels cross-linked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid deriviate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wentao; Tian, Zhenhua; Li, Conghu; Li, Guoying

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the properties of collagen gel, N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid derivative (NHS-AA) was introduced into the formation of collagen fibrils. NHS-AA with different [NHS-AA]/[NH2] ratios (0.1-1.5, calculated by [ester group] of NHS-AA and [NH2] of lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen) was added after, simultaneously with or before the formation of collagen fibrils (abbreviated CAF, CSF and CBF, respectively) to obtain different collagen gels. With the same dose of NHS-AA, the cross-linking degree for CAF was lower than those for CSF and CBF. The formation of collagen fibrils was restrained by NHS-AA for CSF and CBF while that for CAF was unaffected. When the dose of NHS-AA increased from 0.1 to 1.5, the water contents of CSF and CBF increased while that of CAF had no obvious change. With lower dose of NHS-AA (0.1), CAF possessed higher value of G' (87.3Pa) and the best thermal stability (47.6°C). As the ratio of [NHS-AA]/[NH2] increased to 1.5, CSF had the maximum value of G' (288.8Pa) and CAF had the best thermal stability (52.9°C). These results showed collagen gels with different properties could be prepared by adding NHS-AA with different adding sequence and dose.

  9. Properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solution crosslinked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihui; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2011-03-01

    The effect of N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) on the properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solutions was examined. The residual amino group content in crosslinked collagen, determined by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, was decreased with increasing NHS-AA concentration. The results from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the maximum denaturation temperature ( T d) of crosslinked collagen solution was about 4.2°C higher than that of un-crosslinked collagen solution (36.6°C). Moreover, the values of storage modulus ( G'), loss modulus ( G″) and complex viscosity ( η*), obtained by means of dynamic frequency sweeps, were increased as NHS-AA concentration added up to 1.5 mM, and then decreased slightly when further increased NHS-AA concentration. Besides, for collagen solution crosslinked with 1.5 mM NHS-AA, dynamic denaturation temperature ( T dd) was about 1.1°C lower than T d (40.8°C), and the Arrhenius-type time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was applied to yield the activation energy to be 474.4 kJmol-1.

  10. Novel microbial screen for detection of 1,4-butanediol, ethylene glycol, and adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, B; Weimer, P J

    1985-03-01

    A novel microbial-screening procedure was developed for separate detection of 1,4-butanediol, ethylene glycol, and adipic acid, three commercially important oxychemicals potentially derivable from bacterial omega-oxidation of n-butanol, ethanol, and hexanoic acid, respectively. The screening method involved postproduction addition of one of several specific Pseudomonas strains which produce a soluble fluorescent pigment during growth on the product of interest. A mutation and selection procedure was developed for isolation of specific strains with phenotypes for growth and pigment production on the desired product (e.g., 1,4-butanediol), but not on its bioconversion substrate (e.g., n-butanol), common by-products (e.g., n-butyrate), or product isomers. Pigment production was growth associated and required cultivation of the screening strains under limiting Fe3+ concentrations. The pigments resembled well-characterized, iron-chelating siderophores produced by other fluorescent pseudomonads. The sensitivity of the assay for product accumulation was enhanced by (i) conducting the screening in microtiter dishes to permit examination of individual isolates of putative producers and to control product diffusion, (ii) using a wavelength cutoff filter to reduce background source light, and (iii) using adapted screening strains which grew at lower (0.3 mM) concentrations of test compounds. The potential utility of the method for detecting a variety of oxidative catabolic products is discussed.

  11. Structure-barrier property relationship of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] nanocomposites: influence of the rigid amorphous fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlon, S; Marais, S; Dargent, E; Soulestin, J; Sclavons, M; Follain, N

    2015-11-28

    Composites composed of polyesters, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) or poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] (PBSA), and 5 wt% of montmorillonite (CNa) or organo-modified montmorillonite (C30B) were melt-processed and transformed into films by either compression-molding or extrusion-calendering. XRD, rheological measurements and TEM images clearly indicated that films containing CNa are microcomposites, while nanocomposites were observed for those containing C30B. Using Flash DSC, it was possible, for the first time, not only to measure the heat capacity step at the glass transition of these two materials in their amorphous state, but also to investigate whether the preparation technique influenced the Rigid Amorphous Fraction (RAF) in our PBS- and PBSA-based nanocomposites. In this work, we have successfully shown the correlation between the microstructure of the films and their barrier properties, and especially the role played by the RAF. Indeed, the lowest permeabilities to gases and to water were determined in the films containing the highest RAF in both PBS- and PBSA-based materials.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the substance adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071-93-8, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA’s Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF deals with the risk assessment of the additive adipic acid dihydrazide, CAS No 1071-93-8, FCM substance No 987 for use as a crosslinker for acrylic polymer with keto side groups coated on polyolefins and adhesives in laminates made from plastics. The coating is not for direct food contact but used in inner layers of plastics laminates which are intended to be used for all types of foodstuffs at all time-temperature conditions applicable according to the laminate’s properties. Specific migration of the substance was measured from a coated low-density polyethylene (LDPE film, the substance was not detectable (limit of detection (LOD 0.019 mg/kg with the food simulants 3 % acetic acid, 10 % ethanol for 10 days at 40 °C and isooctane for 2 days at 20 °C. According the in vitro and in vivo studies available the substance is not considered genotoxic. Based on an in vivo micronucleus test, the substance is not considered to be clastogenic/aneugenic under the tested conditions. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if the substance is used as a crosslinker for non-self-supporting coatings on polyolefins and adhesives for laminates not in direct contact with food and its migration does not exceed 0.050 mg/kg food.

  13. Novel molecular anti-colorectalcancer conjugate:chlorambucil-adipic acid dihydrizide-glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Maryam Akhavan; Amanlou, Massoud; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Nourmohammadi, Zahra; Omoomi, Farnoor Davachi; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Pooneh; Pourhosseini, Sahar; Mehravi, Bita; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most fatal diseases in the world and it has been years that finding new drugs and chemotherapeutic techniques with lowest side effects become one of the most important challenging matters needs really hard efforts. Chlorambucil (CBL), an ancient direct-acting alkylating anticancer agent, is commonly used for initial treatment of some kinds of cancers but the use of CBL is often limited because of the unpleasant side effects due to its lack of specificity for targeting cancer cells. In this research we tried to increase the specificity of CBL by producing a novel conjugate by using glutamine amino acid (Glut). Based on previous studies, poly amines and nitrogen compounds noticeably are used by cancer cells increasingly; therefore we decided to increase the efficiency and specificity of CBL by designing and producing a novel anti cancer conjugate using glutamine amino acid as an uptake enhancer, CBL, and Adipic acid Dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer and linker. The biological tests were carried out on HT29 colorectal cancer cell line to evaluate its anticancer properties. Biological tests like MTT assay, finding IC50, evaluating the induced mechanism of the death of our novel CBL-Glutamine conjugate on HT29 cells, testing abnormal toxicity of this conjugate on mice in comparison with CBL drug were careid out. We found that not only CBL-Glutamine conjugate preserved its anti cancer property with regard to CBL drug, but also it represent lower abnormal toxicity in mice. Apoptosis was detected as its mechanism of the death. Our present study provides a promising strategy for targeting cancer cells using amino acids nano-conjugate drugs. The future perspectives have also been highlighted in continuing similar and relative researches.

  14. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in selected total diet food composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Dabeka, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 μg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 μg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 μg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 μg/g), fresh pork (6.9 μg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 μg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 μg/g), roast beef (1.3 μg/g), lamb (1.2 μg/g), and organ meats (0.20 μg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.

  15. Radiation-Induced Crosslinking of Biodegradable Poly(Butylenes Adipate-Co-Terephthalate) Film With Various Crosslinking Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chanhee; Choi, Joonho; Kang, Dongwoo; Hwang, Intae; Choi, Jaehak; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, electron beam-induced crosslinking of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in the presence of crosslinking agents was investigated. PBAT films containing different crosslinking agents were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation at various absorbed doses and the properties of the crosslinked PBAT films were characterized. The results of the crosslinking degree measurements revealed that 3 wt% triallyl isocyanurate was found to be optimal for the radiation crosslinking of PBAT. The thermal and mechanical properties of the crosslinked PBAT films were much improved whereas their biodegradability was reduced.

  16. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    , olive oil, followed by clean-up using size exclusion chromatography and final determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) by combined capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the initial screening, the samples were exposed to the alternative food simulant, isooctane, and DEHA...... Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...

  17. Influence of the addition of bentonite clay in poli (butylene adipate co-terephthalic) / poly(lactic acid) membranes; Influencia da adicao de argila bentonita em membranas de poli(butileno adipato co-tereftalico)/poli(Acido latico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, D.D.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Barbosa, R., E-mail: dayannediniz@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Piaui (CT/UFPI), PI (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    The processes of membrane separation have been used in many different sectors of industrial activity, ranging from the chemical industry, food, pharmaceutical, medical and biotech. In this paper, a bentonite clay was added by melt intercalation in a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalic acid)/poly(lactic acid) blend at levels 1 and 3 wt% of clay. After that, membranes were produced by solvent evaporation technique. From the XRD results, it was verified the possible formation of exfoliated/partially exfoliated structures in the membranes. By DSC, it was observed that the addition of clay did not promote alterations in glass transition temperature and crystalline melting of the PBAT/PLA matrix. The morphology of the membranes were observed by SEM and it was verified the clay formation of porous membranes. (author)

  18. In vitro release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from poly adipic anhydride (PAA) and poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Rassoul; Alimorad, Mohammed Massoud; Amanlou, Massoud; Akbari, Hamid

    2005-10-01

    Controlled drug-delivery technology is concerned with the systematic release of a pharmaceutical agent to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug in the body for modulated and/or prolonged periods of time. This may be achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a degradable polymer vehicle, which releases the agent continuously as the matrix erodes. In this study, poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC), an aliphatic polycarbonate, and poly adipic anhydride (PAA), an aliphatic polyanhydride, were synthesized via melt condensation and ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate and adipic acid, respectively. The release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from discs prepared with the use of PTMC-PAA blends in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) are also described. Clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl were both used as hydrophilic drug models. Theoretical treatment of the data with the Peppas model revealed that release of clomipramine HCl (5%) in devices containing 70% PTMC or more followed a Fickian diffusion model. However, the releases of buprenorphine HCl (5%) in the same devices were anomalous. For devices containing 50% and more PAA, surface erosion may play a significant role in the release of both molecules.

  19. in situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--(ethylene terephthalate) biomimetic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punnama Siriphannon; Pathavuth Monvisade

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 °C for 24 h under vacuum. The content of ROP-PEA--PET in the HAp/PEA--PET composite was about 20 wt% with the values of number average molecular weight ($\\bar{M}$n) and weight average molecular weight ($\\bar{M}$W) of 3380 and 7160 g/mol, respectively. Compressive strength and modulus of the HAp/PEA--PET composites were about 29 and 246 MPa, respectively. These mechanical properties were higher than those of the porous HAp templates and natural cancellous bone. In vitro bioactivity of the HAp/PEA--PET composites was studied by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) under the flowing system at the rate of 130 mL/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was observed on the composite surfaces through the consumption of calcium and phosphorus from the SBF solution, indicating the bioactivity of these HAp/PEA--PET composites. These results indicated the competency of HAp/PEA--PET composites for biomedical applications.

  20. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neppalli, R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO(sub2)) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior...

  1. Effect of nanoclay on the nonisothermal crystallization of poly(propylene) and its blend with poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal crystallization behaviour and kinetics of neat poly(propylene)(PP), PP/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PP/PBSA) blend and its composite with nanoclay was studied by differential scanning calorimetry at six different cooling...

  2. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable Polylactide/Poly[(butylene succinate)- co-adipate] blend composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available , Suprakas Sinha Ray and Rotimi Sadiku ABSTRACT:Polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA)-organoclay composites were prepared via melt compounding in a batch mixer. The weight ratio of PLA to PBSA was kept at 70:30, while the weight...

  3. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neppalli, Ramesh; Causin, Valerio; Benetti, Edmondo M.; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Esposito, Antonella; Wanjale, Santosh; Birajdar, Mallinath; Saiter, Jean-Marc; Marigo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO2) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior of such materials were investigated, finding that, as a fu

  4. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch.

  5. Study of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Biodegradable Poly(ethylene adipate/SiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Memarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene adipte and poly(ethylene adipate/silica nanocomposite (PEAd/SiO2 containing 3 wt. % SiO2  were prepared by an in situ method. The examinations on the non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior have been conducted by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The Avrami, Ozawa, and combined Avrami and Ozawa equations were applied to describe the crystallization kinetics and to determine the crystallization parameters of the prepared PEAd/SiO2 nanocomposites. It is found that the inclusion of the silica nanoparticles can accelerate the nucleation rate due to heterogeneous nucleation effect of silica on the polymer matrix. According to the obtained results, the combined Avrami and Ozawa equation shown that the better model for examination of this system.

  6. Clean Synthesis of Adipic Acid%清洁催化氧化合成己二酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马祖福; 邓友全; 王坤; 陈静

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis of adipic acid by cyclohexene oxidation with 30 percent hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a novel peroxytungstate-organic complex catalyst without any organic solvents and phase-transfer catalyst can be performed with excellent yields and selectivities.The effect of organic ligand acidity and the amount of the catalyst on the oxidation reaction was investigated.%以新颖的过氧钨酸盐——有机酸配位络合物为催化剂,在无溶剂和无相转移剂的条件下,用30%的过氧化氢氧化环己烯合成己二酸,其收率可达93—95%。本文讨论了配位体种类及催化剂用量对反应的影响。

  7. Dissociative Ionization Mechanism and Appearance Energies in Adipic Acid Revealed by Imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence, Selective Deuteration, and Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Maarten F; Slowik, Jay G; Prévôt, André S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras

    2016-05-26

    Adipic acid, a model compound for oxygenated organic aerosol, has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Internal energy selected cations were prepared by threshold photoionization using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (iPEPICO). The threshold photoelectron spectrum yields a vertical ionization energy (IE) of 10.5 eV, significantly above the calculated adiabatic IE of 8.6 eV. The cationic minimum is accessible after vertical ionization by H-transfer from one of the γ-carbons to a carbonyl oxygen and is sufficiently energetic to decay by water loss at the ionization onset. The slope of the breakdown curves, quantum chemical calculations, and selective deuteration of the carboxylic hydrogens establish the dissociative photoionization mechanism. After ionization, one γ-methylene hydrogen and the two carboxylic hydrogens are randomized prior to H2O loss. On the basis of the deuteration degree in the H2O + CO-loss product at higher energies, a direct water-loss channel without complete randomization also exists. The breakdown diagram and center of gravity of the H2O + CO-loss peak were modeled to obtain 0 K appearance energies of 10.77, 10.32, and 11.53 eV for H2O + CO loss, CH2COOH loss, and H2O + CH2COOH loss from adipic acid. These agree well with the CBS-QB3 calculated values of 10.68, 10.45, and 11.57 eV, respectively, which shows that threshold photoionization can yield energetics data as long as the dissociation is statistical, even when the parent ion cannot be observed. The results can be used as a starting point for a deeper understanding of the ionization and low-energy fragmentation of organic aerosol components.

  8. Effects of perinatal exposure to phthalate/adipate esters on hypothalamic gene expression and sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi-Cheul; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2006-06-01

    Our previous research has identified the granulin (grn) and p130 genes as sex steroid-regulated genes in the neonatal rat hypothalamus that might be involved in sexual differentiation of the brain. Since phthalate/adipate esters such as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system as environmental endocrine disruptors having estrogenic or antiandrogenic properties, these chemicals may affect sexual differentiation of the brain. The present study assessed the effects of perinatal exposure to DBP, DINP, and DEHA on grn and p130 mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus on postnatal day (PND) 7 and sexual behaviors after maturation in rats. Maternal rats were given a phytoestrogen-free diet containing different doses of DBP (20, 200, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm), DINP (40, 400, 4,000, and 20,000 ppm) and DEHA (480, 2,400, and 12,000 ppm) from gestational day 15 to the day of weaning (PND 21). DBP and DINP exposure during the perinatal period resulted in an increase in hypothalamic grn and p130 mRNA levels in females and males, respectively, but DEHA exposure decreased expression levels of grn in males and p130 in females, although the effects were not dose-dependent. After maturation, male rats that were exposed to several doses of DBP, DINP, and DEHA displayed decreased copulatory behavior. The lordosis quotient was decreased in females perinatally exposed to DBP, DINP, and DEHA at all the doses used. On the other hand, serum levels of LH and FSH in both sexes and the estrous cycles in females were not affected by the treatments. These results suggest that inappropriate expression of grn and/or p130 genes in the brains of male and female neonatal rats by perinatal exposure to these chemicals may exert permanent effects on the hypothalamus, thereby decreasing sexual behavior after maturation.

  9. Supramolecular architecture in a co-crystal of the N(7—H tautomeric form of N6-benzoyladenine with adipic acid (1/0.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Swinton Darious

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H9N5O·0.5C6H10O4, consists of one molecule of N6-benzoyladenine (BA and one half-molecule of adipic acid (AA, the other half being generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl ring planes is 26.71 (7°. The N6-benzoyladenine molecule crystallizes in the N(7—H tautomeric form with three non-protonated N atoms. This tautomeric form is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl (C=O group and the N(7—H hydrogen atom on the Hoogsteen face of the purine ring, forming an S(7 ring motif. The two carboxyl groups of adipic acid interact with the Watson–Crick face of the BA molecules through O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 ring motif. The latter units are linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-5. A weak C—H...O hydrogen bond is also present, linking adipic acid molecules in neighbouring layers, enclosing R22(10 ring motifs and forming a three-dimensional structure. C=O...π and C—H...π interactions are also present in the structure.

  10. Metabolism of phytanic acid and 3-methyl-adipic acid excretion in patients with adult Refsum disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Mayne, Phillip D; Lloyd, Matthew D; Burston, David; Mei, Guam; Sidey, Margaret C; Feher, Michael D; Gibberd, F Brian

    2003-08-01

    Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is associated with defective alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid (PA). omega-Oxidation of PA to 3-methyl-adipic acid (3-MAA) occurs although its clinical significance is unclear. In a 40 day study of a new ARD patient, where the plasma half-life of PA was 22.4 days, omega-oxidation accounted for 30% initially and later all PA excretion. Plasma and adipose tissue PA and 3-MAA excretion were measured in a cross-sectional study of 11 patients. The capacity of the omega-oxidation pathway was 6.9 (2.8-19.4) mg [20.4 (8.3-57.4) micromol] PA/day. 3-MAA excretion correlated with plasma PA levels (r = 0.61; P = 0.03) but not adipose tissue PA content. omega-Oxidation during a 56 h fast was studied in five patients. 3-MAA excretion increased by 208 +/- 58% in parallel with the 158 (125-603)% rise in plasma PA. Plasma PA doubled every 29 h, while 3-MAA excretion followed second-order kinetics. Acute sequelae of ARD were noted in three patients (60%) after fasting. The omega-oxidation pathway can metabolise PA ingested by patients with ARD, but this activity is dependent on plasma PA concentration. omega-Oxidation forms a functional reserve capacity that enables patients with ARD undergoing acute stress to cope with limited increases in plasma PA levels.

  11. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and 20 phthalates in composite food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Dabeka, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 20 selected phthalates in the food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study. At least one of the 21 target chemicals was detected in 141 of the 159 different food composite samples analysed. However, only seven of the 21 target chemicals were detected, with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DEHA being detected most frequently, in 111 and 91 different food composite samples, respectively, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (n = 44), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) (32), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (27), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) (3), and di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) (1). Levels of DEP (di-ethyl phthalate), DiBP, DBP, BBzP and DCHP were low, in general, with average concentrations of 9.63, 8.26, 23.2, 12.4 and 64.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of DEHA and DEHP varied widely, ranging from 1.4 to 6010 ng g(-1) and from 14.4 to 714 ng g(-1), respectively. High levels of DEHA were found mainly in the composite samples where the individual food items used to prepare the composite were likely packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping film, while the highest DEHP levels were found in the vegetable and fruit samples.

  12. Effect of organo-modified montmorillonite on poly(butylene succinate/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The composite material based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT were prepared by melt blending technique and characterized. Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT was successfully modified by octadecylammonium (ODA and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDOA salts to become OMMT through cation exchange technique which is shown by the increase of basal spacing of clay by XRD. The addition of the OMMT to the PBS/PBAT blends produced nanocomposites which is proved by XRD and TEM. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength and modulus which is attributed to the existence of strong interactions between PBS/PBAT and clay, particularly with OMMT. Highest tensile strength of nanocomposite was observed at 1 wt% of OMMT incorporated. TGA study showed that the thermal stability of the blend increased after the addition of clays. SEM micrographs of the fracture surfaces show that the morphology of the blend becomes homogeneous and smoother with presence of OMMT.

  13. Poly(lactide-g-poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate with High Crystallization Capacity and Migration Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized polylactide (PLA with increased crystallization ability and prolonged life-span in practical applications due to the minimal plasticizer migration was prepared. Branched plasticized PLA was successfully obtained by coupling poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA to crotonic acid (CA functionalized PLA. The plasticization behavior of PBSA coupled PLA (PLA-CA-PBSA and its counterpart PBSA blended PLA (PLA/PBSA were fully elucidated. For both PLA-CA-PBSA and PLA/PBSA, a decrease of Tg to around room temperature and an increase in the elongation at break of PLA from 14% to 165% and 460%, respectively, were determined. The crystallinity was increased from 2.1% to 8.4% for PLA/PBSA and even more, to 10.6%, for PLA-CA-PBSA. Due to the inherent poor miscibility between the PBSA and PLA, phase separation occurred in the blend, while PLA-CA-PBSA showed no phase separation which, together with the higher crystallinity, led to better oxygen barrier properties compared to neat PLA and PLA/PBSA. A higher resistance to migration during hydrolytic degradation for the PLA-CA-PBSA compared to the PLA/PBSA indicated that the plasticization effect of PBSA in the coupled material would be retained for a longer time period.

  14. Morphology and mechanical properties of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/potato starch blends in the presence of synthesized reactive compatibilizer or modified poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dafu; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Huining; Zheng, Anna; Yang, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)(PBAT)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) composite has received considerable attention because of the environmental concerns raised by solid waste disposal. However, the application of PBAT/TPS blends was limited due to the poor mechanical properties originating from the incompatibility between PBAT and TPS. In this work, two approaches were developed to improve the mechanical properties of PBAT/TPS blends. One approach is to use compatibilizers, including the synthesized reactive compatibilizer - a styrene-maleic anhydride-glycidyl methacrylate (SMG) terpolymer, and the commercial compatibilizer (Joncryl-ADR-4368). The chemical structures of SMG were analyzed with (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The other approach is to use the modified PBAT (M-PBAT) to replace part of PBAT in the PBAT/TPS blends. M-PBATs with higher molecular weight were obtained via reactive extrusion of PBAT in the presence of a chain extender. The better dispersion of TPS in PBAT was observed in SEM images when using M-PBAT, leading to the higher tensile strength and elongation at break of PBAT/TPS blends. However, the elongation at break decreased in the presence of compatibilizer (SMG or 4368), though the tensile strength remained in a similar level or slightly higher. Overall, the tensile strength and the elongation at break of the resulting biodegradable PBAT/M-PBAT/TPS blends (TPS=40wt%) were above 27.0MPa and 500%, respectively, which is promising for various applications, including packaging and agricultural mulching films.

  15. Preparation of Hydroxypropyl Acetylated Distarch Adipates%羟丙基乙酰化双淀粉己二酸酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军华; 黄杨; 杨华

    2015-01-01

    Acetylated distarch adipates was prepared by cassava starch with adipic acetic mixed anhydride.It showed that the optimal parameters were initial starch slurry concentration 30%, pH 8, reaction time 1.5 h and mixed anhydride concentration 4.5%, respectively. The degree of hydroxypropyl substitution was 0.1264 , mixed anhydride molar substitution degree was 0.031.The properties of retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability and the degree of clarity were studied, retrogradation and freeze-thaw stability of acetylated distarch adipates had been greatly improved, and solubility and transparency were slightly lower than cassava starch.%采用已二酸与乙酸酐对木薯淀粉进行改性制备乙酰化双淀粉己二酸酯,得出最佳工艺条件为:淀粉乳初始浓度30%, pH 8,反应时间90 min,混合酸酐加入量4.5%,羟丙基取代度为0.1264,酯化取代度为0.031。考察了羟丙基乙酰化双淀粉己二酸酯的凝沉性、冻融稳定性和透明度,其中抗凝沉性和冻融稳定性都有了很大的提高,溶解度和透明度略微降低。

  16. THERMAL PROPERTY, MISCIBILITY AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-co 3-YDROXYHEXANOATE) AND POLY(BUTYLENE SUCCINATE-ADIPATE) (PHBHHX/PBSA) BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) and poly(butylene succinate-adipate) (PBSA), both biodegradable semicrystalline polyesters, were prepared with the ratio of PHBHHx/PBSA ranging from 80/20 to 20/80 by melt mixing method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffractometer (WAXD) were used to study the miscibility and crystallization behavior of PHBHHx/PBSA blends. Experimental results indicate that PHBHHx is immiscible with PBSA as shown by the almost unchanged glass transition temperature and the biphasic melt.

  17. Effekte der L-Carnitinsupplementierung auf das metabolische Profil adipöser und insulinresistenter Ponys im Verlaufe einer mehrwöchigen Körpergewichtsreduktion

    OpenAIRE

    Schmengler, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Effekte der L-Carnitinsupplementierung auf das metabolische Profil adipöser und insulinre- sistenter Ponys im Verlaufe einer mehrwöchigen Körpergewichtsreduktion Author: Uta Schmengler Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Universität Leipzig Eingereicht im September 2012 76 S., 16 Abb., 23 Tab., 169 Lit., Anhang Einleitung: Das ”Equine Metabolische Syndrom” ist gekennzeichnet durch eine region...

  18. Production and Treatment of Three Waste in Adipic Acid Prodution%己二酸生产中“三废”的产生与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董菲菲; 许小军

    2015-01-01

    From green prodution ,the causes of three waste prodution in mainstream adipic acid production at home are summarized ,the treatment method for waste gas ,waste liquid,waste solid are introduced .%从绿色生产的角度总结了目前国内主流的己二酸生产工艺中工业三废产生的原因,从废气、废液、废固三方面介绍了其相对应的处理方法。

  19. Comparative Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven- and Woven-Flax-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Adipate-Co-Terephthalate)-Based Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongam, N.; Dangtungee, R.; Siengchin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Textile biocomposites made from woven- and nonwoven-flax-fiber-reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were prepared by compression molding using the film stacking method, and their tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and modulus, and impact strength were determined experimentally. The PBAT-based composites were subjected to water absorption tests. The mechanical properties of pure PBAT and the textile composites were compared, and the influence of flax weave styles on the properties were evaluated. The biocomposite reinforced with 4 × 4-plain weave fibers showed the highest strength and stiffness compared with those of the other textile biocomposites and pure PBAT.

  20. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of adipate concentration and dissolved oxygen on production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) by a recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied in glucose-limited continuous cultures....... Operating conditions were maintained constant but the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOC) were varied separately in a range from I to 37.5 g l(-1) and from 2% to 125% air saturation (%AS), respectively. The total beta-lactams specific productivity, r(p) (total) was not significantly changed...

  1. The solubility measurements of sodium dicarboxylate salts; sodium oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, and adipate in water from T = (279.15 to 358.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozaini, Mohd Zul Helmi [School of Environmental Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia)], E-mail: zulhelmi@umt.edu.my; Brimblecombe, Peter [School of Environmental Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The solubility measurements of sodium dicarboxylate salts; sodium oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, and adipate in water at temperatures from (278.15 to 358.15 K) were determined. The molar enthalpies of solution at T = 298.15 K were derived: {delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} (m = 2.11 mol . kg{sup -1}) = 13.86 kJ . mol{sup -1} for sodium oxalate; {delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} (m = 3.99 mol . kg{sup -1}) = 14.83 kJ . mol{sup -1} for sodium malonate; {delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} (m = 2.45 mol . kg{sup -1}) = 14.83 kJ . mol{sup -1} for sodium succinate; {delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} (m = 4.53 mol . kg{sup -1}) = 16.55 kJ . mol{sup -1} for sodium glutarate, and {delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} (m = 3.52 mol . kg{sup -1}) = 15.70 kJ . mol{sup -1} for sodium adipate. The solubility value exhibits a prominent odd-even effect with respect to terms with odd number of sodium dicarboxylate carbon numbers showing much higher solubility. This odd-even effect may have implications for the relative abundance of these compounds in industrial applications and also in the atmospheric aerosols.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of phthalates, adipate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils using isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Seok; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Moon, Myeong Hee; Lee, Dong Soo; Park, Hyun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of 12 priority phthalates, adipate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils by isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS) was developed for fast, accurate and trace analysis. The extraction and clean-up procedures were optimised, and using stable isotope-labelled internal standards for each analyte, relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.92-10.6% and spiked sample recoveries of 80.6-97.8% were obtained. Limits of detection for PAHs were in the range of 0.15-0.77 µg/kg and those for phthalates were in the range of 4.6-10.0 µg/kg. The calibration curves exhibited good linearities with regression coefficients of R(2) ≥ 0.99. Twelve edible oils were examined to evaluate the efficiency of this method. Among the 12 analytes, dibutyl phthalates (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalates (DEHP), diethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (Chry) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) were detected in the range of 1.17-806 µg/kg.

  3. Simulation of Continuous Esterification Process of Polyester Polyols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Like; XI Zhenhao; QIN Zhen; ZHAO Ling; YUAN Weikang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the kinetic and thermodynamic equations,a comprehensive mathematical model for the continuous esterification process of polyester polyols was developed,which was carried out in an innovational bubbling reactive distillation tower (BRDT) at atmospheric pressure.In this new type of reactor,direct esterification between ethylene glycol and adipic acid was accomplished efficiently and rapidly.A bench BRDT with the height of 2 m was applied for the esterification process of poly (ethylene adipate) (PEA).In the continuous operation,linear oligomers were discharged from the bottom of the column,while water passed a few column trays and a packing section as a condensation byproduct.The influence of major operating conditions on reactor performance was also simulated.Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data,providing a strategy for developing and optimizing this process.

  4. Physical and thermo-mechanical properties of bionano reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate, hemp/CNF/Ag-NPs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Pulikkalparambil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile approach to prepare bionanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT is reported in this paper. The effect of different wt% of hemp/Sihemp, carbon nanofiber (CNF and silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs on the density, water absorption, melting and crystallization behavior, thermal stability, mechanical properties and morphology was investigated. The density of the composites was reduced except for Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites while diffusion coefficient and maximum water absorption were decreased for Sihemp reinforced composites making it a suitable material to replace conventional polymers. Significant improvement in tensile strength (TS and tensile modulus (TM was observed for the PBAT/Sihemp composites. For CNF and Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites, mechanical properties were retained at lower filler concentration. But as the concentration increased, there was a tendency for the nanofillers to agglomerate, which resulted in a reduction in mechanical properties.

  5. 己二酸生产中的废气净化技术及其影响因素%Decontamination technology of exhaust gas in adipic acid production and the influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周禹君; 李多春

    2012-01-01

    以辽阳石化公司硝酸氧化醇酮制备己二酸装置为研究对象,研究了己二酸生产中废气的净化技术及废气消减过程中的影响因素.NO,NO2的净化采用水吸收法,以尾气中NOx含量和回收硝酸浓度为主要考察指标,设计了四因素三水平的正交试验,通过试验得出的优化工艺条件为:喷淋水流量7m3/h、补充空气量900 m3/h、吸收温度14℃、吸收压力0.155 MPa,尾气中NOx体积分数为420×10-6,回收硝酸质量分数35%.N2O的净化采用催化分解法,并对影响其分解效果的3个因素进行了研究.结果表明,入口温度应随催化剂活性减弱逐渐升高,进气浓度最好维持在11.0%~11.2%,原料气中含水不利于催化分解.%It will release a great deal of exhaust gas which contain NO, NO2 and N2O in the process of adipic acid produc-tion by oxidation of alcohol ketone with nitric acid. The decontamination technology of the exhaust gas and the influence factors are studied based on the adipic acid plant in Liaoyang Petrochemical Company. NO and NO2 gas are absorbed by water. Setting the content of NOT in the exhaust gas and the concentration of reclaimed nitric acid as main targets, the 4 factors and 3 levels orthogonal test is carried out. The optimum conditions of NOX absorbing is achieved as follows: absorbed water capacity is 7 m3/h, inlet air quantity is 900 m3/rw operation temperature is 14 ℃ and operation pressure is 0. 155 MPa. Under above condi-tions, the volume fraction of NOX in the exhaust gas is 420×10-6 and the mass fraction of reclaimed nitric acid is 35%. N2O is decomposed by catalyst, and three factors which influence the N2O decomposition is discussed. The results show that the inlet air temperature should rise with the activation of the catalyst reducing, the concentration of N2O in inlet air between 11. 0%-11. 2% is better, and the containing moisture is not good for decomposition.

  6. Measurement and Correlation for Solubility of Adipic Acid in Several Solvents%己二酸在几种有机溶剂中溶解度的测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽华; 马沛生; 相政乐

    2007-01-01

    Using a laser detecting system, solubility data were measured for adipic acid dissolved in six pure solvents, namely, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, acetic acid, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide at the temperature range from 293.15K to 353.15K. All these data were regressed by λh, NRTL,Wilson, and the modified Wilson models. For the study of six, λh, NRTL, and the modified Wilson models were found to provide an accurate mathematical representation of the experimental results, with overall average absolute relative deviations between measured and calculated values as 1.74%, 2.06%, and 3.06%, respectively. The resultsshowed that the λh model is the most suitable for description of the solid-liquid equilibrium containing adipic acid.

  7. Synthesis of diisooctyl adipate catalyzed by lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts%酵母表面展示脂肪酶合成己二酸二异辛酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 金子; 林影; 郑穗平; 韩双艳

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst is an alternative to immobihzed enzyme,due to its low-cost preparation and simple recycle course.Here,lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell was used as a biocatalyst to synthesize diisooctyl adipate in the non-aqueous system.The maximum productivity of diisooctyl adipate was obtained as 85.0% in a 10 mL reaction system.The yield could be reached as high as 97.8% when the reaction system was scaled up to 200 mL.The purity obtained is 98.2% after vacuum distillation.Thus,the lipase-displaying P.pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst was promising in commercial application for diisooctyl adipate synthesis in non-aqueous phase.%展示酶的酵母细胞既具有固定化酶的优点,又有制备简单、成本较低的特点.采用表面展示南极假丝酵母脂肪酶B (Candida antarctica lipase B,CALB)的毕赤酵母细胞催化合成己二酸二异辛酯(Diisooctyl adipate,DIOA),对该反应体系进行优化,并实现了初步工艺放大制备.经条件优化后,在10mL反应体系中,DIOA的产率可达85.0%.该工艺放大到200mL反应体系时,DIOA产率可达97.8%.经减压蒸馏,DIOA纯度可达到98.2%.该酵母表面展示脂肪酶在合成绿色润滑油己二酸二异辛酯中具有良好应用前景.

  8. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate), poly(butylene succinate) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) under anaerobic and oxygen limited thermophilic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jutakan Boonmee; Charnwit Kositanont; Thanawadee Leejarkpai

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the biodegradation behavior of biodegradable plastics in landfill conditions, four types of biodegradable plastics including poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were tested by burying in sludge mixed soil medium under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions. The experiments were operated at 52 ± 2ºC in dark conditions according to ISO15985. The degree of b...

  9. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of adipate concentration and dissolved oxygen on production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) by a recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied in glucose-limited continuous cultures....... from 15 to 7%AS, r(p) (total) increased to 25 mumol g DW-1 h(-1), mainly due to a two-fold increase in the adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid (ad-6-APA) specific productivity....

  10. Miscibility, Morphology and Crystallization Behavior of Poly(Butylene Succinate-co-Butylene Adipate/Poly(Vinyl Phenol/Poly(l-Lactic Acid Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous poly(vinyl phenol (PVPh is introduced into poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate/poly(l-lactic acid (PBSA/PLLA blends via solution casting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis verifies that intermolecular hydrogen bonding formed in PBSA/PVPh/PLLA blends. The miscibility between PBSA and PLLA is improved with PVPh incorporation as evidenced by approaching Tgs of the two components. When PVPh content reaches up to 50 wt %, the blend sample exhibits only one Tg, meaning complete miscibility between PBSA and PLLA. The improved miscibility of PBSA/PLLA blends is further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Typical “see-island” phase separation structure for PBSA/PLLA blend transforms into homogenous phase structure for blend samples with 5 wt % PVPh and above. Non-isothermal crystallization analysis shows that the crystallization temperature and crystallization enthalpy of PBSA decrease with PVPh addition, and those of PLLA also show a decreasing trend. Isothermal crystallization rate of PBSA in blend samples distinctly decreases with PVPh incorporation, whereas that of PLLA in blend samples increases slightly with PVPh addition. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis indicated that PLLA in blend samples remained partly crystallized, while PBSA turned into amorphous state with increasing PVPh contents.

  11. Electrospun Scaffolds from Low Molecular Weight Poly(ester amides Based on Glycolic Acid, Adipic Acid and Odd or Even Diamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Keiko Murase

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning of regular poly(ester amides (PEAs constituted by glycolic acid, adipic acid and diamines with five and six carbon atoms has been carried out. Selected PEAs were constituted by natural origin products and could be easily prepared by a polycondensation method that avoids tedious protection and deprotection steps usually required for obtaining polymers with a regular sequence. Nevertheless, the synthesis had some limitations that mainly concerned the final low/moderate molecular weight that could be attained. Therefore, it was considered interesting to evaluate if electrospun scaffolds could still be prepared taking also advantage of the capability of PEAs to establish intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Results indicated that the crucial factor was the control of polymer concentration in the electrospun solution, being necessary that this concentration was higher than 40% (w/v. The PEA with the lowest molecular weight (Mw close to 8000 g/mol was the most appropriate to obtain electrospun samples with a circular cross-section since higher molecular sized polymers show solvent retention problems derived from the high viscosity of the electrospun solution that rendered ribbon-like morphologies after the impact of fibers into the collector. The studied PEAs were semicrystalline and biodegradable, as demonstrated by calorimetric and degradation studies. Furthermore, the new scaffolds were able to encapsulate drugs with anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic activities like ketoprofen. The corresponding release and bactericide activity was evaluated in different media and against different bacteria. Finally, biocompatibility was demonstrated using both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines.

  12. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 1. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films during home-use and microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startin, J R; Sharman, M; Rose, M D; Parker, I; Mercer, A J; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) into a diverse range of foods arising from the domestic use of plasticized PVC films has been determined using a stable isotope dilution GC/MS procedure. Aspects of home use reported in this study include the wrapping and covering of foods such as cheese, cooked meats, sandwiches, cakes, fresh fruit and vegetables; the use of films during food preparation such as marinading; covering during microwave reheating of previously prepared foods, and covering during microwave cooking. Contact between film and foods was for differing temperatures and times, representative of the range of conditions likely to be experienced in practice in the home. Migration increased with both the length of contact time and temperature of exposure, with the highest levels observed where there was a direct contact between the film and food, and where the latter had a high fat content on the contact surface. Highest levels of migration were observed for cheese, cooked meats, cakes and for microwave-cooked foods, whilst lower levels were observed for wrapping of unfilled sandwiches, fruit and vegetables (except avocado), and for food preparation including microwave reheating where there was covering of the food in a container but little or no direct contact.

  13. Heat Treatment Effects on the Mechanical Properties and Morphologies of Poly (Lactic Acid/Poly (Butylene Adipate-co-terephthalate Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Tang Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between mechanicals properties and morphology of the poly (lactic acid (PLA/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blends with or without heat treatment were investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis showed that blends have a two-phase structure indicating that they are immiscible. On the other hand, the PLA/PBAT (30/70 blend achieved the best tensile and impact strength because of its sea-island morphology, except for high PBAT content. The PLA/PBAT (70/30 and PLA/PBAT (50/50 blends showed irregular and directive-layer morphologies, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis, producing a break cross-section with various fiber shapes. Both blends showed lower tensile strength and impact strength than the PLA/PBAT (30/70. After heat treatment, the PLA/PBAT blends showed high modulus of tensile and HDT because of a high degree of crystallization. The high degree of crystallization in the blends, which originated in the heat treatment, reduced their impact strength and elongation. However, the effect of high degree of crystallization on the PLA/PBAT (30/70 blend was small because of its sea-island morphology.

  14. Investigation on Polylactide (PLA/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT/Bark Flour of Plane Tree (PF Eco-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Dou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT/bark flour of plane tree (PF eco-composites were prepared via melt blending. The morphologies, mechanical properties, crystal structures and melting and crystallization behaviors of the eco-composites were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mechanical tests, polarized light microscopy (PLM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. It is shown that the interfacial adhesion between PLA matrix and PF is weak and the mechanical properties of PLA/PF eco-composites are poor. The titanate treatment improves the adhesion between the matrix and the filler and enhances the stiffness of the eco-composites. The toughness is improved by PBAT and ductile fractured surfaces can be found. The spherulitic size of PLA is decreased by the addition of PF. The α crystalline form of PLA remains in the composites. Compared with PF, T-PF (PF treated by a titanate coupling agent and PBAT have negative effects on the crystallization of PLA.

  15. Effect of Chain-Extenders on the Properties and Hydrolytic Degradation Behavior of the Poly(lactide/ Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(lactide/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PLA/PBAT blends were prepared by reactive blending in the presence of chain-extenders. Two chain-extenders with multi-epoxy groups were studied. The effect of chain-extenders on the morphology, mechanical properties, thermal behavior, and hydrolytic degradation of the blends was investigated. The compatibility between the PLA and PBAT was significantly improved by in situ formation of PLA-co-PBAT copolymers in the presence of the chain-extenders, results in an enhanced ductility of the blends, e.g., the elongation at break was increased to 500% without any decrease in the tensile strength. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC results reveal that cold crystallization of PLA was enhanced due to heterogeneous nucleation effect of the in situ compatibilized PBAT domains. As known before, PLA is sensitive to hydrolysis and in the presence of PBAT and the chain-extenders, the hydrolytic degradation of the blend was evident. A three-stage hydrolysis mechanism for the system is proposed based on a study of weight loss and molecular weight reduction of the samples and the pH variation of the degradation medium.

  16. Role of specific interfacial area in controlling properties of immiscible blends of biodegradable polylactide and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-12-01

    Binary blends of two biodegradable polymers: polylactide (PLA), which has high modulus and strength but is brittle, and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA), which is flexible and tough, were prepared through batch melt mixing. The PLA/PBSA compositions were 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100. Fourier-transform infrared measurements revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between the two polymers, resulting in a phase-separated morphology as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed that PLA-rich blends had smaller droplet sizes when compared to the PBSA-rich blends, which got smaller with the reduction in PBSA content due to the differences in their melt viscosities. The interfacial area of PBSA droplets per unit volume of the blend reached a maximum in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were not only affected by the composition of the blend, but also by the interfacial area between the two polymers. Through differential scanning calorimetry, it was shown that molten PBSA enhanced crystallization of PLA while the stiff PLA hindered cold crystallization of PBSA. Optimal synergies of properties between the two polymers were found in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend because of the maximum specific interfacial area of the PBSA droplets.

  17. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] blend composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-05-01

    Polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA)-organoclay composites were prepared via melt compounding in a batch mixer. The weight ratio of PLA to PBSA was kept at 70:30, while the weight fraction of the organoclay was varied from 0 to 9%. Small angle X-ray scattering patterns showed slightly better dispersion in PBSA than PLA, and there was a tendency of the silicate layers to delaminate in PBSA at low clay content. Thermal analysis revealed that crystallinity was dependent on the clay content as well its localization within the composite. On the other hand, thermal stability marginally improved for composites with 2 wt %. Tensile properties showed dependence on clay content and localization. Composite with 2 wt % clay content showed slight improvement in elongation at break. Overall, the optimum property was found for a composite with 2 wt % of the organoclay. This paper therefore has demonstrated the significance of the clay content and localization on the properties of the PLA/PBSA blends.

  18. Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexanone to adipic acid catalysed by supported phosphotungstic acid%固载磷钨酸催化氧化环己酮合成己二酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶天旭; 马雪妮; 刘京燕

    2009-01-01

    Adipic acid was synthesized via oxidation of cyclohexanone using phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40)/Al2O3 as the catalyst and 30% H2O2 as the oxidant. The influence of reaction condition on the yield of adipic acid was investigated. The optimum reaction condition was obtained as follows: n (hydrogen peroxide): n (phosphoric acid ): n (cyclohexanone)=4.4:0.99:1 ,n( phosphotungstic acid):n(cyclohexanone) =1:290, reaction at 75℃ for 1 h and then at 93℃ for7 h. Adipic acid yield of 95.5% was attained using with phosphoric acid as the promoter. Strength of the supported catalyst was enhanced by introduction of lanthanum.%以氧化铝固载的磷钨酸为催化剂,30%过氧化氢为氧化剂,催化氧化环己酮合成己二酸.考察反应条件对己二酸收率的影响,得到最佳工艺条件:n(过氧化氢)∶n(磷酸)∶n(环己酮)=4.4∶0.99∶1,n(磷钨酸)∶n(环己酮)=1∶290,75℃反应1 h,再于93℃反应7 h,加入磷酸助剂,己二酸收率达95.5%.采用镧改性氧化铝固载磷钨酸,固载强度高.

  19. Novel electrospun nanofibrous matrices prepared from poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate) blends for controlled release formulations of an anti-rheumatoid agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafaka, Panoraia I; Barmbalexis, Panagiotis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2016-06-10

    In the present work, a series of novel formulations consisting of poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate) (PLA/PBAd) electrospun blends was examined as controlled release matrices for Leflunomide's active metabolite, Teriflunomide (TFL). The mixtures were prepared using different ratios of PLA and PBAd in order to produce nanofibrous matrices with different characteristics. Miscibility studies of the blended polymeric fibers were performed through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Hydrolytic degradation in the prepared fibers was evaluated at 37°C using a phosphate buffered saline solution. Different concentrations of (TFL) (5, 10, 15wt.%) were incorporated into nanofibers for examining the drug release behavior in simulated body fluids (SBF), at 37°C. The drug-loaded nanofibrous formulations were further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, DSC and XRD. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was used to evaluate the mechanism of TFL release. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and multi-linear-regression (MLR) models were used to evaluate the effect of % content of PBAd (X1) and TFL (X2) on an initial burst effect and a dissolution behavior. It was found that PLA/PBAd nanofibers have different diameters depending on the ratio of used polyesters and added drug. TFL was incorporated in an amorphous form inside the polymeric nanofibers. In vitro release studies reveal that a drug release behavior is correlated with the size of the nanofibers, drug loading and matrix degradation after a specific time. ANN dissolution modeling showed increased correlation efficacy compared to MLR.

  20. Osteoconductive bio-based meshes based on Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nar, Mangesh; Staufenberg, Gerrit; Yang, Bing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Robertson, Lesli [Department of Fibers, College of Visual Arts and Design, 1155 Union Circle #305100, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Patel, Rinkesh H. [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis, Texas A and M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); Varanasi, Venu G., E-mail: vvaranasi@bcd.tamhsc.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis, Texas A and M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); D' Souza, Nandika Anne, E-mail: nandika.dsouza@unt.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle # 311098, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) are biopolymers that have the potential to be used in applications of bone healing. In this study, it is hypothesized that the polymer blend has the combined strength and osteoconductivity to support osteoblast collagen formation. PBAT (PBAT 100), and a blend with 20% PHBV (PBAT 80) were extruded in the form of fibers and then knitted in the form of mesh. These were tested in the warp as well as weft direction for the tensile properties; these showed that the weft direction had higher performance than the warp. The individual fibers were kept in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) over the period of 8 weeks and were tested for the storage and loss modulus using a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). The results indicated that mechanical relaxation strength showed a decrease and then an increase. In vitro osteoconductivity studies were done by using differentiating osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells). Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) showed that pre-soaking the samples in α-MEM for two weeks resulted in cell attachment and growth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the change in structure of polymers due to in vitro degradation for two weeks. Raman spectroscopy showed that all scaffolds supported the formation of a collagenous network over the scaffold surfaces. For a combination of knittable manufacturing, mechanical performance and osteoconductivity, blends offer an effective route. - Highlights: • PBAT and PHBV blend can be knitted to form mesh with good mechanical properties. • PBAT and PHBV blend do not show significant weight loss over a period of 8 weeks in PBS. • Osteoblast cell culture was done on these samples. • They support extracellular matrix and growth and hence are osteoconductive.

  1. The mechanics of hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel: towards developing a vessel for delivery of preadipocytes to native tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Naama; Sasson, Aviad Levi; Lin, Feng-Huei; Benayahu, Dafna; Haj-Ali, Rami; Gefen, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Promising treatment approaches in repairing tissue defects include implementation of regenerative medicine strategies, particularly delivery of preadipocytes to sites where adipose tissue damage needs to be repaired or where fat needs to be generated. In this study, we suggest that the injectable hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (HA/ADH) hydrogel may be an adipose-tissue-like material in terms of biological compatibility as well as mechanical behavior. First, we show that the hydrogel enables and supports growth, proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Second, given that adipose tissue is a weight-bearing biological structure, we investigate the large deformation mechanical behavior of the hydrogel with and without embedded preadipocytes, by performing confined and unconfined compression tests and then calibrating a strain energy density (SED) function to the results. Four test groups were examined: (1) Hydrogel specimens right after the preparation without cells, (2) and (3) 3-days-cultured hydrogel specimens with and without cells, respectively, and (4) 6-days-cultured hydrogel specimens with cells. A one-term Ogden SED was found to adequately describe the hyperelastic behavior of the hydrogel specimens in all experimental groups. Importantly, we found that the mechanical properties of the hydrogel, when subjected to compression, are in good agreement with those of native adipose tissue, with the better fit occurring 3-6 days after preparation of the hydrogel. Third, computational finite element studies of the mechanical (stress-strain) behavior of the HA/ADH hydrogel when containing mature adipocytes indicated that the stiffnesses of the constructs were mildly affected by the presence of the adipocytes. Hence, we conclude that injectable HA/ADH hydrogel may serve as a vessel for protecting preadipocytes during, and at a short-term after delivery to native tissues, e.g. in research towards regenerative medicine in tissue reconstructions.

  2. Migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and acetyltributyl citrate plasticizers from food-grade PVC film into sweetened sesame paste (halawa tehineh): kinetic and penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E; Zygoura, Panagiota; Karatapanis, Andreas; Georgantelis, Dimitris; Kontominas, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling-film containing 5.3% (w/w) di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 3.0% (w/w) acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizers was used to wrap halawa tehineh (halva) samples. Samples were split into two groups and stored at 25+/-1 degrees C. One group was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content at intervals between 0.5 and 240h of contact (kinetic study) and a second group was cut into slices (1.5mm thick) after 240h of halva/PVC contact and was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content (penetration study). Determination of both plasticizers was performed using a direct gas chromatographic (GC) method after extraction of DEHA from halva samples. DEHA readily migrated into halva samples: the equilibrium amount of DEHA in halva (3.31mg/dm(2) film or 81.4mg/kg halva) corresponding to a loss of 54.7% (w/w) DEHA from PVC film. This value is slightly higher than the limit of 3mg/dm(2) of film surface set by the European Union for DEHA. The equilibrium amount of ATBC in halva was 1.46mg/dm(2) (36.1mg/kg) corresponding to a loss of 42.7% ATBC from PVC film. With regard to the penetration of both placticizers into halva samples, migration of DEHA was detectable up to the 7th slice beneath the surface of halva (total depth 10.5mm) while the migration of ATBC was detectable up to the 5th slice (total depth 7.5mm).

  3. Effect of Fiber Esterification on Fundamental Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaki AB Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24% compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/differential thermogravimetric (DTG thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites’ thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.

  4. Effect of fiber esterification on fundamental properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-01-01

    A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH) onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG) after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24%) compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric (DTG) thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites' thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.

  5. Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate Biocomposites by Matrix Esterification Using Succinic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Siyamak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate PBAT (EcoflexTM, as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites’ performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP and benzoyl peroxide (BPO as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt % and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt % of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt % succinic anhydride (SAH and 1 (wt % dicumyl peroxide (DCP improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites’ spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) biocomposites by matrix esterification using succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-02-16

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  7. Thermodynamics Calculation and Analysis of Synthesis of Dimethyl Adipate%己二酸二甲酯合成体系的热力学估算及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 魏晓霞; 霍稳周

    2011-01-01

    The group contribution method was applied to estimate the enthalpy and entropy of adipic acid and dimethyl adipate in the specified reacting system under the standard state. The functional correlations between the heat capacity of these organic compounds and temperature were established. In addition, the Gibbs free energy and standard equilibrium constant of the reaction were calculated under different temperatures. Based on the thermodynamics analysis, it's found that the reaction can be almost carried out completely when reaching the equilibrium. Therefore the conclusion that the reaction is practicable in thermodynamics has been verified.%采用基团贡献法估算了反应体系中己二酸和已二酸二甲酯在298.15 K标准状态下的生成焓和标准熵,并且估算了这两种物质的比热容随温度变化的关系式,计算了不同温度条件下反应的焓变、吉布斯自由能变和标准平衡常数.通过对该反应体系的热力学分析发现,当达到平衡时该反应几乎可以进行到底,从而验证了该反应在热力学上的可行性.

  8. Influence of low contents of superhydrophilic MWCNT on the properties and cell viability of electrospun poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno V.M.; Silva, Aline S. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melo, Gabriela F.S.; Vasconscellos, Luana M.R. [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco Jose Longo 777, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda R. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lobo, Anderson O., E-mail: aolobo@pq.cnpq.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    The use of poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in tissue engineering, more specifically in bone regeneration, has been underexplored to date due to its poor mechanical resistance. In order to overcome this drawback, this investigation presents an approach into the preparation of electrospun nanocomposite fibers from PBAT and low contents of superhydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (sMWCNT) (0.1–0.5 wt.%) as reinforcing agent. We employed a wide range of characterization techniques to evaluate the properties of the resulting electrospun nanocomposites, including Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM), tensile tests, contact angle measurements (CA) and biological assays. FE-SEM micrographs showed that while the addition of sMWCNT increased the presence of beads on the electrospun fibers' surfaces, the increase of the neat charge density due to their presence reduced the fibers' average diameter. The tensile test results pointed that sMWCNT acted as reinforcement in the PBAT electrospun matrix, enhancing its tensile strength (from 1.3 to 3.6 MPa with addition of 0.5 wt.% of sMWCNT) and leading to stiffer materials (lower elongation at break). An evaluation using MG63 cells revealed cell attachment into the biomaterials and that all samples were viable for biomedical applications, once no cytotoxic effect was observed. MG-63 cells osteogenic differentiation, measured by ALP activity, showed that mineralized nodules formation was increased in PBAT/0.5%CNTs when compared to control group (cells). This investigation demonstrated a feasible novel approach for producing electrospun nanocomposites from PBAT and sMWCNT with enhanced mechanical properties and adequate cell viability levels, which allows for a wide range of biomedical applications for these materials. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites from PBAT and superhydrophilic MWCNT (sMWCNT) were successfully prepared by electrospinning

  9. Influence on the physicochemical properties of fish collagen gels using self-assembly and simultaneous cross-linking with the N-hydroxysuccinimide adipic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lirui; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-06-01

    Collagen gels from Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) skins were prepared via the self-assembly of collagen molecules and simultaneous cross-linking with the N-hydroxysuccinimide adipic acid derivative (NHS-AA). The doses of NHS-AA were converted to [NHS-AA]/[NH2] ratios (0.025-1.6, calculated by the [active ester group] of NHS-AA and [ε-NH2] of lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen). When the ratio collagen gels were formed by collagen molecule self-assembly, resulting in the opalescent appearance of collagen gels and the characteristic D-periodicity of partial collagen fibrils, the collagen gel ([NHS-AA]/[NH2] = 0.05) displayed a small increase in denaturation temperature (Td, 42.8 °C), remaining weight (12.59%), specific water content (SWC 233.7) and elastic modulus (G' 128.4 Pa) compared with uncross-linked collagen gel (39.1 °C, 9.12%, 222.4 and 85.4 Pa, respectively). As the ratio > 0.05, disappearance of D-periodicity and a gradual change in appearance from opalescent to transparent suggested that the inhibition of NHS-AA in the self-assembly of collagen molecules was more obvious. As a result, the collagen gel ([NHS-AA]/[NH2] = 0.2) had the lowest Td (35.8 °C), remaining weight (7.96%), SWC (130.9) and G' (31.9 Pa). When the ratio was 1.6, the collagen molecule self-assembly was markedly suppressed and the formation of collagen gel was predominantly via the covalent cross-linking bonds which led to the transparent appearance, and the maximum values of Td (47.0 °C), remaining weight (45.92%) and G' (420.7 Pa) of collagen gel. These results indicated that collagen gels with different properties can be prepared using different NHS-AA doses.

  10. 合成三羟甲基丙烷庚酸己二酸混合酯热力学分析%Thermodynamics Analysis on Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane, Heptanoic Acid and Adipic Acid Mixed Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马楷; 李秀涛; 赵玉贞; 皞刘月

    2015-01-01

    The group contribution method was applied to estimate the enthalpy and entropy of trimethylolpropane, heptanoic acid,adipic acid and trimethylolpropaneheptanoate acid and adipic acid mixed ester at 298.15 K. The functional correlations between the heat capacity of these organic compounds and temperature were established. And the enthalpy changes, entropy changes and Gibbs free energy changes as well as the equilibrium constants of the one-step, two-step esterification and transesterification of trimethylolpropane, adipic acid and heptanoic acid were calculated under different temperatures. The results show that the one-step esterification method can meet the demand even if heptoic acid is excess, and the one-step esterification method is the best in the aspect of thermodynamics.%采用基团贡献法估算了反应体系中三羟甲基丙烷酯、庚酸、己二酸和三羟甲基丙烷混合酯在298.15 K标准状态下的生成焓和标准熵,计算了不同温度条件下一步法、两步法酯化法和酯交换法合成三羟甲基丙烷庚酸、己二酸混合酯的焓变、Gibbs 自由能和标准平衡常数。通过对反应体系的热力学分析发现,一步法、两步法和酯交换三种方法均可以得到三羟甲基丙烷庚酸、己二酸混合酯。采用一步法直接酯化合成即使在庚酸过量的情况下仍然可以满足要求,并且热力学上更有优势,并对反应进行了验证,这些计算为一步法合成混合酯的工业生产提供了理论依据。

  11. 己二酸-1,4-丁二醇-尿素共聚物的合成与表征%Synthesis, characterization of adipic acid-l, 4-butanediol-urea copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃军; 谢伟; 刘亦武; 刘磅

    2012-01-01

    A novel adipic acid copolymer was synthesized via condensation polymerization with adipic acid, urea and, 1,4-butanediol as the raw materials. The influences of reaction time, catalyst, mass ratio of raw materials and the temperature on the property of copolymer were investigated. The structure, thermodynamic perform- ance and the molecular weights of the eopolymer were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1 H- NMR spectrum, gel permeation chromatography (GPG) and thermogravimeter-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) respectively. The results show that under the condition of 220℃, 10h, the optimal feed molar ratios n (1,4-butanediol and urea)/n (adipic acid) == 1.16 : 1, n (adipie acid)/n (urea) = 5 : 1, the amount of catalyst was 0.03wt %), a desired adipic acid copolymer whose weight-average molecular weight reaches 12700 could be obtained. The prepared copolymer has higher thermostability, degradability and good appearance.%以己二酸、1,4-丁二醇和尿素为原料,在氩气环境下,通过高温熔融缩聚反应合成了一种新型可降解的己二酸-丁二醇-尿素共聚物,并对反应时间、催化剂种类及其用量、原料配比、反应温度等因素对聚合产物的影响进行了研究。采用红外光谱(FT-IR)、核磁共振(1H-NMR)、凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)、热重分析(TG)、差示量热扫描(DSC)对产物的结构与性能进行了表征。结果表明,当丁二醇和尿素的总量与己二酸(n(丁二醇+尿素)∶n(己二酸))的摩尔比为1.16∶1,丁二醇和尿素(n(1,4-丁二醇)∶n(尿素))的摩尔比为5∶1,最高反应温度为220℃,二月桂酸二丁基锡为催化剂且用量为原料总量的0.03%,总反应时间10h,所得到产物的重均分子量(Mw)可达12700,其颜色、热稳定性和降解性能等较好。

  12. Flow-induced crystallization of a nano composite of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/montmorillonite; Cinetica de cristalizacao induzida por fluxo de nanocomposito de poli(butileno adipato-co-tereftalato)/montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, Alan B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. UFSCar, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais DEMa, SP (Brazil); Rego, Bruna T.; Beatrice, Cesar A.G.; Marini, Juliano; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. UFSCar, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with 5wt% of an organically modified montmorillonite with polar surfactant was prepared by melt blending in a co-rotational twin-screw extruder at 160 degree C. 100rpm and 1 kg/h. Both pure polymer and nano composite were characterized by wide measurements. The study of the flow-induced crystallization was also done by rheological measurements, monitoring the viscosity as a function of time. The nano clay's lamellas were intercalated in the polymer m loss moduli of the nano composite, at low frequencies, showed that the particles of the nano clay were well dispersed and distributed thru the PBAT matrix. Finally, the presence of the nano clay's particles reduced the induction tim crystals growth, due to the strong interactions with the PBAT chains. (author)

  13. Influence of acids composition in the properties of poly(glycerol citrate-co-adipate); Influencia da composicao dos acidos nas propriedades do poli(glicerol citrato-co-adipato)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, M.M.; Pereira, R.; Fiuza, R.P.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: mbrioude@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Synthetic polymers are highly resistant to degradation, being one of the greatest responsible for environment pollution. Consequently, an increase in biodegradable polymers research and development is happening. In this work we propose the synthesis and characterization of polyesters potentially biodegradable using glycerol, citric acid (CA) and adipic acid (AD). The polyesters were prepared by adding the reactants in molar ratio between glycerol:acids (1:1,5), but changing the acids ratio. The system was heated to 150-160 deg C, under nitrogen atmosphere and magnetic stirring, without catalyst adding. The samples were characterized by TGA, DSC, FTIR, XRD e SEM. The results show that the polymers prepared are amorphous polyesters, with two thermal events in 250 deg C and 450 deg C and the surfaces presents smooth and rough regions refers to bonds between glycerol and CA or AD, respectively. (author)

  14. Process related contaminations causing climatic reliability issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2012-01-01

    contaminants during the wave and re-flow soldering process; however variation in temperature on the PCBA surface during soldering can result in considerable amounts of active residues being left locally. Typical no-clean flux systems used today consist of weak organic acids (WOA) and active residues left...... of WOAs from reflow solder paste (malic, adipic, succinic, and glutaric acid) and its effects on leakage current and corrosion of Sn and Cu. Leakage current due to flux residue was investigated using a localized cleanliness test system C3 (Foresite Inc., USA). The system extracts residue contaminants......Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface...

  15. Estudi del canal de glicerol aqp7 i de l'adipoquina zag en l'àmbit de l'obesitat, la diabetis tipus 2 i la síndrome metabòlica. Dues proteïnes implicades en la lipòlisi del teixit adipós

    OpenAIRE

    Ceperuelo Mallafré, Mª Victòria

    2010-01-01

    L'obesitat incrementa les possibilitats de patir altres malalties com la diabetis mellitus tipus 2 (DM2), la dislipèmia, la hipertensió, entre d'altres. Per tal de poder avançar en noves dianes terapèutiques que millorin aquestes malalties és necessari conèixer millor la biologia del teixit adipós i els seus components. El teixit adipós blanc, a més a més d'emmagatzemar la major part de les reserves energètiques, és capaç de tenir activitat metabòlica i endocrina. Cal tenir en compte que un ...

  16. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate, poly(butylene succinate and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate under anaerobic and oxygen limited thermophilic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutakan Boonmee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the biodegradation behavior of biodegradable plastics in landfill conditions, four types of biodegradable plastics including poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT were tested by burying in sludge mixed soil medium under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions. The experiments were operated at 52 ± 2ºC in dark conditions according to ISO15985. The degree of biodegradation after 75 days was investigated by weight loss determination, visual examination, and surface appearance by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Under both anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions, the complete degradation (100% weight loss was found only in PHBV after 75 days. The plastic degradations were ranked in the order of PHBV> PLA> PBS> PBAT. The percentage of weight losses were significantly different at p ≤ 0.05. However, for all studied plastics, the degradation under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions did not significantly different at 95% confidence.

  17. 热处理对聚己二酸丁二醋多晶结构和降解行为的影响%Polymorphic Crystals from Different Thermal Treatments and Its Effect on Biodegradation Behavior of Poly( butylene adipate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽芬; 蒋妮; 甘志华

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of characteristic polymorphic crystals of poly ( butylene adipate) ( PBA), the PBA films with α crystal structure were prepared by melt crystallization and annealing treatment. The polymorphic crystal structure, crystal size and crystalline morphology of PBA α crystals with different thermal history were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction ( WAXD), atomic force microscope ( AFM ) and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC). The biodegradation behavior of PBA α crystals from different thermal treatments was investigated by following the mass loss with time. The results indicate that the difference of PBA α crystals in spatial orientation of polymer chains in the same crystal lattice due to the different thermal history is the essential reason which results in the different biodegradation rates.%通过熔融结晶并结合退火处理方法得到多晶结构的聚己二酸丁二酯(PBA)及具有不同热历史的热力学稳定的a晶型,采用广角X射线衍射仪(WAXD)、原子力显微镜(AFM)和差示扫描量热仪(DSC)研究了PBA的多晶结构、晶体尺寸和结晶形貌,跟踪了退火处理PBA的生物降解行为.结果表明,分子链在相同晶格排列中围绕c轴空间取向的不同是决定多晶PBA降解速率差别的根本因素.

  18. 由己二酸根桥联的新颖双U形四核铜配合物:[Cu4(phen)4(NO3)2(H2O)2(adip)4/4(Hadip)4/2](NO3)2·2H2O%A Novel Adipato-Bridged Dual U-Shaped Tetranuclear Cu(Ⅱ)Complex:[Cu4(phen)4(NO3)2(H2O)2(adip)4/4(Hadip)4/2](NO3)2·2H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解庆范; 陈延民; 黄妙龄; 林碧洲

    2008-01-01

    邻菲罗啉、己二酸和硝酸铜在水溶液中反应得到一种新颖的四核铜配合物[Cu4(phen)4(NO3)2(H2O)2-(adip)4/4(Hadip)4/2](NO3)2·2H2O(其中H2adip=己二酸),并经元素分析,IR,UV,TG和X射线单晶衍射分析表征.该配合物晶体属三斜晶系,P-1空间群,a=1.0146(2)nm,6=1.0261(2)nm,c=1.8285(4)nm,a=91.66(3)°,β=92.19(3)°,γ=112.76(3)°,V=1.7520(6)nm3,Z=1,Dc=1.639 g/cm3,c66H66Cu4N12O28,Mr=1729.47,F(000)=886,μ=1.294mm-1,R1和wR2分别为0.0447和0.1141.己二酸根通过4个羧基O将两个U形双核亚单元联接成具有一个对称中心的双U形四核结构,其中每个U型亚单元包含晶体学上不对称的2个Cu(Ⅱ)原子.每个Cu(Ⅱ)离子均处于畸变的四方锥配位环境,除与己二酸氢根(Hadip)、己二酸根(adip)和邻菲罗啉(Phen)的N,O配位形成锥底平面外,其中的1个Cu(Ⅱ)与水配位,而另一个Cu(Ⅱ)则与硝酸根配位.配合物晶体结构中存在着广泛的氢键和π…π作用.

  19. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Marianne Ayumi; Olivato, Juliana Bonametti; Garcia, Patrícia Salomão; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used.

  1. Effect of Adipic Acid Derivative Cross-linking on the Resistanceto Trypsin Degradation of Collagen%己二酸衍生物交联对胶原抗胰蛋白酶解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以会; 刘文涛; 李国英

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the enzymatic resistance of collagen, collagen was cross-linked with N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) at concentrations ranging from 0.25 mM to 4 mM. The results demonstrated that the digested collagen cross-linked with 1. 5 mM NHS-AA had the maximum weight remaining, minimum amino groups determined by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, and the maximum denaturation temperature, obtained by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC ). Meanwhile, with increasing NHS-AA concentration, color of peptide maps of collagen digested by trypsin, obtained by means of sodium dodeeyl sulphate polyarrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE), gradually became lighter. All shown enzymatic resistance of collagen was improved significantly owing to interference of the penetration of the enzyme into the cross-linked collagen network. The results demonstrated that collagen cross-linked with 1. 5 mM NHS-AA had optimum enzymatic degradability due to the highest cross-linking density of collagen. The susceptibility of collagen towards enzymatic degradation could be controlled by varying the degree of cross-linking of the samples.%为了提高胶原耐酶解能力,以N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺-己二酸酯(NHS-AA)为交联剂(浓度CNHS-AA为0.25-4.0mmol/L)交联胶原,采用质量法、三硝基苯磺酸法、差示扫描量热法和十二烷基硫酸钠-丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳等对胶原耐胰蛋白酶解的性能进行了研究.结果显示,当CNHS-AA为1.5 mmol/L时,胶原酶解重量保持率达到最大,自由氨基浓度达到最低,胶原的变性温度达到最高;酶解产物电泳谱带的颜色随CNHS-AA增加而逐渐变浅.研究表明,NHS-AA与胶原的自由氨基反应形成的交联网状结构有效地阻碍了胰蛋白酶渗透进入胶原材料,从而提高了胶原抗酶解能力,当CNHS-AA=1.5 mmol/L时,胶原抗酶解能力达到最强.由此可见,可以通过改变交联度来控制胶原胰蛋白酶降解的速率.

  2. 己二酸/酚醛树脂共聚炭化制备多孔炭材料及其电性能研究%Preparation of Porous Carbon by Polymer Blending of Phenolic Resin and Adipic Diacid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏笑虹; 刘洪波; 黄衍瑞; 杨丽; 石磊

    2011-01-01

    Porous carbons used for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) were prepared by chemical blending of phenolic resin (PF) and adipic diacid (DA). Chemical reaction of PF with diacid is manifested by a shift of carbonyl stretching peak of diacid to a higher frequency in FT-IR spectra and a higher decomposition temperature of diacid in TG curves. The influences of the ratio of vv(DA) to vv(PF) on pore structure, adsorption behavior and capacity performance were investigated. The specific surface area and total pore volume increase with the ratio of w(DA) to w(PF) at first and then decrease, reach the maximum at the value of w(PF)/w(DA), which are 550 cm2/g and 0.27 cm3/g, respectively. When the porous carbon used for the electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC), a satisfied specific capacitances of 145 F/g in 30 wt% KOH aqueous electrolytes is acquired and the capacitance maintenance achieve 70% while the current density enlarged 50 times.%以酚醛树脂(PF)为炭前驱体,己二酸(DA)为致孔链段,利用聚合物共聚炭化法制备双电层电容器用多孔炭材料:通过红外和热重分析证实己二酸与酚醛树脂发生了化学反应,DA以链段或支链的形式存在于酚醛树脂固化体系中,并在后续炭化过程中热解逸出.氮气吸附分析表明酚醛树脂固化体系中的DA起到了一定的造孔作用,随着DA加入量增加,多孔炭比表面积先增大后减小,当w(PF)/w(DA )=3∶1时所得多孔炭的比表面积为550 cm2/g,孔容为0.27 cm3/g.采用直流充放电法、交流阻抗法和循环伏安法测定以上述多孔炭为电极材料的双电层电容器的电化学性能,结果表明:w(PF)/w(DA)=3:1时制得的多孔炭电极在30% KOH电解液中比电容为145 F/g,电流密度增大50倍,比电容保持率达到70%.

  3. Avaliação por processamento de imagem assistida por computador das alterações citométricas dos adipócitos do tecido celular subcutâneo da parede anterior do abdome, após hipercapnia local

    OpenAIRE

    Célia Sampaio Costa

    2009-01-01

    Recentes estudos vêm demonstrando os efeitos benéficos da infiltração percutânea de dióxido de carbono em diferentes campos da Medicina, inclusive como alternativa para tratamento de depósitos localizados de gordura formados após lipoaspiração da parede abdominal. É possível que os efeitos dessa terapia encontrem-se relacionados à capacidade do método em aumentar a circulação sangüínea local, bem como aos efeitos lipolíticos do CO2 sobre adipócitos do tecido envolvido. Entretanto, até a prese...

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Prais Botelho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid may reduce fat body mass and increase lean body mass in various species. Some studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat, in part, by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. The objective of this work was to study the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. 3T3-L1 adipocytes received linoleic acid (group C or conjugated linoleic acid (group AE, supplemented with AdvantEdge® CLA, and group CO, supplemented with CLA One® in concentrations of 1 mmol/L. Heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was analyzed by means of a 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. After 7 days, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in the groups AE and CO supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which CLA is capable of reducing body fat is by reducing lipoprotein lipase activity.A suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado pode reduzir a gordura corporal e aumentar a massa magra em diferentes espécies. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que o ácido linoléico conjugado reduz a gordura corporal, por meio da inibição da atividade de lípase lipoprotéica em adipócitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com uma mistura de isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1. Os adipócitos 3T3-L1 receberam ácido linoléico (grupo controle ou ácido linoléico conjugado (grupo AE, suplementado com AdvantEdge® CLA, e grupo CO, suplementado com CLA One® na concentração de 1 mmol/L. A atividade de lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina foi analisada pela média da cultura de adipócitos. Após 7 dias, a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina mostrou menores valores nos grupos AE e CO, suplementados com ácido linol

  5. VIS-NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for compositional characterization of film biopolymers and correlation with their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, Douglas Fernandes; Valous, Nektarios A; Dias, Adriana Passos; Camisa, Jaqueline; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Yamashita, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of polysaccharides and proteins for the production of biodegradable films. Visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy is a reliable analytical tool for objective analyses of biological sample attributes. The objective is to investigate the potential of VIS-NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for compositional characterization of biodegradable materials and correlation to their mechanical properties. Biofilms were produced by single-screw extrusion with different combinations of polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate, whole oat flour, glycerol, magnesium stearate, and citric acid. Spectral data were recorded in the range of 400-2498nm at 2nm intervals. Partial least square regression was used to investigate the correlation between spectral information and mechanical properties. Results show that spectral information is influenced by the major constituent components, as they are clustered according to polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate content. Results for regression models using the spectral information as predictor of tensile properties achieved satisfactory results, with coefficients of prediction (R(2)C) of 0.83, 0.88 and 0.92 (calibration models) for elongation, tensile strength, and Young's modulus, respectively. Results corroborate the correlation of NIR spectra with tensile properties, showing that NIR spectroscopy has potential as a rapid analytical technology for non-destructive assessment of the mechanical properties of the films.

  6. 40 CFR 98.51 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.51 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an adipic acid production process and the...

  7. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Secondary magnesium processing plants. Nitric Acid Production 325311 Nitric acid manufacturing facilities.... Phosphoric Acid Production 325312 Phosphoric acid manufacturing facilities. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing.... Adipic Acid Production 325199 Adipic acid manufacturing facilities. Aluminum Production 331312...

  8. Chemical vapor deposition graphene transfer process to a polymeric substrate assisted by a spin coater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Felipe; da Rocha, Caique O. C.; Medeiros, Gabriela S.; Fechine, Guilhermino J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new method to transfer chemical vapor deposition graphene to polymeric substrates is demonstrated here, it is called direct dry transfer assisted by a spin coater (DDT-SC). Compared to the conventional method DDT, the improvement of the contact between graphene-polymer due to a very thin polymeric film deposited by spin coater before the transfer process prevented air bubbles and/or moisture and avoided molecular expansion on the graphene-polymer interface. An acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, a high impact polystyrene, polybutadiene adipate-co-terephthalate, polylactide acid, and a styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer are the polymers used for the transfers since they did not work very well by using the DDT process. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to identify, to quantify, and to qualify graphene transferred to the polymer substrates. The quantity of graphene transferred was substantially increased for all polymers by using the DDT-SC method when compared with the DDT standard method. After the transfer, the intensity of the D band remained low, indicating low defect density and good quality of the transfer. The DDT-SC transfer process expands the number of graphene applications since the polymer substrate candidates are increased.

  9. Modification of poly (butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) by physical blending with poly (1,2-propylene succiate) (PPSu)%聚(丁二酸-1,2-丙二酯)(PPSu)对聚(丁二酸丁二酯-共聚-己二酸丁二酯)(PBSA)的物理改性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞冬; 徐军; 郭宝华

    2012-01-01

    聚(丁二酸丁二酯-共聚-己二酸丁二酯)(PBSA)是一种全生物降解材料,但由于其结晶度较高,无定形区比例较少,导致韧性不足.聚(丁二酸-1,2-丙二酯)(PPSu)是一种非结晶的生物可降解聚酯,在室温下处于无定型态.研究了PPSu对于PBSA的物理改性作用,通过DSC、DMA、POM、SEM测试对PBSA/PPSu的共混体系进行了表征,发现这2种脂肪族聚酯的共混物为部分相容体系,少量PPSu和PBSA相容.随PPSu质量分数的增加,共混体系玻璃化转变温度稍有升高,结晶速率下降.PPSu质量分数达10%时,断面刻蚀的SEM图片显示相分离结构.力学性能测试结果表明,在混入少量PPSu后,PBSA的抗冲击强度得到了较大提升.%Poly (butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) is a kind of biodegradable material. However, due to its high degree of crystallinity and a low proportion of amorphou region,PBSA has low impact resistance. Poly( 1, 2-propylene succiate) (PPSu) is a kind of amorphous polymer,which can also be fully degraded in environment. In this study, PPSu is blended with PBSA. The miscibility, crystallization kinetics and the mechanical properties of the blends are investigated. Differential scanning caloreroetry, thermomechanical analysis, phase contrast optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been adopted to study the miscibility of the two polymer components. The results show that PBSA and PPSu are miscible partially. When PPSu content is larger than 10 wt% , phase separation is observed in the blends. Increasing the amount of PPSu,the blends have higher glass transition temperature and slower crystallization rate. Compared with PBSA,the impact strength of the blends is greatly improved.

  10. Biopolymer Blends Based on Poly (lactic acid: Shear and Elongation Rheology/Structure/Blowing Process Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racha Al-Itry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was dedicated to the blown film extrusion of poly(lactic acid, which mainly presents poor shear and elongation viscosities, and its blends. In order to enhance its melt strength, two main routes were selected (i a structural modification through chain extension and branching mechanisms by adding a reactive multifunctional epoxide (named Joncryl and (ii blending with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate, named PBAT in presence (or not of Joncryl. The effects of the reactive agent on the shear and elongation rheology, morphological, and interfacial properties of the blends were systematically investigated. A decrease of the interfacial tension has been also demonstrated according to the deformed drop retraction method (DDRM. Hence, the role of Joncryl as a compatibilizer was highlighted. Consequently, finer morphology of the dispersed phase was obtained. Furthermore, the impact of the two modification routes on the blown film extrusion ability of PLA has been studied. Based on the improved shear and elongational rheological properties, a great enlargement of the blowing processing window of PLA modified with Joncryl was demonstrated. Indeed, with the addition of Joncryl into PLA–PBAT blends, a reduction of the instability defects has been detected. Finally, the induced crystalline structure and the thermo-mechanical properties of blown films were shown to be improved.

  11. new glucopyranosylglyceryl-n-octenyl adipate and bioactivity of retro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    structures were established upon detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and other physical ... In our previous paper we reported the isolation of ... was further established by the strong IR .... derived from the oxidation of the respective fatty acid ...

  12. Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Capapé, Marta; Golmayo, Luz; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Gallego, Nieves; Barrio, Raquel

    2004-10-01

    Adipsic hypernatraemia is an uncommon disorder in childhood caused by a defect in the osmoregulation of thirst, leading to impairment of water homeostasis and chronic hyperosmolality of body fluids. Adipsia is often associated with an abnormality in osmoregulated vasopressin secretion due to the close proximity of the hypothalamic osmoreceptors that control thirst with those regulating vasopressin secretion. Hypothalamic lesions of diverse aetiology (vascular abnormalities, neoplasms, granulomatous diseases, trauma etc.) have been described in this syndrome. We report a 12-year-old boy with evident weight loss due to hypernatraemic dehydration with a selective defect in osmoregulation of thirst and normal vasopressin secretion with no demonstrable structural lesion. To date, only six paediatric patients with this condition have been described in the literature. Hypothalamic adipsic hypernatraemia syndrome must be suspected when a dehydrated patient denies thirst. The study of antidiuretic function is necessary because the osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion could be altered.

  13. Hidrofilicidade de filmes de amido/poli(butileno adipato co-tereftalato (Pbat adicionados de tween 80 e óleo de soja Hydrophilicity of starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (Pbat films containing tween 80 and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Herrera Brandelero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de amido ao polímero poli (butilenoadipatoco-tereftalato (PBAT através de blendas com alto teor de amido pode ser uma alternativa para obter embalagens biodegradáveis, minimizar custos e o uso de recursos não renováveis. No entanto, a adição de amido aumenta a permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA. A incorporação em filmes com amido de substâncias como óleos vegetais e surfactantes pode diminuir a hidrofilicidade, favorecendo as aplicações destes como embalagens. A hidrofilicidade dos filmes elaborados por blendas de amido/PBAT adicionados de óleo de soja (OS e tween 80 (TW foi avaliada considerando o efeito do OS e TW nas isotermas de sorção dos filmes, na PVA e nos coeficientes de difusão (Dw e solubilidade (β do vapor de água. Filmes com OS com ou sem TW apresentaram menor quantidade de água de sorção, sendo os filmes com menores quantidades de OS e sem TW menos hidrofílicos e menos permeáveis aos vapores de água. A adição de OS reduziu os valores de β e Dw dos filmes de amido/PBAT. O efeito foi relacionado com o aumento das porções hidrofóbicas e da compatibilidade entre o amido e PBAT na presença de OS.Incorporating starch into the poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT polymer by means of blends with high starch contents is a possible option for producing biodegradable packaging using renewable resources and reducing costs. However, the addition of starch increases the water vapour permeability (WVP. The incorporation of substances as lipids and surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicity of films containing starch, favouring their use as packaging. The hydrophilicity of films produced from blends of starch/PBAT with added soybean oil (SO and tween 80 (TW was studied. The effects of these substances on the sorption isotherm, on the WVP and on the water vapour diffusion (Dw and solubility (β coefficients of the films were evaluated. The water sorption in films with SO, with or without TW

  14. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  15. Investigation of Thermal and Thermomechanical Properties of Biodegradable PLA/PBSA Composites Processed via Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Foam Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Aditya Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based polymer foams have been gaining immense attention in recent years due to their positive contribution towards reducing the global carbon footprint, lightweighting, and enhancing sustainability. Currently, polylactic acid (PLA remains the most abundant commercially consumed biopolymer, but suffers from major drawbacks such as slow crystallization rate and poor melt processability. However, blending of PLA with a secondary polymer would enhance the crystallization rate and the thermal properties based on their compatibility. This study investigates the physical and compatibilized blends of PLA/poly (butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA processed via supercritical fluid-assisted (ScF injection molding technology using nitrogen (N2 as a facile physical blowing agent. Furthermore, this study aims at understanding the effect of blending and ScF foaming of PLA/PBSA on crystallinity, melting, and viscoelastic behavior. Results show that compatibilization, upon addition of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, led to an increase in molecular weight and a shift in melting temperature. Additionally, the glass transition temperature (Tg obtained from the tanδ curve was observed to be in agreement with the Tg value predicted by the Gordon–Taylor equation, further confirming the compatibility of PLA and PBSA. The compatibilization of ScF-foamed PLA–PBSA was found to have an increased crystallinity and storage modulus compared to their physically foamed counterparts.

  16. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  17. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  18. Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane microspheres by a facile and green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yen; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-05-01

    Two different compositions of water-based biodegradable polyurethane (PU) in the form of homogeneous nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using biodegradable polyesters as the soft segment. The first PU (PU01) was based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and the second PU (PU02) was based on 40% PCL diol and 60% polyethylene butylene adipate diol. The PU NP dispersions with different solid contents were sprayed into liquid nitrogen and resuspended in water to generate elastic microspheres (50-60 µm) with different nanoporosities. In vitro degradation analysis revealed that microspheres of PU02 (i.e., PU02 MS) degraded faster than those of PU01 (PU01 MS). Methylene blue was encapsulated during microsphere formation and the release was investigated. Microspheres made from a lower content (10%) of PU02 dispersion (i.e., PU02 MS_10) showed a greater burst release of methylene blue in 6 h, whereas those made from a higher content (30%) of PU01 dispersion (i.e., PU01 MS_30) revealed a prolonged release with a significantly lower burst release. Biocompatibility evaluation using L929 fibroblasts demonstrated that cells were attached and proliferated on microspheres after 24 h. On the other hand, microspheres may further self-assemble into films and scaffolds. Surface modification of microspheres by chitosan may modify the self-assembly behavior of microspheres. Microspheres could be stacked to form scaffolds with different macroporosities. Fibroblasts were successfully seeded and grown in the microsphere-stacked scaffolds. We concluded that the biodegradable and elastic microspheres may be facilely produced from a green and sustainable process with potential applications in drug release and three-dimensional cell culture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  20. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  1. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  2. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions. • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality • Includes greatly expanded coverage...... of odor formation and prediction • Details the WATS sewer process model • Highlights the importance of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic processes Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, provides a basis for up-to-date understanding and modeling of sewer...

  3. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  4. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology......Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...

  5. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  6. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Blanken, H.M.; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by industri

  7. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  8. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  9. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  10. Study on the Synthesis Process and Performance Comparison of Aliphatic Polyester%脂肪族聚酯的合成工艺及性能比较研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇莹; 郭鹏; 陈红亮

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,for the poly butylene succinate,succinic acid glycol ester,succinic acid glycol ester/top adipic acid glycol ester copolymer,PLA and PCL aliphatic polyester,the synthesis process and properties of them were compared. By comparing the relationship between synthesis and material properties of aliphatic polyester,for the synthesis and modification to provide train of thought.%对聚丁二酸丁二醇酯、聚丁二酸乙二醇酯、聚丁二酸己二醇酯/己二酸己二醇酯共聚物、聚乳酸以及聚己内酯等脂肪族聚酯的合成工艺及性能进行比较,通过比较探讨合成工艺和材料性能之间的关系,得出力学性能和分子量,性能和结晶度以及降解性之间的关系,为脂肪族聚酯的合成改性及降解研究提供思路。

  11. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  12. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  13. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  14. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  15. Manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  16. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    1999-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers. MArch

  17. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    2000-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers.

  18. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  19. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  20. Macdonald processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t in [0,1). We prove several results about these processes, which include the following. (1) We explicitly evaluate expectations of a rich family of observables for these processes. (2) In the case t=0, we find a Fredholm determinant formula for a q-Laplace transform of the distribution of the last part of the Macdonald-random partition. (3) We introduce Markov dynamics that preserve the class of Macdonald processes and lead to new "integrable" 2d and 1d interacting particle systems. (4) In a large time limit transition, and as q goes to 1, the particles of these systems crystallize on a lattice, and fluctuations around the lattice converge to O'Connell's Whittaker process that describe semi-discrete Brownian directed polymers. (5) This yields a Fredholm determinant for the Laplace transform of the polymer partition function...

  1. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  2. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  3. Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  4. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  5. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  6. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu...

  7. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  8. espida Process

    OpenAIRE

    Currall, James; McKinney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Embedded in the work of espida is a process that ensures projects align themselves with the strategic aims of the funders they wish to receive resources from. It details the relationship the funder and fundee have and how outcomes of the work feedback into the organisational objectives.

  9. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  10. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  11. Purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, A.

    1981-02-17

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

  12. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  13. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...... suitable to leave native C-termini.During this study the substrate specificity of LysN was profiled with a synthetic fluorogenic peptide library which allowed for kinetic characterization. A novel profiling method using encoded beads was proposed to efficiently profile human Renin. Recombinant expression...

  14. Hydrocarbon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Seddon, D.

    1989-06-28

    A process for the catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas into a product which comprises naphtha, kerosene and distillate is characterized in that the catalyst is a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst also containing a zeolite, the naphtha fraction contains 60% or less linear paraffins and the kerosene and distillated fractions contain more linear paraffins and olefins than found in the naphtha fraction. Reduction of the relative amount of straight chain material in the naphtha fraction increases the octane number and so enhances the quality of the gasoline product, while the high quality of the kerosene and distillate fractions is maintained.

  15. Optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  16. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  17. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  18. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  19. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids and glyoxylic acid in the tropical Indian aerosols: Implications for sources and photochemical processing of organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.; Tachibana, Eri

    2011-09-01

    The tropical Indian aerosols (PM10) collected on day- and nighttime bases in winter and summer, 2007 from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) were studied for stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of total carbon (TC), individual dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9) and glyoxylic acid (ωC2). δ13C values of TC ranged from -23.9‰ to -25.9‰ (-25.0 ± 0.6‰; n = 49). Oxalic (C2) (-17.1 ± 2.5‰), malonic (C3) (-20.8 ± 1.8‰), succinic (C4) (-22.5 ± 1.5‰) and adipic (C6) (-20.6 ± 4.1‰) acids and ωC2 acid (-22.4 ± 5.5‰) were found to be more enriched with 13C compared to TC. In contrast, suberic (C8) (-29.4 ± 1.8‰), phthalic (Ph) (-30.1 ± 3.5‰) and azelaic (C9) (-28.4 ± 5.8‰) acids showed smaller δ13C values than TC. Based on comparisons of δ13C values of TC in Chennai aerosols to those (-24.7 ± 2.2‰) found in unburned cow-dung samples collected from Chennai and isotopic signatures of the particles emitted from point sources, we found that biofuel/biomass burning are the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in South and Southeast Asia. The decrease in δ13C values of C9 diacid by about 5‰ from winter to summer suggests that tropical plant emissions also significantly contribute to organic aerosol in this region. Significant increase in δ13C values from C4 to C2 diacids in Chennai aerosols could be attributed for their photochemical processing in the tropical atmosphere during long-range transport from source regions.

  20. Processing and characterization of solid and microcellular biobased and biodegradable PHBV-based polymer blends and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Alireza

    Petroleum-based polymers have made a significant contribution to human society due to their extraordinary adaptability and processability. However, due to the wide-spread application of plastics over the past few decades, there are growing concerns over depleting fossil resources and the undesirable environmental impact of plastics. Most of the petroleum-based plastics are non-biodegradable and thus will be disposed in landfills. Inappropriate disposal of plastics may also become a potential threat to the environment. Many approaches, such as efficient plastics waste management and replacing petroleum-based plastics with biodegradable materials obtained from renewable resources, have been put forth to overcome these problems. Plastics waste management is at its beginning stages of development which is also more expensive than expected. Thus, there is a growing interest in developing sustainable biobased and biodegradable materials produced from renewable resources such as plants and crops, which can offer comparable performance with additional advantages, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and reducing the carbon footprint. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers, In fact many petroleum based polymers such as poly(propylene) (PP) can be potentially replaced by PHBV because of the similarity in their properties. Despite PHBV's attractive properties, there are many drawbacks such as high cost, brittleness, and thermal instability, which hamper the widespread usage of this specific polymer. The goals of this study are to investigate various strategies to address these drawbacks, including blending with other biodegradable polymers such as poly (butylene adipate-coterephthalate) (PBAT) or fillers (e.g., coir fiber, recycled wood fiber, and nanofillers) and use of novel processing technologies such as microcellular injection molding technique. Microcellular injection molding technique

  1. Dynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  2. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  3. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  4. Analise térmica e microscópica de laminados biodegradáveis obtidos a partir de farinha de mandioca, sorbitol e poli (butileno adipato co-tereftalato PBAT. Thermal and microscopic analysis of biodegradable laminates made from cassava flour, sorbitol and poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate PBAT - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.13183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Tirolli Rett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver blendas de materiais laminados biodegradáveis, utilizando farinha de mandioca como fonte de amido, fibras naturais, sorbitol como plastificante e PBAT. Primeiro obteve-se peletes de três formulações diferentes e a partir destes, utilizou-se a termoprensagem a alta temperatura como alternativa na formação dos laminados. A caracterização foi feita através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e calorimetria diferencia de varredura (CDV. A quantidade se sorbitol que melhor se ajustou à extrusão foi a de 15% (peso/peso; a formulação do laminado mais homogêneo, observada pela microscopia, foi de 55:40:15 (farinha/sorbitol/PBAT. As fibras ficaram dispersas por toda a superfície nos três tratamentos estudados, porém, por dentre eles, observaram-se zonas dispersas das fibras. Conforme se aumentou o teor de farinha, houve aumento no ponto de fusão dos laminados em comparação ao PBAT puro.Blends of biodegradable laminated materials were developed using cassava flour as starch and natural fibers source, sorbitol as a plasticizer and PBAT as a biodegradable polyester. After obtaining pellets from three different formulations, high temperature thermopressure was used to form laminates. The characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The amount of sorbitol for the best extrusion process was 15% (weight/weight and the formulation of the best homogeneity observed by microscopy was 55:40:15 (flour/sorbitol/PBAT. Although fibers were dispersed throughout the surface in the three treatments, scattered areas of fibers could be found among them. As rates of flour increased, an increase in the melting point of the laminates occurred when compared to pure PBAT.  

  5. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  6. Studies on process synthesis and process integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fien, Gert-Jan A. F.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis discusses topics in the field of process engineering that have received much attention over the past twenty years: (1) conceptual process synthesis using heuristic shortcut methods and (2) process integration through heat-exchanger networks and energy-saving power and refrigeration systems. The shortcut methods for conceptual process synthesis presented in Chapter 2, utilize Residue Curve Maps in ternary diagrams and are illustrated with examples of processes...

  7. 78 FR 33748 - Diisopropyl Adipate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting establishment of an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This.... Department of Agriculture's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What we eat in America,...

  8. Listeria monocytogenes DNA glycosylase AdiP affects flagellar motility, biofilm formation, virulence, and stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperature-dependent alteration of flagellar motility gene expression is critical for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to respond to a changing environment. In this study, a genetic determinant, L. monocytogenes f2365_0220 (lmof2365_0220), encoding a putative protein that is struct...

  9. γ-Glutamyl semialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde: biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneshvar, B.; Frandsen, H.; Autrup, Herman

    1997-01-01

    or Pro, while AAS is an oxidation product of Lys. When oxidative stress was induced in rats by treatments with t-butyl hydroperoxide or acrolein, rat plasma protein levels of GGS and AAS were found to be significantly higher compared with control rats. The AAS-content in serum albumin or in total plasma...

  10. Polymeric chains, hydrogen bonds and magnetism in Nd(III) adipates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria, G. [LANADI e IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: geche@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Punte, G. [LANADI e IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sives, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Brusau, E.V. [Area de Quimica General e Inorganica ' Dr. G. F. Puelles' , Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Pedregosa, J.C. [Area de Quimica General e Inorganica ' Dr. G. F. Puelles' , Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Narda, G.E. [Area de Quimica General e Inorganica ' Dr. G. F. Puelles' , Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Ellena, J. [Instituto de Fisica Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2004-12-31

    An AC susceptibility study of [Nd{sub 2}(O{sub 2}C(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) obtained from a solution at ambient conditions was performed in the range 14-320K. An ordering transition, T{sub C}=280(2)K, not related to a structural phase transition, a ferromagnetic like Curie-Weiss behavior above T{sub C}, an antiferromagnetic like dependence of {chi}'-1 at the lowest temperatures and a non-linear thermal dependence of {chi}'-1 in the in-between region have been observed. Samples prepared by hydration of 1 during different periods showed enhancement of the observed features. Links between water content, crystal structure and magnetic response are discussed.

  11. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  12. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  13. Process mineralogy IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruk, W.; Hagni, R.D.; Pignolet-Brandom, S.; Hausen, D.M. (eds.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    54 papers are presented under the headings: keynote address; process mineralogy applications to mineral processing; process mineralogy applications to gold; process mineralogy applications to pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy; process mineralogy applications to environment and health; and process mineralogy applications to synthetic materials. Subject and author indexes are provided. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

  14. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  15. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  17. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  18. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  19. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  20. Food processing and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Feys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, N. van der; Wichers, H.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat tre

  1. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  2. INTEGRATED RENEWAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.

  3. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  4. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  5. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the regul

  6. Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    64 C. MULTIVOTING ......... .................. .. 65 D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY ... ......... .. 65 v E. PAIRED...PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS (PIP) Diagram of each Activity (AI-A4) ......... .. 122 vi APPENDIX D: PRODUCTS AND VENDORS WHICH SUPPORT ELECTRONIC VOTING ............. 126...requirements. D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY Nunamaker [1992] suggests that traditional voting usual- ly happens at the end of a discussion, to close

  7. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number of opti...

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  9. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...... and technology factors in organizations. Theoretical implications call for a design-oriented view of technology and process alignment....

  10. IMPLEMENTING BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad BALANESCU; Mihaela MASCU

    2014-01-01

    Business Process Management (BPM) is considered to be the third wave in business process theory. Appearing as a response to the critique formulated regarding Business Process Reengineering, BPM tries to be a more holistic and integrated approach to management and processes. In a time where complex solutions are needed solution that incorporates elements from various concepts, Business Process Management can be, in my opinion, a link between these ideas. After a short introduction presenting g...

  11. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  12. Business process transformation the process tangram framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a framework through transformation and explains  how business goals can be translated into realistic plans that are tangible and yield real results in terms of the top line and the bottom line. Process Transformation is like a tangram puzzle, which has multiple solutions yet is essentially composed of seven 'tans' that hold it together. Based on practical experience and intensive research into existing material, 'Process Tangram' is a simple yet powerful framework that proposes Process Transformation as a program. The seven 'tans' are: the transformation program itself, triggers, goals, tools and techniques, culture, communication and success factors. With its segregation into tans and division into core elements, this framework makes it possible to use 'pick and choose' to quickly and easily map an organization's specific requirements. Change management and process modeling are covered in detail. In addition, the book approaches managed services as a model of service delivery, which it ex...

  13. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...... will increasingly be driven by business process models. Consequently business process modelling and improvement is becoming a serious challenge. The aim of this paper is to establish a conceptual framework for business process innovation (BPI) in the supply chain based on advanced EIS. The challenge is thus...... to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models...

  14. Study on the Processing Technology of Pu'er Tea Flavored Yogurt%普洱茶风味酸乳制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 钟兵洋; 高航

    2016-01-01

    Using raw milk are used as raw material,The manufacture process conditions of pu′er tea fla-vored yogurt were discussed.Product formula and compositional formulation of emulsion stabilizer were studied by orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the most adapted technological conditions of preparation of pu′er tea flavored yogurt was as follows:pu′er tea was 0.8%,milk protein concentrate was 0.4%,white sugar was 8.0%,black tea flavours was 0.04%.This formula can obtain good taste,good taste and good pu′er tea flavored yogurt.The best stabilizer compositional formulation was as follows:acetylated distarch adipate was 0.4%,gelatin was 0.15%,and agar was 0.1%.Under the condition of the stability of system,the pu′er tea flavored yogurt can guarantee good quality products in shelf life and give the product a delicate refreshing and delicate taste.%以生牛乳为原料,探讨了普洱茶风味酸乳的制备工艺。通过正交试验研究了普洱茶风味酸乳工艺配方及稳定剂的复配方案。结果表明:普洱茶风味酸乳最优配方为普洱茶0.8%、牛奶浓缩蛋白粉0.4%、白砂糖8.0%、红茶香精0.04%,该配方组合可获得口感良好,酸甜适口、风味优良的普洱茶风味酸乳。普洱茶风味酸乳最佳稳定剂组合为乙酰化双淀粉己二酸酯0.4%、明胶0.15%、琼脂0.1%。在该稳定体系条件下,能够提供产品饱满细腻的口感,并保障产品在货架期良好的感官品质。

  15. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  16. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  17. Secure Processing Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Secure Processing Lab is the center of excellence for new and novel processing techniques for the formation, calibration and analysis of radar. In addition, this...

  18. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  19. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  20. Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  1. Dairy processing, Improving quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses raw milk composition, production and quality, and reviews developments in processing from hygiene and HACCP systems to automation, high-pressure processing and modified atmosphere packaging.

  2. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  3. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    , current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...... to achieve a thorough understanding and control over the production process. PAT includes the frames for measurement as well as data analyzes and controlling for in-depth understanding, leading to more consistent and safer drug products with less batch rejections. In the optimal situation, by applying...

  4. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  5. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  6. News: Process intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  7. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  8. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  9. Stochastic processes - quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, L. (Bielefeld Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-01-01

    The author presents an elementary introduction to stochastic processes. He starts from simple quantum mechanics and considers problems in probability, finally presenting quantum dynamics in terms of stochastic processes.

  10. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  11. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  12. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  13. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  14. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  15. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  16. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  17. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  18. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  19. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  20. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  1. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  2. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  3. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  4. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  5. Dynamical laser spike processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...

  6. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K. K.; Yang, M. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  7. Pultrusion process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

  8. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  9. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...... in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to medi- ate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of sys- tems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...... between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...

  10. Decomposability for stable processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yizao; Roy, Parthanil

    2011-01-01

    We characterize all possible independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable (S$\\alpha$S) components of a non--Gaussian S$\\alpha$S process, $0<\\alpha<2$. In particular, we characterize the independent stationary S$\\alpha$S components of a stationary S$\\alpha$S process. One simple consequence of our characterization is that all stationary components of the S$\\alpha$S moving average processes are trivial. As a main application, we show that the standard Brown--Resnick process has a moving average representation. This complements a result of Kabluchko et al. (2009), who obtained mixed moving average representations for these processes. We also develop a parallel characterization theory for max-stable processes.

  11. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health......, generalized processes de-ducted from many patient cases and clinical guidelines, are all guidelines that may be used in clinical reasoning. The differ-ence is the validity of the suggested actions and decisions. In the case of generalized processes deducted from EMRs, we have "what we usually do" practice i...... care processes by means of statistical, OLAP and data mining tech-niques, with the aim of refining clinical guidelines, develop local guidelines and facilitate outcome predictions....

  12. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  13. Business Process Modeling: Blueprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a flow-based methodology for capturing processes specified in business process modeling. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through re-modeling of an IBM Blueworks case study. While the Blueworks approach offers a well-proven tool in the field, this should not discourage workers from exploring other ways of thinking about effectively capturing processes. The diagrammatic representation presented here demonstrates a viable methodology in this context. It is hoped this...

  14. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  15. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment...

  16. Polygon mesh processing

    CERN Document Server

    Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,

  17. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  18. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  19. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  20. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  1. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  2. SIMULATION OF LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Taranenko; Fedorenko, I.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the theoretical basis of the simulation. The study shows the simulation of logistic processes in industrial countries is an integral part of many economic projects aimed at the creation or improvement of logistics systems. The paper was used model Beer Game for management of logistics processes in the enterprise. The simulation model implements in AnyLogic package. AnyLogic product allows us to consider the logistics processes as an integrated system, which allows reach...

  3. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  4. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  5. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  6. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  7. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  8. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  9. Biased predecision processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  10. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  11. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  12. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  13. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  14. Gas purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Gresch, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-08-13

    To avoid the problems of reheating in a wet process as well as the problems of higher gas supply in a dry process, the invention proposes to separate the raw gas in two component currents, one of which undergoes wet purification while the other is led through a dry purification process. The two component currents are mixed before entering the stack. The dry chemisorption masses added in substoichiometric doses are treated in a milk-of-lime processing stage, after which the reacted and non-reacted chemisorption masses are treated by wet purification and then by oxidation.

  15. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  16. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  17. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  18. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  19. Of proteins and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar Villanea, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing is a common practice during the manufacture of protein-rich feed ingredients, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), and feeds. This processing step can induce physical and chemical changes to the proteins, thereby reducing the digestibility and utilization of crude protein (CP) and

  20. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  1. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  2. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  3. Continuous affine processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Affine processes possess the property that expectations of exponential affine transformations are given by a set of Riccati differential equations, which is the main feature of this popular class of processes. In this paper we generalise these results for expectations of more general transformati...

  4. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  5. Flow generating processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.; Kasprzyk, A.; Pokojski, W.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter starts with an overview of how climatic water deficits affect hydrological processes in different type of catchments. It then continues with a more comprehensive description of drought relevant processes. Two catchments in climatologically contrasting regions are used for illustrative p

  6. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  7. Basic Data Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, John J.

    This study guide in data processing is designed to make the subject accessible to the secondary student. It contains the following units: Historical Developments, Understanding the Computer, Careers in Data Processing, The Tabulating Card, Keypunching, Interpreting, Sorting, The 514 Reproducer, The 85 Collator, and The 402 Accounting Machine. The…

  8. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  9. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  10. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  12. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  13. Process Writing Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher J.

    This checklist is designed to help develop writing strategies for English language learners (ELLs), focusing on a variety of linguistic strategies inherent in the writing process. It provides them with a graphical representation of the cognitive process involved in complex writing, promoting self-assessment strategies and integrating oral…

  14. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  15. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  16. Process Writing with Hawthorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lita R.

    Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

  17. Monitoring Business Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Frati, Fulvio

    In this chapter, we introduce the TEKNE Metrics Framework that performs services to monitor business processes. This framework was designed to support the prescription and explanation of these processes. TEKNE's most innovative contribution is managing data expressed in declarative form. To face this challenge, the TEKNE project implemented an infrastructure that relies on declarative Semantic Web technologies designed to be used in distributed systems.

  18. Image processing mini manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  1. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  2. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  3. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...... into the process of a logistics innovation in an oriental healthcare supply chain context. The study is, however, still limited in disclosing end-to-end supply chain benefits including concrete performance improvements at the suppliers. Examining logistics innovation processes should result not only......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...

  4. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  5. New Processes for Annulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hsing-Jang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the high propensity of 2-cyano-2-cycloalkenones to undergo conjugate addition with various carbanions and the high reactivity of the ensuing α -cyano ketone system, a number of new annulation processes have been developed recently in our laboratories. As shown in Eq. 1 (n=1) with a specific example, one such process involves the addition of 3-butenylmagnesium bromide, followed by a palladium (Ⅱ) acetate mediated oxidative cyclization, to facilitate methylenecyclopentane ring formation. This annulation process could be readily extended to effect methylenecyclohexane ring formation (Eq. 1, n=2), using 4-pentenylmagnesinm bromide as the initial reagent, and to install the carbomethoxy-substituted methylenecyclopentane and methylenecyclohexane rings, using the carbanions derived from methyl 4-pentenoate and methyl 5-hexenoate, respectively (Eq. 2). In another annulation process, the addition of the enolate of methyl 5-chloropentanoate is involved initially, and the ring formation is readily effected by an intramolecular alkylation process. A specific example is given in Eq. 3.

  6. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  7. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  8. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  9. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  10. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  11. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...... which presently mainly focus on OS content, as distinct from process issues. DesignImethodology/approach - The methodology combines action research and a longitudinal single site case study of OS processes in practice. Findings - The paper conceptualises an OS process as: events of dialogue and action...... provides a useful tool for describing and analyzing real-time OS processes unfolding in practice. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on a single case, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications - The findings suggest that, in order to obtain successful...

  12. Business Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  13. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  14. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  15. The Isasmelt process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.R. (MIM Technology Marketing Ltd., Northfleet (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The Isasmelt process was developed at Mt Isa Mines Ltd. in Queensland. The process was initially developed for the treatment of lead concentrate. After successful application of the process to lead production a pilot plant was built for the treatment of copper concentrate to produce copper matte. This was successful and as a result Mt Isa Mines decided to build a new copper smelter with a capacity of 180,000 t copper/ a in copper matte. Further commercialisation of the process has resulted in the construction of further plants for lead, nickel and copper production. Mt Isa Mines Ltd. has been associated with CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation) in the development of the Isasmelt process since 1977, when a Sirosmelt lance was tested for reducing copper converter slags. Thermodynamic modelling and cruicible scale investigations on a lead smelting process were initiated in 1978. After further work on a 120 kg/h pilot plant the Isasmelt process for lead concentrate smelting was patented jointly by Mt Isa Mines and CSIRO. Since then a 5 t/h demonstration plant was commissioned 1983/85 for smelting and reduction. Finally in 1991 a commercial scale plant with a capacity of 60,000 t/a was commissioned. (orig.).

  16. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  17. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  18. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  19. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  20. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  1. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...... the organization and management of (software development) projects and process improvements projects....

  2. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  3. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  4. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  5. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  6. The image processing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C

    2006-01-01

    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  7. Study on Glulam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Limin; WANG Haiqing; HE Weili

    2006-01-01

    This paper selected lumbers of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus rnandshurica), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshuricd) and Spruce (Picea jezoensis vai.kornamvii) for manufacturing glulam with water-borne polymeric-isocyanate adhesive to determine process variables. The process variables that include specific pressure, pressing time and adhesive application amount influencing the shear strength of the glulam, were investigated through the orthogonal test. The results indicated that optimum process variables for glulam manufacturing were as follows: Specific pressure of 1.5 MPa for Spruce and 2,0 MPa both for Manchurian ash and Manchurian walnut, pressing time of 60 min and adhesive application amount of 250 g/m2.

  8. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  9. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  10. TERMINOLOGY IN PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We can be mistaken to formulate basic concepts of process management, and we are at risk to be on the wrong way solving the focused problems – instead of process management we could do automatization, instead of process system we could introduce function-oriented system. Without having a clear idea of the model we have to execute, we can plan this model as an analytical one and do not include all the necessary tools for management on the stage of planning. The article is targeted for the analysts who have skills in analytical modeling of business processes and would like to make a step forward to the implementation of these models. In order to become professionals in this field it is necessary to learn the terminology, first of all. 

  11. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  12. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...... and judgment devices is manifested in three ways: supplementing, substituting, and interpreting evidence. We show that while evidence does not fully determine the decision, it plays a central role in discussions, reflections, and negotiations during the IT prioritization process....

  13. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  14. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    provision whilst providing high quality care. Logistics activities in hospitals provide a significant opportunity for cost containment in healthcare through the implementation of best practices. Literature provides little guidance on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study investigates......Healthcare costs are increasing due to an ageing population and more sophisticated technologies and treatments. At the same time, patients expect high quality care at an affordable cost. The healthcare industry has therefore experienced increasing pressures to reduce the cost of healthcare...... logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...

  15. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  16. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  17. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  18. SIMULATION OF LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Taranenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretical basis of the simulation. The study shows the simulation of logistic processes in industrial countries is an integral part of many economic projects aimed at the creation or improvement of logistics systems. The paper was used model Beer Game for management of logistics processes in the enterprise. The simulation model implements in AnyLogic package. AnyLogic product allows us to consider the logistics processes as an integrated system, which allows reaching better solutions. Logistics process management involves pooling the sales market, production and distribution to ensure the temporal level of customer service at the lowest cost overall. This made it possible to conduct experiments and to determine the optimal size of the warehouse at the lowest cost.

  19. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  20. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  1. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  2. Towards processable Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper researchers discuss a number of structural problems that are faced with when designing a machine-oriented controlled natural language for Afrikaans taking the underlying principles of Attempto Controlled English (ACE) and Processable...

  3. Essentials of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Building upon the previous editions, this textbook is a first course in stochastic processes taken by undergraduate and graduate students (MS and PhD students from math, statistics, economics, computer science, engineering, and finance departments) who have had a course in probability theory. It covers Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, Poisson processes, renewal processes, martingales, and option pricing. One can only learn a subject by seeing it in action, so there are a large number of examples and more than 300 carefully chosen exercises to deepen the reader’s understanding. Drawing from teaching experience and student feedback, there are many new examples and problems with solutions that use TI-83 to eliminate the tedious details of solving linear equations by hand, and the collection of exercises is much improved, with many more biological examples. Originally included in previous editions, material too advanced for this first course in stochastic processes has been eliminated while treatm...

  4. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  5. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  6. Quantum processes in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, B K

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students, this is a guide to quantum processes of importance in the physics and technology of semiconductors. The fifth edition includes new chapters that expand the coverage of semiconductor physics relevant to its accompanying technology.

  7. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  8. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network pr

  9. Processer i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    Undersøgelsen har fokus på processer i undervisningen – og derigennem på hvordan digitale læremidler kan understøtte eller integreres i typiske processer. Undersøgelsen hviler på deltagende observation på Abildgårdskolen i Odense. Gennem observationerne er der identificeret en række eksempler på ...... udfordringer for at gennemføre de undervisningsmæssige processer og givet bud på digitale læremidler der forventes at kunne understøtte processerne. Undersøgelsen viser samtidig hvordan fokus på processer kan fungere som en metode til brugerdreven innovation....

  10. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  11. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  12. Markovian risk process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; YAN Yun-zhi; ZHAO Fei; FANG Da-fan

    2007-01-01

    A Markovian risk process is considered in this paper, which is the generalization of the classical risk model. It is proper that a risk process with large claims is modelled as the Markovian risk model. In such a model, the occurrence of claims is described by a point process {N(t)}t≥o with N(t) being the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for a Markov jump process. The ruin probability Ψ(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly studied. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability function Ψ(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability Ψ(u) are given by using a generalized renewal technique developed in the paper.

  13. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  14. Metoda Analytic Network Process

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with Multi-Criteria Decision Making, in particular the Analytic Network Process method. The introductory part is dedicated to compile all the theory necessary to understand the method and utilized throughout the paper. The Analytic Hierarchy Process method is described and later generalized in the form of the ANP. Part of the paper is a description of available software products that are able to solve the ANP models. The main focus is on the application of the method, ...

  15. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  16. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  17. Planetary atmosphere processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, N.S.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on various atmospheric processes, including zonal circulation of the atmosphere, the quasi-biennial cycle, blocking processes, monsoon circulation, and the response of the atmosphere to solar corpuscular fluxes. Other topics discussed include climatic characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, seasonal changes of the geopotential in the tropical stratosphere, and characteristics of the Southern Oscillation-El Nino phenomenon.

  18. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER

  19. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  20. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  1. Harmonizable Processes: Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-05

    a related result of Thomas ([39], p. 146). However, the Bourbaki set up of these papers is inconvenient here, and they will be converted to the set ...of processes. 1 2 2i 1. Introduction. Recently there have been significant attempts for extending the well-understood theory of stationary processes...characterizations of the respective classes. This involves a free use of some elementary aspects of vector measure theory ; and it already raises some interesting

  2. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...... an empirical longitudinal study. The results indicate transformations in belongings and longings indicating reinterpretation of the self, others and home in context of exclusion processes at various levels....

  3. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  4. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test st...... statistic and the simulated pointwise envelopes it is shown that this model fits better than the Thomas process to the frequently analyzed long-leaf pine data-set....

  5. Typical Logistical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Trupac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern global economic activity changes in the structureof goods, networks, technical and technological developmentand increased competence are significant, which requiresnew solutions and new mode of thinking.The competitive model which relied in the past on productinnovation will have to be largely supplemented by process innovationthat add greater value for customers. The basis forcompeting today and in the future will be competitive advantagewhich enhances product excellence as well as process excellence.

  6. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  7. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  8. Poststroke neuroplasticity processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different aspects of neuroplasticity in patients with stroke. It underlines the dynamism of this process and the ambiguity of involvement of the structures of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere in the restorative process. It considers the periods after onset of stroke and the activation of different brain regions (of both the involved and intact hemisphere in the poststroke period. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of neurorehabilitation in this category of patients. Delay in rehabilitation measures leads to a worse outcome, the patients must be at hospital longer. It is emphasized that the neurorehabilitaton measures should use strategies aimed at improving plasticity processes at the level of synaptic transmission and neuronal communications. At the same time, of great importance are the processes of structural and functional remodeling of neuronal communications with the involvement of surviving neurons that are located in the peri-infarct area and partially damaged during ischemia. To recover stroke-induced lost motor functions, measures are implemented to modulate the ipsilateral motor cortex, contralateral motor cortex, and sensory afferentation. Remodeling processes, one of the manifestations of neuroplasticity, vary with the size and location of an ischemic focus. The specific features of this process with subcortical and cortical foci are considered. It is stressed that there are genetically determined neurotrophic factors that may enhance remodeling processes in the peri-infarct area, as well as factors that inhibit these processes. The sensory system is noted to have a high potential of compensation, which is appreciably associated with the considerable extent of sensory fibers even at the level of the cerebral cortex.

  9. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  10. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...... for the quantitative analyses and the generation of the renovation scenarios so they get more time for the cost optimisation and the qualitative analysis of the homeowners’ needs, wishes and behaviours....

  11. Privatisation Process in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hysni Terziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing activities of the privatisation process in Kosovo, seeing that privatisation is treated as a fundamental factor of overall transformation of the whole society. It may be established that the primary aim of privatisation process is increasing economic efficiency, reflection of the current state and directions of development in general. Privatisation as a process has as primary aim of opening new areas of freedom, economic efficiency and individualism. Key aim of privatisation process in Kosovo must be increase of economic efficiency, preservation of the healthy economic potential created up to date, and ensuring of the long term concept, which enables growth and macroeconomic stability. The policy of privatisation should give a response related to strategic aspects of privatisation of these sectors: of models, procedures, potential investors, technological modernisation and overtaking of social barriers. Process of privatisation and transition which has now covered countries of the Eastern and Central Europe, aims at profound economic and political transformation of these countries. To achieve this, it is necessarily required to have some basic preconditions, which are related to incitement of general efficiency of the enterprises, expansion of the capital market, introduction of competition, development of business culture in private property and freedom of entrepreneurship. Impacts of privatisation in economic development of Kosovo take a considerable place compared to other countries, therefore our aim is that through this paper we analyse factors and methods of implementation in this process.

  12. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  13. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  14. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  15. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  16. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  17. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... to handle shorter and faster product life cycles. Continuously changing customer needs are pushing companies' competence of continuous innovation to a maximum - but still this seems not to be enough to stay competitive on the global market and reach the goals of growth. This article therefore suggests...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  18. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  19. Ultrasonic processing of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Sklad, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    In some widely used alloys, dissolved gas precipitates form from liquids during solidification and form pores among solid dendrites and grains. The pores can lead to defects in aluminum shape casting. Research has suggested that ultrasonic vibrations have the potential to reduce the impurities present in traditional degassing methods. This paper summarized the results of several projects investigating the use of high intensity ultrasonic vibrations for material processing. The mechanisms of grain refining using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration were also investigated. High intensity ultrasonic vibrations were tested for the degassing of molten aluminum, grain refinement of alloys for industrial applications, and the modification of welding structures. Results of the studies to date have demonstrated that power ultrasound can be used to degas molten metal as well as for the grain refinement of alloys during solidification processes. Tests have demonstrated that the best grain refining effect was achieved when ultrasonic vibrations were introduced in the molten alloy at approximately 10 degrees C higher than the liquid temperature. The process is also suitable for improving the microstructure of steel weldments, as the process can modify the size and morphology of the primary phase and the secondary phases during the solidification of the alloy. Small and spherical grains in the size range of 30 {delta}m were obtained in aluminum A356 alloys. It was concluded that the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations on the alloy process were more pronounced in smaller specimens. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  20. The Nursing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the nursing process can be summed up in this quotation by Sir Francis Bacon: “Human knowledge and human powers meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced.” Arriving at a concise, accurate definition of the nursing process was, for me, an impossible task. It is altogether too vast and too personal a topic to contract down into a niftylooking, we-pay-lip-service-to-it cliché. So what I propose to do is to present my understanding of the nursing process throughout this essay, and then to leave the reader with some overall, general impression of what it all entails.

  1. A support design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J.; Scott, P.B. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A workman suffered a fatal injury due to a fall of ground from the face of a development drivage, which was supported by passive supports supplemented with roof bolts. A working party was set up to review the support process and evaluate how protection of the workmen could be improved whilst setting supports.The working party included representatives from the trade unions, the mines inspectorate and mine operators.Visits were made to several mines and discussions were held with the workmen and management at these mines. The paper describes the results of the visits and how a support design process was evolved. The process will ensure that the support system is designed to reduce the inherent hazards associated with setting supports using either conventional or mixed support systems.

  2. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  3. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  4. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  5. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  6. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  7. Processes for xanthomonas biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelskirchen, K.; Stein, W.; Bahn, M.; Schieferstein, L.; Schindler, J.

    1984-03-27

    A process is described for producing xanthan gum in which the use of a stable, water-in-oil emulsion in the fermentation medium markedly lowers the viscosity of the medium, resulting in lower energy requirements for the process, and also resulting in enhanced yields of the biopolymer. In such an emulsion, the aqueous fermentation phase, with its microbial growth and metabolic processes, takes place in a finely dispersed homogeneous oil phase. The viscosity increase in each droplet of the aqueous nutrient solution will not noticeably affect this mixture in the fermenter because the viscosity of the reaction mixture in the fermenter is determined primarily by the viscosity of the oil phase. 45 claims

  8. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    -known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...... function. The grey box models are estimated on data sets from the Lundtofte pilot scale plant and the Aalborg West wastewater treatment plant. Estimation of Monod- kinetic expressions is made possible through the application of large data sets. Parameter extimates from the two plants show a reasonable......The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...

  9. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  10. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    This textbook is made for you to use as a study book and as a source of reference and inspiration to work with problems related to food production. Most textbooks are focused on the separate unit operations used in a production. We have tried to put a few of these operations into the broader...... context of a production. Only a few operations are treated specifically (transport of fluids, heating and cooling) as these operations are universal in all food productions and link different parts of production. A food production plant might be overwhelming in its apparent complexity. The methods...... introduced make it possible to get an overview of processes. We have included a chapter on how to make block-dia¬grams and material balances. This should help in analysing a production and to isolate the most important processing steps. Most processes in a food production are of physical nature, thus we have...

  11. Process of timbral composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  12. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. Improving Metal Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  14. COTS software selection process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  15. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  16. AERONET Version 3 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  17. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies......, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded...

  18. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  19. Research Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  20. Data processing on FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Teubner, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Roughly a decade ago, power consumption and heat dissipation concerns forced the semiconductor industry to radically change its course, shifting from sequential to parallel computing. Unfortunately, improving performance of applications has now become much more difficult than in the good old days of frequency scaling. This is also affecting databases and data processing applications in general, and has led to the popularity of so-called data appliances-specialized data processing engines, where software and hardware are sold together in a closed box. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) incr

  1. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  2. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...

  3. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  4. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 886 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Handbook of Green Materials Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications Chapter 15 RUBBER COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING MAYA JACOB JOHN1,2 1CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites Competence Area, P.O. Box 1124...

  5. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  6. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  7. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  8. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  9. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    structured and holistic method of decision making toward nearly zero-energy building renovation. The methodology is evolutive, implementable on a large scale, and allows an optimal integration of nonexpert decision makers. In practice, such a scheme allowed most behavioral barriers to sustainable home...... renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. To keep the decision-making process economically viable and timely, the process as known today still needs to be improved, and new tools need to be developed...

  10. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  11. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  12. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...... the environmental measures cannot be discarded due to extra costs....

  13. An Integrated Desgin Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...... the environmental measures cannot be discarded due to extra costs....

  14. Mapping Individual Logical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Frederick O.

    1975-01-01

    A technique to measure and describe concisely a certain class of individual mental reasoning processes has been developed. The measurement is achieved by recording the complete dialog between a large, varied computerized information system with a broad range of logical operations and options and a human information seeker. (Author/RC)

  15. Authenticizing the Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elizondo-Schmelkes, MA, Ph.D. Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the main concern of students (national and international who are trying to get a postgraduate degree in a third world (or “in means of development” country. The emergent problem found is that students have to finish their thesis or dissertation but they do not really know how to accomplish this goal. They resolve this problem by authenticizing the process as their own. The theory of authenticizing involves compassing their way to solve the problem of advancing in the research process. Compassing allows the student to authenticize his/her research process, making it a personal and „owned. process. The main categories of compassing are the intellectual, physical and emotional dimension patterns that the student has, learns and follows in order to finish the project and get a degree. Authenticizing implies to author with authenticity their thesis or dissertation. Compassing allows them to do this in their own way, at their own pace or time and with their own internal resources, strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  17. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...

  18. Pattern evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have been carried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is poured with molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The transformation of an evaporative pattern (e.g. made from foamed polystyrene from the solid into liquid and then gaseous state occurs as a result of the thermal effect that the liquid metal exerts onto this pattern. Consequently, at the liquid metal-pattern-mould phase boundary some physico-chemical phenomena take place, which until now have not been fully explained. When the pattern is evaporating, some solid and gaseous products are evolved, e.g. CO, CO2, H2, N2, and hydrocarbons, e.g. styrene, toluene, ethane, methane, benzene [16, 23]. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The kinetics of pattern evaporation is also affected by the technological properties of foundry mould, e.g. permeability, thermophysical properties, parameters of the gating system, temperature of pouring, properties of pattern material, and the size of pattern-liquid metal contact surface.

  19. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  20. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  1. The Serendipitous Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  2. Communicating Process Achitectures 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Roebbers, Herman W.; Sunters, Johan P.E.; Welch, Peter H.; Wood, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The awareness of the ideas characterized by Communicating Processes Architecture and their adoption by industry beyond their traditional base in safety-critical systems and security is growing. The complexity of modern computing systems has become so great that no one person – maybe not even a small

  3. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  4. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These ...

  5. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  6. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Konopka, Claudia; Nellemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...

  7. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  8. Quantum image processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastriani, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of problems concerning the practical (real) implementation of the techniques known as quantum image processing. The most serious problem is the recovery of the outcomes after the quantum measurement, which will be demonstrated in this work that is equivalent to a noise measurement, and it is not considered in the literature on the subject. It is noteworthy that this is due to several factors: (1) a classical algorithm that uses Dirac's notation and then it is coded in MATLAB does not constitute a quantum algorithm, (2) the literature emphasizes the internal representation of the image but says nothing about the classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces and how these are affected by decoherence, (3) the literature does not mention how to implement in a practical way (at the laboratory) these proposals internal representations, (4) given that quantum image processing works with generic qubits, this requires measurements in all axes of the Bloch sphere, logically, and (5) among others. In return, the technique known as quantum Boolean image processing is mentioned, which works with computational basis states (CBS), exclusively. This methodology allows us to avoid the problem of quantum measurement, which alters the results of the measured except in the case of CBS. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too.

  9. The magnetization process: Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

  10. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...

  11. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  12. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina;

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...

  13. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  14. Performance Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the performance evaluation process and human resource development (HRD). "Assessing the Effectiveness of OJT (On the Job Training): A Case Study Approach" (Julie Furst-Bowe, Debra Gates) is a case study of the effectiveness of OJT in one of a high-tech manufacturing company's product…

  15. Optoelectronic Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    printing for III- V/Si heterogeneous integration • Single layer Si NM photonic crystal Fano membrane reflector (MR) replaces conventional DBR ... Monolithic integration on focal plane arrays using standard processes • Wavelength & polarization tunable on pixel by pixel basis • Collection...photonic crystals, nano-antennas, nano-emitters & modulators . [Agency Reviews, National Academies input] Integrated Photonics, Optical Components

  16. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  17. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  18. An Integrated Desgin Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  19. Sparsity and Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many information processing methods utilizing the sparsity of the information source is studied. We have reported some results on this line of research. Here we pick up two results from our own works. One is an image reconstruction method for radio interferometory and the other is a motor command computation method for a two-joint arm.

  20. Image Processing for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  1. Image-Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  2. Flax shive thermocatalytic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, E. M.; Lugovoy, Yu. V.; Chalov, K. V.; Kosivtsov, Yu. Yu.; Stepacheva, A. A.; Shimanskaya, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper the thermogravimetric study of biomass waste thermodestruction process is presented. Metal chlorides have the highest influence on the flax shive thermodestruction. The results of kinetic modeling are also shown on the base of thermogravimetric analysis both of the samples of flax shive and flax shive with addition of 10% (wt.) nickel chloride at different heating rate.

  3. Obsolescence: the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of housing properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, namely betw

  4. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  5. Building Science Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

  6. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  7. Photonic curvilinear data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

  8. Cascaded Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kuniaki; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin Carl

    1982-12-01

    We investigate the counting statistics for stationary and nonstationary cascaded Poisson processes. A simple equation is obtained for the variance-to-mean ratio in the limit of long counting times. Explicit expressions for the forward-recurrence and inter-event-time probability density functions are also obtained. The results are expected to be of use in a number of areas of physics.

  9. Restricted broadcast process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, F.; Fokkink, W.J.; Movaghar, A.; Cerone, A.; Gruner, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a process algebra for modeling and reasoning about Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and their protocols. In our algebra we model the essential modeling concepts of ad hoc networks, i.e. local broadcast, connectivity of nodes and connectivity changes. Connectivity and connectivity changes a

  10. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  11. Qualitative Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    write a heat flow process that violates energy conservation and transfers " caloric fluid" between the source and destination. The assumptions made about...removed in ease of ex1-0ClCits. Seco nd, if’ thle program is drawNing concilsions that rely criticaillyoi atClrsum in, then1 it IIos’t test ss

  12. Audio Spectral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Global Security & Engineering Solutions Division 1300-B Floyd Avenue Rome, NY 13440-4615 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...18 1 1. BACKGROUND This report is being submitted by L-3 Global Security...tasks. Utilized the Avid Xpress video enhancement system to process the Group 2, Phase II competency test A. This was done to attempt to recreate

  13. Matchmaking for business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Fankhauser, Peter; Mahleko, Bendick; Neuhold, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Web services have a potential to enhance B2B ecommerce over the Internet by allowing companies and organizations to publish their business processes on service directories where potential trading partners can find them. This can give rise to new business paradigms based on ad-hoc trading relations a

  14. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LUCA (DEDIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering determines the change of organizational functions from an orientation focused on operations through a multidimensional approach. Former employees who were mere executors are now determined to take their own decisions and as a result the functional departments lose their reason to exist. Managers do not act anymore as supervisors, but mainly as mentors, while the employees focus more attention on customer needs and less than the head’s. Under these conditions, new organizational paradigms are required, the most important being that of learning organizations. In order to implement a reengineering of the economic processes and promoting a new organizational paradigm the information technology plays a decisive role. The article presents some results obtained in a research theme ANSTI funded by contract no. 501/2000. Economic and financial analysis is performed in order to know the current situation to achieve better results in the future. One of its objectives is the production analyzed as a labour process and the interaction elements of this process. The indicators investigated in the analysis of financial and economic activity of production reflect the development directions, the means and resources to accomplish predetermined objectives and express the results and effectiveness of what is expected.

  15. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing

  16. Gaia downlink data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, H.; Els, S. G.; Guerra, R.; Cheek, N.; Mora, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2014-08-01

    The Gaia survey mission, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched on 19 December 2013, will survey approximately 109 stars or 1% of the galactic stellar population over a 5.5 year period. The main purpose of this mission is micro-arcsecond astrometry, that would yield important insights into the kinematics of the galaxy, its evolution, as well as provide important additional findings, including a updated coordinate reference system to that provided by the ICRS. Gaia performs its observations using two telescopes with fields of view separated by 106.5 degrees, spinning around an orthogonal axis at about 6 hours per day. The spin axis itself precesses: it is always oriented at 45 degrees from the sun, and precesses around the sun every 63 days. Thus each part of the sky is observed approximately every 63 days. The 6-hour spin, or scan-rate matches the CCD readout rate. The amount of data to process per day - 50-130 Gigabytes - corresponds to over 30 million stellar sources. To perform this processing, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) have developed approximately 2 million lines of software, divided into subsystems specific to a given functional need, that are run across 6 different Data Processing Centres (DPCs). The final result being a catalog including the 109 stars observed. Most of the daily processing is performed at the DPC in ESAC, Spain (DPCE), which runs 3 main subsystems, the MOC Interface Task (MIT), the Initial Data Treatment (IDT), and First Look (FL). The MIT ingests the initial data provided by the MOC in the form of binary data and writes (amongst other things) `star packets' containing the raw stellar information needed for IDT, which provides a basic level of processing, including stellar positions, photometry, radial velocities, cross match and catalogue updates. FL determines the payload health (e.g, the health for the 106 CCDs, geometric calibration) and astrometric performance via the one day astrometric

  17. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  18. Biosphere Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  19. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  20. Privatization Process in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Florin Aliu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is considered an initial step toward market economy, restructuring financial and economic sector that enables competition in the economy. Privatization is the most painful process in economy where beside legal establishment and political will, it includes also the aspect of fairness and honesty. Analysis of this process is based on the models and comparisons between Kosovo and countries of central and Eastern Europe, in order to give a clearer picture on the overall process of privatization in Kosovo Methodology that is used to analyze this issue is based on empirical results and also qualitative interpretation of the models and also on studying particular asset privatization process. A widely discussed case of privatization in Kosovo is that of Post and Telecom of Kosovo (PTK. Since each company has its own value, I have focused my appraising analysis on the financial statements with a special observation on Cash Flow from Operation, as the most significant indicator on showing how company is using her physical and human recourses to generate money. I have based my research on using methodology of discounted cash flow from operation analysis, even though the company valuation was done using net cash flow from operation analysis. Cash Flow valuation then was discounted by the T-bonds interest rate. This paper tries to bring a conclusion that privatization process in Kosovo have not brought the results excepted, firstly by setting an inappropriate price of assets and lastly by restructuring overall privatization sector and the overall industry. Kosovo, consequently, lost a big opportunity to create a competitive environment of financial industry: starting from the banking industry followed the pension trust which remained at their initial steps of development

  1. Retinomorphic image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Bhaumik, Kamales; Sarkar, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding and explaining some of the aspects of visual signal processing at the retinal level while exploiting the same towards the development of some simple techniques in the domain of digital image processing. Classical studies on retinal physiology revealed the nature of contrast sensitivity of the receptive field of bipolar or ganglion cells, which lie in the outer and inner plexiform layers of the retina. To explain these observations, a difference of Gaussian (DOG) filter was suggested, which was subsequently modified to a Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filter for computational ease in handling two-dimensional retinal inputs. Till date almost all image processing algorithms, used in various branches of science and engineering had followed LOG or one of its variants. Recent observations in retinal physiology however, indicate that the retinal ganglion cells receive input from a larger area than the classical receptive fields. We have proposed an isotropic model for the non-classical receptive field of the retinal ganglion cells, corroborated from these recent observations, by introducing higher order derivatives of Gaussian expressed as linear combination of Gaussians only. In digital image processing, this provides a new mechanism of edge detection on one hand and image half-toning on the other. It has also been found that living systems may sometimes prefer to "perceive" the external scenario by adding noise to the received signals in the pre-processing level for arriving at better information on light and shade in the edge map. The proposed model also provides explanation to many brightness-contrast illusions hitherto unexplained not only by the classical isotropic model but also by some other Gestalt and Constructivist models or by non-isotropic multi-scale models. The proposed model is easy to implement both in the analog and digital domain. A scheme for implementation in the analog domain generates a new silicon retina

  2. RASSP signal processing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Fred; Bassett, Bob; Letellier, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    The rapid prototyping of application specific signal processors (RASSP) program is an ARPA/tri-service effort to dramatically improve the process by which complex digital systems, particularly embedded signal processors, are specified, designed, documented, manufactured, and supported. The domain of embedded signal processing was chosen because it is important to a variety of military and commercial applications as well as for the challenge it presents in terms of complexity and performance demands. The principal effort is being performed by two major contractors, Lockheed Sanders (Nashua, NH) and Martin Marietta (Camden, NJ). For both, improvements in methodology are to be exercised and refined through the performance of individual 'Demonstration' efforts. The Lockheed Sanders' Demonstration effort is to develop an infrared search and track (IRST) processor. In addition, both contractors' results are being measured by a series of externally administered (by Lincoln Labs) six-month Benchmark programs that measure process improvement as a function of time. The first two Benchmark programs are designing and implementing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor. Our demonstration team is using commercially available VME modules from Mercury Computer to assemble a multiprocessor system scalable from one to hundreds of Intel i860 microprocessors. Custom modules for the sensor interface and display driver are also being developed. This system implements either proprietary or Navy owned algorithms to perform the compute-intensive IRST function in real time in an avionics environment. Our Benchmark team is designing custom modules using commercially available processor ship sets, communication submodules, and reconfigurable logic devices. One of the modules contains multiple vector processors optimized for fast Fourier transform processing. Another module is a fiberoptic interface that accepts high-rate input data from the sensors and provides video-rate output data to a

  3. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  4. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately supp

  5. Process and Post-Process: A Discursive History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history of process and post-process in composition studies, focusing on ways in which terms, such as "current-traditional rhetoric,""process," and "post-process" have contributed to the discursive construction of reality. Argues that use of the term post-process in the context of second language writing needs to be guided by a…

  6. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  7. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...... intensification using a systems approach....

  8. Material flow of production process

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with material flow of the production process. We present the block diagram of material flow and capacities of engine in various plants each other. In this paper is used IPO (Input Process Output) diagram. IPO diagram described process with aspect to input and output. Production program regards string of precision, branch and paralel processes with aspect IPO diagram.Process is not important with aspect to events. We are looking on the process as a black box. For process is ...

  9. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  10. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  11. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...

  12. [In Process Citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ayhan; Metzler, Philipp; Lanzer, Martin; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Yildirim, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Solcoseryl® is a protein-free haemodialysate, containing a broad spectrum of low molecular components of cellular mass and blood serum obtained from veal calves. Solcoseryl® improves the transport of oxygen and glucose to cells that are under hypoxic conditions. It increases the synthesis of intracellular ATP and contributes to an increase in the level of aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. It activates the reparative and regenerative processes in tissues by stimulating fibroblast proliferation and repair of the collagen vascular wall. The formulations of Solcoseryl® are infusion, injection, gel and ointment, and it is also available as a dental paste for inflammatory processes of the mouth cavity, gums and lips.

  13. Integral Politics as Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atlee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

  14. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  15. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed...

  16. Beyond the search process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the ISP-model does not fully comply with group members' problem solving process and the involved information seeking behavior. Further, complex academic problem solving seems to be even more complex when it is performed in a group based setting. The study contributes with a new conceptual...... an assignment. It is investigated if group members' information behavior differ from the individual information seeker in the ISP-model and to what extent this behavior is influenced by contextual (work task) and social (group work) factors. Three groups of LIS students were followed during a 14 weeks period...... in 2004/2005 (10 participants). Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, such as demographic surveys, process surveys, diaries and interviews. Similarities in behavior were found between group members and the individual in Kuhlthau's ISP-model with regard to the general stages of information...

  17. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  18. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  19. The precaution adoption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  20. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas

    and constructivist multiple criteria decision-making analysis method is selected for developing the work further. The method is introduced and applied to the renovation of a multi-residential historic building. Furthermore, a new scheme, the Integrated Renovation Process, is presented. Finally, the methodology....... In this thesis, examples of nearly zero energy single-family home renovations are presented. The most relevant existing decision support methods and tools applicable to sustainable renovation processes are reviewed and their applicability to high performance sustainable renovation is discussed. A qualitative...... performance sustainable renovations. The main purpose of the work has been to develop a holistic methodology so as to inspire and guide building owners and their renovation project teams to reach high levels of social, environmental and economic performances. The research approach integrates multiple...