Khorshidi, Abdollah; Pazirandeh, Ali; Tenreiro, Claudio; Kadi, Yacine
2014-01-01
In this study, the transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing (TARC) concept was estimated in Mo-99 radioisotope production via radiative capture reaction in two designs. The TARC method was composed of moderating neutrons in lead or a composition of lead and water. Additionally, the target was surrounded by a moderator assembly and a graphite reflector district. Produced neutrons were investigated by (p,xn) interactions with 30 MeV and 300 mu A proton beam on tungsten, beryllium, and tantalum targets. The Mo-99 production yield was related to the moderator property, cross section, and sample positioning inside the distinct region of neutron storage as must be proper to achieve gains. Gathered thermal flux of neutrons can contribute to molybdenum isotope production. Moreover, the sample positioning to gain higher production yield was dependent on a greater flux in the length of thermal neutrons and region materials inside the moderator or reflector. When the sample radial distance from Be was 38 cm inside the...
Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; Lèpez, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, A; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, J A; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
2000-01-01
The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (from 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m3 lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragements 99Tc and 129I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.
The TARC experiment (PS211): neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main purpose of the TARC experiment is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En≥1 MeV) slow down quasi adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates of LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99Tc or 129I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications. (orig.)
Arnould, H; Del Moral, R; Lacoste, V; Vlachoudis, V; Aleixandre, J; Bueno, J; Cerro, E; González, O; Tamarit, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Dumps, Ludwig; Gelès, C; Goulas, I; Fernández, R; Kadi, Y; Klapisch, Robert; Oropesa, J; Placci, Alfredo; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Saldaña, F; Embid, M; Gálvez, J; López, C; Pérez-Enciso, E; Poza, M; Sirvent, C; Vieira, S L; Abánades, A; García, J; Martínez-Val, J M; Perlado, M; González, E; Hussonnois, M; Le Naour, C; Trubert, D; Belle, E; Giorni, A; Heuer, R D; Loiseaux, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Schussler, F; Viano, J B; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Karaiskos, P; Sakelliou, L; Kokkas, P; Pavlopoulos, P; Eleftheriadis, C; Kitis, G; Papadopoulos, I M; Savvidis, E; Tzima, A; Zioutas, Konstantin; Díez, S; Pérez-Navarro, A
1999-01-01
Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (from 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3*3.3*3 m/sup 3/ lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation. (17 refs).
Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; López, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, Alfredo; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin
1999-01-01
Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (from 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3 x 3.3 x 3 m3 lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments 99 Tc and 129 I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.
Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; Lèpez, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, A; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, J A; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
2000-01-01
The results of the TARC experiment are summarized herewith, whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons, produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En * 1 MeV), slow down quasi adiabatically, with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R.D.R.Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: Jean-Pierre.Revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K
2001-05-11
The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m{sup 3} lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.
Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; López, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifnecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, Alfredo; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin
2001-01-01
The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3*3.3*3 m/sup 3/ lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation. (9 refs).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R. Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Naour, C. Le; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K
2002-02-11
We summarize here the results of the TARC experiment whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (E{sub n}{>=}1 MeV) slow down quasi-adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 mx3.3 mx3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of {sup 99}Tc or {sup 129}I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications.
New Approach to Resonance Crossing
Franchetti, G.; Zimmermann, F.
2012-01-01
Time varying nonlinear oscillatory systems produce phenomena of resonance crossing and trapping of particles in resonance islands. Traditionally such processes have been analyzed in terms of adiabatic conditions. Considering, as an example, a simplified 1-dimensional (1-D) model describing the “electron cloud pinch” during a bunch passage in a particle accelerator, here we present an approach to resonance trapping which does not require any adiabatic condition. Instead we introduce the concep...
Adiabatic transition probability for a tangential crossing
Watanabe, Takuya
2006-01-01
We consider a time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian is a $2\\times 2$ real symmetric matrix. We study, using an exact WKB method, the adiabatic limit of the transition probability in the case where several complex eigenvalue crossing points accumulate to one real point.
Single-parameter adiabatic charge pumping in carbon nanotube resonators
Perroni, C. A.; Nocera, A.; Cataudella, V.
2013-01-01
Single-parameter adiabatic charge pumping, induced by a nearby radio-frequency antenna, is achieved in suspended carbon nanotubes close to the mechanical resonance. The charge pumping is due to an important dynamic adjustment of the oscillating motion to the antenna signal and it is different from the mechanism active in the two-parameter pumping. Finally, the second harmonic oscillator response shows an interesting relationship with the first harmonic that should be experimentally observed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense, 40, Ed. 17, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ismailov, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lafuente, A. [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nishihara, K. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Sugawara, T. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)
2013-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TARC experiment benchmark capture rates results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of updated databases, included ADSLib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-shielding effect in reactor design for transmutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Lead nuclear data. - Abstract: The design of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) requires the development of simulation tools that are able to describe in a realistic way their nuclear performance and transmutation rate capability. In this publication, we present an evaluation of state of the art Monte Carlo design tools to assess their performance concerning transmutation of long-lived fission products. This work, performed under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency, analyses two important aspects for transmutation systems: moderation on Lead and neutron captures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I. The analysis of the results shows how shielding effects due to the resonances at epithermal energies of these nuclides affects strongly their transmutation rate. The results suggest that some research effort should be undertaken to improve the quality of Iodine nuclear data at epithermal and fast neutron energy to obtain a reliable transmutation estimation.
Cross resonant optical antenna.
Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B
2009-06-26
We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.
Adiabatic Coherence Transfer in Magnetic Resonance of Homonuclear Scalar-Coupled Systems
Kurur, N. D.; Bodenhausen, G.
By analogy to heteronuclear systems, it is shown that coherence can be transferred adiabatically in the rotating frame between two selected spins I and S belonging to a homonuclear network of scalar-coupled spins. In contrast to cross polarization with constant radiofrequency field amplitudes, the transfer function obtained with adiabatic methods depends in a monotonic, nonoscillatory manner on the duration of the transfer interval. The efficiency of the transfer does not depend on the magnitude of the scalar coupling constant JIS, although it can be affected by relaxation and by couplings JIR and JSR to further spins R. Three methods are investigated: (i) adiabatic demagnetization of spin I in the rotating frame followed by observation of the resulting J-ordered state, (ii) adiabatic demagnetization of spin I in the rotating frame followed by adiabatic remagnetization of spin S, and (iii) adiabatic transfer where spins I and S are subjected simultaneously to time-dependent spin-locking fields. In all three cases, the optimum shape of the time dependence of the radiofrequency field amplitudes is discussed, with the help of a geometric interpretation of cross polarization.
Nonadiabatic level crossing in resonant and nonresonant neutrino oscillations
Kachelriess, M
2001-01-01
We study neutrino oscillations and the level-crossing probability PLSZ = exp(–gamman[script F]npi/2) (LSZ stands for Landau-Stückelberg-Zener) in power-law-like potential profiles A(r)[proportional]rn. After showing that the resonance point coincides only for a linear profile with the point of maximal violation of adiabaticity, we point out that the "adiabaticity" parameter gamman can be calculated at an arbitrary point if the correction function [script F]n is rescaled appropriately. We present a new representation for the level-crossing probability, PLSZ = exp(–kappan[script G]n), which allows a simple numerical evaluation of PLSZ in both the resonant and nonresonant cases, and where [script G]n contains the full dependence of PLSZ on the mixing angle theta. As an application we consider the case n = –3 important for oscillations of supernova neutrinos.
Penetration of a resonant magnetic perturbation in an adiabatically rippled plasma slab
Dewar, Robert L; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-01-01
The adiabatic limit of a recently proposed dynamical extension of Taylor relaxation, \\emph{multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics} (MRxMHD) is summarized, with special attention to the appropriate definition of relative magnetic helicity. The formalism is illustrated using a simple two-region, sheared-magnetic-field model similar to the Hahm--Kulsrud--Taylor (HKT) rippled-boundary slab model. In MRxMHD a linear Grad--Shafranov equation applies, even at finite ripple amplitude. The adiabatic switching on of boundary ripple excites a shielding current sheet opposing reconnection at a resonant surface. The perturbed magnetic field as a function of ripple amplitude is calculated by invoking conservation of magnetic helicity in the two regions separated by the current sheet. At low ripple amplitude "half islands" appear on each side of the current sheet, locking the rotational transform at the resonant value. Beyond a critical amplitude these islands disappear and the rotational transform develops a discontinui...
Pulse-driven near-resonant quantum adiabatic dynamics: lifting of quasi-degeneracy
Yatsenko, L P; Jauslin, H R
2003-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a two-level system driven by a pulse that starts near-resonant for small amplitudes, yielding nonadiabatic evolution, and induces an adiabatic evolution for larger amplitudes. This problem is analyzed in terms of lifting of degeneracy for rising amplitudes. It is solved exactly for the case of linear and exponential rising. Approximate solutions are given in the case of power law rising. This allows us to determine approximative formulas for the lineshape of resonant excitation by various forms of pulses such as truncated trig-pulses. We also analyze and explain the various superpositions of states that can be obtained by the Half Stark Chirped Rapid Adiabatic Passage (Half-SCRAP) process.
Adiabatic Chemical Freeze-out and Wide Resonance Modification in a Thermal Medium
Bugaev, K A; Nikonov, E G; Sorin, A S; Zinovjev, G M
2012-01-01
Here we develop a model equation of state which successfully parameterizes the thermodynamic functions of hadron resonance gas model at chemical freeze-out and which allows us to naturally explain the adiabatic chemical freeze-out criterion. The present model enables us to clearly demonstrate that at chemical freeze-out the resulting hadronic mass spectrum used in the hadron resonance gas model is not an exponential-like, but a power-like. We argue that such a property of hadronic mass spectrum at chemical freeze-out can be explained by the two new effects found here for wide resonances existing in a thermal environment: the near threshold thermal resonance enhancement and the near threshold resonance sharpening. The effect of resonance sharpening is studied for a sigma meson and our analysis shows that for the temperatures well below 92 MeV the effective width of sigma meson is about 50 to 70 MeV. Thus, the effect of resonance sharpening justifies the usage of the sigma-like field-theoretical models for the ...
Generation of entangled states and error protection from adiabatic avoided level crossings
Bell, N F; Volkas, R R; Wong, Y Y Y; Bell, Nicole F.; Volkas, Raymond R.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2002-01-01
We consider the environment-affected dynamics of $N$ self-interacting particles living in one-dimensional double wells. Two topics are dealt with. First, we consider the production of entangled states of two-level systems. We show that by adiabatically varying the well biases we may dynamically generate maximally entangled states, starting from initially unentangled product states. Entanglement degradation due to a common type of environmental influence is then computed by solving a master equation. However, we also demonstrate that entanglement production is unaffected if the system-environment coupling is of the type that induces ``motional narrowing''. As our second but related topic, we construct a different master equation that seamlessly merges error protection/detection dynamics for quantum information with the environmental couplings responsible for producing the errors in the first place. Adiabatic avoided crossing schemes are used in both topics.
A Theory of Self-Resonance After Inflation, Part 1: Adiabatic and Isocurvature Goldstone Modes
Hertzberg, Mark P; Spitzer, William G; Becerra, Juana C; Li, Lanqing
2014-01-01
We develop a theory of self-resonance after inflation. We study a large class of models involving multiple scalar fields with an internal symmetry. For illustration, we often specialize to dimension 4 potentials, but we derive results for general potentials. This is the first part of a two part series of papers. Here in Part 1 we especially focus on the behavior of long wavelengths modes, which are found to govern most of the important physics. Since the inflaton background spontaneously breaks the time translation symmetry and the internal symmetry, we obtain Goldstone modes; these are the adiabatic and isocurvature modes. We find general conditions on the potential for when a large instability band exists for these modes at long wavelengths. For the adiabatic mode, this is determined by a sound speed derived from the time averaged potential. While for the isocurvature mode, this is determined by a speed derived from a time averaged auxiliary potential. Interestingly, we find that this instability band usual...
Controlling vibrational cooling with zero-width resonances: An adiabatic Floquet approach
Leclerc, Arnaud; Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Lefebvre, Roland; Atabek, Osman
2016-10-01
In molecular photodissociation, some specific combinations of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity) lead to unexpected zero-width resonances (ZWRs) with, in principle, infinite lifetimes. Their potential to induce basic quenching mechanisms has recently been devised in the laser control of vibrational cooling through filtration strategies [O. Atabek et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 031403(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.031403]. A full quantum adiabatic control theory based on the adiabatic Floquet Hamiltonian is developed to show how a laser pulse could be envelope-shaped and frequency-chirped so as to protect a given initial vibrational state against dissociation, taking advantage of its continuous transport on the corresponding ZWR all along the pulse duration. As compared with previous control scenarios that actually suffered from nonadiabatic contamination, drastically different and much more efficient filtration goals are achieved. A semiclassical analysis helps us to find and interpret a complete map of ZWRs in the laser parameter plane. In addition, the choice of a given ZWR path, among the complete series identified by the semiclassical approach, turns out to be crucial for the cooling scheme, targeting a single vibrational state population left at the end of the pulse, while all others have almost completely decayed. The illustrative example, which has the potential to be transposed to other diatomics, is Na2 prepared by photoassociation in vibrationally hot but translationally and rotationally cold states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Ryeol Choi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.
Berman, G P; Chapline, G; Gurvitz, S A; Hammel, P C; Pelekhov, D V; Suter, A; Tsifrinovich, V I
2003-01-01
We consider the process of a single-spin measurement using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with a cyclic adiabatic inversion (CAI). This technique is also important for different applications, including a measurement of a qubit state in quantum computation. The measurement takes place through the interaction of a single spin with a cantilever modelled by a quantum oscillator in a coherent state in a quasi-classical range of parameters. The entire system is treated rigorously within the framework of the Schroedinger equation. For a many-spin system our equations accurately describe conventional MRFM experiments involving CAI of the spin system. Our computer simulations of the quantum spin-cantilever dynamics show that the probability distribution for the cantilever position develops two asymmetric peaks with the total relative probabilities mainly dependent on the initial angle between the directions of the average spin and the effective magnetic field, in the rotating frame. We show that each of th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Formulas which are needed to calculate transmission coefficients for the adiabatic coupled-channel approximation method are described. In terms of these coefficients, nuclear absorption cross sections may be obtained. First, derivations are given of various cross sections for a system of coupled inelastic channels in terms of the S matrix. The adiabatic approximation method is discussed for a rotational band, and the dynamical nuclear S matrix is obtained from the S matrix for scattering from a static rotor. The formulas are valid for a spheroidal rotor, with or without an extra-core particle, which does not interact with the projectile but does provide angular momentum to the target
Emittance growths in resonance crossing at FFAGs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab; Pang, X.; Wang, F.; Wang, X.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.
2007-10-01
Scaling laws of the emittance growth for a beam crossing the 6th-order systematic space-charge resonances and the random-octupole driven 4th-order resonance are obtained by numerical multi-particle simulations. These laws can be important in setting the minimum acceleration rate and maximum tolerable resonance strength for the design of non-scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerators.
Baranowski, M.; Woźniak-Braszak, A.; Jurga, K.
2016-01-01
The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2 MHz and 28.411 MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins 1H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins 19F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal.
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-01
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-28
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
An explicit model for the adiabatic evolution of quantum observables driven by 1D shape resonances
Faraj, A; Nier, F
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with a linearized version of the transport problem where the Schr\\"{o}dinger-Poisson operator is replaced by a non-autonomous Hamiltonian, slowly varying in time. We consider an explicitly solvable model where a semiclassical island is described by a flat potential barrier, while a time dependent 'delta' interaction is used as a model for a single quantum well. Introducing, in addition to the complex deformation, a further modification formed by artificial interface conditions, we give a reduced equation for the adiabatic evolution of the sheet density of charges accumulating around the interaction point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The improved adiabatic representation is used in calculations of elastic and hyperfine-transition cross sections for symmetric collisions of pμ, dμ, and tμ with bare p, d, and t nuclei and with H, D, and T atoms, respectively. The cross sections for dμ+d and tμ+t are in excellent agreement with other recent determinations, while those for pμ+p are about 30% larger at low energies. The electronic screening is calculated nonperturbatively and found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously calculated value at large internuclear distances, and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form in the molecular region. The resulting screened elastic cross sections are up to 60% smaller than those obtained using the old screening potential. The reactance matrices, needed for calculations of molecular-target effects, are given in tables
Use of non-adiabatic geometric phase for quantum computing by nuclear magnetic resonance
Das, R; Kumar, A; Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil
2005-01-01
Geometric phases have stimulated researchers for its potential applications in many areas of science. One of them is fault-tolerant quantum computation. A preliminary requisite of quantum computation is the implementation of controlled logic gates by controlled dynamics of qubits. In controlled dynamics, one qubit undergoes coherent evolution and acquires appropriate phase, depending on the state of other qubits. If the evolution is geometric, then the phase acquired depend only on the geometry of the path executed, and is robust against certain types of errors. This phenomenon leads to an inherently fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we suggest a technique of using non-adiabatic geometric phase for quantum computation, using selective excitation. In a two-qubit system, we selectively evolve a suitable subsystem where the control qubit is in state |1>, through a closed circuit. By this evolution, the target qubit gains a phase controlled by the state of the control qubit. Using these geometric phase gat...
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2012-01-01
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rot...
Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb
Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K
2006-01-01
The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.
Resonant-tunnelling-assisted crossing for subwavelenght plasmonic slot waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2008-01-01
We theoretically investigate properties of crossing for two perpendicular subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides. In terms of symmetry consideration and resonant-tunnelling effect, we design compact cavity-based crossing structures for nanoplasmonic waveguides. Our results show that the crosstal...
Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections
Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.
1970-01-01
Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.
Rovibrational cross sections from reactance matrices calculated in adiabatic nuclei approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Body frame reactance matrices obtained from elastic scattering calculations at fixed internuclear separations are transformed into laboratory frame matrices to compute differential and integral cross sections for simultaneous rotational and vibrational excitation of a molecule. Transformation for vibrational excitation is obtained by integrating the real and imaginary parts of the body-frame t-matrices over internuclear separation. Vibrational wave functions are assumed to be given. The rotational transformation involves an eight-fold sum over angular momenta. The summands involve Asub(lambda)-coefficients and Legendre polynomials, which are each evaluated by separate subprograms. Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections are computed from the transformed t-matrices. (Auth.)
Theory of neutron resonance cross sections for safety applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron resonances exert a strong influence on the behaviour of nuclear reactors, especially on their response to the temperature changes accompanying power excursions, and also on the efficiency of shielding materials. The relevant theory of neutron resonance cross sections including the practically important approximations is reviewed, both for the resolved and the unresolved resonance region. Numerical techniques for Doppler broadening of resonances are presented, and the construction of group constants and especially of self-shielding factors for neutronics calculations is outlined. (orig.)
Yachin, Vladimir V; Polevoy, Sergey Y; Tarapov, Sergey I
2016-01-01
We report on a resonant response in transmission spectra of a linearly polarized wave passing through the system of crossed gratings. Each grating consists of an array of parallel metallic strips located on the top of a dielectric substrate. It is revealed that the resonant position appears to be dependent on the angle of gratings crossing. It is found out that the resonant shift on the frequency scale appears as a result of increasing in the length of the resonating portion of the parallelogram periodic cell formed by the crossed metallic strips with decreasing crossing angle and the proposed design can be used in new types of planar metamaterials and filters.
Phase-space picture of resonance creation and avoided crossings
Timberlake, T
2000-01-01
Complex coordinate scaling (CCS) is used to calculate resonance eigenvalues and eigenstates for a system consisting of an inverted Gaussian potential and a monochromatic driving field. Floquet eigenvalues and Husimi distributions of resonance eigenfunctions are calculated using two different versions of CCS. The number of resonance states in this system increases as the strength of the driving field is increased, indicating that this system might have increased stability against ionization when the field strength is very high. We find that the newly created resonance states are scarred on unstable periodic orbits of the classical motion. The behavior of these periodic orbits as the field strength is increased may explain why there are more resonance states at high field strengths than at low field strengths. Close examination of an avoided crossing between resonance states shows that this type of avoided crossing does not delocalize the resonance states, although it may lead to interesting effects at certain ...
The Hadronic Cross-Section in the Resonance Energy Region
Portoles, J.; Ruiz-Femenia, P. D.
2003-01-01
We study the hadronic vacuum polarization in the resonance energy region, using the framework given by the Resonance Effective Theory of QCD. We consider the incorporation of vector-pseudoscalar meson loops that give, inclusively, three and four pseudoscalar meson cuts. After resummation we achieve a QCD-based inclusive parameterization of the correlator, hence of the hadronic cross-section in the energy region populated by resonances.
Zanon, Thomas; Arimondo, Ennio
2011-01-01
Exact and asymptotic lineshape expressions are derived from the semi-classical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates and light-shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state Dark Resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency or Coherent Population Trapping resonance and the Fano-Feshbach lineshape, leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency-shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical Optical Bloch Equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap a large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Clercq, Emeric de; Arimondo, Ennio [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris, France, and CNRS, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris (France); LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi,' ' Universita di Pisa, Lgo. B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)
2011-12-15
Exact and asymptotic line shape expressions are derived from the semiclassical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level {Lambda} atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates, and light shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state dark-resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the electromagnetically induced transparency or coherent population trapping resonance, and the Fano-Feshbach line shape leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical optical Bloch equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap a large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields are greatly unbalanced. When time separated resonant two-photon pulses are applied in the adiabatic pulsed regime for atomic or molecular clock engineering, where the first pulse is long enough to reach a coherent steady-state preparation and the second pulse is very short to avoid repumping into a new dark state, dark-resonance fringes mixing continuous-wave line shape properties and coherent Ramsey oscillations are created. Those fringes allow interrogation schemes bypassing the power broadening effect. Frequency shifts affecting the central clock fringe computed from asymptotic profiles and related to the Raman decoherence process exhibit nonlinear shapes with the three-level observable used for quantum measurement. We point out that different observables experience different shifts on the lower-state clock transition.
Phase-space picture of resonance creation and avoided crossings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complex coordinate scaling (CCS) is used to calculate resonance eigenvalues and eigenstates for a system consisting of an inverted Gaussian potential and a monochromatic driving field. Floquet eigenvalues and Husimi distributions of resonance eigenfunctions are calculated using two different versions of CCS. The number of resonance states in this system increases as the strength of the driving field is increased, indicating that this system might have increased stability against ionization when the field strength is very high. We find that the newly created resonance states are scarred on unstable periodic orbits of the classical motion. The behavior of these periodic orbits as the field strength is increased may explain why there are more resonance states at high field strengths than at low field strengths. Close examination of an avoided crossing between resonance states shows that the two states exchange their structure, as in bound systems. This phenomenon might lead to interesting effects at certain field strengths
Electrical cross-talk in two-port resonators the resonant silicon beam force sensor
Mullem, van, F.; Tilmans, H. A. C.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.
1992-01-01
An important design consideration in the development of two-port resonant sensors is the electrical cross-talk between the input port and the output port. The overall transfer function (j) of the two-port sensor is equal to the vectorial sum of a transfer function representing the mechanical behavior and a transfer function representing the electrical cross-talk. The resonant silicon beam force sensor with a piezoelectric driver and a piezoelectric detector is analyzed. Two solutions to reduc...
Analysis and approximations for crossing two nearby spin resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranjbar, V. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.
2014-01-07
Solutions to the T-BMT spin equation have to date been confined to the single resonance crossing. However, in reality most cases of interest concern the overlapping of several resonances. To date there has been several serious studies of this problem; however, a good analytical solution or even approximation has eluded the community. We show that the T-BMT equation can be transformed into a Hill’s like equation. In this representation it can be shown that, while the single resonance crossing represents the solution to the Parabolic Cylinder equation, the overlapping case becomes a parametric type of resonance. We present possible approximations for both the non-accelerating case and accelerating case.
Light slowdown in the vicinity of cross-over resonances
Perdian, M; Zaremba, J; Zielinska-Kaniasty, S
2004-01-01
Pulse propagation is considered in an inhomogeneously broadened medium of three-level atoms in a V-configuration, dressed by a counter-propagating pump pulse. A significant signal slowdown is demonstrated in this of the three frequency windows of a reduced absorption and a steep normal dispersion, which is due to a cross-over resonance. Particular properties of the group index in the vicinity of such a resonance are demonstrated in the case of closely spaced upper levels.
Astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O within the adiabatic molecular picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O is investigated within the adiabatic molecular picture. It very well explains the available experimental data. The collective radial mass causes a pronounced resonant structure in the S-factor excitation function, providing a motivation for measuring the 16O+16O fusion cross section at deep sub-barrier energies. (author)
Resonance averaged channel radiative neutron capture cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to apply Lane amd Lynn's channel capture model in calculations with a realistic optical model potential, we have derived an approximate wave function for the entrance channel in the neutron-nucleus reaction, based on the intermediate interaction model. It is valid in the exterior region as well as the region near the nuclear surface, ans is expressed in terms of the wave function and reactance matrix of the optical model and of the near-resonance parameters. With this formalism the averaged channel radiative neutron capture cross section in the resonance region is written as the sum of three terms. The first two terms correspond to contribution of the optical model real and imaginary parts respectively, and together can be regarded as the radiative capture of the shape elastic wave. The third term is a fluctuation term, corresponding to the radiative capture of the compound elastic wave in the exterior region. On applying this theory in the resonance region, we obtain an expression for the average valence radiative width similar to that of Lane and Mughabghab. We have investigated the magnitude and energy dependence of the three terms as a function of the neutron incident energy. Calculated results for 98Mo and 55Mn show that the averaged channel radiative capture cross section in the giant resonance region of the neutron strength function may account for a considerable fraction of the total (n, γ) cross section; at lower neutron energies a large part of this channel capture arises from the fluctuation term. We have also calculated the partial capture cross section in 98Mo and 55Mn at 2.4 keV and 24 keV, respectively, and compared the 98Mo results with the experimental data. (orig.)
Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap
Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu
2016-01-01
Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacha, Meer; Joo, Han Gyu [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
The effective cross sections (XSs) in the direct whole core calculation code nTRACER are evaluated by the equivalence theory-based resonance-integral-table method using the WIMS-based library as an alternative to the subgroup method. The background XSs, as well as the Dancoff correction factors, were evaluated by the enhanced neutron-current method. A method, with pointwise microscopic XSs on a union-lethargy grid, was used for the generation of resonance-interference factors (RIFs) for mixed resonant absorbers. This method was modified by the intermediate-resonance approximation by replacing the potential XSs for the non-absorbing moderator nuclides with the background XSs and neglecting the resonance-elastic scattering. The resonance-escape probability was implemented to incorporate the energy self-shielding effect in the spectrum. The XSs were improved using the proposed method as compared to the narrow resonance infinite mass-based method. The RIFs were improved by 1% in {sup 235}U, 7% in {sup 239}Pu, and >2% in {sup 240}Pu. To account for thermal feedback, a new feature was incorporated with the interpolation of pre-generated RIFs at the multigroup level and the results compared with the conventional resonance-interference model. This method provided adequate results in terms of XSs and k-eff. The results were verified first by the comparison of RIFs with the exact RIFs, and then comparing the XSs with the McCARD calculations for the homogeneous configurations, with burned fuel containing a mixture of resonant nuclides at different burnups and temperatures. The RIFs and XSs for the mixture showed good agreement, which verified the accuracy of the RIF evaluation using the proposed method. The method was then verified by comparing the XSs for the virtual environment for reactor application-benchmark pin-cell problem, as well as the heterogeneous pin cell containing burned fuel with McCARD. The method works well for homogeneous, as well as heterogeneous
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The data available up to the end of November 1968 on the thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance absorption integrals, and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes are collected and discussed. Estimates are given of the mean spacing of the energy levels of the compound nuclei near the neutron binding energy. It is concluded that the thermal neutron absorption cross-section and resonance absorption integral of natural silicon are not well established. The data on these two parameters are somewhat correlated, and three different assessments of the resonance integral are presented which differ over-all by a factor of 230. Many resonances have been detected by charged particle reactions which have not yet been observed in neutron cross-section measurements. One of these resonances of Si28, at En = 4 ± 5 keV might account for the large resonance integral which is derived, very uncertainly, from integral data. The principal source of the measured resonance integral of Si30 has not yet been located. The thermal neutron absorption cross-section of Si28 appears to result mainly from a negative energy resonance, possibly the resonance at En = - 59 ± 5 keV detected by the Si28 (d,p) reaction. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 241Am total and fission cross sections have been measured in the resonance region, using the 60MeV Saclay linac as a pulsed neutron source. The resonance parameters obtained by a single level shape analysis of the transmission data are given for 189 levels up to 150eV neutron energy. The mean level spacing, corrected for 18% of missed resonances in the 0 to 50eV energy range, is (0.55+-0.05)eV. The s-wave neutron strength function value, in the 0 to 150eV energy range, is equal to (0.94+-0.09)10-4. The average radiation width obtained from 43 resonances is (43.77+-0.72)MeV. Only preliminary results of the fission experiment are available now; 38 fission widths are given up to 32eV neutron energy, with the average value GAMMA(f) approximately equal to 0.23MeV; the statistical distribution of these fission widths corresponds to a X2 law with 4 degrees of freedom. An area analysis of the Los Alamos fission data has also been done, from which we obtain 36 GAMMA(f) values in the 20eV to 50eV energy range; the corresponding average value is: GAMMA(f) approximately equal to 0.52MeV; the statistical distribution obeys to a X2 law with 15 degrees of freedom, in desagreement with the Saclay results
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment 4He(1s2s 3S) + HD(1s2) → 4He(1s2) + HD+(1s) + e− [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.
Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.
Formalism for neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region using kernel approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y-S.; Matoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.
2010-04-09
We describe analytical formalism for estimating neutron radiative capture and elastic scattering cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region. We use capture and scattering kernels as the starting point and show how to get average cross sections in broader energy bins, derive analytical expressions for cross section sensitivities, and deduce cross section covariances from the resonance parameter uncertainties in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The formalism elucidates the role of resonance parameter correlations which become important if several strong resonances are located in one energy group. Importance of potential scattering uncertainty as well as correlation between potential scattering and resonance scattering is also examined. Practical application of the formalism is illustrated on {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 55}Mn(n,el).
Procedure for systematically tuning up cross-talk in the cross-resonance gate
Sheldon, Sarah; Magesan, Easwar; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M.
2016-06-01
We present improvements in both theoretical understanding and experimental implementation of the cross resonance (CR) gate that have led to shorter two-qubit gate times and interleaved randomized benchmarking fidelities exceeding 99%. The CR gate is an all-microwave two-qubit gate that does not require tunability and is therefore well suited to quantum computing architectures based on two-dimensional superconducting qubits. The performance of the gate has previously been hindered by long gate times and fidelities averaging 94-96%. We have developed a calibration procedure that accurately measures the full CR Hamiltonian. The resulting measurements agree with theoretical analysis of the gate and also elucidate the error terms that have previously limited gate fidelity. The increase in fidelity that we have achieved was accomplished by introducing a second microwave drive tone on the target qubit to cancel unwanted components of the CR Hamiltonian.
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems
Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2016-10-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors analyse experimental data on the transmission and fission self-indication functions for 239Pu in the unresolved resonance region. Use is made of the method of generating a cross-section structure based on the multi-level R-matrix formalism (stochastic K-matrix method). Evaluations of the average resonance parameters and group constants for 239Pu are made. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The photonuclear absorption cross section of Pb, σ(TOT:Esub(γ), is studied in the 145-440 MeV Δ resonance range using a quasi-monochromatic photon beam obtained by monoenergetic positon in-flight annihilation. This study is deduced of the cross section measurement for at least j neutron emission σsup(j))Esub(γ). The cross sections of reactions with 1 or 0 neutron are evaluated as the same values as the experimental errors. The variation of the photonuclear absorption cross section for a nuclear σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A is mass independent for A<=4-6. It seems that the damping between σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A and the cross section of the free nucleon is caused by the Fermi movement of the nucleons. In conclusion: it seems that the excitation of the nucleus in the Δ resonance region is produced on free nucleons and there are no collective states
Resonance analysis and evaluation of the 235U neutron induced cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei are of considerable interest for the understanding of parameters such as resonance absorption, resonance escape probability, resonance self-shielding,and the dependence of the reactivity on temperature. In the present study, new techniques for the evaluation of the 235U neutron cross sections are described. The Reich-Moore formalism of the Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to perform consistent R-matrix multilevel analyses of the selected neutron cross-section data. The Δ3-statistics of Dyson and Mehta, along with high-resolution data and the spin-separated fission cross-section data, have provided the possibility of developing a new methodology for the analysis and evaluation of neutron-nucleus cross sections. The results of the analysis consists of a set of resonance parameters which describe the 235U neutron cross sections up to 500 eV. The set of resonance parameters obtained through a R-matrix analysis are expected to satisfy statistical properties which lead to information on the nuclear structure. The resonance parameters were tested and showed good agreement with the theory. It is expected that the parametrization of the 235U neutron cross sections obtained in this dissertation represents the current state of art in data as well as in theory and, therefore, can be of direct use in reactor calculations. 44 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs
Baskin, Lev; Plamenevskii, Boris; Sarafanov, Oleg
2015-01-01
This volume studies electron resonant tunneling in two- and three-dimensional quantum waveguides of variable cross-sections in the time-independent approach. Mathematical models are suggested for the resonant tunneling and develop asymptotic and numerical approaches for investigating the models. Also, schemes are presented for several electronics devices based on the phenomenon of resonant tunneling. Devices based on the phenomenon of electron resonant tunneling are widely used in electronics. Efforts are directed towards refining properties of resonance structures. There are prospects for building new nanosize electronics elements based on quantum dot systems. However, the role of resonance structure can also be given to a quantum wire of variable cross-section. Instead of an "electrode - quantum dot - electrode" system, one can use a quantum wire with two narrows. A waveguide narrow is an effective potential barrier for longitudinal electron motion along a waveguide. The part of the waveguide between ...
Level-crossing and modal structure in microdroplet resonators
Attar, Sarah T; Deych, Lev; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal
2016-01-01
We fabricate a liquid-core liquid-clad microcavity that is coupled to a standard tapered fiber, and then experimentally map the whispering-gallery modes of this droplet resonator. The shape of our resonator is similar to a thin prolate spheroid, which makes space for many high-order transverse modes, suggesting that some of them will share the same resonance frequency. Indeed, we experimentally observe that more than half of the droplet's modes have a sibling having the same frequency (to within linewidth) and therefore exhibiting a standing interference-pattern.
Evaluation of Cm-247 neutron cross sections in the resonance region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutron cross sections of Cm-247 are evaluated in the resonance (resolved and unresolved) region up to 10 keV. Average resonance parameters (i.e. spacing D, fission and radiative widths, neutron strength functions) are determined for unresolved region calculations. Moreover for a better comparison with the experimental data, fission cross section is calculated up to 10 MeV. In addition, the average number of neutrons emitted per fission as a function of energy is estimated
Estimation of neutron energy for first resonance from absorption cross section for thermal neutrons
Bogart, Donald
1951-01-01
Examination of published data for some 52 isotopes indicates that the neutron energy for which the first resonance occurs is related to the magnitude of the thermal absorption cross section. The empirical relation obtained is in qualitative agreement with the results of a simplified version of the resonance theory of the nucleus of Breit-Wigner.
POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.
2000-12-01
POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.
POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, M.E.
2000-10-20
POLIDENT (POint LIbraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.
Updated multi-group cross sections of minor actinides with improved resonance treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of minor actinide in transmutation reactors and other future applications makes resonance self-shielding treatment a significant issue for criticality and isotope depletion. Resonance treatment for minor actinides has been carried out by subgroup method with improved interference effect through interference correction. Subgroup data was generated using RMET21 and GENP codes along with multi-group cross section data by NJOY nuclear data processing system. Updated multi-group cross section data library for a neutron transport code nTRACER was compared with solutions from MCNPX. The resonance interaction of uranium with minor actinides has been included by modified interference treatment of interference correction in subgroup methodology. The comparison of cross sections and multiplication factor in pin and assembly problems showed significant improvement from systematic resonance treatment especially for 237Np and 243Am. (author)
Terrestrial Planet Formation During the Migration and Resonance Crossings of the Giant Planets
Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Ito, Takashi
2013-01-01
The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migrati...
Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.
1984-02-01
The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.
Quantum adiabatic machine learning
Pudenz, Kristen L
2011-01-01
We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation.
Electron nuclear double resonance near an energy level crossing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that double electron-nuclear resonance (DENR) spectra near the intersection of spin-electron levels differ notably from spectra recorded under normal conditions. In particular, hyperfine and quadrupole splittings are notably increased while the nuclear Zeeman interaction is supressed. A giant line splitting (exceeding the line splitting in a standard situation by orders) occurs in a DENR spectrum in the presence of external electric field
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2010-01-01
We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum Markovian dynamics based on a structural decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of Markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the underlying Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As an application of our theory, we propose a framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes under general Markovian noise. We also formulate a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by non-dissipative means.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙玉发; 于梅; 沈广鸿
2003-01-01
It is well known that the incorrect results will be given using either the electric or magnetic field integral equation to calculate the radar cross section (RCS) of a closed body at the interior resonance. In this paper, an effective iterative technique is used to correct the calculated surface current density from the electric field integral equation. The radar cross section is computed for an infinite conducting circular cylinder at the interior resonance, and the obtained results are in good agreement with the analytical results. The backscattering cross section of an infinite triangular cylinder in the vicinity of a resonant frequency is also calculated. It is shown that the presence method is efficient and accurate.
Neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region: 52Cr, 56Fe, 58Ni
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oblozinsky, P.; Cho, Y.-S.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.
2010-08-03
We evaluated covariances for neutron capture and elastic scattering cross sections on major structural materials, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni, in the resonance region which extends beyond 800 keV for each of them. Use was made of the recently developed covariance formalism based on kernel approximation along with data in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The data of most interest for AFCI applications, elastic scattering cross section uncertainties at energies above about few hundred keV, are on the level of about 12% for {sup 52}Cr, 7-8% for {sup 56}Fe and 5-6% for {sup 58}Ni.
Terrestrial Planet Formation During the Migration and Resonance Crossings of the Giant Planets
Lykawka, Patryk Sofia
2013-01-01
The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migration. In total, 68 high-resolution simulation runs using 2000 disk planetesimals were performed, which was a significant improvement on previously published results. Even when the effects of the 1:2 MMR crossing and planet migration were included in the system, Venus and Earth analogs (considering both orbits and masses) successfully formed in several runs. In addition, we found that the orbits of planetesimals beyond a ~1.5-2 AU were dynamically depleted by the strengthened sweeping secular resonances associated with Jupit...
Low loss optical waveguide crossing based on octagonal resonant cavity coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohd. Zahed M. Khan
2009-01-01
A waveguide crossing utilizing a high index contrast material system is presented. The structure is based on coupling with an octagonal resonant cavity inscrted at the waveguide junction. It also employs four identical square metal strips placed at the four comers of the waveguide crossing. The spectral response of the structure calculated using the method of line numerical technique, in general, shows a high power transmission in the forward arm with sufficiently low crosstalk and fraction of radiated power.
Double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar5+
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Configuration-average distorted-wave calculations are carried out for electron-impact ionization of Ar5+. Both direct ionization and the indirect excitation autoionization processes are included in our calculations. Our theoretical values are in quite reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The indirect processes contribute up to 50% to the total ionization cross sections. The possible origin of double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections is demonstrated and the contributions of metastable states are also taken into account.
Richards, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mechanical heat switches are used in conjunction with sorption refrigerators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators and for other cryogenic tasks including the pre-cooling cryogenic systems. They use a mechanical actuator which closes Au plated Cu jaws on an Au plated Cu bar. The thermal conductance in the closed position is essentially independent of the area of the jaws and proportional to the force applied. It varies linearly with T. It is approximately 10mW/K for 200 N at 1.5K. In some applications, the heat switch can be driven from outside the cryostat by a rotating rod and a screw. Such heat switches are available commercially from several sources. In other applications, including systems for space, it is desirable to drive the switch using a cold linear motor, or solenoid. Superconducting windings are used at temperatures s 4.2K to minimize power dissipation, but are not appropriate for pre-cooling a system at higher temperatures. This project was intended to improve the design of solenoid activated mechanical heat switches and to provide such switches as required to support the development of Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling from 10 K to 50 mK at GSFC. By the time funding began in 5/1/01, the immediate need for mechanical heat switches at GSFC had subsided but, at the same time, the opportunity had arisen to improve the design of mechanical heat switching by incorporating a "latching solenoid". In this device, the solenoid current is required only for changing the state of the switch and not during the whole time that the switch is closed.
Vibrational dynamics of the bifluoride ion. II. Adiabatic separation and proton dynamics
Epa, V. C.; Thorson, W. R.
1990-01-01
Vibrational dynamics of the bifluoride ion FHF-, which exhibits strongly anharmonic and nonseparable vibrations, is studied using the extended ab initio model potential surface described in the first paper of this series. Adiabatic separation of the proton motion from the F-F (ν1) motion forms a zero-order basis for description, although strong coupling of adiabatic states by the ν1 motion is important in higher vibrational levels and must be considered to understand the spectrum. The adiabatic protonic eigenstates at F-F separations R from 3.75 to 6.40 a.u. have been determined using the self-consistent field approximation in prolate spheroidal coordinates to provide a basis set for configuration interaction expansion of the exact eigenstates. 78 SCF eigenstates (21 σg, 21 σu, 21 πu, and 15 πg) were computed by ``exact'' numerical solution of the SCF equations. The adiabatic CI eigenstates are shown to be converged in energy to better than 1.0 cm-1 for the ground state of each symmetry type and usually better than 10 cm-1 for the lowest three to five states, and pass critical tests of accuracy such as the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. The resulting CI potential energy curves closely resemble corresponding SCF energy curves and justify the concept of mode separation even in this very anharmonic system. The adiabatic CI potential energy curves explain most aspects of the dynamics relevant to the IR and Raman spectra of FHF- (e.g., in KHF2), and calculations of ν1 dynamics within the adiabatic approximation suffice to assign most of the observed IR spectrum of KHF2(s) (to about 6000 cm-1). States corresponding qualitatively to modal overtone and combination levels such as 3ν2 and (ν2+2ν3) however exhibit avoided crossings in the neighborhood of the equilibrium configuration and ``Fermi resonance'' involving interactions of two or more such adiabatic states via the ν1 motion must be treated by close-coupling to predict both frequencies and intensities in the
Neutron capture cross section measurements for 238U in the resonance region at GELINA
Kim, H. I.; Paradela, C.; Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Gunsing, F.; Kim, G. N.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Lee, Y.-O.; Massarczyk, R.; Moens, A.; Moxon, M.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.
2016-06-01
Measurements were performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA to determine the 238U(n, γ) cross section in the resonance region. Experiments were carried out at a 12.5 and 60m measurement station. The total energy detection principle in combination with the pulse height weighting technique was applied using C6D6 liquid scintillators as prompt γ-ray detectors. The energy dependence of the neutron flux was measured with ionisation chambers based on the 10B(n, α) reaction. The data were normalised to the isolated and saturated 238U resonance at 6.67 eV. Special procedures were applied to reduce bias effects due to the weighting function, normalization, dead time and background corrections, and corrections related to the sample properties. The total uncertainty due to the weighting function, normalization, neutron flux and sample characteristics is about 1.5%. Resonance parameters were derived from a simultaneous resonance shape analysis of the GELINA capture data and transmission data obtained previously at a 42m and 150m station of ORELA. The parameters of resonances below 500 eV are in good agreement with those resulting from an evaluation that was adopted in the main data libraries. Between 500 eV and 1200 eV a systematic difference in the neutron width is observed. Average capture cross section data were derived from the experimental capture yield in the energy region between 3.5 keV and 90 keV. The results are in good agreement with an evaluated cross section resulting from a least squares fit to experimental data available in the literature prior to this work. The average cross section data derived in this work were parameterised in terms of average resonance parameters and included in a least squares analysis together with other experimental data reported in the literature.
Neutron Capture and Total Cross Section Measurements and Resonance Parameters of Gadolinium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) linac facility using metallic and liquid Gd samples. The liquid samples were isotopically-enriched in either 155Gd or 157Gd. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15- and 25-m flight stations with 6Li glass scintillation detectors. The multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY was used to extract resonance parameters. Among the significant findings are the following. The neutron width of the largest resonance in Gd, at 0.032 eV in 157Gd, has been measured to be (9 ± 1)% smaller than that given in ENDF/B-VI updated through release 8. The thermal (2200 m/s) capture cross section of 157Gd has been measured to be 11% smaller than that calculated from ENDF. The other major thermal resonance, at 0.025 eV in 155Gd, did not display a significant deviation from the thermal capture cross section given by ENDF. In the epithermal region, the analysis provided here represents the most extensive to date. Twenty eight new resonances are proposed and other resonances previously identified in the literature have been revisited. The assignment of resonances within regions of complicated structure incorporated the observations of other researchers, particularly on the six occasions where ENDF resonances are recommended to be removed. The poor match of the ENDF parameters to the current data is significant, and substantial improvement to the understanding of gadolinium cross sections is presented, particularly above 180 eV where the ENDF resolved region for 155Gd ends
Broadband Metamaterial Reflectors for Polarization Manipulation Based on Cross/Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Zhang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We presented the investigation of broadband metamaterial reflector for polarization manipulation based on cross/ring resonators. It is demonstrated that the meta¬material reflector can convert the linearly polarized inci¬dent wave to its cross polarized wave or circularly polar¬ized wave. Due to the multiple resonances at neighboring frequencies, the proposed reflector presents broadband property and high efficiency. The measured fraction band¬width of cross polarization conversion is 55.5% with effi¬ciency higher than 80%. Furthermore, a broadband circu¬lar polarizer is designed by adjusting the dimension para¬meters and the measured fraction bandwidth exceeds 30%.
ZZ DLC-13B, Resonance Cross-Section Group Constant Library for Tungsten and Depleted Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nature of physical problem solved: Format: GAM-II; Number of groups: 32-energy-group split (0.4 to 1234 eV). Nuclides: tungsten (W,) and depleted uranium (U,) slabs. Multigroup capture and scatter cross sections in the resolved resonance region were calculated for tungsten and depleted uranium slabs for use in shielding calculations of neutron transport and capture distributions. Slabs of thickness of 1 to 8 centimeters surrounded by hydrogen or lithium hydride were considered. GAROL was used to generate the cross sections, a method previously observed to preserve the total capture rate in a detailed multigroup neutron transport calculation for a thick resonance absorber. Average cross sections were calculated for a 32-energy-group split (0.4 to 1234 eV) compatible with that used by GAM-2. Group fluxes are also presented permitting further group collapsing either by hand calculations or with an included computer program
Mukeru, B.; Lekala, M. L.
2016-08-01
In this paper we analyze the effects of the projectile resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections as well as on the Coulomb-nuclear interferences at different arbitrary incident energies. It is found that these resonances have non-negligible effects on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections. Qualitatively, they have no effects on the constructiveness or destructiveness of the Coulomb-nuclear interferences. Quantitatively, we obtained that these resonances increase by 7.38%, 7.58%, and 20.30% the integrated total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections, respectively at Elab=35 MeV . This shows that the nuclear breakup cross sections are more affected by the effects of the projectile resonances than their total and Coulomb breakup counterparts. We also obtain that the effects of the resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections decrease as the incident energy increases.
Contribution to the study of the unresolved resonance range of the neutrons cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document presents the statistical description of neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range. The modeling of the total cross section and of the 'shape - elastic' cross section is based on the 'average R-Matrix' formalism. The partial cross sections describing the radiative capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and fission process are calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections. In the unresolved resonance range, these models depend on the average resonance parameters (neutron strength function Sc, mean level spacing Dc, average partial reaction widths Γc, channel radius ac, effective radius R' and distant level parameter R-barc∞). The codes (NJOY, CALENDF...) dedicated to the processing of nuclear data libraries (JEFF, ENDF/B, JENDL, CENDL, BROND... ) use the average parameters to take into account the self-shielding phenomenon for the simulation of the neutron transport in Monte-Carlo (MCNP, TRIPOLI... ) and deterministic (APOLLO, ERANOS...) codes. The evaluation work consists in establishing a consistent set of average parameters as a function of the total angular momentum J of the system and of the orbital moment of the incident neutron l. The work presented in this paper aims to describe the links between the S-Matrix and the 'average R-Matrix' formalism for the calculation of Sc, R-barc∞, ac and R'. (author)
Experimental implementation of an adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm
Steffen, M; Hogg, T; Breyta, G; Chuang, I; Steffen, Matthias; Dam, Wim van; Hogg, Tad; Breyta, Greg; Chuang, Isaac
2003-01-01
We report the realization of a nuclear magnetic resonance computer with three quantum bits that simulates an adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm. Adiabatic quantum algorithms offer new insight into how quantum resources can be used to solve hard problems. This experiment uses a particularly well suited three quantum bit molecule and was made possible by introducing a technique that encodes general instances of the given optimization problem into an easily applicable Hamiltonian. Our results indicate an optimal run time of the adiabatic algorithm that agrees well with the prediction of a simple decoherence model.
Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Dasgupta; T kushwaha; D Goswami
2006-06-01
Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends simultaneously on pulse profile as well as the frequency modulation under non-resonant conditions.
Adiabatic invariant value variation under shortwave band subcritical conditions
Svistunov, K. V.; Tinin, M. V.
1985-04-01
The possibility of significant variations of the adiabatic invariant is examined for the propagation of radio waves in an irregular Earth-ionosphere waveguide with a parabolic dependence of permittivity on height. Numerical and analytical results indicate that nonexponential deviations of the adiabatic invariant can occur not only when the characteristic size of horizontal irregularity decreases (e.g., during resonant beam excitation) but also in quasi-critical conditions and for smoothly irregular waveguides.
Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem
Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio
2008-05-01
We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.
Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Sanchez, Sergio d'A.; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H. F.
2016-08-01
In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7∘ to 110∘. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.
Atlas of giant dipole resonances. Parameters and graphs of photonuclear reaction cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parameters of giant dipole resonances (GDR) observed in photonuclear reaction cross sections using various beams of incident photons are presented. Data, given for 200 stable isotopes from 2H to 243Am including their natural compositions, were collected from papers published over the years 1951-1996. GDR parameters, such as energy positions, amplitudes and widths, are included into the table and organized by element, isotope and reaction. Graphs of the majority of the photonuclear reaction cross sections, included in the international nuclear data library EXFOR by the end of 1998, are presented. The graphs are provided for 182 stable isotopes and natural compositions. (author)
Measurement of resonance self-shielding factors of neutron capture cross section by 238U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resonance self-shielding factors fsub(c) of neutron capture cross section by 238U in the 20-100 keV energy range are measured. The method for determining the fsub(c) factor consists in measuring partial transmission and transmission in the total cross section at different 238U filter thickness. The fsub(c) factor values in the 46.5-100 and 21.5-46.5 keV energy ranges are equal to 0.89+-0.03 and 0.81+-0.04, respectively
41K(n, γ)42K thermal and resonance integral cross section measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We measured the 41K thermal neutron absorption and resonance integral cross sections after the irradiation of KNO3 samples near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN pool-type research reactor. Bare and cadmium-covered targets were irradiated in pairs with Au-Al alloy flux-monitors. The residual activities were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a HPGe detector, with special care to avoid the 42K decay β- emission effects on the spectra. The gamma-ray self-absorption was corrected with the help of MCNP simulations. We applied the Westcott formalism in the average neutron flux determination and calculated the depression coefficients for thermal and epithermal neutrons due to the sample thickness with analytical approximations. We obtained 1.57(4) b and 1.02(4) b, for thermal and resonance integral cross sections, respectively, with correlation coefficient equal to 0.39.
Improvement of the chirality near avoided resonance crossing in optical microcavity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONGQingHai[1,2; GUZhiYuan[1; ZHANGNan[1; WANGKaiYang[1; YINingBo[1; XIAOShuMin[1
2015-01-01
Chirality is one of the important phenomena at the vicinity of exceptional point （EP）. The conventional understanding is that the chirality is determined by asymmetrical scattering efficiency （η）, which reaches to zero only when the resonance ap- proaches EP. Here we study the possibility to enhance the chirality in open systems with a more robust mechanism. By com- bining chirality with avoided resonance crossing, we show that the chirality and 7 can be dramatically modified. Taking a spi- ral shaped annular cavity as an example, we show that the chirality of optical resonances can be significantly improved when two sets of chiral states approach each other, The imbalance between counterclockwise （CCW） components and clockwise （CW） components has been enhanced by more than an order of magnitude. Our research provides a new route to tailor and control the chirality in open systems.
Integer spin resonance crossing at VEPP-4M with conservation of beam polarization
Barladyan, A K; Glukhov, S A; Glukhovchenko, Yu M; Karnaev, S E; Levichev, E B; Nikitin, S A; Nikolaev, I B; Okunev, I N; Piminov, P A; Shamov, A G; Zhuravlev, A N
2015-01-01
A recently proposed method to preserve the electron beam polarization at the VEPP-4M collider during acceleration with crossing the integer spin resonance energy E=1763 MeV has been successfully applied. It is based on full decompensation of $ 0.6\\times3.3$ Tesla$\\times$meter integral of the KEDR detector longitudinal magnetic field due to s 'switched-off' state of the anti-solenoids.
Improving the positive feedback adiabatic logic familiy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Fischer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic (PFAL shows the lowest energy dissipation among adiabatic logic families based on cross-coupled transistors, due to the reduction of both adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses. The dissipation primarily depends on the resistance of the charging path, which consists of a single p-channel MOSFET during the recovery phase. In this paper, a new logic family called Improved PFAL (IPFAL is proposed, where all n- and pchannel devices are swapped so that the charge can be recovered through an n-channel MOSFET. This allows to decrease the resistance of the charging path up to a factor of 2, and it enables a significant reduction of the energy dissipation. Simulations based on a 0.13µm CMOS process confirm the improvements in terms of power consumption over a large frequency range. However, the same simple design rule, which enables in PFAL an additional reduction of the dissipation by optimal transistor sizing, does not apply to IPFAL. Therefore, the influence of several sources of dissipation for a generic IPFAL gate is illustrated and discussed, in order to lower the power consumption and achieve better performance.
Neutron capture on (94)Zr: Resonance parameters and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections
Tagliente, G; Fujii, K; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M.T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tain, J.L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M.C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K
2011-01-01
The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes play an important role in nucleosynthesis studies. The s-process reaction flow between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes passes through the neutron magic nucleus (90)Zr and through (91,92,93,94)Zr, but only part of the flow extends to (96)Zr because of the branching point at (95)Zr. Apart from their effect on the s-process flow, the comparably small isotopic (n, gamma) cross sections make Zr also an interesting structural material for nuclear reactors. The (94)Zr (n, gamma) cross section has been measured with high resolution at the spallation neutron source n_TOF at CERN and resonance parameters are reported up to 60 keV neutron energy.
TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION DURING THE MIGRATION AND RESONANCE CROSSINGS OF THE GIANT PLANETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lykawka, Patryk Sofia [Astronomy Group, Faculty of Social and Natural Sciences, Kinki University, Shinkamikosaka 228-3, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-0813 (Japan); Ito, Takashi, E-mail: patryksan@gmail.com [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2013-08-10
The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets in the planetesimal disk. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migration. In total, 68 high-resolution simulation runs using 2000 disk planetesimals were performed, which was a significant improvement on previously published results. Even when the effects of the 1:2 MMR crossing and planet migration were included in the system, Venus and Earth analogs (considering both orbits and masses) successfully formed in several runs. In addition, we found that the orbits of planetesimals beyond a {approx} 1.5-2 AU were dynamically depleted by the strengthened sweeping secular resonances associated with Jupiter's and Saturn's more eccentric orbits (relative to the present day) during planet migration. However, this depletion did not prevent the formation of massive Mars analogs (planets with more than 1.5 times Mars's mass). Although late MMR crossings (at t > 30 Myr) could remove such planets, Mars-like small mass planets survived on overly excited orbits (high e and/or i), or were completely lost in these systems. We conclude that the orbital migration and crossing of the mutual 1:2 MMR of Jupiter and Saturn are unlikely to provide suitable orbital conditions for the formation of solar system terrestrial planets. This suggests that to explain Mars's small mass and the absence of other planets between Mars and Jupiter, the outer asteroid belt must have suffered a severe depletion due to interactions with Jupiter/Saturn, or by an alternative mechanism (e.g., rogue super-Earths)
Boering, Kristie
2015-03-01
Reactions of the first excited state of atomic oxygen, O(1D), with small molecules such as CO, NO2, and CO2 continue to be of interest in aeronomy and atmospheric chemistry, thus providing additional motivation to understand the dynamics of these reactions and how well they are predicted by theory. In collaboration with Prof. Jim Lin of the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, we have studied the dynamics of quenching and non-quenching reactions between O(1D) and various small molecules using a universal crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus. New experimental results for the dynamics of quenching of O(1D) by Xe and CO will be presented and compared with previous results for NO2 (K.A. Mar, A.L. Van Wyngarden, C.-W. Liang, Y.T. Lee, J.J. Lin, K.A. Boering, J. Chem. Phys., 137, 044302, doi: 10.1063/1.4736567, 2012) and CO2 (M.J. Perri, A.L. Van Wyngarden, K.A. Boering, J.J. Lin, and Y.T. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 119(16), 8213-8216, 2003; M.J. Perri, A.L. Van Wyngarden, J.J. Lin, Y.T. Lee, and K.A. Boering, J. Phys. Chem. A, 108(39), 7995-8001, doi: 10.1021/jp0485845, 2004). Among the most intriguing of the new results are for quenching of O(1D) by Xe, for which marked oscillations in the differential cross sections were observed for the O(3P) and Xe products. The shape and relative phase of the oscillatory structure depended strongly on collision energy. This behavior is likely due to the quantum nature of the collision dynamics, caused by interferences among multiple curve crossing pathways accessible during electronic quenching, known as Stueckelberg oscillations.
Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.
2012-01-01
We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation. In the resonance self-shielding method based on the equivalence theory, the resonance interference effect among multiple nuclides cannot be treated directly to the multi-group effective cross-section. The continuous energy or the ultra-fine-group treatment can directly consider the effect, but the application to the fuel assembly geometry is not realistic with practical computation time. In the present study, the resonance interference effect to the multi-group effective cross-section is simply quantified by the resonance interference factor (RIF) in order to confirm the benefit for considering the effect. The RIF is generated for the typical pin-cell geometry of water moderated system. The multi-group effective cross-sections with and without RIFs are compared with the continuous energy Monte-Carlo result. As a result, the significant impact for considering the resonance interference effect is confirmed to the limited nuclide, reaction type and energy group. Fortunately, these have small effect on k-infinity because the resonance interference effect is mainly induced by the wide resonances of 238U to the other minor nuclides (e.g., 235U, 239Pu) in the limited resonance energy ranges. The results also show that the effect is small to the absorption cross-section of 238U, which is the dominant resonance nuclide in the fuel. The quantification results in the present study indicate a useful material to investigate the more advanced resonance treatment for the next generation lattice physics code. (author)
Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.
2016-03-01
In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table
Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V
2001-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...
Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X
2015-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a dispersion control technique by combination of different waveguide cross sections in an aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator. Narrow and wide waveguides with normal and anomalous dispersion, respectively, are linked with tapering waveguides and enclosed in a ring resonator to produce a total dispersion near zero. The mode-coupling in multimoded waveguides is also effectively suppressed. This technique provides new degrees of freedom and enhanced flexibility in engineering the dispersion of microcomb resonators.
$^{197}$Au($n,\\gamma$) cross section in the unresolved resonance region
Lederer, C.; Domingo-Pardo, C; Gunsing, F; Kappeler, F; Massimi, C.; Mengoni, A.; Wallner, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.
2011-01-01
The cross section of the reaction (197)Au(n,gamma) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n_TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C(6)D(6) (where D denotes (2)H) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture gamma rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. D. Biamonte
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.
Zhao, J.; Chen, Z.; Jin, Z.; Waard, de P.; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.
2015-01-01
Sweet potato starch was cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate and hydroxypropylated using propylene oxide. The level and position of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated by phosphorus and proton nuclear magnetic reson
Vockenhuber, C.; Bichler, M.; Wallner, A.; Kutschera, W.; Dillmann, I.; Käppeler, F.
2008-04-01
The neutron capture cross sections of the radioactive isotope Hf182 (t1/2=8.9×106 yr) in the thermal and epithermal energy regions have been measured by activation at the TRIGA Mark-II reactor of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna, Austria, and subsequent γ-ray spectroscopy of Hf183. High values for the thermal (kT=25 meV) cross section σ0=133±10 b and for the resonance integral I0=5850±660 b were found. Additionally, the absolute intensities of the main γ-ray transitions in the decay of Hf182 have been considerably improved.
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
A method for extracting the resonance parameters from experimental cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the proposed method, a set of experimental data points are fitted using a multi-channel S-matrix. Then the resonance parameters are located as its poles on an appropriate sheet of the Riemann surface of the energy. The main advantage of the method is that the S-matrix is constructed in such a way that it has proper analytic structure, i.e. for any number of two-body channels, the branching at all the channel thresholds is represented via exact analytic expressions in terms of the channel momenta. The way the S-matrix is constructed makes it possible not only to locate multi-channel resonances but also to extract their partial widths as well as to obtain the scattering cross-section in the channels for which no data are available. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by two model examples of a single-channel and a two-channel problems, where known resonance parameters are rather accurately reproduced by fitting the pseudo-data artificially generated using the corresponding potentials. (author)
Adiabatic heavy-ion fusion potentials for fusion at deep sub-barrier energies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S V S Sastry; S Kailas; A K Mohanty; A Saxena
2005-01-01
The recently reported unusual behaviour of fusion cross-sections at extreme sub-barrier energies has been examined. The adiabatic limit of fusion barriers has been determined from experimental data using the barrier penetration model. These adiabatic barriers are consistent with the adiabatic fusion barriers derived from the modified Wilzynska–Wilzynski prescription. The fusion barrier systematics has been obtained for a wide range of heavy-ion systems.
Cross-linkable liposomes stabilize a magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing polymeric fastener.
Smith, Cartney E; Kong, Hyunjoon
2014-04-01
Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads. PMID:24635565
Rapid adiabatic passage in quantum dots: Influence of scattering and dephasing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schuh, K.; Jahnke, F.; Lorke, Michael
2011-01-01
Theoretical investigations for the realization of population inversion of semiconductor quantum dot ground-state transitions by means of adiabatic passage with chirped optical pulses are presented. While the inversion due to Rabi oscillations depends sensitively on the resonance condition...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C60 is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C60 π band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C60 giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C60 plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their ''clones'' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.
Neutron total cross-sections and resonance parameters of Mo and Ta
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K M Moinul Haque Meaze; K Devan; Y S Lee; Y D Oh; G N Kim; D Son
2007-02-01
Experimental results of transmissions for the samples of natural molybdenum with thickness 0.0192 atoms/barn and for the four samples of natural tantalum with thickness 0.0222, 0.0111, 0.0055 and 0.0025 atoms/barn are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out at the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of a 100 MeV Linac, water-cooled tantalum target, and 12 m flight path length. Effective total cross-sections were extracted from the transmission data, and resonance parameters were obtained by using the code SAMMY. The present measurements were compared with other measurements and with the evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VI.8.
He, James J.; Wu, Jiansheng; Choy, Ting-Pong; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Tanaka, Y.; Law, K. T.
2014-01-01
Topological superconductors, which support Majorana fermion excitations, have been the subject of intense studies due to their novel transport properties and their potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computations. Here we propose a new type of topological superconductors that can be used as a novel source of correlated spin currents. We show that inducing superconductivity on a AIII class topological insulator wire, which respects a chiral symmetry and supports protected fermionic end states, will result in a topological superconductor. This topological superconductor supports two topological phases with one or two Majorana fermion end states, respectively. In the phase with two Majorana fermions, the superconductor can split Cooper pairs efficiently into electrons in two spatially separated leads due to Majorana-induced resonant-crossed Andreev reflections. The resulting currents in the leads are correlated and spin-polarized. Importantly, the proposed topological superconductors can be realized using quantum anomalous Hall insulators in proximity to superconductors. PMID:24492649
Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots
Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro
2016-08-01
In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.
Neutron Cross section Covariances in the Resonance region: 50,53Cr, 54,57Fe and 60Ni
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y.-S.; Mattoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.
2010-11-23
We evaluated covariances in the neutron resonance region for capture and elastic scattering cross sections on minor structural materials, {sup 50,53}Cr, {sup 54,57}Fe and {sup 60}Ni. Use was made of the recently developed covariance formalism based on kernel approximation along with data in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Our results of most interest for advanced fuel cycle applications, elastic scattering cross section uncertainties at energies around 100 keV, are on the level of about 7-10%.
Performance analysis of adiabatic engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudhakar, V.
1984-01-01
As the development of the adiabatic diesel engine continues with a goal of 65% reduction in net in-cylinder heat transfer over a cooled engine, several uncooled engines with intermediate levels of reduced heat transfer were studied. Some aspects and results of the adiabatic diesel engine cycle simulation are discussed. Performance test data and simulation results are compared for a conventionally cooled and uncooled Cummins NH-450 turbocompound engines. Exhaust emissions were also measured and compared.
Schlicke, Hendrik; Schröter, Clemens J; Vossmeyer, Tobias
2016-09-21
Freestanding, nanometer-thin membranes of alkanedithiol cross-linked gold nanoparticles represent elastic, mechanically robust and electrically conductive materials, which are interesting for the fabrication of novel nano- and microelectromechanical devices. In this work we present the first electrostatically driven drumhead resonators based on such nanoparticle membranes. These circular membranes have a thickness of 33 to 52 nm, a diameter of either 50 μm or 100 μm, and are equally spaced from their back electrode by ∼10 μm. Using an interferometric nanovibration analyzer various vibrational modes with resonance amplitudes of up to several 100 nm could be detected when the membranes are excited by applying AC voltages (high kHz range and quality factors Q up to ∼2000. Finally, vibrational spectra and observed mode patterns could be well interpreted using the theory for a clamped circular membrane with negligible bending stiffness. Our findings mark an important step towards the integration of freestanding gold nanoparticle composite membranes into electromechanical devices with various applications, such as novel types of pressure or mass sensors. PMID:27471074
^amp;+^amp;-p Electroproduction Cross Sections off Protons in the Second Resonance Region
Fedotov, Gleb; Gothe, Ralf; Mokeev, Victor
2013-04-01
In this talk we present preliminary ^amp;+^amp;-p electroproduction cross sections off protons in the kinematical area of W from 1.4 to 1.8 GeV and Q^2 from 0.4 to 1.1 GeV^2. Our kinematical coverage in part overlap with previous CLAS measurements, but offers more than a factor six finer binning in Q^2. The physics analysis of these data within the framework of the JM model will allow us to determine the electrocouplings and the partial πδ, ρp decay widths of several high lying nucleon resonances S31(1620), S11(1650), F15(1685), D33(1700), P13(1720) and to further explore the evidence for the 3/2^+(1720) candidate-state. Analysis of the single pion electroproduction data measured with CLAS in the aforementioned kinematic region is in progress. Single and charged double pion exclusive channels are major contributors to the meson electroproduction in the N* excitation region with different non-resonant mechanisms. A successful description of all observables in these exclusive channels with consistent N* electrocouplings will offer evidence for the reliable evaluation of these fundamental quantities.
FOURACES, MultiGroup Cross-Sections, Resonance Calculation from ENDF/B, KEDAK, UKNDL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of problem or function: FOURACES produces spectrum weighted, group averaged nuclear cross sections and related parameters for nuclear reactor calculations. ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-V, KEDAK or UKNDL libraries may be used as basic input data. The weighting function and energy group structure are arbitrary, and are specified by the user. The code can deal with single or multi-level Breit-Wigner Adler- Adler and Reich-Moore resonance formalisms, and includes a Doppler broadening option. 4. Method of solution: If the weighting function is simple enough group averaged quantities are computed from the point data and interpolation rule read from the evaluated data library using analytic formulae. Otherwise the integrations are performed using the trapezium rule. Resonance data are converted into point data using subroutines written primarily for the program CRESO (abstract NEA 0719), then Doppler broadened, and finally group averaged. 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 256 energy groups can be dealt with
Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil
Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2012-01-01
A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies three resonances are created: emitter-mediator (EM), mediator-receiver (MR) and emitter-receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the ER resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter-mediator-receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the ER resonance, then the energy flows directly fro...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The procedures for calculating contributions of resolved and unresolved resonances and background cross sections, in XLACS code, were revised. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin temperature were considered. Discrepancies found were corrected and now the validated XLACS code generates results that are correct and in accordance with its originally established procedures. (author)
Ainslie, M.A.; Leighton, T.G.
2011-01-01
Perhaps the most familiar concepts when discussing acoustic scattering by bubbles are the resonance frequency for bubble pulsation, the bubbles' damping, and their scattering and extinction cross-sections, all of which are used routinely in oceanography, sonochemistry, and biomedicine. The apparent
Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems
Alabastri, Alessandro
2013-01-01
We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The URR computer code has been developed to calculate cross-section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors, and self-indication ratios for fertile and fissile isotopes in the unresolved resonance region. Monte Carlo methods are utilized to select appropriate resonance parameters and to compute the cross sections at the desired reference energy. The neutron cross sections are calculated by the single-level Breit-Wigner formalism with s-, p-, and d-wave contributions. The cross-section probability tables are constructed by sampling by Doppler broadened cross-sections. The various self-shielding factors are computer numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross-section probability tables
Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere.
Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre
2016-01-01
Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031
Theoretical Prediction of Differential Cross Sections for Reaction pp → pK+Λ in a Resonance Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Bo-Chao; ZOU Bing-Song
2006-01-01
The reaction of pp → pK+Λ is a very good channel to study N* resonances through their KΛ decay mode, because there is no mixing of isospin Ⅰ = 1/2 and Ⅰ = 3/2 due to isospin conservation. In this work, we extend a resonance model, which can reproduce the total cross section very well, to offer differential cross section information about this reaction. It can serve as a reference to build the scheduled hadron detector at Lanzhou Cooler Storage Ring (CSR). Experiment measurement of these differential cross sections in the future will supply us more constraints on the model and help us understanding the strangeness production dynamics better.
Gregoire, Simone M; Charidimou, Andreas; Gadapa, Naveen; Dolan, Eamon; Antoun, Nagui; Peeters, Andre; Vandermeeren, Yves; Laloux, Patrice; Baron, Jean-Claude; Jäger, Hans R; Werring, David J
2011-08-01
Subclinical acute ischaemic lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging have recently been described in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and may be important to understand pathophysiology and guide treatment. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic lesions are related to magnetic resonance imaging markers of the severity and type of small-vessel disease (hypertensive arteriopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy) in a multicentre, cross-sectional study. We studied consecutive patients with intracerebral haemorrhage from four specialist stroke centres, and age-matched stroke service referrals without intracerebral haemorrhage. Acute ischaemic lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (imaging. White matter changes and cerebral microbleeds were rated with validated scales. We investigated associations between diffusion-weighted imaging lesions, clinical and radiological characteristics. We included 114 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (39 with clinically probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy) and 47 age-matched controls. The prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions was 9/39 (23%) in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage versus 6/75 (8%) in the remaining patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (P = 0.024); no diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were found in controls. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were mainly cortical and were associated with mean white matter change score (odds ratio 1.14 per unit increase, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.28, P = 0.024) and the presence of strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence interval 1.15-12.93, P = 0.029). Acute, subclinical ischaemic brain lesions are frequent but previously underestimated after intracerebral haemorrhage, and are three times more common in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage than in other intracerebral haemorrhage types. Ischaemic brain lesions are
On criterion of modal adiabaticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Ning(
2001-01-01
［1］Pierce, A. D., Extension of the method of normal modes to sound propagation in an almost-stratified medium, J. Acoust.Soc. Am., 1965, 37: 19－27.［2］Wang, D. Z. , Shang, E. C., Underwater Acoustics (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1981.［3］Zhang Renhe, Li Fenghua, Beam-displacement rya-mode theory of sound propagation in shallow water, Science in China, Ser.A, 1999, 42(7): 739－749.［4］Zhou Jixun, Zhang Xuezhen, Rogers P., Resonance interaction of sound waves with internal solitons in coastal zone, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1991, 90: 2042－2054.［5］Shang, E. C., Wang, Y. Y., The impact of mesoscale oceanic structure on global-scale acoustic propagation, in Theoretical and Computational Acoustics (ed. Ding Lee et al. ), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 1996, 409－431.［6］Milder, D. M., Ray and wave invariants for SOFAR channel propagation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1969, 46: 1259－1263.［7］Nag l, A., Milder, D. M., Adiabatic mode theory of underwater sound propagation in a range-dependent environment, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1978, 63: 739－749.［8］Brekhovskikh, L. M., Waves in Layered Media, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press Inc., 1973.［9］Brekhovskikh, L. M., Lysanov, Yu., Fundamental of Ocean Acoustics, Ch. 7, Sec. 7.2, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982.［10］Evans, R. B., A coupled mode solution for acoustic propagation in a wave-guide with stepwise depth variations of a penerable bottom, J. Acoust. Soc. A.m., 1983, 74: 188－195.［11］Jensen, F. B., Kuperman, W. A., Porter, M. B. et al., Computational Ocean Acoustics, New York: Springer-Verlag,1992.［12］Wang Ning, Inverse scattering problem for the coupled second order ODE, Journal of The Physical Society of Japan, 1995, 64(12): 4907－4915.
Adiabatic theory for the bipolaron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhno, V.D. (Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino Moscow Region, 142292 (Russian Federation))
1995-02-01
A translation-invariant adiabatic theory is constructed for the bipolaron. It is shown that motions in the bipolaron are divided: the relative electron coordinates describe fast electron oscillations in the induced polarization well and the center of mass coordinates represent slow electron movement followed by polarization. Nonlinear differential bipolaron equations are derived which are asymptotically exact in the adiabatic limit. Particlelike solutions of these equations correspond to the bipolaron bound state. The exact solution yields the value of the ion critical parameter [eta]=0.31 for which the bipolaron state is stable, where [eta]=[epsilon][sub [infinity
Optimizing adiabaticity in quantum mechanics
MacKenzie, R; Renaud-Desjardins, L
2011-01-01
A condition on the Hamiltonian of a time-dependent quantum mechanical system is derived which, if satisfied, implies optimal adiabaticity (defined below). The condition is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian and in terms of the evolution operator related to it. Since the latter depends in a complicated way on the Hamiltonian, it is not yet clear how the condition can be used to extract useful information about the optimal Hamiltonian. The condition is tested on an exactly-soluble time-dependent problem (a spin in a magnetic field), where perfectly adiabatic evolution can be easily identified.
Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chadwick, Helen, E-mail: helen.chadwick@epfl.ch; Hundt, P. Morten; Reijzen, Maarten E. van; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2014-01-21
Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.
Laporta, V; Tennyson, J
2016-01-01
Resonant vibrational-excitation cross sections and rate constants for electron scattering by molecular oxygen are presented. Transitions between all 42 vibrational levels of O$_2(\\textrm{X}\\ ^3\\Sigma_g^- $) are considered. Molecular rotations are parameterized by the rotational quantum number $J$ which is considered in the range 1 to 151. The lowest four resonant states of O$_2^-$, $^2\\Pi_g$, $^2\\Pi_u$, $^4\\Sigma_u^-$ and $^2\\Sigma_u^-$, are taken into account. The calculations are performed using the fixed-nuclei R-matrix approach to determine the resonance positions and widths, and the boomerang model to characterize the nuclei motion. Two energy regions below and above 4~eV are investigated: the first one is characterized by sharp structures in the cross section, and the second by a broad resonance peaked at 10~eV. The computed cross sections are compared with theoretical and experimental results available in literature for both the energy regions, and are made available for use by modelers. The effect of ...
Cross-section scanning tunneling spectroscopy on a resonant-tunneling diode structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teichmann, Karen; Wenderoth, Martin; Burbach, Sergej; Ulbrich, Rainer G. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2010-07-01
We investigated a resonant-tunneling diode structure by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy. The diode structure was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a n{sup +}-doped GaAs (100) substrate and consists of self-assembled InAs quantum dots embedded in AlAs barriers (both 4 nm) each followed by undoped GaAs prelayers (15 nm). We use a low temperature STM working under UHV conditions at 5 K. The samples are cleaved in UHV to obtain a clean and atomically flat surface perpendicular to the diode-structure. Atomically resolved constant current topography images taken simultaneously at different bias voltages, (both positive and negative voltage) show the high quality of the heterostructure. Local I(V)-spectroscopy resolves the band edge alignment across the heterostructure. On negative bias voltage several peaks in the differential conductivity are observed. The voltage position of these peaks varies with distance from the interface. We attribute the origin of the enhanced differential conductivity peak to an interaction between the potential induced by the tip and the quantum dot layer.
Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.
2016-08-01
We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.
Anupriya; Jones, Chad A; Dearden, David V
2016-08-01
We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27220844
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzene is used here as a scavenger of muonium to produce the muonated cyclohexadienyl radical in dilute solutions in n-hexane. The radical was identified by level crossing resonance spectroscopy (LFR) by observing the proton resonance of the -CHMu group occurring at 2.059T. Its yield is found to equal the sum of the muonium atom yield and the ''missing'' muon yield in hexane (total 35% of the incident muons). Consequently, the complete dispersement of muons in different chemical associations is now accounted for in a saturated hydrocarbon liquid, and is seen to be similar to that in water. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzene is used here as a scavenger of muonium to produce the muonated cyclohexadienyl radical in dilute solutions in n-hexane. The radical was identified by level crossing resonance spectroscopy (LCR) by observing the proton resonance of the -CHMu group occurring at 2.059T. Its yield is found to equal the sum of the muonium atom yield and the 'missing' muon yield in hexane (total 35% of the incident muons). Consequently, the complete dispersement of muons in different chemical associations is now accounted for in a saturated hydrocarbon liquid, and is seen to be similar to that in water
Elementary examples of adiabatic invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crawford, F.S. (Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA))
1990-04-01
Simple classical one-dimensional systems subject to adiabatic (gradual) perturbations are examined. The first examples are well known: the adiabatic invariance of the product {ital E}{tau} of energy {ital E} and period {tau} for the simple pendulum and for the simple harmonic oscillator. Next, the adiabatic invariants of the vertical bouncer are found---a ball bouncing elastically from the floor of a rising elevator having slowly varying velocity and acceleration. These examples lead to consideration of adiabatic invariance for one-dimensional systems with potentials of the form {ital V}={ital ax}{sup {ital n}}, with {ital a}={ital a}({ital t}) slowly varying in time. Then, the horizontal bouncer is considered---a mass sliding on a smooth floor, bouncing back and forth between two impenetrable walls, one of which is slowly moving. This example is generalized to a particle in a bound state of a general potential with one slowly moving turning point.'' Finally, circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field slowly varying in time under three different configurations is considered: (a) a free particle in a uniform field; (b) a free particle in a nonuniform betatron'' field; and (c) a particle constrained to a circular orbit in a uniform field.
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Sangchul, E-mail: soh@qf.org.qa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Kais, Sabre, E-mail: kais@purdue.edu [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2014-12-14
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.
Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 1: Theory
Vaitkus, Jesse A; Greentree, Andrew D
2016-01-01
Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An increasing amount of neuroimaging studies recently demonstrated activation of visual cortex in both blind and sighted participants when performing a variety of tactile tasks such as Braille reading and tactile object recognition, which indicates that visual cortex not only receives visual information, but may participate in tactile perception. To address these cross-modal changes of visual cortex and the neurophysiological mechanisms, many researchers conducted explosive studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and have made some achievements. This review focuses on cross-modal activation of visual cortex and the underlying mechanisms during tactile perception in both blind and sighted individuals. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majumdar, A.; Zuiderweg, E.R.P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
1994-12-01
Heteronuclear multiple-pulse-based Cross Polarization (HECP) between scalar coupled spins is gaining an important role in high-resolution multidimensional NMR of isotopically labeled biomolecules, especially in experiments involving net magnetization transfer. It has generally been observed that in these situations, the performance of HECP is superior to that of INEPT-based sequences. In particular, HECP-based three-dimensional HCCH spectroscopy is more efficient than the INEPT version of the same experiment. Differences in sensitivity have been intuitively attributed to relaxation effects and technical factors such as radiofrequency (rf) inhomogeneity We present theoretical analyses and computer simulations to probe the effects of these factors. Relaxation effects were treated phenomenologically; we found that relaxation differences are relatively small (up to 25%) between pulsed-free-precession (INEPT) and HECP-although always in favor of HECP. We explored the rf effects by employing a Gaussian distribution of rf amplitude over sample volume. We found that inhomogeneity effects significantly favor HECP over INEPT, especially under conditions of {open_quotes}matched {close_quotes} inhomogeneity in the two rf coils. The differences in favor of HECP indicate that an extension of HECP to triple resonance experiments (TRCP) in I -> S -> Q net transfers might yield better results relative to analogous INEPT-based net transfers. We theoretically analyze the possibilities of TRCP and find that transfer functions are critically dependent on the ratio J{sub IS}/J{sub SQ}. When J{sub IS} equals J{sub SQ}, we find that 100% transfer is possible for truly simultaneous TRCP and this transfer is obtained in a time 1.41 /J. The TRCP time requirement compares favorably with optimally concatenated INEPT-transfers, where net transfer I -> S -> Q is complete at 1.5 /J.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz-Cobos, J.G.
1981-08-01
The Fortran IV code PAPIN has been developed to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors and average self-indication ratios for non-fissile isotopes, below the inelastic threshold, on the basis of the ENDF/B prescriptions for the unresolved resonance region. Monte-Carlo methods are utilized to generate ladders of resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region, from average resonance parameters and their appropriate distribution functions. The neutron cross-sections are calculated by the single level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) formalism, with s, p and d-wave contributions. The cross section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler-broadened cross sections. The various self-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross section probability tables. The program PAPIN has been validated through extensive comparisons with several deterministic codes.
Capture cross section measurements of {sup 186,187,188}Os at n-TOF: the resolved resonance region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, K.; Mosconi, M.; Milazzo, P.M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Kappeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; A lvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, H.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K
2008-07-01
The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os have been measured at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility, n-TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. In this contribution, we report the results of the analysis of the resolved resonance region (RRR). Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields with the SAMMY code. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related average resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modeling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and inelastic reaction channels, required for the evaluation of the stellar reaction rates of these isotopes. Maxwellian average cross sections for the range of temperatures relevant for s-process nucleosynthesis have been derived from the combined information of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. A brief account of the implications of this analysis in the estimation of the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the estimates of the time-duration of the galactic nucleosynthesis through the Re/Os clock is given. (authors)
Multiplicity features of adiabatic autothermal reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1992-01-01
In this paper singularity theory, large activation energy asymptotic, and numerical methods are used to present a comprehensive study of the steady-state multiplicity features of three classical adiabatic autothermal reactor models: tubular reactor with internal heat exchange, tubular reactor with external heat exchange, and the CSTR with external heat exchange. Specifically, the authors derive the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary, determine typical cross-sections of the bifurcation set, and classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time. Asymptotic (limiting) models are used to determine analytical expressions for the uniqueness boundary and the ignition and extinction points. The analytical results are used to present simple, explicit and accurate expressions defining the boundary of the region of autothermal operation in the physical parameter space.
Thermal-neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba and 141Pr using Am-Be neutron source
Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.
2016-09-01
The thermal-neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba(n, γ)139Ba and 141Pr(n, γ)142Pr were measured by activation method using an isotopic Am-Be neutron source. The estimations were with respect to that of 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn and 197Au(n, γ)198Au reference monitors. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 138 Ba with respect to 55 Mn is 0.410±0.023 b and with respect to 197 Au is 0.386±0.019 b. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 141 Pr with respect to 55 Mn is 11.36±1.29 b and with respect to 197 Au is 10.43±1.14 b. The resonance integrals for 138 Ba are 0.380±0.033 b (55 Mn) and 0.364±0.027 b (197 Au) and for 141 Pr are 21.05±2.88 b (55 Mn) and 15.27±1.87 b (197 Au). The comparison between the present measurements and various reported values are discussed. The cross sections corresponding to the selected isotopes are measured using an Am-Be source facility for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this work is development of S-matrix multilevel resonance parameters determination technique with neutron transmission data used in resolved resonance region. Experimental transmission data values were obtained for the Pu-239 thickness range 0.00217-0.1234 nucl/barns on the time-of-flight spectrometer with 70 ns/m resolution. S-matrix Adler's formalism with least square method fit were used for experimental data description. The method developed enables to justify the resonance-resonance interference parameters H. Its possibilities are demonstrated by determination of these parameters for four resonances of the Pu-239 total cross section
Dobado, Antonio; Guo, Feng-Kun; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2015-12-01
We are exploring a generic strongly-interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (EWSBS) with the low-energy effective field theory for the four experimentally known particles (W±L, ZL, h) and its dispersion-relation based unitary extension. In this contribution we provide simple estimates for the production cross-section of pairs of the EWSBS bosons and their resonances at proton-proton colliders as well as in a future e-e+ (or potentially a μ-μ+) collider with a typical few-TeV energy. We examine the simplest production mechanisms, tree-level production through a W (dominant when quantum numbers allow) and the simple effective boson approximation (in which the electroweak bosons are considered as collinear partons of the colliding fermions). We exemplify with custodial isovector and isotensor resonances at 2 TeV, the energy currently being discussed because of a slight excess in the ATLAS 2-jet data. We find it hard, though not unthinkable, to ascribe this excess to one of these WLWL rescattering resonances. An isovector resonance could be produced at a rate smaller than, but close to earlier CMS exclusion bounds, depending on the parameters of the effective theory. The ZZ excess is then problematic and requires additional physics (such as an additional scalar resonance). The isotensor one (that would describe all charge combinations) has smaller cross-section. Supported by the Spanish Excellence Network on Hadronic Physics FIS2014-57026-REDT, by Spanish Grants Universidad Complutense UCM:910309 and Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad MINECO:FPA2011-27853-C02-01, MINECO:FPA2014-53375-C2-1-P, by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and National Natural Science Foundation of China through Funds Provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311) and by NSFC (Grant No. 11165005)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)
Li, Dafa
2016-05-01
The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.
Limits on orbit crossing planetesimals in the resonant multiple planet system, KOI-730
Moore, Alexander; Hasan, Imran; Quillen, Alice
2012-01-01
A fraction of multiple planet candidate systems discovered from transits by the Kepler mission contain pairs of planet candidates that are in orbital resonance or are spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance. We focus here on the four planet system, KOI 730, that has planet periods satisfying the ratios 8:6:4:3. By numerically integrating four planets initially in this resonant configuration in proximity to an initially exterior cold planetesimal disk, we find that of the order of a M...
Optical Tapers as White-Light WGM Resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.
2010-01-01
A theoretical analysis has revealed that tapered optical waveguides could be useful as white-light whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. The compactness and the fixed-narrow-frequency-band nature of the resonances of prior microdisk and microsphere WGM resonators are advantageous in low-power, fixed-narrow-frequency-band applications. However for optical-processing applications in which there are requirements for power levels higher and/or spectral responses broader than those of prior microdisk and microsphere WGM resonators, white-light WGM resonators in the form of optical tapers would be preferable. The theoretical analysis was performed for a multimode, axisymmetric, circular-cross-section waveguide having a taper sufficiently smooth and gradual to justify the approximation of adiabaticity. In this approximation, the equation for the dependence of the electromagnetic field upon the axial (longitudinal) waveguide coordinate can be separated from the equation for the dependence upon the radius and the azimuthal angle.
Highly stripped ions on hydrogen atoms: the adiabatic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The simple Lorentzian form for the adiabatic radial matrix elements which dominate low-energy charge transfer in highly stripped systems is exploited to derive the S matrix for the Asub(Z)sup(Z+) + H(1s) → Asub(Z)sup(Z-1)+ + H+ scattering process. The approximations used are discussed and the results of the theory are compared with measured He2+ + H(1s) → He+ + H+ cross sections. Agreement is satisfactory for low velocities. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pigni, Marco T [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leal, Luiz C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-01-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes, i.e., ^{182,183,184,186}W, in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. This nuclear data work was performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety analyses. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix formalism of the code SAMMY to fit high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the Geel linear accelerator facility (GELINA), as well as other experimental data sets on natural tungsten available in the EXFOR library. In the analyzed energy range, this work nearly doubles the resolved resonance region (RRR) present in the latest US nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. In view of the interest in tungsten for distinct types of nuclear applications and the relatively homogeneous distribution of the isotopic tungsten—namely, ^{182}W(26.5%), ^{183}W(14.31%), ^{184}W(30.64%), and ^{186}W(28.43%) - the completion of these four evaluations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of the ENDF library. This paper presents an overview of the evaluated resonance parameters and related covariances for total and capture cross sections on the four tungsten isotopes.
Evaluated 182,183,184,186W Neutron Cross Sections and Covariances in the Resolved Resonance Region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes, i.e., 182,183,184,186W, in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. This nuclear data work was performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety analyses. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix formalism of the code SAMMY to fit high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the Geel linear accelerator facility (GELINA), as well as other experimental data sets on natural tungsten available in the EXFOR library. In the analyzed energy range, this work nearly doubles the resolved resonance region (RRR) present in the latest US nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. In view of the interest in tungsten for distinct types of nuclear applications and the relatively homogeneous distribution of the isotopic tungsten - namely, 182W(26.5%), 183W(14.31%), 184W(30.64%), and 186W(28.43%) - the completion of these four evaluations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of the ENDF library. This paper presents an overview of the evaluated resonance parameters and related covariances for total and capture cross sections on the four tungsten isotopes.
Vortices and stabilization of resonance states in crossed magnetic and electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze a two-dimensional model of electrons moving under the influence of an attractive zero-range potential as well as external magnetic and electric fields. In order to determine the complex energies of the electron's resonance states we use the Green's-function method. It is found by numerical calculations that there are resonances that have a peculiar dependence on the electric-field intensity, i.e., although the electric field increases, the lifetime of these resonance states grows up. We show that this phenomenon, called stabilization, can be attributed to quantum-mechanical vortices induced by the magnetic field and controlled by the electric-field strength. In order to get more information about these vortices the phase of the wave functions as well as the probability currents for these stable resonances are investigated. We also demonstrate the existence of the so-called stabilization path
Fano resonances in high energy electron transport in nanowires of variable cross-section
Baskin, L. M.; Kabardov, M. M.; Sharkova, N. M.
2015-09-01
Electron ballistic transport in 2D quantum waveguide with two narrowings is considered. For longitudinal electron motion such narrowings play the role of effective potential barriers and conditions for resonant tunneling arise. If the electron energy is sufficiently high the electron wave can scatter into different quantum states (transverse channels of the leads) which results in complicated E-dependence of the scattering amplitudes. Numerical simulations have shown that the scattering amplitudes resonances are of Fano type. The form of the transmission probability curve is conditioned by interference of the quantum states into which the electron wave is scattered by the narrowings. The suggested interference model makes possible to find the resonance parameters with high precision and to link them to the closed resonator eigenvalues.
Adiabatic frequency conversion with a sign flip in the coupling
Hristova, H. S.; Rangelov, A. A.; Montemezzani, G.; Vitanov, N. V.
2016-09-01
Adiabatic frequency conversion is a method recently developed in nonlinear optics [H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.063821], using ideas from the technique of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) via a level crossing in quantum physics. In this method, the coupling coefficients are constant and the phase mismatch is chirped adiabatically. In this work, we propose another method for adiabatic frequency conversion, in which the phase mismatch is constant and the coupling is a pulse-shaped function with a sign flip (i.e., a phase step of π ) at its maximum. Compared to the RAP method, our technique has comparable efficiency but it is simpler to implement for it only needs two bulk crystals with opposite χ(2 ) nonlinearity. Moreover, because our technique requires constant nonzero frequency mismatch and has zero conversion efficiency on exact frequency matching, it can be used as a frequency filter.
Rotational dynamics of an asymmetric top molecule in parallel electric and non-resonant laser fields
Omiste, Juan J
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the rotational dynamics of asymmetry top molecules in parallel electric field and non-resonant linearly polarized laser pulses. The time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is solved within the the rigid rotor approximation. Using the benzonitrile molecule as prototype, we investigate the field-dressed dynamics for experimentally accessible field configurations and compare these results to the adiabatic predictions. We show that for an asymmetric top molecule in parallel fields, the formation of the pendular doublets and the avoided crossings between neighboring levels are the two main sources of non-adiabatic effects. We also provide the field parameters under which the adiabatic dynamics would be achieved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of measuring the neutron transmissions for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu metal samples carried out at the 60 m, 123 m and 1006 m flight paths of the Dubna IBR-30 booster in the neutron energy range of 2 eV - 200 keV are given and discussed. The measurements were made at the room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The batteries of 3 boron and 26 helium counters were used as detectors. The results of the calculations of analogous transmissions realized on the base of the evaluated data libraries BROND-2, ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 by means of the GRUCON computer program package are also given. It is concluded that the 235 U Doppler coefficients and effective total cross sections taken from measured transmissions are in a good agreement with calculation results based on the ENDF/B-6 library at energies of 2.15 eV - 200 keV. The BROND-2 and JENDL-3 parameters give the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections which are 10-30% higher than the experimental and ENDF/B-6 ones at the resonance energies of 46.5 - 465 eV. For 239 Pu there is agreement of the experimental and calculational results within the experimental error limits. For 232 Th experimental values for the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections are 10-15% higher than the calculated ones with all libraries in resonance energy region. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Integral Cross-Sections of the Photonuclear Reactions in the Region of Giant Dipole Resonance
Belov, A G; Gudima, K K; Zuzaan, P
2000-01-01
The cross-sections of the photonuclear reactions (gamma, n) were measured for the 12 nuclei in the region between {45}Sc and {208}Pb. The measurements were performed by the activation method on the bremsstrahlung of the microtron with the boundary energy of 25 MeV. The integral cross-sections were calculated using the modificated model of the preequilibrium decay. The satisfactory agreament of the experimental and calculated cross-section was observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The URR computer code has been developed to calculate cross-section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors, and self- indication ratios for fertile and fissile isotopes in the unresolved resonance region. Monte Carlo methods are utilized to select appropriate resonance parameters and to compute the cross sections at the desired reference energy. The neutron cross sections are calculated by the single-level Breit-Wigner formalism with s-, p-, and d-wave contributions. The cross-section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler broadened cross-section. The various shelf-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross-section probability tables. 6 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Hawkins, B.L.; Maciel, G.E.
1986-01-01
Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize humic fractions isolated from different soils. The humic acid fractions are more aromatic than the humin fractions, probably due to the higher polysaccharide content of humins. However, fulvic acid fractions are more aromatic than the corresponding humic acid and humin fractions. These results can be interpreted in terms of the isolation procedure, because the high affinity of Polyclar AT for phenols results in higher aromaticities as compared with other isolation methods (e.g. charcoal).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A 35 group cross-section set with P3-anisotropic scattering matrices and resonance self-shielding factors has been generated from the basic ENDF/B-IV cross-section Library for 57 reactor elements. This library, called BARC35, is considered to be well suited for the neutronics and safety analysis of fission, fusion and hybrid systems. (author)
On the topology of adiabatic passage
Yatsenko, L P; Jauslin, H R
2002-01-01
We examine the topology of eigenenergy surfaces characterizing the population transfer processes based on adiabatic passage. We show that this topology is the essential feature for the analysis of the population transfers and the prediction of its final result. We reinterpret diverse known processes, such as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), frequency-chirped adiabatic passage and Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP). Moreover, using this picture, we display new related possibilities of transfer. In particular, we show that we can selectively control the level which will be populated in STIRAP process in Lambda or V systems by the choice of the peak amplitudes or the pulse sequence.
Auzinsh, Marcis; Ferber, Ruvin; Gahbauer, Florian; Kalvans, Linards; Mozers, Arturs; Spiss, Agris
2013-01-01
We studied magneto-optical resonances caused by excited-state level crossings in a nonzero magnetic field. Experimental measurements were performed on the transitions of the $D_2$ line of rubidium. These measured signals were described by a theoretical model that takes into account all neighboring hyperfine transitions, the mixing of magnetic sublevels in an external magnetic field, the coherence properties of the exciting laser radiation, and the Doppler effect. Good agreement between the experimental measurements and the theoretical model could be achieved over a wide range of laser power densities. We further showed that the contrasts of the level-crossing peaks can be sensitive to changes in the frequency of the exciting laser radiation as small as several tens of megahertz when the hyperfine splitting of the exciting state is larger than the Doppler broadening.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The process of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecular hydrogen and its isotopes in the energy range at approximately 14 eV is investigated. The dissociative electron attachment cross sections for all six hydrogen isotopes are calculated over an extended range of electron energies using the local complex potential model with the excited Rydberg 2Σg+ electronic state of H2- acting as the intermediate resonant state. A significant isotope effect in theoretical electron attachment cross sections is observed, in agreement with previous predictions and experimental observations. A two-parameter analytic expression for the cross section is derived from the theory that fits accurately the numerically calculated cross sections for all isotopes. Similarly, an analytic mass-scaling relation is derived from the theory that accurately reproduces the numerically calculated rate coefficients for all isotopes in the 0.1-1000 eV temperature range by using the rate coefficient for the H2 isotope only. The latter is represented by an analytic fit expression with two parameters only.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peter Bosted; M. E. Christy
2007-11-08
An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-deuteron cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer $0 \\le Q^2<10$ GeV$^2$ and final state invariant mass $1.2<3$ GeV. The deuteron fit relies on a fit of the ratio $R_p$ of longitudinal to transverse cross sections for the proton, and the assumption $R_p=R_n$. The underlying fit parameters describe the average cross section for proton and neutron, with a plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA) used to fit to the deuteron data. Pseudo-data from MAID 2007 were used to constrain the average nucleon cross sections for $W<1.2$ GeV. The mean deviation of data from the fit is 3\\%, with less than 5\\% of the data points deviating from the fit by more than 10\\%.
Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.
Efimov Trimers near the Zero-crossing of a Feshbach Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2012-01-01
Near a Feshbach resonance, the two-body scattering length can assume any value. When it approaches zero, the next-order term given by the effective range is known to diverge. We consider the question of whether this divergence (and the vanishing of the scattering length) is accompanied by an anom......Near a Feshbach resonance, the two-body scattering length can assume any value. When it approaches zero, the next-order term given by the effective range is known to diverge. We consider the question of whether this divergence (and the vanishing of the scattering length) is accompanied...... by an anomalous solution of the three-boson Schr\\"odinger equation similar to the one found at infinite scattering length by Efimov. Within a simple zero-range model, we find no such solutions, and conclude that higher-order terms do not support Efimov physics....
The 17F(p,gamma)18Ne Resonant Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL
2009-12-01
We directly measure the {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne resonant reaction using a mixed beam of {sup 17}F and {sup 17}O at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The astrophysically important 3{sup +} resonance at {approx}600 keV above the proton threshold in {sup 18}Ne is found to have a partial width {Gamma}{sub {gamma}} = 56 {+-} 24(stat) {+-} 30(sys) meV, in reasonable agreement with the theoretically predicted width. A 2{sigma} upper limit on the direct capture of S(E) = 65 keV b is determined at an energy of 800 keV. Experimental techniques and astrophysical implications are discussed.
Cummins/Tacom advanced adiabatic engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.
1984-01-01
Cummins Engine Company, Inc. and the U.S. Army have been jointly developing an adiabatic turbocompound engine during the last nine years. Although progress in the early years was slow, recent developments in the field of advanced ceramics have made it possible to make steady progress. It is now possible to reconsider the temperature limitation imposed on current heat engines and its subsequent influence on higher engine efficiency when using an exhaust energy utilization system. This paper presents an adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine concept in which high-performance ceramics are used in its design. The adiabatic turbocompound engine will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and higher exhaust energy recovery, resulting in higher thermal engine efficiency. This paper indicates that the careful selection of ceramics in engine design is essential. Adiabatic engine materials requirements are defined and the possible ceramic materials which will satisfy these requirements are identified. Examples in design considerations of engine components are illustrated. In addition to these important points, the use of ceramic coatings in the design of engine components. The first generation adiabatic engine with ceramic coatings is described. The advanced adiabatic engine with minimum friction features utilizaing ceramics is also presented. The advanced ceramic turbocharger turbine rotor as well as the oilless ceramic bearing design is described. Finally, the current status of the advanced adiabatic engine program culminating in the AA750 V-8 adiabatic engine is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parikh, Kushal R.; Kraft, Kate H.; Ivancic, Vesna; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Matthew R. [University of Texas Southwestern, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)
2015-11-15
MR Urography (MRU) is an increasingly used imaging modality for the evaluation of pediatric genitourinary obstruction. To determine whether pediatric MR urography (MRU) reliably detects crossing vessels in the setting of suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. The clinical significance of these vessels was also evaluated. We identified pediatric patients diagnosed with UPJ obstruction by MRU between May 2009 and June 2014. MRU studies were evaluated by two pediatric radiologists for the presence or absence of crossing vessels. Ancillary imaging findings such as laterality, parenchymal thinning/scarring, trapped fluid in the proximal ureter, and presence of renal parenchymal edema were also evaluated. Imaging findings were compared to surgical findings. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare continuous data and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. Twenty-four of 25 (96%) UPJ obstructions identified by MRU were surgically confirmed. MRU identified crossing vessels in 10 of these cases, with 9 cases confirmed intraoperatively (κ = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.75, 1.0]). Crossing vessels were determined to be the primary cause of UPJ obstruction in 7/9 children intraoperatively, while in two children the vessels were deemed incidental and noncontributory to the urinary tract obstruction. There was no significant difference in age or the proportions of ancillary findings when comparing children without and with obstructing vessels. MRU allows detection of crossing vessels in pediatric UPJ obstruction. Although these vessels are the primary cause of obstruction in some children, they are incidental and non-contributory in others. Our study failed to convincingly identify any significant predictors (e.g., age or presence of renal parenchymal edema) that indicate when a crossing vessel is the primary cause of obstruction. (orig.)
Double adiabatic theory of collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks
Hassam, A B
2011-01-01
Collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks being supersonic for large "safety factor" q, the CGL (G. Chew, M. Goldberger, F. Low, 1956)1 double-adiabatic fluid closure is applied to formulate a theory for these modes. The basic linear normal mode is obtained. External means to drive these modes at resonance, as has been proposed earlier, are explored. The external drivers considered include external magnetic forces to effect flux surface displacements, as well as non-axisymmetric ion heating. Finally, the damping of these modes from collisional magnetic pumping is investigated using a model set of CGL collision-corrected equations.
Shortcut to adiabatic gate teleportation
Santos, Alan C.; Silva, Raphael D.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2016-01-01
We introduce a shortcut to the adiabatic gate teleportation model of quantum computation. More specifically, we determine fast local counterdiabatic Hamiltonians able to implement teleportation as a universal computational primitive. In this scenario, we provide the counterdiabatic driving for arbitrary n -qubit gates, which allows to achieve universality through a variety of gate sets. Remarkably, our approach maps the superadiabatic Hamiltonian HSA for an arbitrary n -qubit gate teleportation into the implementation of a rotated superadiabatic dynamics of an n -qubit state teleportation. This result is rather general, with the speed of the evolution only dictated by the quantum speed limit. In particular, we analyze the energetic cost for different Hamiltonian interpolations in the context of the energy-time complementarity.
Adiabatic quantum optimization with qudits
Amin, M H S; Smith, Peter
2011-01-01
Most realistic solid state devices considered as qubits are not true two-state systems but multi-level systems. They can approximately be considered as qubits only if the energy separation of the upper energy levels from the lowest two is very large. If this condition is not met, the upper states may affect the evolution and therefore cannot be neglected. Here, we consider devices with double-well potential as basic logical elements, and study the effect of higher energy levels, beyond the lowest two, on adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that the extra levels can be modeled by adding additional (ancilla) qubits coupled to the original (logical) qubits. The presence of these levels is shown to have no effect on the final ground state. We also study their influence on the minimum gap for a set of 8-qubit spin glass instances.
On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions
Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041
Adiabatic Heavy Ion Fusion Potentials for Fusion at Deep Sub-barrier Energies
Sastry, S V S; Mohanty, A K; Saxena, A
2003-01-01
The fusion cross sections from well above barrier to extreme sub-barrier energies have been analysed using the energy (E) and angular momentum (L) dependent barrier penetration model ({\\small{ELDBPM}}). From this analysis, the adiabatic limits of fusion barriers have been determined for a wide range of heavy ion systems. The empirical prescription of Wilzynska and Wilzynski has been used with modified radius parameter and surface tension coefficient values consistent with the parameterization of the nuclear masses. The adiabatic fusion barriers calculated from this prescription are in good agreement with the adiabatic barriers deduced from {\\small{ELDBPM}} fits to fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness is larger at adiabatic limit, resulting in a lower $\\hbar\\omega$ leading to increase of "logarithmic slope" observed at energies well below the barrier. The effective fusion barrier radius and curvature values are anomalously smaller than the predictions of known empirical prescriptions. A detailed comp...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raman Kumar Singh; Manabendra Sarma; Ankit Jain; Satrajit Adhikari; Manoj K Mishra
2007-09-01
Results from application of a new implementation of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach to the calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant e-CO scattering are presented to examine its applicability in the treatment of e-molecule resonances. The results show that the SCF level local complex potential (LCP) in conjunction with the TDWP approach can reproduce experimental features quite satisfactorily.
A Systematic Search for New Coupling Schemes of Cross-Coupled Resonator Bandpass Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lamecki
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic approach to an extensive search for topologies of cross-coupled filters with generalized Chebyshev response is presented. The technique applies graph theory to find unique, nonisomorphic filter configurations, and tests whether a specific frequency response can be realized in a given set of topologies. The results of the search are then stored in a database of possible filter configurations.
Partial evolution based local adiabatic quantum search
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Jie; Lu Song-Feng; Liu Fang; Yang Li-Ping
2012-01-01
Recently,Zhang and Lu provided a quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution,which beats the time bound of local adiabatic search when the number of marked items in the unsorted database is larger than one.Later,they found that the above two adiabatic search algorithms had the same time complexity when there is only one marked item in the database.In the present paper,following the idea of Roland and Cerf [Roland J and Cerf N J 2002Phys.Rev.A 65 042308],if within the small symmetric evolution interval defined by Zhang et al.,a local adiabatic evolution is performed instead of the original “global” one,this “new” algorithm exhibits slightly better performance,although they are progressively equivalent with M increasing.In addition,the proof of the optimality for this partial evolution based local adiabatic search when M =1 is also presented.Two other special cases of the adiabatic algorithm obtained by appropriately tuning the evolution interval of partial adiabatic evolution based quantum search,which are found to have the same phenomenon above,are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A CAMAC data acquisition system for measuring ionization cross section in laser multi-step resonant ionization experiment is described. The number of scalers in the front-end CAMAC can be adjusted by changing the data read-out table files. Both continuous and manual acquisition models are available, and there is a wide adjustable range from 1 ms to 800 s with the acquisition time unit. The long-term stability, Δt/t, for the data acquisition system with an acquisition time unit of 100 s was measured to be better than ±0.01%, thus validating its reliability in long-term online experimental data acquisition. The time response curves for three electrothermal power-meters were also measured by this DAQ system. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The muon level-crossing-resonance technique has been used to resolve major discrepancies that exist in muon-spin-resonance studies (both free-radical formation and muonium decay rates) in the competition between benzene and styrene. The results, obtained for ∼30 mM solutions in ethanol and for 2.5 mM aqueous micelles solutions, show that muonium atoms (Mu) react 8 (±2) times faster with styrene than with benzene. In the above cases thermalized Mu is unquestionably the reactive species, which is known to show nucleophilic intra-molecular selectivity in the case of styrene. But a similar value, 9 (±2), was also obtained for undiluted mixtures of liquid benzene and styrene (neat mixture) - where the precursor might have been 'hot Mu' (which should display weaker selectivity than Mu) or cations derived from μ+ (which should show higher selectivity). These results support the view that thermalized Mu is the predominant reactive species in liquid benzene and styrene. (orig.)
Correlation of Resonance Charge Exchange Cross-Section Data in the Low-Energy Range
Sheldon, John W.
1962-01-01
During the course of a literature survey concerning resonance charge exchange, an unusual degree of agreement was noted between an extrapolation of the data reported by Kushnir, Palyukh, and Sena and the data reported by Ziegler. The data of Kushnir et al. are for ion-atom relative energies from 10 to 1000 ev, while the data of Ziegler are for a relative energy of about 1 ev. Extrapolation of the data of Kushnir et al. was made in accordance with Holstein's theory, 3 which is a combination of time-dependent perturbation methods and classical orbit theory. The results of this theory may be discussed in terms of a critical impact parameter b(sub c).
Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 2: Experiment
Ng, Vincent; Chaboyer, Zachary J; Nguyen, Thach; Dawes, Judith M; Withford, Michael J; Greentree, Andrew D; Steel, M J
2016-01-01
Using a femtosecond laser writing technique, we fabricate and characterise three-waveguide digital adiabatic passage devices, with the central waveguide digitised into five discrete waveguidelets. Strongly asymmetric behaviour was observed, devices operated with high fidelity in the counter-intuitive scheme while strongly suppressing transmission in the intuitive. The low differential loss of the digital adiabatic passage designs potentially offers additional functionality for adiabatic passage based devices. These devices operate with a high contrast ($>\\!90\\%$) over a 60~nm bandwidth, centered at $\\sim 823$~nm.
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
Applied neutron resonance theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utilisation of resonance theory in basic and applications-oriented neutron cross section work is reviewed. The technically important resonance formalisms, principal concepts and methods as well as representative computer programs for resonance parameter extraction from measured data, evaluation of resonance data, calculation of Doppler-broadened cross sections and estimation of level-statistical quantities from resonance parameters are described. (orig.)
The cross section of pion-free photoabsorption by nuclei in the resonance energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vartanyan, V.A.; Gevorkyan, S.R. [Erevan Institute of Physics (Armenia)
1994-08-01
A simple model making it possible to describe interaction between photons and nuclei in the energy range 200 {le} E{sub {gamma}} {le} 500 MeV is proposed. The cross sections of pion-free photoabsorption by several nuclei are calculated. It is shown that it is important to take into account pion absorption by quasi-deuteron pairs. The dependences of the Levinger numbers on the mass number of a target nucleus and on the energy of an incident photon are analyzed. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Levy
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.
Accurate non-relativistic photoionization cross section for He at non-resonant photon energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The total single-photon ionization cross section was calculated for helium atoms in their ground state. Using a full configuration-interaction approach the photoionization cross section was extracted from the complex-scaled resolvent. Our results agree with an earlier B-spline-based calculation in which the continuum is box discretized within a relative deviation of less than 0.06% in the energy range from 28 to 59 eV. On the other hand, above the He++ threshold our results agree very well to a recent Floquet calculation. Thus, our calculation confirms the previously reported deviations from the experimental reference data outside the claimed error estimate. In order to extend the calculated spectrum to very high energies, an analytical hydrogenic-type model tail is introduced that should become asymptotically exact for infinite photon energies. Its universality is investigated considering also H-, Li+ and HeH+. With the aid of the tail corrections to the dipole approximation are estimated.
Adiabatic Floquet model for the optical response in femtosecond filaments
Hofmann, Michael
2016-01-01
The standard model of femtosecond filamentation is based on phenomenological assumptions which suggest that the ionization-induced carriers can be treated as free according to the Drude model, while the nonlinear response of the bound carriers follows the all-optical Kerr effect. Here, we demonstrate that the additional plasma generated at a multiphoton resonance dominates the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index. Since resonances are not captured by the standard model, we propose a modification of the latter in which ionization enhancements can be accounted for by an ionization rate obtained from non-Hermitian Floquet theory. In the adiabatic regime of long pulse envelopes, this augmented standard model is in excellent agreement with direct quantum mechanical simulations. Since our proposal maintains the structure of the standard model, it can be easily incorporated into existing codes of filament simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjana Gupta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.
Liu, Meng-Wei; Chang, Hao-Jung; Lee, Shu-sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung
2016-03-01
Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease such that global latent patient can be as high as one third of the world population. Currently, latent tuberculosis was diagnosed by stimulating the T cells to produce the biomarker of tuberculosis, i.e., interferon-γ. In this paper, we developed a paraboloidal mirror enabled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) interferometer that has the potential to also integrate ellipsometry to analyze the antibody and antigen reactions. To examine the feasibility of developing a platform for cross calibrating the performance and detection limit of various bio-detection techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method was also implemented onto a biochip that can be incorporated into this newly developed platform. The microfluidic channel of the biochip was functionalized by coating the interferon-γ antibody so as to enhance the detection specificity. To facilitate the processing steps needed for using the biochip to detect various antigen of vastly different concentrations, a kinetic mount was also developed to guarantee the biochip re-positioning accuracy whenever the biochip was removed and placed back for another round of detection. With EIS being utilized, SPR was also adopted to observe the real-time signals on the computer in order to analyze the success of each biochip processing steps such as functionalization, wash, etc. Finally, the EIS results and the optical signals obtained from the newly developed optical detection platform was cross-calibrated. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and performance of SPR and EIS measurement done at the newly integrated platform.
Adiabatic regularisation of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularisation on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in \\textit{nonminimally} coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the \\textit{minimally} coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of $ e $-folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularised power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularised ("bare") power spectrum in standard calculations.
Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ``bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (``bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.
Adiabatic hydrodynamics: The eightfold way to dissipation
Haehl, Felix M; Rangamani, Mukund
2015-01-01
We provide a complete solution to hydrodynamic transport at all orders in the gradient expansion compatible with the second law constraint. The key new ingredient we introduce is the notion of adiabaticity, which allows us to take hydrodynamics off-shell. Adiabatic fluids are such that off-shell dynamics of the fluid compensates for entropy production. The space of adiabatic fluids is quite rich, and admits a decomposition into seven distinct classes. Together with the dissipative class this establishes the eightfold way of hydrodynamic transport. Furthermore, recent results guarantee that dissipative terms beyond leading order in the gradient expansion are agnostic of the second law. While this completes a transport taxonomy, we go on to argue for a new symmetry principle, an Abelian gauge invariance that guarantees adiabaticity in hydrodynamics. We suggest that this symmetry is the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic KMS invariance. We demonstrate its utility by explicitly constructing effective ac...
Adiabatic Invariance of Oscillons/I-balls
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takeda, Naoyuki
2015-01-01
Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or $I$-balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/$I$-balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/$I$-balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/$I$-balls are only quasi-stable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the $I$-balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/$I$-balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karadag, Mustafa [Gazi University, Gazi Education Faculty, 06500 Teknikokullar - Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: mkaradag@gazi.edu.tr; Yuecel, Haluk [Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC), 06983 Saray - Ankara (Turkey); Gueray Budak, M. [Gazi University, Gazi Education Faculty, 06500 Teknikokullar - Ankara (Turkey)
2007-03-15
This study implies that {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 55}Mn monitor reaction may be a convenient alternative comparator for the activation method and thus, it was used for the determination of thermal neutron cross section (TNX) and the resonance integral (RI) of the reaction {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm. The samples of MnO{sub 2} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} diluted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were irradiated within and without a cylindrical 1 mm-Cd shield case in an isotropic neutron field obtained from the {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources. The {gamma}-ray spectra from the irradiated samples were measured by high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry with a calibrated n-type Ge detector. The correction factors for {gamma}-ray attenuation, thermal neutron and resonance neutron self-shielding effects and epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor ({alpha}) were taken into account in the determinations. The thermal neutron cross section for {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm reaction has been determined to be 204.8 {+-} 7.9 b at 0.025 eV. This result has been obtained relative to the reference thermal neutron cross section value of 13.3 {+-} 0.1 b for the {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 56}Mn reaction. For the TNX, most of the experimental data and evaluated one in JEFF-3.1, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL 3.3 and BROND 2.0, in general, agree well with the present result. The RI value for {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm reaction has also been determined to be 3038 {+-} 214 b, relative to the reference value of 14.0 {+-} 0.3 b for the {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 56}Mn monitor reaction, using a 1/E {sup 1+{alpha}} epithermal neutron spectrum and assuming Cd cut-off energy of 0.55 eV. In surveying literature, the existing experimental and evaluated data for the RI values are distributed from 1715 to 3462 b. However, when the Cd cut-off energy is defined as 0.55 eV, the present RI value agrees with some previously reported RI values, 3020 {+-} 163 b by Simonits et al., 3141 {+-} 157 by Van Der Linden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High-resolution neutron transmission and differential elastic scattering measurements have been made on samples of nitrogen from 0.5 eV to 10 MeV at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). For the transmission measurement several different detectors were used at various flight path lengths, with high-purity nitrogen gas samples. The data have been corrected for the dead time of the time digitizer and for several small backgrounds. For the scattering measurements six detectors were placed at various angles inside an evacuated scattering chamber at 200 meters from the neutron producing target. The sample was silicon nitride held in a thin graphite container. Scattering from carbon and silicon samples was also measured to correct for these materials and calibrate the relative efficiencies of the scattering detectors. The data have been corrected for dead time and for a constant background. A preliminary analysis has been completed to obtain parameters of the resonances up to 4.8 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapter 1 describes the motivation of the measurements (accelerator driven systems, stellar nucleosynthesis, neutron induced reactions on 206Pb), the present status of the neutron capture data for 206Pb and 209Bi and the structure of this work. In Chapter 2 the basic reaction theory underlying this work is described. The neutron induced reaction mechanism and formalism are explained. The parameterisation of the cross section in terms of R-matrix theory is discussed and we put particular emphasis on the statistical behaviour of the resonance parameters and the impact of the angular distribution of gamma rays following neutron capture. The relation between experimental observables and the resonance parameters is discussed together with general comments related to resonance shape analysis. Chapter 3 is focused on the determination of resonance parameters for 206Pb. We performed high-resolution transmission and capture measurements at the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) facility GELINA of the IRMM at Geel (B) and determined the resonance parameters. For nuclei like 206Pb, where the total width is dominated by Γn, the capture area allows to determine G. Transmission measurements were carried out to determine Γn, and the statistical factor g of resonances. Before performing a Resonance Shape Analysis (RSA) on the transmission and capture data, we verified the neutron flux and resolution at GELINA. We also compared the characteristics of GELINA with those of the n-TOF facility at CERN. A special emphasis is placed on the total energy detection technique using C6D6 detectors. This technique was applied for the determination of the capture cross section. To reduce systematic bias effects on the capture cross section, the response of the detectors was determined by Monte Carlo simulations, which has been validated by experiments. Using these response functions the partial capture cross sections for individual resonances of 206Pb have been deduced, by unfolding the response of the C6D
Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility
Mostafazadeh, Ali
2014-01-01
arXiv:1401.4315v3 [quant-ph] 27 Feb 2014 Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility Ali Mostafazadeh∗ Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H( ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation ...
Adiabatic description of nonspherical quantum dot models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gusev, A. A., E-mail: gooseff@jinr.ru; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Dvoyan, K. G.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Sarkisyan, H. A. [Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (Armenia); Derbov, V. L.; Klombotskaya, A. S.; Serov, V. V. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)
2012-10-15
Within the effective mass approximation an adiabatic description of spheroidal and dumbbell quantum dot models in the regime of strong dimensional quantization is presented using the expansion of the wave function in appropriate sets of single-parameter basis functions. The comparison is given and the peculiarities are considered for spectral and optical characteristics of the models with axially symmetric confining potentials depending on their geometric size, making use of the complete sets of exact and adiabatic quantum numbers in appropriate analytic approximations.
Adiabatic Connection for Strictly-Correlated Electrons
Liu, Zhenfei; Burke, Kieron
2009-01-01
Modern density functional theory (DFT) calculations employ the Kohn-Sham (KS) system of non-interacting electrons as a reference, with all complications buried in the exchange-correlation energy (Exc). The adiabatic connection formula gives an exact expression for Exc. We consider DFT calculations that instead employ a reference of strictly-correlated electrons. We define a "decorrelation energy" that relates this reference to the real system, and derive the corresponding adiabatic connection...
On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories
Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama,Kazunori
2015-01-01
We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is us...
Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution
Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Wu, Biao
2014-12-01
Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau-Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory.
An Integrated Programming and Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Optimization
Humble, Travis S.; McCaskey, Alex J.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Billings, Jay J.; D'Azevedo, Ed F.; Sullivan, Blair D.; Klymko, Christine F.; Seddiqi, Hadayat
2013-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization called JADE tha...
Quasielastic pion scattering near the (3,3) resonance. [255 MeV, differential cross section ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varghese, P.
1978-12-01
The quasielastic pion scattering process (..pi..,..pi..p), in which an energetic pion scatters off a target nucleus, knocking-out a bound proton, was studied to determine the role of recoil nucleon charge exchange in the mechanism of the process near the (3,3) free particle pion-nucleon resonance. Calculations, which incorporate the hypothesis of final state charge exchange of the outgoing nucleon, were performed to predict expectations for observing the process. Experimental measurements were made on /sup 27/Al and /sup 208/Pb, using 255-MeV ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ beams. The outgoing protons were observed in a counter telescope in singles and coincidence modes. Singles spectra were measured at proton angles theta/sub rho/ = 45, 55, 64, and 90/sup 0/ and cross sections were calculated as a function of the energy of the detected proton, for each of the targets. Values of the ratio of ..pi../sup +/ to ..pi../sup -/ cross sections were calculated for each of the angles of observation. The results obtained indicate that the singles spectra contain events from processes other than quasielastic scattering and that the quasielastic events cannot be easily disentangled from the large background due to such events. The study has thus established the inadequacy of observing quasielastic pion scattering in a single arm measurement. Coincidence measurements were made by observing the recoil protons in coincidence with the scattered pions, which were detected in a scintillator counter telescope. The ratio of ..pi../sup +/ to ..pi../sup -/ cross sections were obtained for each target for the angular settings (theta/sub rho/, theta/sub ..pi../) = (55, 50/sup 0/) and (64, 37.5/sup 0/). The measured values of 7.0 +- 0.7 for /sup 27/Al and 4.5 +- 0.5 for /sup 208/Pb are substantially below the impulse approximation no-charge-exchange limit of 9. The observed A dependence of this cross section ratio is in agreement with the predictions of the semiclassical charge exchange
Adiabatic mixed-field orientation of ground-state-selected carbonyl sulfide molecules
Kienitz, Jens S; Mullins, Terry; Długołęcki, Karol; González-Férez, Rosario; Küpper, Jochen
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrated strong adiabatic mixed-field orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules (OCS) in their absolute ground state of $\\text{N}_{\\text{up}}/\\text{N}_{\\text{tot}}=0.882$. OCS was oriented in combined non-resonant laser and static electric fields inside a two-plate velocity map imaging spectrometer. The transition from non-adiabatic to adiabatic orientation for the rotational ground state was studied by varying the applied laser and static electric field. Above static electric field strengths of 10~kV/cm and laser intensities of $10^{11} \\text{W/cm}^2$ the observed degree of orientation reached a plateau. These results are in good agreement with computational solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recently discovered multiple series of shape resonances and near-zero-energy enhancements in photoionization cross section of hydrogen-like atomic systems with screened Coulomb (Yukawa type) interaction [Phys. Rev. A 80, 063404 (2009)] are studied in detail, in particular their evolution with the variation of the screening strength of the potential. The conditions for appearance of these multiple series of cross section features are identified and related to certain critical screening strengths of the potential. A relation between the appearance of Cooper minima and shape resonances in the photoionization cross section has been established. It is also shown that the s-channel of np photoionization for a fixed photoelectron energy exhibits Ramsauer-Townsend minima in the screening length variable. (authors)
Adiabatically switched-on electrical bias and the Landauer-Buttiker formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, P.; Nenciu, G.;
2008-01-01
Consider a three dimensional system which looks like a cross connected pipe system, i.e., a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads. We investigate the current running through this system, in the linear response regime, when we adiabatically turn on an electrical bias between leads. The ...... formula....
Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines
Mitianiec, W.
2016-09-01
The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.
Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with H{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J., E-mail: pjdagdigian@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-2685 (United States); Avoird, Ad van der, E-mail: A.vanderAvoird@theochem.ru.nl; Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Loreau, Jérôme [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique C. P. 160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 Ave. F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Alexander, Millard H., E-mail: mha@umd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States)
2015-07-28
We present theoretical studies on the scattering resonances in rotationally inelastic collisions of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} molecules with H{sub 2} molecules. We use the quantum close-coupling method to compute state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the NH{sub 3}/ND{sub 3}–H{sub 2} system for collision energies between 5 and 70 cm{sup −1}, using a previously reported potential energy surface [Maret et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 425 (2009)]. We identify the resonances as shape or Feshbach resonances. To analyze these, we use an adiabatic bender model, as well as examination at the scattering wave functions and lifetimes. The strength and width of the resonance peaks suggest that they could be observed in a crossed molecular beam experiment involving a Stark-decelerated NH{sub 3} beam.
Adiabatic cooling of a single trapped ion
Poulsen, Gregers
2012-01-01
We present experimental results on adiabatic cooling of a single 40Ca+ ion in a linear radiofrequency trap. After a period of laser cooling, the secular frequency along the rf-field-free axis is adiabatically lowered by nearly a factor of eight from 583 kHz to 75 kHz. For an ion originally Doppler laser cooled to a temperature of 0.65 +/- 0.03 mK, a temperature of 87 +/- 7 \\mu K is measured after the adiabatic expansion. Applying the same adiabatic cooling procedure to a single sideband cooled ion in the ground state (P0 = 0.978 +/- 0.002) resulted in a final ground state occupation of 0.947 +/- 0.005. Both results are in excellent agreement with an essentially fully adiabatic behavior. The results have a wide range of perspectives within such diverse fields as ion based quantum information science, high resolution molecular ion spectroscopy and ion chemistry at ultra-low temperatures.
Using resonance Raman cross-section data to estimate the spin state populations of Cytochromes P450.
Mak, Piotr J; Zhu, Qianhong; Kincaid, James R
2013-12-01
The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are heme proteins responsible for the oxidation of xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals and the biosynthesis of essential steroid products. In all cases, substrate binding initiates the enzymatic cycle, converting ferric low spin (LS) to high-spin (HS), with the efficiency of the conversion varying widely for different substrates, so documentation of this conversion for a given substrate is an important objective. Resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy can effectively yield distinctive frequencies for the ν3 "spin state marker" bands. Here, employing a reference cytochrome P450 (CYP101), the intensities of the ν3 modes (ILS) and (IHS) relative to an internal standard (sodium sulfate) yield relative populations for the two spin states; i.e., a value of 1.24 was determined for the ratio of the relative cross sections for the ν3 modes. Use of this value was then shown to permit a reliable calculation of relative populations of the two spin states from rR spectra of several other Cytochromes P450. The importance of this work is that, using this information, it is now possible to conveniently document by rR the spin state population without conducting separate experiments requiring different analytical methods, instrumentation and additional sample. PMID:24443630
Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgamy, M; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Di Credico, A; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hamilton, W O; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Miller, P; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moody, V; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nettles, D; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Paik, H J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Weaver, J; Webber, D; Weber, A; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitbeck, D M; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yunes, N; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, P; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; zur Muhlen, H; Zweizig, J; al, et
2007-01-01
Data from the LIGO Livingston interferometer and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector, taken during LIGO's fourth science run, were examined for cross-correlations indicative of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the frequency range 850-950 Hz, with most of the sensitivity arising between 905 Hz and 925 Hz. ALLEGRO was operated in three different orientations during the experiment to modulate the relative sign of gravitational-wave and environmental correlations. No statistically significant correlations were seen in any of the orientations, and the results were used to set a Bayesian 90% confidence level upper limit of Omega_gw(f) <= 1.02, which corresponds to a gravitational wave strain at 915 Hz of 1.5e-23/rHz. In the traditional units of h_100^2 Omega_gw(f), this is a limit of 0.53, two orders of magnitude better than the previous direct limit at these frequencies. The method was also validated with successful extraction of simulated signals injected in hardware and software.
Dixon, William V
2013-01-01
The far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of the Bright Star (B8 III) in 47 Tuc (NGC 104) shows a remarkable pattern: it is well fit by LTE models at wavelengths longer than Lyman beta, but at shorter wavelengths it is fainter than the models by a factor of two. A spectrum of this star obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) shows broad absorption troughs with sharp edges at 995 and 1010 A and a deep absorption feature at 1072 A, none of which are predicted by the models. We find that these features are caused by resonances in the photoionization cross sections of the first and second excited states of atomic nitrogen (2s$^2$ 2p$^3$ $^2$D$^0$ and $^2$P$^0$). Using cross sections from the Opacity Project, we can reproduce these features, but only if we use the cross sections at their full resolution, rather than the resonance-averaged cross sections usually employed to model stellar atmospheres. These resonances are strongest in stellar atmospheres with enhanced nitrogen and depleted carbon ab...
Williams, I. D.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.
1986-01-01
Differential electron scattering cross sections have been measured for dipole-forbidden and resonance transitions in Mg II, Zn II and Cd II in the angular range theta = 4-17 deg at 50 eV. These provide the first recorded angular distributions for an optically forbidden transition. It is found that while the cross section for excitation of the 4s (2)S-3d(9)4s(2) (2)D transition in Zn II is small, those for the 3s (2)S-3d (2)D, 4s (2)S (unresolved lines) in Mg II, and the 5s (2)S-4d(9)5s(2) D in Cd II are comparable in magnitude with the cross sections for resonance excitation. In addition, for Cd II it is found that the allowed and forbidden transitions have very similar angular distributions, and it is proposed that excitation to the 2D state may be dominated by a virtual 'double-dipole' transition via the 2P state. Also, the total excitation cross section of the resonance 2P state in Cd II is a factor of four higher than that predicted by the Gaunt factor approximation, suggesting that the accepted value for the oscillator strength may be too low.
Laporta, V; Wadehra, J M
2012-01-01
Electron-impact vi->vf vibrational excitations cross sections, involving rovibrationally excited N_{2}(v_{i}, J) and NO(v_{i}, J) molecules (fixed J), are calculated for collisions occurring through the nitrogen resonant electronic state N_{2}^{-} (X ^{2}\\Pi_{g}), and the three resonant states of nitric oxide NO^{-}(^{3}\\Sigma^{-},^{1} \\Delta,^{1} \\Sigma^{+}). Complete sets of cross sections have been obtained for all possible transitions involving 68 vibrational levels of N2(X ^{1}\\Sigma^{+}_{g}) and 55 levels of NO(X ^{2}\\Pi), for the incident electron energy between 0.1 and 10 eV. In order to study the rotational motion in the resonant processes, cross sections have been also computed for rotationally elastic transitions characterized by the rotational quantum number J running from 0 through 150. The calculations are performed within the framework of the local complex potential model, by using potentials energies and widths optimized in order to reproduce the experimental cross sections available in litera...
Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test
Adiabatic Quantum Computing for Random Satisfiability Problems
Hogg, T
2003-01-01
The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to one for problem sizes feasible to evaluate. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps are fairly large, so may not reflect asymptotic behavior where costs are dominated by tiny gaps. Moreover, the resulting search costs are much higher than other methods, but can be reduced by using fewer steps. Variants of the quantum algorithm that do not match the adiabatic limit give lower costs, on average, and slower growth than the conventional GSAT heuristic method.
Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2015-01-01
Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2011-01-01
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$ with $m,n\\geq 3$, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. We show how the computation of $R(m,n)$ can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctl...
Staying adiabatic with unknown energy gap
Nehrkorn, J; Ekert, A; Smerzi, A; Fazio, R; Calarco, T
2011-01-01
We introduce an algorithm to perform an optimal adiabatic evolution that operates without an apriori knowledge of the system spectrum. By probing the system gap locally, the algorithm maximizes the evolution speed, thus minimizing the total evolution time. We test the algorithm on the Landau-Zener transition and then apply it on the quantum adiabatic computation of 3-SAT: The result is compatible with an exponential speed-up for up to twenty qubits with respect to classical algorithms. We finally study a possible algorithm improvement by combining it with the quantum Zeno effect.
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
Hen, Itay
2013-01-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.
Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Combustion of Methane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rebeca Pupo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This project calculated the adiabatic flame temperature of a combustion reaction of pure methane and oxygen, assuming that all of the heat liberated by the combustion reaction goes into heating the resulting mixture. Mole fractions of methane to oxygen were computed from 0.05 to 0.95, in increments of 0.05, and then an integral was computed was computed with respect to temperature using the moles of product produced or leftover moles of reactants from the starting mole fraction times the specific heat of each respective gas. The highest adiabatic flame temperature evaluated, occurred at a mole fraction of 0.35.
Non-adiabatic dynamics in 10Be with the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model
Ito, M
2006-01-01
The alpha+6He low-energy reactions and the structural changes of 10Be in the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model are studied by the generalized two-center cluster model with the Kohn-Hulthen-Kato variation method. It is found that, in the inelastic scattering to the alpha+6He(2+) channel, characteristic enhancements are expected as the results of the parity-dependent non-adiabatic dynamics. In the positive parity state, the enhancement originates from the no-adiabatic eigenstate generated by the radial excitation of the relative motion between two alpha-cores. On the other hand, the enhancement in the negative parity state is induced by the Landau-Zener level-crossing. These non-adiabatic processes are discussed in connection to the formation of the inversion doublet in the compound system of 10Be.
Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, John W.
1989-01-01
A simple formula for the transition probability for electron exchange between unlike ions and atoms is established within the adiabatic approximation by employing the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. The formula also involves an adiabatic parameter, introduced by Massey, and thus the difficulties arising from the internal energy defect and the adiabatic approximation are avoided. Specific reactions Li(+++) + H to Li(++) + H(+) and Be(4+) + H to Be(3+) + H(+) are considered as examples. The calculated capture cross section results of the present work are compared with the experimental data and with the calculation of other authors over the velocity range of 10(7) cm/sec to 10(8) cm/sec.
Plasmons on adiabatically varying surfaces
Perel, Maria V
2011-01-01
Surface plasmon polaritons (SSP), moving along a smooth curved interface between two isotropic media with slowly varying dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities and supporting SSP, are studied theoretically. Solutions of Maxwell equations are investigated within a small wavelength limit in the boundary layer of the wavelength order near the surface. An explicit asymptotic formula for an EM wave traveling along geodesics on the surface is obtained. An exponential factor reflects a distinction between the planar and curved cases. A curvature-dependent correction term in the exponent demonstrates a strong dependence on transverse curvature and a weak dependence on longitudinal curvature. The closer the parameters to the resonance case, the more pronounced this tendency. It is found that the attenuation of the SPP in the case of lossy media may be reduced by changing the curvature. If the signs of the magnetic permeability of the medium on both sides of the interface are opposite, the surface magnet...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have computed cross sections and asymmetry parameters for the outer- and inner-valence photoionization of ethane using the Schwinger variational method with Pade corrections. The calculated total cross section is found to be in rather good agreement with the available electron-impact and photoabsorption measurements. One-electron resonant processes in the (1eg)-1 (3a1g)-1, and (2a1g)-1 ionization channels were examined comparing resonant states predicted from the virtual orbitals of a minimum basis set self-consistent-field (MBS-SCF) calculations with scattering resonances found using a local model potential for the electron-molecule interaction. The analysis of the interaction potential in terms of adiabatic radial components provides a description of the mechanism of the resonant trapping
Selective excitation in a three-state system using a hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic interaction
Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook
2016-08-01
The chirped-pulse interaction in the adiabatic coupling regime induces cyclic permutations of the energy states of a three-level system in the V -type configuration, which process is known as the three-level chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Here we show that a spectral hole in a chirped pulse can turn on or off the level mixing at adiabatic crossing points of this process, reducing the system to an effective two-level system. The given hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic transition enables selective excitation of the three-level system, controlled by the laser intensity and spectral position of the hole, as well as the sign of the chirp parameter. Experiments performed with shaped femtosecond laser pulses and the three lowest energy levels (5 S1 /2 , 5 P1 /2 , and 5 P3 /2 ) of atomic rubidium (Rb) show good agreement with the theoretically analyzed dynamics. The result indicates that our method, when being combined with the ordinary chirped RAP, implements an adiabatic transition between the Raman-coupled excited states. Furthermore, our laser intensity-dependent control may have applications including selective excitations of atoms or ions arranged in space when being used in conjunction with laser beam profile programming.
Selective excitation in a three-state system using a hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic interaction
Song, Yunheung; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook
2016-01-01
The chirped-pulse interaction in the adiabatic coupling regime induces cyclic permutations of the energy states of a three-level system in the $V$-type configuration, which process is known as the three-level chirped rapid adiabatic passage. Here we show that a spectral hole in a chirped pulse can turn on and off one of the two adiabatic crossing points of this process, reducing the system to an effective two-level system. The given hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic transition results in selective excitation of the three-level system, controlled by the laser intensity and spectral position of the hole as well as the sign of the chirp parameter. Experiments are performed with shaped femtosecond laser pulses and the three lowest energy-levels (5S$_{1/2}$, 5P$_{1/2}$, and 5P$_{3/2}$) of atomic rubidium ($^{85}$Rb), of which the result shows good agreement with the theoretically analyzed dynamics. The result indicates that our method, being combined with the ordinary chirped-RAP, implements an adiabatic transitions b...
Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System
Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook
2016-05-01
In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.
Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V Yu; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F K; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Taliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K
2006-01-01
We have measured the neutron capture reaction yield of /sup 232energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The average capture cross section has been extracted in the energy range from 4 keV up to 1 MeV with an overall accuracy better than 4%. An independent IAEA evaluation shows good agreement with the data. The average cross section has been expressed in terms of average resonance parameters using the partial waves script l=0,1, and 2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kankainen, A.; Woods, P.J.; Doherty, D.T.; Estrade, A.; Lotay, G. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Nunes, F.; Schatz, H.; Brown, B.A.; Browne, J.; Meisel, Z.; Zegers, R. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Langer, C.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Stevens, J. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bader, V.; Gade, A.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Kontos, A.; Noji, S.; Recchia, F.; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Perdikakis, G. [Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Redpath, T.; Wimmer, K. [Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Seweryniak, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-01-15
Measurements of angle-integrated cross sections to discrete states in {sup 27}Si have been performed studying the {sup 26}Al(d, n) reaction in inverse kinematics by tagging states by their characteristic γ-decays using the GRETINA array. Transfer reaction theory has been applied to derive spectroscopic factors for strong single-particle states below the proton threshold, and astrophysical resonances in the {sup 26}Al(p, γ){sup 27}Si reaction. Comparisons are made between predictions of the shell model and known characteristics of the resonances. Overall very good agreement is obtained, indicating this method can be used to make estimates of resonance strengths for key reactions currently largely unconstrained by experiment. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The potential of single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor truly non-invasive changes in polymer materials during aging under aggressive media is for the first time evaluated. For this, the NMR method is used in combination with other condition monitoring methods including mechanical measurements, mass uptake, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is validated by studying for the first time the aging kinetics of silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) exposed to media used in oil and gas production and transportation, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur solvents, and corrosion inhibitors in combination with CO2 and H2S. All investigated parameters changed, with the strongest effects detected for the NMR chain mobility and in the presence of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a universal linear correlation curve could be established between the depression of the tensile strength and the chain mobility. This result represents a fundamental step towards establishing single-sided NMR as a new analytical tool for in situ condition monitoring of polyethylene working under sour conditions. The proposed approach can be easily extended to other polymer materials. - Highlights: • The changes in PEX exposed to sour media were quantified for the first time. • The strongest morphological changes in PEX were detected under exposure to hydrocarbon media. • The chain mobility measured truly non-destructively by single-sided NMR showed the highest sensitivity to the aging process. • A universal linear correlation curve was found between the chain mobility and the tensile strength. • Single-sided NMR was validated as a condition monitoring tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, A., E-mail: Alina.Adams@itmc.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Piechatzek, A.; Schmitt, G. [Institut für Instandhaltung und Korrosionsschutztechnik gGmbH, Kalkofen 4, 58638 Iserlohn (Germany); Siegmund, G. [ExxonMobil Production Germany, Riethorst 12, 30659 Hannover (Germany)
2015-08-05
The potential of single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor truly non-invasive changes in polymer materials during aging under aggressive media is for the first time evaluated. For this, the NMR method is used in combination with other condition monitoring methods including mechanical measurements, mass uptake, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is validated by studying for the first time the aging kinetics of silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) exposed to media used in oil and gas production and transportation, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur solvents, and corrosion inhibitors in combination with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. All investigated parameters changed, with the strongest effects detected for the NMR chain mobility and in the presence of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a universal linear correlation curve could be established between the depression of the tensile strength and the chain mobility. This result represents a fundamental step towards establishing single-sided NMR as a new analytical tool for in situ condition monitoring of polyethylene working under sour conditions. The proposed approach can be easily extended to other polymer materials. - Highlights: • The changes in PEX exposed to sour media were quantified for the first time. • The strongest morphological changes in PEX were detected under exposure to hydrocarbon media. • The chain mobility measured truly non-destructively by single-sided NMR showed the highest sensitivity to the aging process. • A universal linear correlation curve was found between the chain mobility and the tensile strength. • Single-sided NMR was validated as a condition monitoring tool.
Quantum Pumping and Adiabatic Transport in Nanostructures
Wakker, G.M.M.
2011-01-01
This thesis consists of a theoretical exploration of quantum transport phenomena and quantum dynamics in nanostructures. Specifically, we investigate adiabatic quantum pumping of charge in several novel types of nanostructures involving open quantum dots or graphene. For a bilayer of graphene we fin
Recent adiabaticity results from orbit calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There has been much activity recently in an attempt to find a straightforward method of predicting the limits of adiabatic behavior in high-beta magnetic-mirror configurations. The particle-orbit code TIBRO was used to obtain numerical results on nonadiabatic behavior with which the predictions of theoretical expressions can be compared. These results are summarized. (MOW)
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
Adiabatic and Non-adiabatic quenches in a Spin-1 Bose Einstein Condensate
Boguslawski, Matthew; Hebbe Madhusudhana, Bharath; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce; Barrios, Maryrose; Hoang, Thai; Chapman, Michael
2016-05-01
A quantum phase transition (QPT) is observed in a wide range of phenomena. We have studied the dynamics of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic quenches through a QPT. At the quantum critical point (QCP), finite size effects lead to a non-zero gap, which makes an adiabatic quench possible through the QPT. We experimentally demonstrate such a quench, which is forbidden at the mean field level. For faster quenches through the QCP, the vanishing energy gap causes the reaction timescale of the system to diverge, preventing the system from adiabatically following the ground state. We measure the temporal evolution of the spin populations for different quench speeds and determine the exponents characterizing the scaling of the onset of excitations, which are in good agreement with the predictions of Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1991-01-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
Perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Ning; Fang Jian-Hui
2008-01-01
Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant,this paper studies the perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems.The exact invaxiants of Mei symmetry for the system without perturbation are given.The perturbation to Mei symmetry is discussed and the adiabatic invariants induced from the perturbation to Mei symmetry of the system are obtained.
Population transfer of a NaH molecule via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Zai, Jing-Bo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Wang, Shuo; Dang, Hai-Ping; Han, Xiao
2016-09-01
The population transfer of a NaH molecule from the ground state {{X}1}{Σ+} to the target state {{A}1}{Σ+} via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is investigated. The results show that the intensity, delay time and detuning have a significant effect on population transfer. A large population transfer is observed with increased pump and Stokes intensity, especially when the pump and Stokes intensity match. Population transfer also depends on the delay time between the pump laser pulse and the Stokes laser pulse. The detuning of the two pulses influences the population transfer. Efficient population transfer can be realized under the resonant or two-photon resonant condition.
The role of adiabaticity in alkali atom-fine structure mixing
Eshel, Ben; Weeks, David E.; Perram, Glen P.
2014-02-01
Fine-structure mixing cross-sections for the alkalis in collisions with the rare gases are reviewed. Included in the review are all the rare gases in collisions with all of the first excited state of the alkalis, the second excited state for K, Rb and Cs and the third excited state for Rb and Cs. The cross-sections are converted to probabilities for energy transfer using a quantum-defect calculated cross-section and are then presented as a function of adiabaticity. The data shows a clear decreasing trend with adiabaticity but secondary factors prevent the probabilities from decreasing as quickly as expected. Polarizability is introduced as a proxy for the secondary influences on the data as it increases with both rare gas partner and alkali excited state. The polarizability is shown to cause the probability of fine structure transition to be higher than expected. An empirical model is introduced and fit to the data. Future work will develop a model using time-independent perturbation theory in order to further develop a physical rational for the dependence of fine structure cross sections on adiabaticity and to further understand the secondary influences on the probability for fine structure transition.
Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-10-13
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veis, Libor, E-mail: libor.veis@jh-inst.cas.cz; Pittner, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.pittner@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2014-06-07
Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadayat eSeddiqi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels
Zhang, Qi
2016-01-01
A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-01
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At the 1966 Conference on Nuclear Data for Reactors, simultaneous measurements of the capture and fission cross-sections of 233U and 235U were presented. Those measurements have now been analysed with the multilevel formalism developed by Adler and Adler. To obtain consistent sets of resonance parameters the capture and fission data were least-square fitted simultaneously. This analysis was carried out to 60 eV for 233U and to 100 eV for 235U. The main purpose of this analysis was to provide a simple and precise analytical description of the very complex structure of the fission and capture cross-sections of 233U and 235U at low energy. Such an analytical description should be useful to calculate reaction rates in nuclear reactors and to compare experimental data taken with different energy resolutions or at different sample temperatures. For the low-energy resonances of 233U and 235U, the neutron width is always smaller, by at least two orders of magnitude, than the total width. Thus, the total cross-section, for those isotopes, can be approximated as the sum of the absorption cross-section and the potential scattering cross-section. Hence it is possible to compute the total cross-section from the resonance parameters obtained by fitting the fission and capture cross-sections. The total cross-section of 235U computed by this method is compared to the data from a transmission measurement done at Saclay, with the sample at 77 deg. K. The computed total cross-section of 233U is compared with transmission data obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Material Testing Reactor. Such comparisons between data obtained by different experimental techniques illustrate the internal consistency of the low-energy cross-sections of the two main uranium fissile isotopes. The physical interpretation of the resonance parameters is somewhat ambiguous, because such multilevel fits are by no means unique. This is particularly true for 233U since, for this nucleus, the
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bochenkova, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Henrik
2013-01-01
The anionic wild-type Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore defines the entire class of naturally occurring chromophores, which are based on the oxydized tyrosine side chain. The GFP chromophore exhibits an enriched photoinduced non-adiabatic dynamics in the multiple excited-state decay...... channels. Deactivation includes vibrational resonant photodetachment and internal conversion. Here, we provide a detailed insight in the efficiency of different vibrational modes in promoting a selective photoresponse in the bare GFP chromophore anion. We introduce a general theoretical model......-adiabatic dynamics in the proteins....
Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D
2015-07-28
State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.
Adiabatic momentum space treatment of a spin-orbit coupled BEC
Wang, Su-Ju; Greene, Chris
2013-05-01
By dressing the atomic spin states with Raman laser fields, experimentalists can create spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by tuning controllable parameters in an ultracold atomic system. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we study the spin dynamics of a harmonically-trapped spinor BEC that can be driven by non-adiabatic Landau-Zener transitions occurring at avoided crossings between the bands.
Non-adiabatic transition probability with a moving $\\delta$ potential coupling
Diwaker; Chakraborty, Aniruddha
2013-01-01
The present work focuses on the calculation of a non-adiabatic transition probability between two states which may or may not cross with each other and are coupled to each other by a moving $\\delta$ function potential. Here, the time dependent Schrodinger equation is converted to time independent one by using a scaling factor which is function of time. This time independent Schrodinger equation is then considered for two potentials coupled by a moving $\\delta$ potential and an expression for ...
Adiabatic pumping in a double-dot Cooper-pair beam splitter
Hiltscher B.; Governale M.; Splettstoesser J.; Konig J.
2011-01-01
We study adiabatic pumping through a double quantum dot coupled to normal and superconducting leads. For this purpose a perturbation expansion in the tunnel coupling between the dots and the normal leads is performed and processes underlying the pumping current are discussed. Features of crossed Andreev reflection are investigated in the average pumped charge and related to local Andreev reflection in a single quantum dot. In order to distinguish Cooper pair splitting from quasi-particle pump...
Non-adiabatic effects in near-adiabatic mixed-field orientation and alignment
Maan, Anjali; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Prasad, Vinod
2016-11-01
We present a theoretical study of the impact of a pair of moderate electric fields tilted an angle with respect to one another on a molecule. As a prototype, we consider a molecule with large rotational constant (with corresponding small rotational period) and moderate dipole moment. Within rigid-rotor approximation, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We have analysed that lower rotational states are significantly influenced by variation in pulse durations, the tilt angle between the fields and also on the electric field strengths. We also suggest a control scheme of how the rotational dynamics, orientation and alignment of a molecule can be enhanced by a combination of near-adiabatic pulses in comparision to non-adiabatic or adiabatic pulses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hippe Daniel S
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid atherosclerotic ulceration is a significant source of stroke. This study evaluates the efficacy of adding longitudinal black-blood (BB cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR angiography to cross-sectional CMR images in the identification of carotid atherosclerotic ulceration. Methods Thirty-two subjects (30 males and two females with ages between 48 and 83 years scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were imaged on a 1.5T GE Signa scanner using multisequence [3D time-of-flight, T1, proton density, T2, contrast enhanced T1], cross-sectional CMR images and longitudinal BB CMR angiography (0.625 × 0.625 mm/pixel. Two rounds of review (round 1: cross-sectional CMR images alone and round 2: cross-sectional CMR images plus longitudinal BB CMR angiography were conducted for the presence and volume measurements of ulceration. Ulceration was defined as a distinct depression into the plaque containing blood flow signal on cross-sectional CMR and longitudinal BB CMR angiography. Results Of the 32 plaques examined by histology, 17 contained 21 ulcers. Using the longitudinal BB CMR angiography sequence in addition to the cross-sectional CMR images in round 2, the sensitivity improved to 80% for ulcers of at least 6 mm3 in volume by histology and 52.4% for all ulcers, compared to 30% and 23.8% in round 1, respectively. There was a slight decline in specificity from 88.2% to 82.3%, though both the positive and negative predictive values increased modestly from 71.4% to 78.6% and from 48.4% to 58.3%, respectively. Conclusion The addition of longitudinal BB CMR angiography to multisequence cross-sectional CMR images increases accuracy in the identification of carotid atherosclerotic ulceration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carbone D.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The 13C(18O,16O15C reaction has been studied at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles have been momentum analized by the MAGNEX spectrometer and 15C excitation energy spectra have been obtained up to about 20 MeV. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a bump has been observed at 13.7 MeV. The extracted cross section angular distribution for this structure, obtained by using different models for background, displays a clear oscillating pattern, typical of resonant state of the residual nucleus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author gives a scheme for the calculation of the self-shielding factors in the unresolved resonance region using the GRUCON applied program package. This package is especially created to be used in the conversion of evaluated neutron cross-section data, as available in existing data libraries, into multigroup microscopic constants. A detailed description of the formulae and algorithms used in the programs is given. Some typical examples of calculation are considered and the results are compared with those of other authors. The calculation accuracy is better than 2%
Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V
2012-06-01
We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve.
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.
2015-06-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10-3 to 10-7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.
A multi-dimensional, adiabatic, hydrodynamics code for studying tidal excitation
Broderick, A E; Broderick, Avery E.; Rathore, Yasser
2004-01-01
We have developed a parallel, simple, and fast hydrodynamics code for multi-dimensional, self-gravitating, adiabatic flows. Our primary motivation is the study of the non-linear evolution of white dwarf oscillations excited via tidal resonances, typically over hundreds of stellar dynamical times. Consequently, we require long term stability, low diffusivity, and high algorithmic efficiency. An explicit, Eulerian, finite-difference scheme on a regular Cartesian grid fulfills these requirements. It provides uniform resolution throughout the flow, as well as simplifying the computation of the self-gravitational potential, which is done via spectral methods. In this paper, we describe the numerical scheme and present the results of some diagnostic problems. We also demonstrate the stability of a cold white dwarf in three dimensions over hundreds of dynamical times. Finally, we compare the results of the numerical scheme to the linear theory of adiabatic oscillations, finding numerical quality factors on the order...
Mangia, Silvia; Liimatainen, Timo; Garwood, Michael; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Deelchand, Dinesh; Michaeli, Shalom
2011-08-01
In this work, we investigated the frequency-offset dependence of the rotating frame longitudinal (R(1ρ)) and transverse (R(2ρ)) relaxation rate constants when using hyperbolic-secant adiabatic full passage pulses or continuous-wave spin-lock irradiation. Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed to validate theoretical predictions of the dominant relaxation mechanisms existing during adiabatic full passage pulses when using different settings of the frequency offset relative to the carrier. In addition, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of total creatine and N-acetylaspartate were measured in vivo from the human brain at 4 T. When the continuous-wave pulse power was limited to safe specific absorption rates for humans, simulations revealed a strong dependence of R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values on the frequency offset for both dipolar interactions and anisochronous exchange mechanisms. By contrast, theoretical and experimental results showed adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values to be practically invariant within the large subregion of the bandwidth of the hyperbolic-secant pulse where complete inversion was achieved. However, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of the methyl protons of total creatine (at 3.03 ppm) were almost doubled when compared with those of the methyl protons of N-acetylaspartate (at 2.01 ppm) in spite of the fact that these resonances were in the flat region of the inversion band of the adiabatic full passage pulses. We conclude that differences in adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of human brain metabolites are not a result of their chemical shifts, but instead reflect differences in dynamics. PMID:21264976
Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E
2015-02-01
Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies.
Sarma, Manabendra; Adhikari, S; Mishra, Manoj K
2007-01-28
Vibrational excitation (nu(f), where psi(nu(i))(R,t) approximately =e(-iH(A(2))-(R)t/h phi(nu(i))(R) with time evolution under the influence of the resonance anionic Hamiltonian H(A(2) (-))(A(2) (-)=N(2)(-)/H(2) (-)) implemented using Lanczos and fast Fourier transforms. The target (A(2)) vibrational eigenfunctions phi(nu(i))(R) and phi(nu(f))(R) are calculated using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curves of the neutral target. Application of this simple systematization to calculate vibrational structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections provides mechanistic insights into features underlying presence/absence of structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections. The results obtained with approximate PE curves are in reasonable agreement with experimental/calculated cross-section profiles, and cross correlation functions provide a simple demarcation between the boomerang and impulse models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine
1997-07-01
This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Adiabatic Regularization for Gauge Field and the Conformal Anomaly
Chu, Chong-Sun
2016-01-01
We construct and provide the adiabatic regularization method for a $U(1)$ gauge field in a conformally flat spacetime by quantizing in the canonical formalism the gauge fixed $U(1)$ theory with mass terms for the gauge fields and the ghost fields. We show that the adiabatic expansion for the mode functions and the adiabatic vacuum can be defined in a similar way using WKB-type solutions as the scalar fields. As an application of the adiabatic method, we compute the trace of the energy momentum tensor and reproduces the known result for the conformal anomaly obtained by the other regularization methods. The availability of the adiabatic expansion scheme for gauge field allows one to study the renormalization of the de-Sitter space maximal superconformal Yang-Mills theory using the adiabatic regularization method.
Accuracy vs run time in adiabatic quantum search
Rezakhani, A T; Lidar, D A
2010-01-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance, yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm, and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: the error decreases exponentially for short times, then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.
Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking
Garnerone, Silvano; Lidar, Daniel A
2011-01-01
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm to evaluate the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this quantum algorithm outputs any component of the PageRank vector-and thus the ranking of the corresponding webpage-in a time which scales polylogarithmically in the number of webpages. This would constitute an exponential speed-up with respect to all known classical algorithms designed to evaluate the PageRank.
On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario
Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.
2010-02-01
In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.
On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario
Linde, A; Vikman, A
2009-01-01
In a recent paper arXiv:0910.2230, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in arXiv:0910.2230 are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.
Hypergraph Ramsey Numbers and Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm
Qu, Ri; Bao, Yan-ru
2012-01-01
Gaitan and Clark [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)] have recently presented a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m, n) using adiabatic quantum evolution. We consider that the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m, n; r) for r-uniform hypergraphs can be computed by using the similar ways in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)]. In this comment, we show how the computation of R(m, n; r) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution be found using adi...
Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization
Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank
2016-09-01
Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r( G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8, most of which were previously unknown.
Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei
Jachimowicz, P.; Kowal, M; Skalski, J.
2016-01-01
Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from ...
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid
Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct compone...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENGQing-Hua; CAOLi; WANGJun; WUDa-Jin
2004-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by studying a signal modulated model of a single-mode laser system driven by pump noise and quantum noise with correlated real and imaginary parts,and find there is a maximum in the curve of the dependence of SNR upon the cross-correlation coefficient λq between the real part and the imaginary part, i.e., stochastic resonance appears in the SNR vs. λq curve. Moreover, when the SNR is at the maximum, the cross-correlation coefficient λq = O, which is coincidentally at the minimum of the mean normalized intensity fluctuation. The influences on stochastic resonance by the intensities of the pump and the quantum noise, the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the net gain of the laser are also studied. Furthermore, in order to ensure that the results obtained in this paper is reliable, the valid range for the linear approximation method is discussed.
Park, Kijun
2012-04-01
During the last decade, remarkable experimental data have been collacted in an extensive programs to study the excitation of nucleon resonance (N*) at Jefferson Laboratory through pionelectroproduction using polarized electron beam and unpolarized proton target. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) is well suited for the study of a broad range of kinematics in the invariant mass W and photon virtuality Q2 with nearly complete angular coverage for the hadronic decays. Electron scattering allows us to probe the effective degrees of freedom in excited nucleon states from meson-baryon to dressed quarks in terms of varying the distance scale. The study of nucleon structure allows us to understand these effective degrees of freedom. In this proceeding, I present preliminary cross sections for single pion production in mass range of high-lying resonances as well as near the pion threshold. Analysis of Nπ+ cross sections together with Nπ0 and Nππ exclusive electroproduction data, will allow us for the first time to determine electrocouplings of several high-lying excited proton states (W ≥ 1.6 GeV) at photon virtualities that correspond to the transition toward the dominance of quark degrees of freedom. I also present preliminary result on the E0+ multipole near pion threshold at 2.0 GeV2 ≤ Q2 ≤ 4.5 GeV2 using exclusive Nπ+ electroproduction data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For research reactor applications of neutron activation analysis, the evaluated neutron reaction cross sections and resonance integrals in some different libraries available were analyzed comparatively. In order to check these data, the thermal neutron capture cross section (σ0) and the resonance integral (I0) of 23Na(n, γ )24Na, 58Fe(n, γ) 59Fe, 59Co(n, γ )60Co, 27Al(n, γ )28Al, 109Ag(n, γ) 110mAg, 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 238U(n, γ )239U reactions from different libraries were used for comparative analysis with experimental measurements based on fundamental neutron activation equation. The targets were irradiated with neutrons in a research nuclear reactor 100 kW power, Triga Mark I. A high purity Ge detector was used for the gamma ray measurements of the irradiated samples. The evaluated results have been in general agreement with the current data according to different library sources. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karadag, Mustafa [Gazi University, Gazi Education Faculty, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: mkaradag@gazi.edu.tr; Yuecel, Haluk [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Besevler Yerleskesi, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)
2008-06-15
The thermal-neutron cross-section and the resonance integral for the {sup 174}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 175}Yb reaction were measured by the activation method using a {sup 55}Mn monitor as single comparator. Analytical grade MnO{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder samples with and without a cylindrical 1 mm Cd shield box were irradiated in an isotropic neutron field obtained from three {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources. The gamma-ray spectra from the activated samples were measured with a calibrated n-type high-purity Ge detector. The experimental results were corrected for the correction factors calculated for thermal and epithermal neutron self-shielding effects, epithermal neutron spectrum shape and gamma-ray self attenuation. Thus, the thermal neutron cross-section for the {sup 174}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 175}Yb reaction is found to be 126.5 {+-} 6.6 b, relative to that of the {sup 55}Mn monitor. The resonance integral value for the {sup 174}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 175}Yb reaction is found to be 59.6 {+-} 8.5 b, at cadmium cut-off energy of a 0.55 eV. Using the measured cadmium ratios of {sup 55}Mn and {sup 174}Yb, the result for resonance integral of the {sup 174}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 175}Yb reaction has also been obtained relative to the reference value of the {sup 55}Mn monitor. The present results for the {sup 174}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 175}Yb reaction agree well only with the recent experimental ones obtained by Kafala et al. and De Corte and Simonits within uncertainty limits. However, the previously reported experimental data for the thermal neutron cross-section for this reaction are distributed between 24 and 141 b, and similarly the experimental values for the resonance integral value also show a large scatter in the range of 30-69 b.
A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Ying-Yu; Hu He-Ping; Lu Song-Feng
2011-01-01
This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M=1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm.
Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross-saturation experiments allow the identification of the contact residues of large protein complexes (MW>50 K) more rigorously than conventional NMR approaches which involve chemical shift perturbations and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments [Takahashi et al. (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol., 7, 220-223]. In the amide proton-based cross-saturation experiment, the combined use of high deuteration levels for non-exchangeable protons of the ligand protein and a solvent with a low concentration of 1H2Ogreatly enhanced the selectivity of the intermolecular cross-saturation phenomenon. Unfortunately, experimental limitations caused losses in sensitivity. Furthermore, since main chain amide protons are not generally exposed to solvent, the efficiency of the saturation transfer directed to the main chain amide protons is not very high. Here we propose an alternative cross-saturation experiment which utilizes the methyl protons of the side chains of the ligand protein. Owing to the fast internal rotation along the methyl axis, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the enhanced efficiency of this approach. The methyl-utilizing cross-saturation experiment has clear advantages in sensitivity and saturation transfer efficiency over the amide proton-based approach
Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons
Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil
1992-01-01
In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.
Ajtai, K; French, A R; Burghardt, T P
1989-01-01
The tilt series electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum from muscle fibers decorated with spin labeled myosin subfragment 1 (S1) was measured from fibers in rigor and in the presence of MgADP. ESR spectra were measured at low amplitude modulation of the static magnetic field to insure that a minimum of spectral lineshape distortion occurs. Ten tilt series ESR data sets were fitted simultaneously by the model-independent methodology described in the accompanying paper (Burghardt, T. P., and A. ...
Chaotic jumps in the generalized first adiabatic invariant in current sheets
Brittnacher, M. J.; Whipple, E. C.
1991-01-01
The present study examines how the changes in the generalized first adiabatic invariant J derived from the separatrix crossing theory can be incorporated into the drift variable approach to generating distribution functions. A method is proposed for determining distribution functions for an ensemble of particles following interaction with the tail current sheet by treating the interaction as a scattering problem characterized by changes in the invariant. Generalized drift velocities are obtained for a 1D tail configuration by using the generalized first invariant. The invariant remained constant except for the discrete changes caused by chaotic scattering as the particles cross the separatrix.
Measurement of total cross sections for π0 photoproduction on nuclei in the Δ-resonance region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Total cross sections for π0 photoproduction on Be, C, Al, Cu, Sn and Pb have been measured in the photon energy range k=220-450 MeV using the tagged photon beam of the Bonn 500 MeV synchrotron. The data show a broad maximum around k=350 MeV. The A-dependence can be described by sigmasub(A)proportionalAsup(0.7). The results are compared to charged pion production and to total hadronic cross sections. (orig.)
Raucher, D; Fajer, E A; Sár, C; Hideg, K; Zhao, Y.; Kawai, M; Fajer, P G
1995-01-01
We have used a novel alpha-iodoketone spin-label (IKSL) to study myosin head orientation and cross-bridge dynamics in the putative pre-powerstroke state. Possible perturbation of the cross-bridge cycle by the label was assayed by the sinusoidal analysis method (Kawai and Brandt, 1980; Kawai and Zhao, 1993), which determines the rate constants of the elementary steps in the cycle. A comparison of the rates obtained from unlabeled and IKSL fibers revealed small (10-20%) changes in the ATP hydro...
Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong
2016-05-01
In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.
Plasmas in particle accelerators: adiabatic theories for bunched beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three different formalisms for discussing Vlasov's equation for bunched beam problems with anharmonic space charge forces are outlined. These correspond to the use of a drift kinetic equation averaged over random betatron motions; a fluidkinetic adiabatic regime analogous to the theory of Chew, Goldberger, and Low; and an adiabatic hydrodynamic theory
High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling
Quiroz, Gregory
2012-01-01
We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.
Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.
Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng
2008-11-28
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size. PMID:19113467
Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.
Examination of the adiabatic approximation in open systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the notion of the adiabatic approximation in open systems by applying it to closed systems. Our results shows that the notion is equivalent to the standard adiabatic approximation if the systems are initially in eigenstates, and it leads to a more general expression if the systems are in mixed states
A non-adiabatic approach to entanglement distribution over long distances
Razavi, M; Razavi, Mohsen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2006-01-01
Entanglement distribution between trapped-atom quantum memories, viz. single atoms in optical cavities, is addressed. In most scenarios, the rate of entanglement distribution depends on the efficiency with which the state of traveling single photons can be transferred to trapped atoms. This loading efficiency is analytically studied for two-level, $V$-level, $\\Lambda$-level, and double-$\\Lambda$-level atomic configurations by means of a system-reservoir approach. An off-resonant non-adiabatic approach to loading $\\Lambda$-level trapped-atom memories is proposed, and the ensuing trade-offs between the atom-light coupling rate and input photon bandwidth for achieving a high loading probability are identified. The non-adiabatic approach allows a broad class of optical sources to be used, and in some cases it provides a higher system throughput than what can be achieved by adiabatic loading mechanisms. The analysis is extended to the case of two double-$\\Lambda$ trapped-atom memories illuminated by a polarization...
Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Billeter, Martin
2012-09-01
While NMR studies of proteins typically aim at structure, dynamics or interactions, resonance assignments represent in almost all cases the initial step of the analysis. With increasing complexity of the NMR spectra, for example due to decreasing extent of ordered structure, this task often becomes both difficult and time-consuming, and the recording of high-dimensional data with high-resolution may be essential. Random sampling of the evolution time space, combined with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform (SMFT), allows for efficient recording of very high dimensional spectra (≥4 dimensions) while maintaining high resolution. However, the nature of this data demands for automation of the assignment process. Here we present the program TSAR (Tool for SMFT-based Assignment of Resonances), which exploits all advantages of SMFT input. Moreover, its flexibility allows to process data from any type of experiments that provide sequential connectivities. The algorithm was tested on several protein samples, including a disordered 81-residue fragment of the δ subunit of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis containing various repetitive sequences. For our test examples, TSAR achieves a high percentage of assigned residues without any erroneous assignments. PMID:22806130
Conformal Symmetries of Adiabatic Modes in Cosmology
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
We remark on the existence of non-linearly realized conformal symmetries for scalar adiabatic perturbations in cosmology. These conformal symmetries are present for any cosmological background, beyond any slow-roll or quasi-de Sitter approximation. The dilatation transformation shifts the curvature perturbation by a constant, and corresponds to the well-known symmetry under spatial rescaling. We argue that the scalar sector is also invariant under special conformal transformations, which shift the curvature perturbation by a term linear in the spatial coordinates. We discuss whether these conformal symmetries can be extended to include tensor perturbations. Tensor modes introduce their own set of non-linearly realized symmetries. We identify an infinite set of large gauge transformations which maintain the transverse, traceless gauge condition, while shifting the tensor mode non-trivially.
Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation
Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.
Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder
This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting...... the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems...... a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name “Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage” (ALP-CAES). The compression ratio of the gas in the vessel (ratio between maximum and minimum pressure) is relatively...
Parametric Erosion Investigation: Propellant Adiabatic Flame Temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. Conroy
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of quasi-independent parameters and their potential influence on erosion in guns have been investigated. Specifically, the effects of flame temperature and the effect of assuming that the Lewis number (ratio of mass-to-heat transport to the surface, Le = 1, has been examined. The adiabatic flame temperature for a propellant was reduced by the addition of a diluent from a high temperature of 3843 K (similar to that of M9 down to 3004 K, which is near the value for M30A1 propellant. Mass fractions of critical species at the surface with and without the assumption of Le = 1 are presented, demonstrating that certain species preferentially reach the surface providing varied conditions for the surface reactions. The results for gun tube bore surface regression qualitatively agree with previous studies and with current experimental data.
Zheng, Guangtai; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J.
2012-12-01
The vertical apparent mass of the human body exhibits nonlinearity, with the principal resonance frequency reducing as the vibration magnitude increases. Measures of the transmission of vibration to the spine and the pelvis have suggested complex modes are responsible for the dominant resonance during vertical excitation, but the modes present with dual-axis excitation have not been investigated. This study was designed to examine how the apparent mass and transmissibility of the human body depend on the magnitude of vertical excitation and the addition of fore-and-aft excitation, and the relation between the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the body. The movement of the body (over the first, fifth and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, the third lumbar vertebra, and the pelvis) in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions (and in pitch at the pelvis) was measured in 12 male subjects sitting with their hands on their laps during random vertical vibration excitation (over the range 0.25-20 Hz) at three vibration magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m s-2 rms). At the highest magnitude of vertical excitation (1.0 m s-2 rms) the effect of adding fore-aft vibration (at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 m s-2 rms) was investigated. The forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions on the seat surface were also measured so as to calculate apparent masses. Resonances in the apparent mass and transmissibility to the spine and pelvis in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions, and pitch transmissibility to the pelvis, shifted to lower frequencies as the magnitude of vertical excitation increased and as the magnitude of the additional fore-and-aft excitation increased. The nonlinear resonant behaviour of the apparent mass and transmissibility during dual-axis vibration excitation suggests coupling between the principal mode associated with vertical excitation and the cross-axis influence of fore-and-aft excitation. The transmissibility measures are consistent with complex modes
An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Klymko, Christine F [ORNL; Seddiqi, Hadayat [ORNL
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.
Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective
Teichmann, Philip
2012-01-01
Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...
How detrimental is decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation?
Albash, Tameem
2015-01-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary canc...
Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric A Hendricks
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane
Power spectra in the eikonal approximation with adiabatic and non-adiabatic modes
Bernardeau, Francis; Vernizzi, Filippo
2012-01-01
We use the so-called eikonal approximation, recently introduced in the context of cosmological perturbation theory, to compute power spectra for multi-component fluids. We demonstrate that, at any given order in standard perturbation theory, multi-point power spectra do not depend on the large-scale adiabatic modes. Moreover, we employ perturbation theories to decipher how non-adiabatic modes, such as a relative velocity between two different components, damp the small-scale matter power spectrum, a mechanism recently described in the literature. In particular, we do an explicit calculation at 1-loop order of this effect. While the 1-loop result eventually breaks down, we show how the damping effect can be fully captured by the help of the eikonal approximation. A relative velocity not only induces mode damping but also creates large-scale anisotropic modulations of the matter power spectrum amplitude. We illustrate this for the Local Group environment.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J. [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2012-12-14
We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.
Schwarm, F -W; Falkner, S; Pottschmidt, K; Wolff, M T; Becker, P A; Sokolova-Lapa, E; Klochkov, D; Ferrigno, C; Fuerst, F; Hemphill, P B; Marcu-Cheatham, D M; Dauser, T; Wilms, J
2016-01-01
Electron cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are observed as absorption-like lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars. A significant fraction of the computing time for Monte Carlo simulations of these quantum mechanical features is spent on the calculation of the mean free path for each individual photon before scattering, since it involves a complex numerical integration over the scattering cross section and the (thermal) velocity distribution of the scattering electrons. We aim to numerically calculate interpolation tables which can be used in CRSF simulations to sample the mean free path of the scattering photon and the momentum of the scattering electron. The tables also contain all the information required for sampling the scattering electron's final spin. The tables were calculated using an adaptive Simpson integration scheme. The energy and angle grids were refined until a prescribed accuracy is reached. The tables are used by our simulation code to produce artificial CRSF spectra. The electron...
Quantal Description of Atomic Diamagnetism: the Quasi-Landau Resonances
Wang, Qiaoling
We describe atomic hydrogen diamagnetism within the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Our theoretical studies have used three descriptions: an adiabatic description, a multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) description using an ab initio R-matrix approach, and a model description. The analysis has conclusively demonstrated that the diamagnetic spectrum can be viewed as a perturbed Rydberg spectrum. The adiabatic analysis provides a crude but useful picture to see the overall channel structure and the nature of the perturbing configurations, where the quasi-Landau resonances are the lowest states in each Landau channel which will perturb high Rydberg states in lower Landau channels once the nonadiabatic coupling is turned on. The ab initio calculation of the photoionization spectrum in the field range 10^3 -10^4 Tesla shows that the quasi -Landau resonances are broad interlopers which perturb high Rydberg states converging to the Landau thresholds, forming complex resonances. Also in these calculations, a new partial cross section analysis has been performed to predict the relative electron populations in different Landau channels. The population is found to depend on the azimuthal quantum number and the parity of final states. For photoionization from the hydrogen ground state of final states with m = 1, the electron is predicted to escape predominantly in the higher Landau channels. In contrast, for the final states with m = 0, it escapes in the lower channels. This property is reflected in the shape of autoionizing resonances, which are more like peaks for m = 1, but are more like dips (window resonances) for m = 0. In studying the features of the complex resonances, formed by the quasi-Landau resonances perturbing the high Rydberg states, we developed an analytical description using a model based on three interacting Rydberg channels, identifying the key dynamical quantities which control the appearance of a complex resonance and its evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In k0- Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA), the conversion from the tabulated Q0 (ratio of the resonance integral to thermal neutron cross-section)to Q0(α) (α is the shape factor of the epithermal neutron flux, indicating the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the ideal 1/E shape) are calculated using a FORTRAN program. The calculations are done for most elements that can be detected by neutron activation using different values of the parameter (α) ranging from -0.1≤α≤+0.1. The obtained data are used to study the dependence of the values (α) on the irradiation position factor in (k0-NAA)equation for some selected isotopes differ in their resonance energy and its Q0 values. The results show that, the irradiation factor is affective mainly for low thermal tro epithermal flux ratio f especially for Q0 value greater than 50. so consequently determining the irradiation parameters α value is not needed for irradiation positions that rich with thermal neutron. But for high f values the irradiation position factor should be taken into account. On the other hand the constructed FORTRAN program can be used to calculate the value Q0 (α) directly for different value of α
Park, Kijun; Burkert, Volker
2012-10-01
An extensive experimental programs has been carried out at Jefferson Laboratory to study the excitation resonances using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Pion electroproduction on protons is sensitive to the resonance excitation and allows us to explore its internal structure. The CLAS is well suited for the study of a broad range of kinematics in the invariant mass W and photon virtuality Q^2 with nearly complete angular coverage for the hadronic decays. Electron scattering allows us to probe the effective degrees of freedom in excited nucleon states from meson-baryon cloud to dressed quarks in terms of varying distance scale. In this talk, we report the differential cross-sections for exclusive single charged pion electroproduction from proton targets. The kinematic range covers Q^2 from 1.7;GeV^2 to 4.5;GeV^2 and W from 1.6;GeV to 2.0;GeV. Separated structure functions are also presented and compared with the present calculations and previous measurements. This work, along with an upcoming analysis of same kinematics from exclusive p0̂ and p&+circ;&-circ; electroproduction will allow the determination of electro-couplings of several high-lying excited proton states, for the first time, at photon virtualities that correspond to transition toward dominance of quark degrees of freedom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-state, close-coupled quantal computations of the elastic and inelastic scattering of ground-state I atoms by ground-state Br and spin--orbit excited Br* atoms have been carried out over a range of total energies E from 0.01 to 0.94 eV. The possibility of translational--electronic energy transfer arises from the 3Pi0+ potential curve crossing at E=0.25 eV, responsible for the well-known IBr predissociation. The Y, B, and V12(R) diabatic potentials have been obtained by judicious extension (and manipulation) of the spectroscopically derived B and B' adiabats. At energies below the threshold for Br* formation (E/sub th/=0.457 eV) collisions of I+Br are necessarily elastic, exhibiting both shape and compound-state resonances. These produce interesting interference patterns in the differential cross sections, but no significant inverse-predissociation resonance (which might have been anticipated for E> or =0.25 eV). The main features of the elastic scattering can be fairly well approximated considering only the lower adiabat, even at post threshold energies where the inelastic process becomes important. An oscillatory pattern found in the total elastic cross section has been identified with a barrier effect associated with the maximum in this B adiabat. Total inelastic cross sections are well reproduced by the closed-form Landau--Zener--Stueckelberg (LZS) approximation. The Boltzmann-averaged LZS rate constant for the collisional deactivation I+Br*→I+Br is calculated to be 1.8x10-11 cm3 sec-1 at 300 K (with only a slight temperature dependence over the range 300--1000 K). This large rate is due to the inverse predissociation mechanism, common
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jain, Sheetal Kumar
2014-01-01
of biological macromolecules. A new method for polarization transfer called Rotor Echo Short Pulse IRradiATION mediated Cross-Polarization (RESPIRATIONCP) is introduced with a theoretical explanation of its polarization transfer efficiency. An analysis of robustness towards experimental imperfections......) and Silver Hepta Fluoro Butyrate (SHFB) are presented at high magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that important information about dynamics may be extracted from 19F→13C RESPIRATIONCP buildup curves, which are central to the dynamics studies of important biological and synthetic polymers....
Cepraga, D G; Frisoni, M
2000-01-01
This study presents a method to obtain corrected self-shielded radiative capture cross-sections for tungsten isotopes to be used for activation calculations. The approach used is based on the application of the Bondarenko shielding factor method to the 175-group AMPX master library by means of the Bonami-Nitawl scale-4.3 sequence calculation. The ANITA-4M activation code calculates the tungsten radioisotopes production and the decay heat using the self-shielded cross-sections from ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2 data files. Two irradiation scenarios (5 min and 7 h) in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like neutron flux spectrum defined by the fusion neutron source experiments are analyzed. The unshielded calculations result in discrepancy with experiment up to 70%, while the self-shielding treatment reduces drastically that discrepancy to less than few percents. In comparison to the experimental integral decay heat values provides a validation of the method used to deal with the sel...
Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brochu, F; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; Cozzoni, B; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Iashvili, I; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Koffeman, E; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lu, W; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Merk, M; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paoloni, A; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zöller, M
2000-01-01
We report on measurements of hadronic and leptonic cross sections and leptonic forward-backward asymmetries performed with the L3 detector in the years $1993-95$.A total luminosity of 103 pb$^{-1}$ was collected at centre-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s} \\approx m_\\mathrm{Z}$ and $\\sqrt{s} \\approx m_\\mathrm{Z} \\pm 1.8$ GeVwhich corresponds to 2.5 million hadronic and 245 thousand leptonic events selected.These data lead to a significantly improved determination of Z parameters.From the total cross sections, combined with our measurements in $1990-92$,we obtain the final results:%%%\\begin{eqnarr ay*} m_\\mathrm{Z} = 91189.8 \\pm 3.1\\ \\mathrm{MeV} \\, , & & \\Gamma_\\mathrm{Z} = 2502.4 \\pm 4.2\\ \\mathrm{MeV} \\, , \\\\ \\Gamma_\\mathrm{had} = 1741.1 \\pm 3.8\\ \\mathrm{MeV} \\, , & & \\Gamma_\\ell = 84.14 \\pm 0.17\\ \\mathrm{MeV} \\,. \\label{eq:Zpara_abstract}\\end{eqnarray*}%%%An invisible width of $\\Gamma_\\mathrm{inv} = 499.1 \\pm 2.9$ MeV is derived which in the Standard Model yields for the numberof light neutrino spec...
Shashilov, V. A.; Lednev, I. K.
2007-11-01
Amyloid fibrils are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. The application of conventional biophysical techniques including solution NMR and X-ray crystallography for structural characterization of fibrils is limited because they are neither crystalline nor soluble. The Bayesian approach was utilized for extracting the deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectrum of the lysozyme fibrillar β-sheet based on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange spectral data. The problem was shown to be unsolvable when using blind source separation or conventional chemometrics methods because of the 100% correlation of the concentration profiles of the species under study. Information about the mixing process was incorporated by forcing the columns of the concentration matrix to be proportional to the expected concentration profiles. The ill-conditioning of the matrix was removed by concatenating it to the diagonal matrix with entries corresponding to the known pure spectra (sources). Prior information about the spectral features and characteristic bands of the spectra was taken into account using the Bayesian signal dictionary approach. The extracted DUVRR spectrum of the cross-β sheet core exhibited sharp bands indicating the highly ordered structure. Well resolved sub-bands in Amide I and Amide III regions enabled us to assign the fibril core structure to anti-parallel β-sheet and estimate the amide group facial angle Ψ in the cross-β structure. The elaborated Bayesian approach was demonstrated to be applicable for studying correlated biochemical processes.
A note on the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation
Tong, D M; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H
2004-01-01
It is widely held that the Berry phase of a quantum system is the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation. However, Pati and Rajagopal recently claimed that the Berry phase vanishes under strict adiabatic evolution. In this note, we reexamine and address this issue. In particular, we show that the use of the adiabatic theorem does not lead to this inconsistency. We also examine the difference between the Berry phase and the exact geometric phase. Here we find that the Berry phase may differ appreciably from the exact geometric phase if the evolution time is large enough.
Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation
Cruz-Santos, William
2014-01-01
The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l
Adiabatic Pair Creation in Heavy Ion and Laser Fields
Pickl, P; Pickl, Peter; Duerr, Detlef
2006-01-01
The planned generation of lasers and heavy ion colliders renews the hope to see electron-positron pair creation in strong classical fields (so called spontaneous pair creation). This adiabatic relativistic effect has however not been described in a unified manner. We discuss here the theory of adiabatic pair creation yielding the momentum distribution of scattered pairs in overcritical fields. Our conclusion about the possibility of adiabatic pair creation is much more positive than earlier predictions for laser fields and most importantly gives priority to optical before X-ray lasers.
Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders
2010-01-01
The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second......-order materials. For materials with a continuous adiabatic temperature change as a function of temperature, this inequality is shown to hold for all temperatures. However, discontinuous materials may violate the inequality. We compare our results with measured results in the literature and discuss...
Adiabatic control of atomic dressed states for transport and sensing
Cooper, N. R.; Rey, A. M.
2015-08-01
We describe forms of adiabatic transport that arise for dressed-state atoms in optical lattices. Focusing on the limit of weak tunnel-coupling between nearest-neighbor lattice sites, we explain how adiabatic variation of optical dressing allows control of atomic motion between lattice sites: allowing adiabatic particle transport in a direction that depends on the internal state, and force measurements via spectroscopic preparation and readout. For uniformly filled bands these systems display topologically quantized particle transport. An implementation of the dressing scheme using optical transitions in alkaline-earth atoms is discussed as well as its favorable features for precise force sensing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Derrien, H
2005-12-05
The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.
On the persistence of adiabatic shear bands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bassim M.N.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available It is generally agreed that the initiation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs are manifestations of damage in metallic materials subjected to high strain rates and large strains as those due to impact in a Hopkinson Bar system. Models for evolution of these bands have been described in the literature. One question that has not received attention is how persistent these bands are and whether their presence and effect can be reversed or eliminated by using a process of thermal (heat treatment or thermo-mechanical treatment that would relieve the material from the high strain associated with ASBs and their role as precursors to crack initiation and subsequent failure. Since ASBs are more prevalent and more defined in BCC metals including steels, a study was conducted to investigate the best conditions of generating ASBs in a heat treatable steel, followed by determining the best conditions for heat treatment of specimens already damaged by the presence of ASBs in order to relieve the strains due to ASBs and restore the material to an apparent microstructure without the “scars” due to the previous presence of ASBs. It was found that heat treatment achieves the curing from ASBs. This presentation documents the process undertaken to achieve this objective.
Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.
Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2014-03-01
In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.
Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei
Jachimowicz, P; Skalski, J
2016-01-01
Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from the 10-th below to the 10-th above the Fermi level. The parameters of the model that have been fixed previously by a fit to masses of even-even heavy nuclei were kept unchanged. A search for saddle points has been performed by the "Imaginary Water Flow" method on a basic five-dimensional deformation grid, including triaxiality. Two auxiliary grids were used for checking the effects of the mass asymmetry and hexadecapole non-axiallity. The ground states were found by energy minimization over configurations and deformations...
Topological States and Adiabatic Pumping in Quasicrystals
Kraus, Yaakov; Lahini, Yoav; Ringel, Zohar; Verbin, Mor; Zilberberg, Oded
2012-02-01
We find a connection between quasicrystals and topological matter, namely that quasicrystals exhibit non-trivial topological phases attributed to dimensions higher than their own [1]. Quasicrystals are materials which are neither ordered nor disordered, i.e. they exhibit only long-range order [2]. This long-range order is usually expressed as a projection from a higher dimensional ordered system. Recently, the unrelated discovery of Topological Insulators [3] defined a new type of materials classified by their topology. We show theoretically and experimentally using photonic lattices, that one-dimensional quasicrystals exhibit topologically-protected boundary states equivalent to the edge states of the two-dimensional Integer Quantum Hall Effect. We harness this property to adiabatically pump light across the quasicrystal, and generalize our results to higher dimensional systems. Hence, quasicrystals offer a new platform for the study of topological phases while their topology may better explain their surface properties.[4pt] [1] Y. E. Kraus, Y. Lahini, Z. Ringel, M. Verbin, and O. Zilberberg, arXiv:1109.5983 (2011).[0pt] [2] C. Janot, Quasicrystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994), 2nd ed.[0pt] [3] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
Doppler, Jörg; Böhm, Julian; Kuhl, Ulrich; Girschik, Adrian; Libisch, Florian; Milburn, Thomas J; Rabl, Peter; Moiseyev, Nimrod; Rotter, Stefan
2016-01-01
Physical systems with loss or gain feature resonant modes that are decaying or growing exponentially with time. Whenever two such modes coalesce both in their resonant frequency and their rate of decay or growth, a so-called "exceptional point" occurs, around which many fascinating phenomena have recently been reported to arise. Particularly intriguing behavior is predicted to appear when encircling an exceptional point sufficiently slowly, like a state-flip or the accumulation of a geometric phase. Experiments dedicated to this issue could already successfully explore the topological structure of exceptional points, but a full dynamical encircling and the breakdown of adiabaticity inevitably associated with it remained out of reach of any measurement so far. Here we demonstrate that a dynamical encircling of an exceptional point can be mapped onto the problem of scattering through a two-mode waveguide, which allows us for the first time to access the elusive effects occurring in this context. Specifically, w...
A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms
Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu
2014-05-01
The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.
Adiabatically switched-on electrical bias in continuous systems, and the Landauer-Büttiker formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Nenciu, Gheorghe;
Consider a three dimensional system which looks like a cross-connected pipe system, i.e. a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads. We investigate the current running through this system, in the linear response regime, when we adiabatically turn on an electrical bias between leads....... The main technical tool is the use of a finite volume regularization, which allows us to define the current coming out of a lead as the time derivative of its charge. We finally prove that in virtually all physically interesting situations, the conductivity tensor is given by a Landauer-Büttiker type...
Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states
Siu, M. Stewart
2007-06-01
We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied “straight line” adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev’s toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm.
Application of adiabatic calorimetry to metal systems. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research on the application of adiabatic calorimetry to metal systems is described. Investigations into formation of pearlite in steels, ferromagnetic effects, cold working and annealing, solid solution alloys, pure solid metals, and pure liquid metals, are briefly described
Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators(ADR's) for space it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires...
AN ADIABATIC APPROACH FOR LOW POWER FULL ADDER DESIGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prof. Dinesh Chandra
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, several adiabatic logic styles have been reported. This paper deals with the design of a 1-bit full adder using several adiabatic logic styles, which are derived from static CMOS logic, without a large change. The full adders are designed using 180nm technology parameters provided by predictive technology and simulated using HSPICE. The full adders designed are compared in terms of average power consumption with different values of load capacitance, temperature and input frequency. The different designs of full adder are also compared on the basis of propagation delay exhibit by them. It is found that, full adders designed with adiabatic logic styles tends to consume very low power in comparison to full adder designed with static CMOS logic. Under certain operating conditions, one of adiabatic designs of full adder achieves upto 74% power saving in comparison to the full adder designedwith static CMOS logic.
Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy-dark matter models
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark
2007-01-01
We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, whi...
Hybrid adiabatic potentials in the QCD string model
Kalashnikova, Yu S; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.
2003-01-01
The short- and intermediate-distance behaviour of the hybrid adiabatic potentials is calculated in the framework of the QCD string model. The calculations are performed with the inclusion of Coulomb force. Spin-dependent force and the so-called string correction term are treated as perturbation at the leading potential-type regime. Reasonably good agreement with lattice measurements takes place for adiabatic curves excited with magnetic components of field strength correlators.
Non Adiabatic Centrifugal Compressor Gas Dynamic Performance Definition
Soldatova, Kristina
2014-01-01
Most centrifugal compressors operate in conditions with negligible heat transfer (adiabatic compression). Their plant tests conditions are similar or close to adiabatic conditions. Test regulations establish measures to diminish influence of a heat transfer “compressor body – atmospheric air” to an exit temperature. Therefore a temperature rise in a compressor is used to calculate a work input coefficient and efficiency. Unlike it high pressure centrifugal compressors of gas turbines and supe...
Adiabatic Quantum Programming: Minor Embedding With Hard Faults
Klymko, Christine; Sullivan, Blair D.; Humble, Travis S.
2012-01-01
Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into an underlying hardware or logical fabric. An essential step is embedding problem-specific information into the quantum logical fabric. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. These methods extend with fabric growth while scaling linearly in time and quadratically in footprint. We also provi...
Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology
Enqvist, Kari; Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin S.
2002-01-01
We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in the axion field can give rise to a nearly flat spectrum of adiabatic perturbations with a spectral tilt $\\Delta n$ in the range $-0.1 \\lesssim \\Delta n \\lesssim 0.3$.
Preparation of Entangled States of Three Particles by Adiabatic Passage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭建友
2002-01-01
We propose a novel technique for the creation of entangled states of three particles, based upon an adiabatic passage induced by a suitably crafted time-dependent external field. We derive the corresponding adiabatic and bare conditions for the preparation of entangled states. We obtain the time evolutions of the energy of the system and the populations involving the initial state and target entangled state.
ENTROPY-VORTEX WAVES IN NON-ADIABATIC FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibáñez S, Miguel H., E-mail: mhibanez@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Barranquilla (Colombia)
2016-02-20
The Ertel theorem on the vorticity along the flow of adiabatic fluids is generalized for non-adiabatic flows. Several limiting cases are analyzed and the results are applied to flows behind different hydrodynamics fronts, particularly to thermal fronts (heat and cooling fronts). An important conclusion of the present analysis is that vorticity is inherent in the condensation’s (or hot spots) formation by thermal instabilities in plasma flows. Implications for several astrophysical plasmas are outlined.
Nonadiabatic Geometric Angle in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Connection
Cherbal, Omar; Maamache, Mustapha; Drir, Mahrez
2005-01-01
By using the Grassmannian invariant-angle coherents states approach, the classical analogue of the Aharonov-Anandan nonadiabatic geometrical phase is found for a spin one-half in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In the adiabatic limit, the semi-classical relation between the adiabatic Berry’s phase and Hannay’s angle gives exactly the experimental result observed by Suter et al[12].
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shao-Kai
2007-01-01
For a Lagrangian system with the action of small disturbance, the Lie symmetrical perturbation and a new type of non-Noether adiabatic invariant are presented in general infinitesimal transformation groups. On the basis of the invariance of disturbed Lagrangian systems under general infinitesimal transformations, the determining equations of Lie symmetries of the system are constructed. Based on the definition of higher-order adiabatic invariants of a mechanical system, a new type of adiabatic invariant, i.e. generalized Lutzky adiabatic invariants, of a disturbed Lagrangian system are obtained by investigating the perturbation of Lie symmetries for a Lagrangian system with the action of small disturbance. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the method and results.
Fermi liquid theory of resonant spin pumping
Moca, C. P.; Alex, A.; Shnirman, A.; Zarand, G.
2013-01-01
We study resonant all-electric adiabatic spin pumping through a quantum dot with two nearby levels by using a Fermi liquid approach in the strongly interacting regime, combined with a projective numerical renormalization group (NRG) theory. Due to spin-orbit coupling, a strong spin pumping resonance emerges at every charging transition, which allows for the transfer of a spin $~ \\hbar/2$ through the device in a single pumping cycle. Depending on the precise geometry of the device, controlled ...
Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes: General description and their implications
Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Oh, C. H.
2010-01-01
Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes are not considered by the conventional classical adiabatic theorem. In this work a general result is derived to describe the intrinsic dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes. Interesting implications of our general result are discussed via two subtopics, namely, an intriguing adiabatic geometric phase in a dynamical model with an adiabatically moving fixed-point solution, and the possible "pollution" to Hannay's angle or...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Radiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)
2006-12-15
One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katoh, Toshio; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu
1997-03-01
The thermal neutron(2,200 m/s neutron) capture cross section({sigma}{sub 0}) and the resonance integral(I{sub 0}) of the reaction {sup 135}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 136}Cs were measured by an activation method. Targets of radioactive cesium, which include {sup 135}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and stable {sup 133}Cs, were irradiated with reactor neutrons within or without a Cd shield case. The ratio of the number of nuclei of {sup 135}Cs to that of {sup 137}Cs was measured with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ratio and the ratio of activity of {sup 136}Cs to that of {sup 137}Cs were used for deduction of the {sigma}{sub 0} and the I{sub 0} of {sup 135}Cs. The {sigma}{sub 0} and the I{sub 0} of the reaction {sup 135}Cs(n,{sigma}){sup 136}Cs were 8.3 {+-} 0.3 barn and 38.1 {+-} 2.6 barn, respectively. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakrzewski, J.; Saini, S.; Taylor, H.S.
1988-10-15
A general theoretical base and a general strategy for implementing semiclassical quantization using the adiabatic-switching method are presented for two-dimensional systems. The method proposed does not depend on specialized coordinates, trajectory, or surfaces-of-section studies and is generalizable to multidimensional systems. The choice of the initial tori for the switching procedure is accomplished by simple diagonalizations of small-dimensional matrix representations of invariant operators obtained from perturbation theory. The method gives quantum energies at a useful level of accuracy for the vast majority of states in many of the well-known nonresonant and resonant Hamiltonian cases. Many eigenvalues previously thought unobtainable when the adiabatic-switching method is used are obtained in a quite simple manner.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2008-01-01
The coexistent phenomenon of deformed and transformed adiabatic shear bands(ASBs) of ductile metal was analyzed using the JOHNSON-COOK model and gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP). The effects of melting point, density, heat capacity and work to heat conversion factor were investigated. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and higher melting point lead to wider transformed ASB and higher local plastic shear deformation between deformed and transformed ASBs. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and lower melting point cause higher local plastic shear deformation in the deformed ASB. Three reasons for the scatter in experimental data on the ASB width were pointed out and the advantages of the work were discussed. If the transformed ASB width is used to back-calculate the internal length parameter in the GDP, undoubtedly, the parameter will be extremely underestimated.
Physics on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold and cosmology
Lipovka, Anton A
2016-01-01
In present paper we confirm our previous result [4] that Planck constant is adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field propagating on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold. Direct calculation from cosmological parameters gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). We also confirm that Planck constant (and hence other fundamental constants which depend on h) is varied on time due to changing of geometry. As an example the variation of the fine structure constant is calculated. Its relative variation ((da/dt)/a) consist 1.0x10(-18) (1/s). We show that on the Finsler manifold characterized by adiabatically changed geometry, classical free electromagnetic field is quantized geometrically, from the properties of the manifold in such manner that adiabatic invariant of field is ET=6x10(-27)=h. Electrodynamic equations on the Finslerian manifold are suggested. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in details tw...
Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition
Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao
2016-01-01
In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, $R_c$, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of $R_c$ holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of $R_c$ dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, $\\delta P_{nad}\\equiv\\delta P-c_w^2\\delta\\rho$ where $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of $R_c$ on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfies $\\d...
Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Jennings, Dominique; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Sorensen, A. Gregory
2010-04-01
The purpose of this work was to design and implement constant adiabaticity gradient modulated pulses that have improved slice profiles and reduced artifacts for spectroscopic imaging on 3 T clinical scanners equipped with standard hardware. The newly proposed pulses were designed using the gradient offset independent adiabaticity (GOIA, Tannus and Garwood [13]) method using WURST modulation for RF and gradient waveforms. The GOIA-WURST pulses were compared with GOIA-HS n (GOIA based on nth-order hyperbolic secant) and FOCI (frequency offset corrected inversion) pulses of the same bandwidth and duration. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements in phantoms and healthy volunteers are presented. GOIA-WURST pulses provide improved slice profile that have less slice smearing for off-resonance frequencies compared to GOIA-HS n pulses. The peak RF amplitude of GOIA-WURST is much lower (40% less) than FOCI but slightly higher (14.9% more) to GOIA-HS n. The quality of spectra as shown by the analysis of lineshapes, eddy currents artifacts, subcutaneous lipid contamination and SNR is improved for GOIA-WURST. GOIA-WURST pulse tested in this work shows that reliable spectroscopic imaging could be obtained in routine clinical setup and might facilitate the use of clinical spectroscopy.
Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.
Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-07-15
We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558
Semiclassical approximations for adiabatic slow-fast systems
Teufel, Stefan
2012-01-01
In this letter we give a systematic derivation and justification of the semiclassical model for the slow degrees of freedom in adiabatic slow-fast systems first found by Littlejohn and Flynn [5]. The classical Hamiltonian obtains a correction due to the variation of the adiabatic subspaces and the symplectic form is modified by the curvature of the Berry connection. We show that this classical system can be used to approximate quantum mechanical expectations and the time-evolution of operators also in sub-leading order in the combined adiabatic and semiclassical limit. In solid state physics the corresponding semiclassical description of Bloch electrons has led to substantial progress during the recent years, see [1]. Here, as an illustration, we show how to compute the Piezo-current arising from a slow deformation of a crystal in the presence of a constant magnetic field.
Analysis and Simulation of Adiabatic Bend Transitions in Optical Fibers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Lei; LOU Shu-Qin; JIAN Shui-Sheng
2009-01-01
A low-loss criterion for bend transitions in optical fibers is proposed. An optical fiber can be tightly bent with low loss to be adiabatic for the fundamental mode, provided that an approximate upper bound on the rate of change of bend curvature for a given bend curvature is satisfied. Two typical adiabatic bend transition paths, the optimum profile and linear profile, are analyzed and studied numerically. A realizable adiabatic transition with an Archimedean spiral profile is introduced for low bend loss in tightly bent optical fibers. Design of the transitions is based on modeling of the propagation and coupling characteristics of the core and cladding modes,which clearly illustrate the physical processes involved.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation
Aharonov, D; Kempe, J; Landau, Z; Lloyd, S; Regev, O; Aharonov, Dorit; Dam, Wim van; Kempe, Julia; Landau, Zeph; Lloyd, Seth; Regev, Oded
2004-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power has been unknown. We settle this question and describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum circuit model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes quantum algorithmic questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory a...
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao
2015-01-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid $\\delta P_{nad}$, another is for a general matter field $\\delta P_{c,nad}$, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if $c_s^2=c_w^2$ where $c_s$ is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$. Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, $\\delta P_{c,nad}=0$, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing $A_c$ and $\\delta P_{nad}$ valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as $c_s\
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male). Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006) and ESV (p < 0.001), similar SV (p = 0.51) and lower EF (p = 0.014). No gender differences were seen in the youngest, 11–15 year, age range. LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use
Lorenz, Klaus; Preston, Caroline M
2002-01-01
Condensed tannins can be found in various parts of many plants. Unlike lignin there has been little study of their fate as they enter the soil organic matter pool and their influence on nutrient cycling, especially through their protein-binding properties. We extracted and characterized tannin-rich fractions from humus collected in 1998 from a black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton et al.] forest in Canada where a previous study (1995) showed high levels (3.8% by weight) of condensed tannins. A reference tannin purified from black spruce needles was characterized by solution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a pure procyanidin with mainly cis stereochemistry and an average chain length of four to five units. The colorimetric proanthocyanidin (PA) assay, standardized against the black spruce tannin, showed that both extracted humus fractions had higher tannin contents than the original humus (2.84% and 11.17% vs. 0.08%), and accounted for 32% of humus tannin content. Consistent with the results from the chemical assay, the aqueous fraction showed higher tannin signals in the 13C cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectrum than the emulsified one. As both tannin-rich humus fractions were depleted in N and high in structures derived from lignin and cutin, they did not have properties consistent with recaldtrant tannin-protein complexes proposed as a mechanism for N sequestration in humus. Further studies are needed to establish if tannin-protein structures in humus can be detected or isolated, or if tannins contribute to forest management problems observed in these ecosystems by binding to and slowing down the activity of soil enzymes.
Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S. F.
2012-12-01
We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.
Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-10-01
In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad ≡ δP - cw2 δρ where cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ , usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad = 0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA), which is guaranteed if cw2 = cs2 , where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR) inflation in which cw2 = cs2 = 1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2 = cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.
Quantum pumping in graphene nanoribbons at resonant transmission
Grichuk, E.; Manykin, E.
2010-01-01
Adiabatic quantum charge pumping in graphene nanoribbon double barrier structures with armchair and zigzag edges in the resonant transmission regime is analyzed. Using recursive Green's function method we numerically calculate the pumped charge for pumping contours encircling a resonance. We find that for armchair ribbons the whole resonance line contributes to the pumping of a single electron (ignoring double spin degeneracy) per cycle through the device. The case of zigzag ribbons is more i...
Adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As a first step towards the adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses, here we consider the simplest one-dimensional zero-range potential model. The asymptotic solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the adiabatic regime is obtained and the photoelectron spectrum is calculated. The factorization formula for the photoelectron spectrum in the back-rescattering region, first suggested by Morishita et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008)] on the basis of ab initio calculations, is derived analytically.
Microstructure evolution mechanism in adiabatic shear band in TA2
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨扬; 熊俊; 杨续跃
2004-01-01
The micro structure evolution mechanism in adiabatic shear band in commercial pure titanium (TA2) at high strain rates(γ≈105 - 106/s) were studied. The nanosized recrystallized grains (about 50 nm in diameter) within the center of adiabatic shear band (ASB) were observed by means of transmission electronic microscope (TEM). A Rotational Dynamic Recrystallization (RDR) mechanism can explain the microstructure evolution (i. e. nanosized grains were formed within 5 - 10μs) in ASB. Kinetics calculations indicate that the recrystallized small grains are formed during the deformation and don't undergo significant growth by grain boundary migration after deformation.
Non-adiabatic pumping through interacting quantum dots
Cavaliere, Fabio; Governale, Michele; König, Jürgen
2009-01-01
We study non-adiabatic two-parameter charge and spin pumping through a single-level quantum dot with Coulomb interaction. For the limit of weak tunnel coupling and in the regime of pumping frequencies up to the tunneling rates, $\\Omega \\lesssim \\Gamma/\\hbar$, we perform an exact resummation of contributions of all orders in the pumping frequency. As striking non-adiabatic signatures, we find frequency-dependent phase shifts in the charge and spin currents, which allow for an effective single-...
Nanoscale resolution for fluorescence microscopy via adiabatic passage
Rubio, Juan Luis; Ahufinger, Verònica; Mompart, Jordi
2015-01-01
We propose the use of the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage technique for fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale resolution in the far field. This technique uses a {\\Lambda}-type medium coherently coupled to two laser pulses: the pump, with a node in its spatial profile, and the Stokes. The population of the {\\Lambda} system is adiabatically transferred from one ground state to the other except at the node position, yielding a narrow population peak. This coherent localization allows fluorescence imaging with nanometer lateral resolution. We derive an analytical expression to asses the resolution and perform a comparison with the coherent population trapping and the stimulated-emission-depletion techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiryutin, Alexey S.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Center SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vieth, Hans-Martin [International Tomography Center SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, Berlin 14195 (Germany)
2015-12-21
A method for precise manipulation of non-thermal nuclear spin polarization by switching a RF-field is presented. The method harnesses adiabatic correlation of spin states in the rotating frame. A detailed theory behind the technique is outlined; examples of two-spin and three-spin systems prepared in a non-equilibrium state by Para-Hydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP) are considered. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for converting the initial multiplet polarization of spins into net polarization: compensation of positive and negative lines in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, which is detrimental when the spectral resolution is low, is avoided. Such a conversion is performed for real two-spin and three-spin systems polarized by means of PHIP. Potential applications of the presented technique are discussed for manipulating PHIP and its recent modification termed signal amplification by reversible exchange as well as for preparing and observing long-lived spin states.
Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi
2014-06-01
numerical mass balance calculation model for the adiabatic melting of a dry to hydrous peridotite has been programmed in order to simulate the trace element compositions of basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, ocean islands, and large igneous provinces. The Excel spreadsheet-based calculator, Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1) uses (1) a thermodynamic model of fractional adiabatic melting of mantle peridotite, with (2) the parameterized experimental melting relationships of primitive to depleted mantle sources in terms of pressure, temperature, water content, and degree of partial melting. The trace element composition of the model basalt is calculated from the accumulated incremental melts within the adiabatic melting regime, with consideration for source depletion. The mineralogic mode in the primitive to depleted source mantle in adiabat is calculated using parameterized experimental results. Partition coefficients of the trace elements of mantle minerals are parameterized to melt temperature mostly from a lattice strain model and are tested using the latest compilations of experimental results. The parameters that control the composition of trace elements in the model are as follows: (1) mantle potential temperature, (2) water content in the source mantle, (3) depth of termination of adiabatic melting, and (4) source mantle depletion. HAMMS1 enables us to obtain the above controlling parameters using Monte Carlo fitting calculations and by comparing the calculated basalt compositions to primary basalt compositions. Additionally, HAMMS1 compares melting parameters with a major element model, which uses petrogenetic grids formulated from experimental results, thus providing better constraints on the source conditions.
Efficient isotropic magnetic resonators
Martin, O. J. F.; Gay-Balmaz, P.
2002-01-01
We study experimentally and numerically a novel three-dimensional magnetic resonator structure with high isotropy. It is formed by crossed split-ring resonators and has a response independent of the illumination direction in a specific plane. The utilization of such elements to build a finite left-handed medium is discussed. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Song, Chong; Xu, Jing; Yu, Lin; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2016-09-01
An efficient scheme is proposed for generating n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of n superconducting qubits separated by (n-1) coplanar waveguide resonators capacitively via adiabatic passage with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics in one step. In the scheme, it is not necessary to precisely control the time of the whole operation and the Rabi frequencies of classical fields because of the introduction of adiabatic passage. The numerical simulations for three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state show that the scheme is insensitive to the dissipation of the resonators and the energy relaxation of the superconducting qubits. The three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state can be deterministically generated with comparatively high fidelity in the current experimental conditions, though the scheme is somewhat sensitive to the dephasing of superconducting qubits.
Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun
2016-08-15
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO₂ nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO₂ nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO₂ on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373-1.3500. Due to TiO₂'s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field.
Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun
2016-01-01
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO₂ nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO₂ nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO₂ on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373-1.3500. Due to TiO₂'s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field. PMID:27537885
Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2001-01-01
We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...
Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited
Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.
2012-01-01
The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…
High beta lasing in micropillar cavities with adiabatic layer design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, M.;
2013-01-01
We report on lasing in optically pumped adiabatic micropillar cavities, based on the AlAs/GaAs material system. A detailed study of the threshold pump power and the spontaneous emission β factor in the lasing regime for different diameters dc is presented. We demonstrate a reduction of the thresh...
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit
Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
A Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm for Factorization and Its Experimental Implementation
Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng
2008-01-01
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in an NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. Numerical simulations indicate that the running time grows only quadratically with the number of qubits.
When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…
Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu
2005-01-01
There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the generaltime-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.
Flat FRW Cosmologies with Adiabatic Matter Creation Kinematic tests
Lima, J A S
1999-01-01
Some observational consequences of a cosmological scenario driven by adiabatic matter creation are investigated. Exact expressions for the lookback time, age of the universe, luminosity distance, angular diameter, and galaxy number counts redshift relations are derived and their meaning discussed in detail. The expressions of the conventional FRW models are significantly modified and provide a powerful method to limit the parameters of the models.
A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.
Thomson, R. A. M.
1986-01-01
Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)
Adiabatic and diabatic aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lugauer, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Furger, M.; Jost, D.T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
Synoptic scale vertical motion, here detected by the geopotential height of the 500 hPa surface, mainly accounts for the aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch in winter. In summer, diabatic convection provides the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Nevertheless, synoptic scale adiabatic motion still determines whether diabatic convection can develop. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.
Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid
Dunsby, Peter K S; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like non-relativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both Dark Energy and Dark Matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The $\\Lambda$CDM model is included in this family of theories when $\\gamma = 0$. We fit our model to SNIa, $H(z)$ and BAO data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early-universe and the growth of small per...
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-08
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Mitroy, J.; Tayal, S. S.; Henry, Ronald J. W.; Man, K.-F.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.
1993-01-01
Electron-excitation cross sections are reported for the 3s 2S yields 3p 2P(h, k) resonance transition in Mg(+) at energies from threshold (4.43 eV) to approximately 9 times threshold (40.0 eV). The electron-energy-loss merged-beams technique used in these measurements is described in detail. In addition, the method of separating contributions of the elastically scattered (Coulomb) and the inelastically scattered electrons in the present Mg(+) case and previously reported Zn(+) results is described. Comparisons in the experimental energy range are made for Mg(+) with the two five-state close-coupling theoretical calculations carried out herein, and with other published close-coupling, distorted-wave, and semiempirical calculations. The present Mg(+) cross sections and Zn(+) cross sections from earlier measurements are tabulated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a novel extension of the standard coupled-channel (CC) model in order to account for the steep falloff of fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier incident energies. We introduce a damping factor in the coupling potential in the CC model, simulating smooth transitions from sudden to adiabatic states in deep- subbarrier fusion reactions. The CC model extended with the damping factor can reproduce well not only the steep falloff of the fusion cross section but also the saturation of the logarithmic derivatives for the fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier energies for the 16O+208Pb, 64Ni+64Ni, and 58Ni+58Ni reactions at the deep-subbarrier energies. The important point in our model is that the transition takes place at different places for each Eigen channel. We conclude that the smooth transition from the two-body to the adiabatic one-body potential is responsible for the steep falloff of the fusion cross section
13C, 15N Resonance Assignment of Parts of the HET-s Prion Protein in its Amyloid Form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The partial 15N and 13C solid-state NMR resonance assignment of the HET-s prion protein fragment 218-289 in its amyloid form is presented. It is based on experiments measured at MAS frequencies in the range of 20-40 kHz using exclusively adiabatic polarization-transfer schemes. The resonance assignment within each residue is based on two-dimensional 13C--13C correlation spectra utilizing the DREAM mixing scheme. The sequential linking of the assigned residues used a set of two- and three-dimensional 15N--13C correlation experiments. Almost all cross peaks visible in the spectra are assigned, but only resonances from 43 of the 78 amino-acid residues could be detected. The missing residues are thought to be highly disordered and/or highly dynamic giving rise to broad resonance lines that escaped detection in the experiments applied. The line widths of the observed resonances are narrow and comparable to line widths observed in micro-crystalline samples. The 43 assigned residues are located in two fragments of about 20 residues
Neutrino Production of Resonances
Paschos, E A; Yu, J Y; Paschos, Emmanuel A.; Sakuda, Makoto; Yu, Ji--Young
2004-01-01
We take a fresh look at the analysis of resonance production by neutrinos. We consider three resonances $P_{33}, P_{11}$ and $S_{11}$ with a detailed discussion of their form factors. The article presents results for free proton and neutron targets and discusses the corrections which appear on nuclear targets. The Pauli suppression factor is derived in the Fermi gas model and shown to apply to resonance production. The importance of the various resonances is demonstrated with numerical calculations. The $\\Delta$-resonance is described by two formfactors and its differential cross sections are compared with experimental data. The article is self-contained and could be helpful to readers who wish to reproduce and use these cross sections.
Ion motion in the current sheet with sheared magnetic field – Part 2: Non-adiabatic effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Artemyev
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate dynamics of charged particles in current sheets with the sheared magnetic field. In our previouspaper (Artemyev et al., 2013 we studied the particle motion in such magnetic field configurations on the basis of the quasi-adiabatic theory and conservation of the quasi-adiabatic invariant. In this paper we concentrate on violation of the adiabaticity due to jumps of this invariant and the corresponding effects of stochastization of a particle motion. We compare effects of geometrical and dynamical jumps, which occur due to the presence of the separatrix in the phase plane of charged particle motion. We show that due to the presence of the magnetic field shear, the average value of dynamical jumps is not equal to zero. This effect results in the decrease of the time interval necessary for stochastization of trapped particle motion. We investigate also the effect of the magnetic field shear on transient trajectories, which cross the current sheet boundaries. Presence of the magnetic field shear leads to the asymmetry of reflection and transition of particles in the current sheet. We discuss the possible influence of single-particle effects revealed in this paper on the current sheet structure and dynamics.
Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands
Mathai, C. V.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.
1977-01-01
An acoustic excitation technique is used to determine the adiabatic pressure derivative of the spectral absorptance of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands, and the 3.5 micron HCl band. The dependence of this derivative on thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, concentration, and pressure is evaluated. A cross-flow water vapor system is used to measure spectral absorptance. Taking F as the ratio of nonrigid to rotor line strengths, it is found that an F factor correction is needed for the 2.7 micron band. The F factor for the 1.9 micron band is also determined. In the wings of each band a wavelength can be found where the concentration dependence is predominant. Farther out in the wings a local maximum occurs for the temperature derivative. It is suggested that the pressure derivative is significant in the core of the band.
Dark energy with non-adiabatic sound speed: initial conditions and detectability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2010-10-01
Assuming that the universe contains a dark energy fluid with a constant linear equation of state and a constant sound speed, we study the prospects of detecting dark energy perturbations using CMB data from Planck, cross-correlated with galaxy distribution maps from a survey like LSST. We update previous estimates by carrying a full exploration of the mock data likelihood for key fiducial models. We find that it will only be possible to exclude values of the sound speed very close to zero, while Planck data alone is not powerful enough for achieving any detection, even with lensing extraction. We also discuss the issue of initial conditions for dark energy perturbations in the radiation and matter epochs, generalizing the usual adiabatic conditions to include the sound speed effect. However, for most purposes, the existence of attractor solutions renders the perturbation evolution nearly independent of these initial conditions.
Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Makhov, Dmitry V; Tretiak, Sergei; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2016-04-21
Photoinduced dynamics of electronic and vibrational unidirectional energy transfer between meta-linked building blocks in a phenylene ethynylene dendrimer is simulated using a multiconfigurational Ehrenfest in time-dependent diabatic basis (MCE-TDDB) method, a new variant of the MCE approach developed by us for dynamics involving multiple electronic states with numerous abrupt crossings. Excited-state energies, gradients and non-adiabatic coupling terms needed for dynamics simulation are calculated on-the-fly using the Collective Electron Oscillator (CEO) approach. A comparative analysis of our results obtained using MCE-TDDB, the conventional Ehrenfest method and the surface-hopping approach with and without decoherence corrections is presented. PMID:27004611
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈颖
2011-01-01
描述了电除尘器高频电源串联谐振电路中零电流谐振开关技术,分析电流互感器的设计,并设计了谐振电流过零检测电路,给出了实验结果与实验波形.%This paper describes zero-current-switching technology of series resonant converter which can be applied to high frequency power supply for ESP, and analysis the design of current transformer. On this basis, circuit of the resonant current zero-crossing detection is designed. The experimental results and the experimental waveforms are also given.
Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2016-02-07
Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces thereby opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes like the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.
Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids
On some issues of gravitationally induced adiabatic particle productions
Pan, Supriya; Pramanik, Souvik
2016-01-01
In this work, we investigate the current accelerating universe driven by the gravitationally induced adiabatic matter creation process. To elaborate the underlying cognitive content, here we consider three models of adiabatic particle creation and constrain the model parameters by fitting the models with the Union 2.1 data set using $\\chi^2$ minimization technique. The models are analyzed by two geometrical and model independent tests, viz., cosmography and $Om$-diagnostic, which are widely used to distinguish the cosmological models from $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compared present values of those model independent parameters with that of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium for the particle production models have been tested.
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-01-01
Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The simplest model of plasma dynamics is the adiabatic model. In this model the plasma is assumed to be in MHD equilibrium at each instant of time. The equilibria are connected by the requirement that they all have the same entropy per unit flux, i.e., the equilibria form a sequence generated by adiabatic changes. The standard way of computing such a sequence of equilibria was developed by Grad, but its practical use requires a fairly complicated code. It would be helpful if approximately the same results could be gotten either with a much simpler code or by analytical techniques. A one-dimensional equilibrium code is described and its results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium. An even simpler analytic calculation is then presented
Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection
Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas
2014-01-01
We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitationenergies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connectionlinks the non-interacting Kohn-Sham electronic system to the physicalinteracting system by progressively switching on theelectron-electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting aone-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-statedensity constant. The interactions are introduced in arange-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range,and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached,as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where theinteractions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction.Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H2molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potentialat the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb'sLegendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron-electroninteractions increases, the excitation energies, ...
Improved Refrigerant Characteristics Flow Predictions in Adiabatic Capillary Tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shodiya Sulaimon
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This study presents improved refrigerant characteristics flow predictions using homogenous flow model in adiabatic capillary tube, used in small vapor compression refrigeration system. The model is based on fundamental equations of mass, momentum and energy. In order to improve the flow predictions, the inception of vaporization in the capillary tube is determined by evaluating initial vapor quality using enthalpy equation of refrigerant at saturation point and the inlet entrance effect of the capillary tube is also accounted for. Comparing this model with experimental data from open literature showed a reasonable agreement. Further comparison of this new model with earlier model of Bansal showed that the present model could be use to improve the performance predictions of refrigerant flow in adiabatic capillary tube.
Adiabatic far-field sub-diffraction imaging
Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-08-01
The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decays in space and thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here an adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far-field optical systems to project an image of the near-field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50 nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale.
DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong
2013-01-01
By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63％ less than the conventional Domino counterpart.
Adiabatic theory of solitons fed by dispersive waves
Pickartz, Sabrina; Bandelow, Uwe; Amiranashvili, Shalva
2016-09-01
We consider scattering of low-amplitude dispersive waves at an intense optical soliton which constitutes a nonlinear perturbation of the refractive index. Specifically, we consider a single-mode optical fiber and a group velocity matched pair: an optical soliton and a nearly perfectly reflected dispersive wave, a fiber-optical analog of the event horizon. By combining (i) an adiabatic approach that is used in soliton perturbation theory and (ii) scattering theory from quantum mechanics, we give a quantitative account of the evolution of all soliton parameters. In particular, we quantify the increase in the soliton peak power that may result in the spontaneous appearance of an extremely large, so-called champion soliton. The presented adiabatic theory agrees well with the numerical solutions of the pulse propagation equation. Moreover, we predict the full frequency band of the scattered dispersive waves and explain an emerging caustic structure in the space-time domain.
Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendoza, I., E-mail: ivanmendozabravo@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Villalobos, D. [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Alexandrov, B.T. [The Ohio State University (United States)
2015-10-01
This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.
Lefort, Ronan; Bordat, Patrice; Cesaro, Attilio; Descamps, Marc
2007-01-01
This paper uses chemical shift surfaces to simulate experimental C13 cross polarization magic angle spinning spectra for amorphous solid state disaccharides, paying particular attention to the glycosidic linkage atoms in trehalose, sucrose, and lactose. The combination of molecular mechanics with density functional theory/gauge invariant atomic orbital ab initio methods provides reliable structural information on the conformational distribution in the glass. The results are interpreted in terms of an enhanced flexibility that trehalose possesses in the amorphous solid state, at least on the time scale of C13 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Implications of these findings for the fragility of trehalose glass and bioprotectant action are discussed.
Hypercomputability of quantum adiabatic processes: Fact versus Prejudices
Kieu, T D
2005-01-01
We give an overview of a quantum adiabatic algorithm for Hilbert's tenth problem, including some discussions on its fundamental aspects and the emphasis on the probabilistic correctness of its findings. For the purpose of illustration, the numerical simulation results of some simple Diophantine equations are presented. We also discuss some prejudicial misunderstandings as well as some plausible difficulties faced by the algorithm in its physical implementation.
High-Fidelity Entangled Bell States via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Paul, Koushik
2016-01-01
We present a couple of protocols based on shortcut to adiabaticity techniques for rapid generation of robust entangled Bell states in a system of two two-state systems. Our protocols rely on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm and Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (LRI) method. Both TQD and LRI methods result in high fidelity in population transfer.Our study shows that it is possible to prepare an entangled state in infinitely short time without losing robustness and efficiency.
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-04-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
Geometry of adiabatic Hamiltonians for two-level quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the formulation of the problem of the coherent dynamics of quantum mechanical two-level systems in the adiabatic region in terms of the differential geometry of plane curves. We show that there is a natural plane curve corresponding to the Hamiltonian of the system for which the geometrical quantities have a simple physical interpretation. In particular, the curvature of the curve has the role of the nonadiabatic coupling. (paper)
Quantum pumping with adiabatically modulated barriers in graphene
Zhu, Rui; Chen, Huiming
2009-01-01
We study the adiabatic quantum pumping characteristics in the graphene modulated by two oscillating gate potentials out of phase. The angular and energy dependence of the pumped current is presented. The direction of the pumped current can be reversed when a high barrier demonstrates stronger transparency than a low one, which results from the Klein paradox. The underlying physics of the pumping process is illuminated.
Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2013-03-15
In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.
Linear response of galactic halos to adiabatic gravitational perturbations
Murali, Chigurupati; Tremaine, Scott
1997-01-01
We determine the response of a self-similar isothermal stellar system to small adiabatic gravitational perturbations. For odd spherical harmonics, the response is identical to the response of the analogous isothermal fluid system. For even spherical harmonics, the response can be regarded as an infinite series of wavetrains in $\\log r$, implying alternating compression and rarefaction in equal logarithmic radius intervals. Partly because of the oscillatory nature of the solutions, tidal field...
Moll, Jochen
2016-09-01
This work is based on the experimental observation that the phase and group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric wave mode in a composite structure with linearly varying thickness changes as it propagates along the nonuniform waveguide (Moll et al., 2015). This adiabatic wave motion leads to systematic damage localization errors of conventional algorithms because a constant wave velocity is assumed in the reconstruction process. This paper presents a generalized beamforming approach for composite structures with nonuniform cross section that eliminates this systematic error. Damage localization results will be presented and discussed in comparison to existing techniques. PMID:27317966
Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process
Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin
2015-05-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Adiabatic Shear Mechanisms for the Hard Cutting Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUE Caixu; WANG Bo; LIU Xianli; FENG Huize; CAI Chunbin
2015-01-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remalns some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high straln domaln caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Irreconcilable difference between quantum walks and adiabatic quantum computing
Wong, Thomas G.; Meyer, David A.
2016-06-01
Continuous-time quantum walks and adiabatic quantum evolution are two general techniques for quantum computing, both of which are described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolutions by Schrödinger's equation. In the former, the Hamiltonian is fixed, while in the latter, the Hamiltonian varies with time. As a result, their formulations of Grover's algorithm evolve differently through Hilbert space. We show that this difference is fundamental; they cannot be made to evolve along each other's path without introducing structure more powerful than the standard oracle for unstructured search. For an adiabatic quantum evolution to evolve like the quantum walk search algorithm, it must interpolate between three fixed Hamiltonians, one of which is complex and introduces structure that is stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Conversely, for a quantum walk to evolve along the path of the adiabatic search algorithm, it must be a chiral quantum walk on a weighted, directed star graph with structure that is also stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Thus, the two techniques, although similar in being described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolution, compute by fundamentally irreconcilable means.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems
Numerical study of polaron problem in the adiabatic limit
Marsiglio, Frank; Li, Zhou; Blois, Cindy; Baillie, Devin
2010-03-01
We study the polaron problem in a one dimensional chain and on a two dimensional square lattice. The models we have used are the Holstein model and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. By a variational procedure based on the Lanczos method, we are able to examine the polaron problem in the limit when the mass of the ion is very large, i.e. close to the adiabatic limit. It is known that for the Holstein model there is no phase transition [1] for any nonzero phonon energy. It is also known that for the one dimensional Holstein or SSH model there will be long range order [2] (e.g. dimerization) in the adiabatic limit at half-filling. It is then interesting to study the long range order on a two dimensional square lattice in and away from the adiabatic limit. Moreover, recent progress for the single polaron near an impurity (disorder) [3] make it an interesting problem for studying bond length disorder which can change the hopping energy in a specific direction in the Holstein model. Reference: [1] H. Lowen, Phys.Rev.B 37, 8661 (1988) [2] J.E.Hirsch and E. Frandkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 402 (1982) [3]A.S.Mishchenko et.al Phys.Rev.B 79(2009) 180301(R)
Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning
Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-03-01
A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.
Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing
Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen
2016-07-01
Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixed parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the "super-adiabatic" growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision-coalescence in warm clouds.
NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.
Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil
2008-03-28
NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911
Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar
2011-10-01
A three-level atom in a conﬁguration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efﬁcient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high ﬁdelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We ﬁnd that the ﬁdelity of storage is better, the stronger the control ﬁeld and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control ﬁeld. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.
Tiwari, Vivek
2015-05-01
Understanding the fundamental physics of light-harvesting in both, natural and artificial systems is key for the development of efficient light-harvesting technologies. My thesis addresses the following topics, i.) the mechanism underlying the remarkably efficient electronic energy transfer in natural light harvesting antennas, ii.) a femtosecond time-resolved photonumeric technique to quantitatively characterize transient chemical species. This talk will concentrate on the first project, while briefly touching the key ideas of the second project. Light harvesting antennas use a set of closely spaced pigment molecules held in a controlled relative geometry by a protein. It is shown that in certain antenna proteins the excited state electronic energy gaps between the pigments are resonant with a quantum of pigment vibrational energy. With such a vibrational-electronic resonance, anti-correlated motions between the pigments lead to a strong coupling between the electronic and nuclear motions, that is, breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, over a wide range of pigment vibrational motions. It is shown that the 2D spectroscopic signatures of the resulting unavoidable nested non-adiabatic energy funnel on the excited states of photosynthetic antennas are consistent with all the reported 2D signatures of long-lived coherent oscillations, including the ones that are not explained by prior models of excited state electronic energy transfer. Extensions that account for both resonant and near-resonant pigment vibrations suggest that photosynthetic energy transfer presents a novel design in which electronic energy transfer proceeds non-adiabatically through clusters of vibrations with frequencies distributed around electronic energy gaps. I will also briefly talk about our experiments demonstrating quantitative time-resolved measurement of absolute number of excited state molecules. Based on these measurements, an all-optical technique that simultaneously determines
Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment
Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph
2010-01-01
Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.
Revisiting the theory of the evolution of pick-up ion distributions: magnetic or adiabatic cooling?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Fahr
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We study the phasespace behaviour of heliospheric pick-up ions after the time of their injection as newly created ions into the solar wind bulk flow from either charge exchange or photoionization of interplanetary neutral atoms. As interaction with the ambient MHD wave fields we allow for rapid pitch angle diffusion, but for the beginning of this paper we shall neglect the effect of quasilinear or nonlinear energy diffusion (Fermi-2 acceleration induced by counterflowing ambient waves. In the up-to-now literature connected with the convection of pick-up ions by the solar wind only adiabatic cooling of these ions is considered which in the solar wind frame takes care of filling the gap between the injection energy and energies of the thermal bulk of solar wind ions. Here we reinvestigate the basics of the theory behind this assumption of adiabatic pick-up ion reactions and correlated predictions derived from it. We then compare it with the new assumption of a pure magnetic cooling of pick-up ions simply resulting from their being convected in an interplanetary magnetic field which decreases in magnitude with increase of solar distance. We compare the results for pick-up ion distribution functions derived along both ways and can point out essential differences of observational and diagnostic relevance. Furthermore we then include stochastic acceleration processes by wave-particle interactions. As we can show, magnetic cooling in conjunction with diffusive acceleration by wave-particle interaction allows for an unbroken power law with the unique power index γ=−5 beginning from lowest velocities up to highest energy particles of about 100 KeV which just marginally can be in resonance with magnetoacoustic turbulences. Consequences for the resulting pick-up ion pressures are also analysed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iwamoto Akira
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel extension of the standard coupled-channel (CC model in order to account for the steep falloff of fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier incident energies. We introduce a damping factor in the coupling potential in the CC model, simulating smooth transitions from sudden to adiabatic states in deepsubbarrier fusion reactions. The CC model extended with the damping factor can reproduce well not only the steep falloff of the fusion cross section but also the saturation of the logarithmic derivatives for the fusion cross sections at deep-subbarier energies for the 16O+208Pb, 64Ni+64Ni, and 58Ni+58Ni reactions at the deep-subbarrier energies.
Three-particle decays of light-nuclei resonances
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Jensen, A.S.; Garrido, E.;
2012-01-01
We have studied the three-particle decay of 12C, 9Be and 6Be resonances. These nuclei have been described as three-body systems by means of the complex scaled hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. The short-distance part of the wave function is responsible for the energies, whereas the infor...
Experimental Analysis of Stochastic Resonance in a Duffing System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Fu-Zhong; CHEN Wei-Shi; QIN Guang-Rong; GUO De-Yong; LIU Jun-Ling
2003-01-01
An experimental circuit is used to study the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomena in a Duffing system. The characteristics ofSR are investigated from various aspects by varying all the possible parameters. The deviations between the experimental results and the adiabatic theory are presented.
Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino
2013-01-01
Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…
Systematic investigations of deep sub-barrier fusion reactions using an adiabatic approach
Ichikawa, Takatoshi
2015-12-01
Background: At extremely low incident energies, unexpected decreases in fusion cross sections, compared to the standard coupled-channels (CC) calculations, have been observed in a wide range of fusion reactions. These significant reductions of the fusion cross sections are often referred to as the fusion hindrance. However, the physical origin of the fusion hindrance is still unclear. Purpose: To describe the fusion hindrance based on an adiabatic approach, I propose a novel extension of the standard CC model by introducing a damping factor that describes a smooth transition from sudden to adiabatic processes, that is, the transition from the separated two-body to the united dinuclear system. I demonstrate the performance of this model by systematically investigating various deep sub-barrier fusion reactions. Method: I extend the standard CC model by introducing a damping factor into the coupling matrix elements in the standard CC model. This avoids double counting of the CC effects, when two colliding nuclei overlap one another. I adopt the Yukawa-plus-exponential (YPE) model as a basic heavy ion-ion potential, which is advantageous for a unified description of the one- and two-body potentials. For the purpose of these systematic investigations, I approximate the one-body potential with a third-order polynomial function based on the YPE model. Results: Calculated fusion cross sections for the medium-heavy mass systems of 64Ni+64Ni , 58Ni+58Ni , and 58Ni+54Fe , the medium-light mass systems of 40Ca+40Ca , 48Ca+48Ca , and 24Mg+30Si , and the mass-asymmetric systems of 48Ca+96Zr and 16O+208Pb are consistent with the experimental data. The astrophysical S factor and logarithmic derivative representations of these are also in good agreement with the experimental data. The values obtained for the individual radius and diffuseness parameters in the damping factor, which reproduce the fusion cross sections well, are nearly equal to the average value for all the systems
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis
2014-01-01
Measurements of four-lepton (4$\\ell$, $\\ell=e,\\mu$) production cross sections at the $Z$ resonance in $pp$ collisions at the LHC with the ATLAS detector are presented. For dilepton and four-lepton invariant mass region $m_{\\ell^+\\ell^-} > 5$ GeV and $80 < m_{4\\ell} < 100$ GeV, the measured cross sections are $76 \\pm 18 \\text { (stat) } \\pm 4 \\text { (syst) } \\pm 1.4 \\text { (lumi) }$ fb and $107 \\pm 9 \\text{ (stat) } \\pm 4 \\text{ (syst) } \\pm 3.0 \\text { (lumi) }$ fb at $\\sqrt s$ = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. By subtracting the non-resonant 4$\\ell$ production contributions and normalizing with $Z\\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^-$ events, the branching fraction for the $Z$~boson decay to $4\\ell$ is determined to be ($3.20 \\pm 0.25 \\text { (stat) } \\pm 0.13 \\text { (syst) }) \\times 10^{-6}$, consistent with the Standard Model prediction.
Katoh, T; Furutaka, K; Harada, H; Fujiwara, K; Fujii, T; Yamana, H
2003-01-01
The thermal neutron capture cross section (sigma sub 0) and the resonance integral (I sub 0) of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np have been measured by an activation method to supply basic data for the study of transmutation of nuclear waste. The neutron irradiation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np samples have been done at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). Samples of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np were irradiated between two Cd sheets or without a Cd sheet. Since sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np has a strong resonance at the energy of 0.49eV, the Cd cut-off energy was adjusted at 0.358 eV (thickness of the Cd sheets: 0.125 mm). A high purity Ge detector was employed for activity measurement. The reaction rate to produce sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Np from sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np was analyzed by the Westcott's convention. Results obtained were 141.7+-5.4 barns for sigma sub 0 and 862+-51 barns for I sub 0 above 0.358eV of sup 2 sup 7 sup 3 Np. By setting the Cd cut-off energy at 0.358eV considering the resonance at 0.49 eV, a smaller value of ...
Interaction of plasma vortices with resonant particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinetic effects associated with the electron motion along magnetic field lines in low-beta plasmas are studied. Using the gyrokinetic description of electrons, a kinetic analog of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations is derived, and it is shown that in the strongly nonlinear regime they possess localized solutions in the form of dipolar vortices, which can efficiently interact with resonant electrons. In the adiabatic limit, evolution equations are derived for the vortex parameters, describing exchange of the energy, enstrophy, and of the Poynting vector between the vortex and resonant particles. The evolution equations indicate the possibility of excitation of plasma vortices by electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method based on the method of reduction is proposed for the evaluation of photonuclear reaction cross sections have been obtained at significant systematic uncertainties (different apparatus functions, calibration and normalization uncertainties). The evaluation method consists of using the real apparatus function (photon spectrum) of each individual experiment to reduce the data to a representation generated by an apparatus function of better quality. The task is to find the most reasonably achievable monoenergetic representation (MRAMR) of the information about cross section contained in different experiment observables and to take into account the experimental uncertainties of calibration and normalization procedures. The method was used to obtain the evaluated total photoneutron (γ, xn) reaction cross sections for 16O, 28Si, natCu, 141Pr, and 208Pb are presented. 79 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs
Applications of Adiabatic Approximation to One- and Two-electron Phenomena in Strong Laser Fields
Bondar, Denys
2010-01-01
The adiabatic approximation is a natural approach for the description of phenomena induced by low frequency laser radiation because the ratio of the laser frequency to the characteristic frequency of an atom or a molecule is a small parameter. Since the main aim of this work is the study of ionization phenomena, the version of the adiabatic approximation that can account for the transition from a bound state to the continuum must be employed. Despite much work in this topic, a universally accepted adiabatic approach of bound-free transitions is lacking. Hence, based on Savichev's modified adiabatic approximation [Sov. Phys. JETP 73, 803 (1991)], we first of all derive the most convenient form of the adiabatic approximation for the problems at hand. Connections of the obtained result with the quasiclassical approximation and other previous investigations are discussed. Then, such an adiabatic approximation is applied to single-electron ionization and non-sequential double ionization of atoms in a strong low fr...
Soo-Min Choi; Hyun Min Lee
2016-01-01
We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1)D. After the U(1)D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic...
Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres
Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier
2015-12-01
Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage analogues in classical physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rangelov, A A [University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Vitanov, N V [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Shore, B W [618 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA (United States)
2009-03-14
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is a well-established technique for producing coherent population transfer in a three-state quantum system. We here exploit the resemblance between the Schroedinger equation for such a quantum system and the Newton equation of motion for a classical system undergoing torque to discuss several classical analogues of STIRAP, notably the motion of a moving charged particle subject to the Lorentz force of a quasistatic magnetic field, the orientation of a magnetic moment in a slowly varying magnetic field and the Coriolis effect. Like STIRAP, these phenomena occur for counterintuitive motion of the torque and are robustly insensitive to small changes in the interaction properties.
Analysis of interference in attosecond transient absorption in adiabatic condition
Dong, Wenpu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Zengxiu
2015-01-01
We simulate the transient absorption of attosecond pulses of infrared laser-dressed atoms by considering a three-level system with the adiabatic approximation. We study the delay-dependent interference features in the transient absorption spectra of helium atoms from the perspective of the coherent interaction processes between the attosecond pulse and the quasi-harmonics, and find that many features of the interference fringes in the absorption spectra of the attosecond pulse can be attributed to the coherence phase difference. And the modulation signals of laser-induced sidebands of the dark state is found related to the dark state with population modulated by the dressing field.
Simulation on refrigerant flow in adiabatic capillary tube
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meixia WANG; Cunfang LIU; Qiangtai ZHOU
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a new mathematical model to calculate flow characteristics of the adiabatic capillary tube, which is aimed at solving problems existing in some earlier models. The Stocker's model was modified with consideration of various effects due to sub-cooling, area concentration, and rolling diameter. The new model can be used not only for R22, but also for its substitutes such as R410A and R407C. A comparison of simulation results of the modified model with those in literature showed that the errors are within 10%. The flow charac-teristics are finally analyzed.
Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case
Shapiro, P. R.
1979-01-01
Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.
From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2016-08-01
Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic X Y spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.
Non-adiabatic study of the Kepler subgiant KIC 6442183
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grosjean M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thanks to the precision of Kepler observations, [3] were able to measure the linewidth and amplitude of individual modes (including mixed modes in several subgiant power spectra. We perform a forward modelling of a Kepler subgiant based on surface properties and observed frequencies. Non-adiabatic computations including a time- dependent treatment of convection give the lifetimes of radial and non-radial modes. Next, combining the lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model gives the amplitudes of the modes. We can now directly compare theoretical and observed linewidths and amplitudes of mixed-modes to obtain new constraints on our theoretical models.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Adiabatic Cooling and Nuclear Magnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Viertiö, H. E.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
in experimental studies of nuclear magnetism using adiabatic demagnetization methods. It is found that, although fluctuations reduce the transition temperatures by 40%, the isentropes are reduced by less than 10% relative to those calculated by mean-field theory. The dynamics of the ordering process following...... constant-temperature or constant-magnetic-field quenches into the antiferromagnetic phase is found at late times to obey the classical Allen-Cahn growth law. The qualitative features of isentropic quenches and the nonequilibrium ordering phenomena during controlled heating treatments at constant rate...
Fast CNOT gate via shortcuts to adiabatic passage
Wang, Zhe; Xia, Yan; Chen, Ye-Hong; Song, Jie
2016-10-01
Based on the shortcuts to adiabatic passage, we propose a scheme for directly implementing a controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. Moreover, we generalize the scheme to realize a CNOT gate in two separate cavities connected by an optical fiber. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the schemes are fast and insensitive to the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission and photon leakage. In addition, the schemes can provide a theoretical basis for the manipulation of the multiqubit quantum gates in distant nodes of a quantum network.
Modeling of the Adiabatic and Isothermal Methanation Process
Porubova, Jekaterina; Bazbauers, Gatis; Markova, Darja
2011-01-01
Increased use of biomass offers one of the ways to reduce anthropogenic impact on the environment. Using various biomass conversion processes, it is possible to obtain different types of fuels: • solid, e.g. bio-carbon; • liquid, e.g. biodiesel and ethanol; • gaseous, e.g. biomethane. Biomethane can be used in the transport and energy sector, and the total methane production efficiency can reach 65%. By modeling adiabatic and isothermal methanation processes, the most effective one from the methane production point of view is defined. Influence of the process parameters on the overall efficiency of the methane production is determined.
Landau-Zener Transitions in an Adiabatic Quantum Computer
Johansson, J; Amin, M. H. S.; Berkley, A. J.; Bunyk, P.; Choi, V.; Harris, R.; Johnson, M. W.; Lanting, T. M.; Lloyd, Seth; ROSE, G
2008-01-01
We report an experimental measurement of Landau-Zener transitions on an individual flux qubit within a multi-qubit superconducting chip designed for adiabatic quantum computation. The method used isolates a single qubit, tunes its tunneling amplitude Delta into the limit where Delta is much less than both the temperature T and the decoherence-induced energy level broadening, and forces it to undergo a Landau-Zener transition. We find that the behavior of the qubit agrees to a high degree of a...
ADELE adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Status and perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Deutschland Holding GmbH, Garching (Germany). GE Global Research Renewable Energy Systems Lab.; Marquardt, Roland; Moser, Peter [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Research and Development Innovative Power Plant Technology
2013-06-01
This paper gives an overview about compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology and a summary of the ADELE programme, a multi-year R and D programme undertaken by a consortium led by RWE Power to develop adiabatic (A) CAES technology and commercialise the first plant. The ACAES technology is to utilise waste heat developing upon compression in order to increase the entire efficiency. The ADELE-ING project is to provide the basis for making the decision on the construction of a 85 MW prototype. (orig.)
Adiabatic transport of qubits around a black hole
Viennot, David
2016-01-01
We consider localized qubits evolving around a black hole following a quantum adiabatic dynamics. We develop a geometric structure (based on fibre bundles) permitting to describe the quantum states of a qubit and the spacetime geometry in a single framework. The quantum decoherence induced by the black hole on the qubit is analysed in this framework (the role of the dynamical and geometric phases in this decoherence is treated), especially for the quantum teleportation protocol when one qubit falls to the event horizon. A simple formula to compute the fidelity of the teleportation is derived. The case of a Schwarzschild black hole is analysed.
Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice
McGeoch, Catherine C
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov
Plasma heating via adiabatic magnetic compression-expansion cycle
Avinash, K.; Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.
2016-06-01
Heating of collisionless plasmas in closed adiabatic magnetic cycle comprising of a quasi static compression followed by a non quasi static constrained expansion against a constant external pressure is proposed. Thermodynamic constraints are derived to show that the plasma always gains heat in cycles having at least one non quasi static process. The turbulent relaxation of the plasma to the equilibrium state at the end of the non quasi static expansion is discussed and verified via 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations. Applications of this scheme to heating plasmas in open configurations (mirror machines) and closed configurations (tokamak, reverse field pinche) are discussed.
Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.
Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M
2012-07-20
The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate.
Perturbation to Lie symmetry and another type of Hojman adiabatic invariants for Birkhoffian systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Ning; Fang Jian-Hui; Chen Xiang-Xia
2008-01-01
The perturbation to Lie symmetry and another type of Hojman adiabatic invariants induced from the perturbation to Lie symmetry for Birkhoffian systems are studied. The exact invariants of Lie symmetry for the system without perturbation are given. Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to Lie symmetry is discussed and another new type of Hojman adiabatic invariants that have the different form from that in [Acta Phys. Sin. 55 3833] for the perturbed system are obtained.
Quantum pumping in closed systems, adiabatic transport, and the Kubo formula
Cohen, Doron
2003-01-01
Quantum pumping in closed systems is considered. We explain that the Kubo formula contains all the physically relevant ingredients for the calculation of the pumped charge ($Q$) within the framework of linear response theory. The relation to the common formulations of adiabatic transport and ``geometric magnetism" is clarified. We distinguish between adiabatic and dissipative contributions to $Q$. On the one hand we observe that adiabatic pumping does not have to be quantized. On the other ha...
Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.; Rzeszotarski, B.; Adamowski, J.
2016-09-01
The tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor (HM/CM/SC) junctions is investigated with the use of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the framework of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Due to the spin band separation in the HM, the conductance in the subgap region is mainly determined by the anomalous Andreev reflection, the probability of which strongly depends on the spin transmission in the CM layer. We show that the spins of electrons injected from the HM can be transmitted through the CM to the SC either adiabatically or non-adiabatically depending on the period of the spatial modulation of the exchange field. We find that the conductance in the subgap region oscillates as a function of the CM layer thickness wherein the oscillations transform from the irregular pattern in the non-adiabatic regime to the regular one in the adiabatic regime. For both adiabatic and non-adiabatic transport regimes the conductance is studied over a broad range of parameters determining the spiral magnetization in the CM. We find that in the non-adiabatic regime, the decrease of the exchange field amplitude in the CM leads to the emergence of the conductance peak for the particular CM thickness in agreement with recent experiments.
Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions
Fossez, K; Nazarewicz, W; Michel, N; Garrett, W R; Płoszajczak, M
2016-01-01
In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as extreme halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-molecule problem using a non-adiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational ban...
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
The Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, RFQD, which further decelerates antiprotons ejected from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Starting from a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy 5.3 MeV), the RFQD delivers very-low-energy antiprotons, adjustable between 10 and 110 keV, to the experiment ASACUSA. In picture _02, the view from the upstream end shows its 4-rod structure, traversing 35 resonator chambers formed by the vertical partitions. The tank has an inner diameter of 390 mm and is pumped to a vacuum of a few E-8 Torr.
Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) Among Degenerate-Level Manifolds
Kis, Z; Shore, B W; Vitanov, N V; Kis, Zsolt; Karpati, Attila; Shore, Bruce W.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2004-01-01
We examine the conditions needed to accomplish stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) when the three levels (g, e and f) are degenerate, with arbitrary couplings contributing to the pump-pulse interaction (g - e) and to the Stokes-pulse interaction (e-f). We show that in general a sufficient condition for complete population removal from the g set of degenerate states for arbitrary, pure or mixed, initial state is that the degeneracies should not decrease along the sequence g, e and f. We show that when this condition holds it is possible to achieve the degenerate counterpart of conventional STIRAP, whereby adiabatic passage produces complete population transfer. Indeed, the system is equivalent to a set of independent three-state systems, in each of which a STIRAP procedure can be implemented. We describe a scheme of unitary transformations that produces this result. We also examine the cases when this degeneracy constraint does not hold, and show what can be accomplished in those cases. For example, fo...
Adiabatic creation of coherent superposition states via multiple intermediate states
Karpati, A
2003-01-01
We consider an adiabatic population transfer process that resembles the well established stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). In our system, the states have nonzero angular momentums $J$, therefore, the coupling laser fields induce transitions among the magnetic sublevels of the states. In particular, we discuss the possibility of creating coherent superposition states in a system with coupling pattern $J=0\\Leftrightarrow J=1$ and $J=1\\Leftrightarrow J=2$. Initially, the system is in the J=0 state. We show that by two delayed, overlapping laser pulses it is possible to create any final superposition state of the magnetic sublevels $|2,-2>$, $|2,0>$, $|2,+2>$. Moreover, we find that the relative phases of the applied pulses influence not only the phases of the final superposition state but the probability amplitudes as well. We show that if we fix the shape and the time-delay between the pulses, the final state space can be entirely covered by varying the polarizations and relative phases of the two pu...
General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity
Romano, Antonio Enea
2016-01-01
We study the background conditions for a bounce in a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term $K(X)$. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter $H$ changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for $K(X)$ and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic $K$, and the other on a $K$ which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces. In models where the bounce occurs when the potential is not constant, large non adiabatic perturbations are produced, which can in turn source the growth of anisotropies. In the region where these models have a constant potential they became adiabatic on any scale and because of thi...
The 0.1K bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization
Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Kittel, P.; Werner, M.
1983-01-01
The most straightforward way of reducing the noise equivalent power of bolometers is to lower their operating temperature. We have been exploring the possibility of using conventionally constructed bolometers at ultra-low temperatures to achieve NEP's suitable to the background environment of cooled space telescopes. We have chosen the technique of adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt as a gravity independent, compact, and low power way to achieve temperatures below pumped He-3 (0.3 K). The demagnetization cryostat we used was capable of reaching temperatures below 0.08 K using Chromium Potassium Alum as a salt from a starting temperature of 1.5 K and a starting magnetic field of 30,000 gauss. Computer control of the magnetic field decay allowed a temperature of 0.2 K to be maintained to within 0.5 mK over a time period exceeding 14 hours. The refrigerator duty cycle was over 90 percent at this temperature. The success of these tests has motivated us to construct a more compact portable adiabatic demagnetization cryostat capable of bolometer optical tests and use at the 5m Hale telescope at 1mm wavelengths.
Shortcut to adiabaticity for an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas
Deng, Shujin; Yu, Qianli; Wu, Haibin
2016-01-01
Coherent control of complex quantum systems is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and engineering. Recently developed notion of shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) has spawned intriguing prospects. So far, the most experimental investigations of STA are implemented in the ideal thermal gas or the weakly interacting ultracold Bose gases. Here we report the first demonstration of a many-body STA in a 3D anisotropically trapped unitary Fermi gas. A new dynamical scaling law is demonstrated on such a strongly interacting quantum gas. By simply engineering the frequency aspect ratio of a harmonic trap, the dynamics of the gas can be manipulated and the many-body state can be transferred adiabatically from one stationary state to another one in short time scale without the excitation. The universal scaling both for non-interacting and unitary Fermi gas is also verified. This could be very important for future many-body quantum engineering and the exploration of the fundamental law of the thermod...
Primeval adiabatic perturbations: constraints from the mass distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The autocorrelation function of the mass distribution after decoupling of matter and radiation is computed under the assumption of linear primeval adiabatic perturbations using a new numerical method, and the results are compared to what is inferred from the present galaxy distribution. The computations are based on a Friedmann-Lemaitre model with Λ = 0 containing radiation, zero-mass neutrinos, hydrogen, and helium. The primeval power spectrum of density fluctuations is taken to approximate a power law k/sup v/. If the density parameter is Ω0 = 2q0< or approx. =0.1; or, if ν< or approx. =2, then the coherence length of the residual mass distribution is too large: when the amplitude is adjusted to make the first generation of objects form at z< or approx. =2, there are unacceptably large fluctuations in the mass distribution now on scales approx.12 to 40 Mpc. If ν = 3 to 4, this problem is avoided, but to prevent diverging curvature fluctuations the power law k/sup v/ must be truncated at a rather large comoving wavelength, lambda/sub x/approx.1 Mpc. The parameters thus are tightly limited, but it appears that one still can find a consistent scenario for the development of galaxies out of linear primeval adiabatic perturbations
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grüneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole M Kunze
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Nicole M Kunze1, Jessica E Goetz2, Daniel R Thedens3, Thomas E Baer2, Ericka A Lawler2, Thomas D Brown21Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, 3Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Carpal tunnel syndrome is commonly viewed as resulting from chronic mechanical insult of the median nerve by adjacent anatomical structures. Both the median nerve and its surrounding soft tissue structures are well visualized on magnetic resonance (MR images of the wrist and hand. Addressing nerve damage from impingement of flexor digitorum tendons co-occupying the tunnel is attractive, but to date has been restricted by a lack of means for making individual identifications of the respective tendons. In this image analysis work, we have developed a region-growing method to positively identify each individual digital flexor tendon within the carpal tunnel by tracking it from a more distal MR section where the respective tendon identities are unambiguous. Illustratively, the new method was applied to MRI scans from four different subjects in a variety of hand poses. Conventional shape measures yielded less discriminatory information than did evaluations of individual tendon location and arrangement. This new method of rapid identification of individual tendons will facilitate analysis of tendon/nerve interactions within the tunnel, thereby providing better information about mechanical insult of the median nerve.Keywords: carpal tunnel syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging, region growing, digital flexor tendons
Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Dong, Yanhua; Wang, Tingyun
2015-06-01
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thickness of Al2O3 nanofilm is coated around fiber taper precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the high refractive index of the Al2O3 nanofilm, an asymmetry Fabry-Perot like interferometer is constructed along the fiber taper. Based on the ray-optic analysis, total internal reflection happens on the nanofilm-surrounding interface. With the ambient refractive index changing, the phase delay induced by the Goos-Hänchen shift is changed. Correspondingly, the transmission resonant spectrum shifts, which can be utilized for realizing high sensitivity sensor. The high sensitivity sensor with 6008 nm/RIU is demonstrated by depositing 3000 layers Al2O3 nanofilm as the ambient refractive index is close to 1.33. This high sensitivity refractive index sensor is expected to have wide applications in biochemical sensors. PMID:26072758
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Mei; Cao Li; Wu Da-Jin
2007-01-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by a coloured pump noise and a quantum noise with cross-correlation between real and imaginary parts under a direct signal modulation. By using a linear approximation method, we find that the SR appears during the variation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)separately with the pump noise self-correlation time τ, the noise correlation coefficient between the real part and the imaginary part of the quantum noise λq, the attenuation coefficient γ and the deterministic steady-state intensity I0.In addition, it is found that the SR can be characterized not only by the dependence of SNR on the noise variables of τand λq, but also by the dependence of SNR on the laser system variables of γ and I0. Thus our investigation extends the characteristic quantity of SR proposed before.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajinder Pal
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Entropy generation, and hence exergy destruction, in adiabatic flow of unstable and surfactant-stabilized emulsions was investigated experimentally in different diameter pipes. Four types of emulsion systems are investigated covering a broad range of the dispersed-phase concentration: (a unstable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions without surfactant; (b surfactant-stabilized O/W emulsions; (c unstable water-in-oil (W/O emulsions without surfactant; and (d surfactant-stabilized W/O emulsions. The entropy generation rate per unit pipe length is affected by the type of the emulsion as well as its stability. Unstable emulsions without any surfactant present at the interface generate less entropy in the turbulent regime as compared with the surfactant-stabilized emulsions of the same viscosity and density. The effect of surfactant is particularly severe in the case of W/O emulsions. In the turbulent regime, the rate of entropy generation in unstable W/O emulsions is much lower in comparison with that observed in the stable W/O emulsions. A significant delay in the transition from laminar to turbulent regime is also observed in the case of unstable W/O emulsion. Finally, the analysis and simulation results are presented on non-adiabatic pipeline flow of emulsions.
Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S
2012-11-01
The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis.
Mackie, M; Collin, A; Suominen, K A; Javanainen, J; Mackie, Matt; Harkonen, Kari; Collin, Anssi; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Javanainen, Juha
2004-01-01
We theoretically examine Raman photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, revisiting stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). Due to collisional mean-field shifts, efficient molecular conversion requires strong coupling and low density, either of which can bring about rogue photodissociation to noncondensate modes. We demonstrate explicitly that rogue transitions are negligible for low excited-state fractions and photodissociation that is slower than the STIRAP timescale. Moreover, we derive a reduced-parameter model of collisions, and thereby find that a gain in the molecular conversion efficiency can be obtained by adjusting the atom-atom scattering length with off-resonant magnetoassociation. This gain saturates when the atom-atom scattering length is tuned to a specific fraction of either the molecule-molecule or atom-molecule scattering length. We conclude that a fully-optimized STIRAP scheme may offer the best chance for achieving coherent conversion from an atomic to a molecular condensate wit...
Assessment of Several Moist Adiabatic Processes Associated with Convective Energy Calculation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李耀东; 高守亭; 刘健文
2004-01-01
Several methods dealing with the moist adiabatic process are described in this paper. They are based on static energy conservation, pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation, the strict pseudoadiabatic equation, and the reversible moist adiabatic process, respectively. Convective energy parameters, which are closely related to the moist adiabatic process and which reflect the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water, are reintroduced or defined, including MCAPE [Modified-CAPE (convective available potential energy)], DCAPE (Downdraft-CAPE), and MDCAPE (Modified-Downdraft-CAPE). Two real case analyses with special attention given to condensed liquid water show that the selection of moist adiabatic process does affect the calculated results of CAPE and the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water are not negligible in severe storms. Intercomparisons of these methods show that static energy conservation is consistent with pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation not only in physical properties but also in calculated results, and both are good approximations to the strict pseudo-adiabatic equation. The lapse rate linked with the reversible moist adiabatic process is relatively smaller than that linked with other moist adiabatic processes, especially when considering solidification of liquid water in the reversible adiabatic process.
On the adiabatic stability of solitons and the matching of conservation laws
Lochak, Pierre
1984-08-01
We derive a series of identities which generalize and simplify the results obtained for adiabatically modulated solitons in the case of perturbed specific integrable equations. It stresses the importance of the variational properties of the solitons, which make an adiabatic theorem plausible. A precise conjecture is made and its validity discussed from different points of view.
Fuks, Johanna I
2014-01-01
We explore an asymmetric two-fermion Hubbard dimer to test the accuracy of the adiabatic approximation of time-dependent density functional theory in modelling time-resolved charge transfer. We show that the model shares essential features of a ground state long-range molecule in real-space, and by applying a resonant field we show that the model also reproduces essential traits of the CT dynamics. The simplicity of the model allows us to propagate with an "adiabatically-exact" approximation, i.e. one that uses the exact ground-state exchange-correlation functional, and compare with the exact propagation. This allows us to study the impact of the time-dependent charge-transfer step feature in the exact correlation potential of real molecules on the resulting dynamics. Tuning the parameters of the dimer allows a study both of charge-transfer between open-shell fragments and between closed-shell fragments. We find that the adiabatically-exact functional is unable to properly transfer charge, even in situations ...
From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity.
Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2016-08-12
Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic XY spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail. PMID:27563938
Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width
Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.
2011-05-10
Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.
Cosmological consequences of an adiabatic matter creation process
Nunes, Rafael C
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the cosmological consequences of a continuous matter creation associated with the production of particles by the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum. To illustrate this, three phenomenological models are considered. An equivalent scalar field description is presented for each models. The effects on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum are analyzed for the first time in the context of adiabatic matter creation cosmology. Further, we introduce a model independent treatment, $Om$, which depends only on the Hubble expansion rate and the cosmological redshift to distinguish any cosmological model from $\\Lambda$CDM by providing a null test for the cosmological constant, meaning that, for any two redshifts $z_1$, $z_2$, $Om (z)$ is same, i.e. $Om (z_1)- Om (z_2)= 0$. Also, this diagnostic can differentiate between several cosmological models by indicating their quintessential/ phantom behavior without knowing the accurate value of the matter density, and the presen...
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)
2015-05-07
We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.
Nucleon-deuteron scattering using the adiabatic projection method
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rupak, Gautam
2016-06-01
In this paper we discuss the adiabatic projection method, a general framework for scattering and reaction calculations on the lattice. We also introduce several new techniques developed to study nucleus-nucleus scattering and reactions on the lattice. We present technical details of the method for large-scale problems. To estimate the systematic errors of the calculations we consider simple two-particle scattering on the lattice. Then we benchmark the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by applying these to calculate fermion-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory with and without a long-range Coulomb potential. The fermion-dimer calculations correspond to neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron scattering in the spin-quartet channel at leading order in the pionless effective field theory.
Differential geometric treewidth estimation in adiabatic quantum computation
Wang, Chi; Jonckheere, Edmond; Brun, Todd
2016-07-01
The D-Wave adiabatic quantum computing platform is designed to solve a particular class of problems—the Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problems. Due to the particular "Chimera" physical architecture of the D-Wave chip, the logical problem graph at hand needs an extra process called minor embedding in order to be solvable on the D-Wave architecture. The latter problem is itself NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a novel polynomial-time approximation to the closely related treewidth based on the differential geometric concept of Ollivier-Ricci curvature. The latter runs in polynomial time and thus could significantly reduce the overall complexity of determining whether a QUBO problem is minor embeddable, and thus solvable on the D-Wave architecture.
Classical Simulation of Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms using Mathematica on GPUs
Díaz-Pier, Sandra; Gómez-Muñoz, José Luis
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a simulation environment enhanced with parallel processing which can be used on personal computers, based on a high-level user interface developed on Mathematica\\copyright which is connected to C++ code in order to make our platform capable of communicating with a Graphics Processing Unit. We introduce the reader to the behavior of our proposal by simulating a quantum adiabatic algorithm designed for solving hard instances of the 3-SAT problem. We show that our simulator is capable of significantly increasing the number of qubits that can be simulated using classical hardware. Finally, we present a review of currently available classical simulators of quantum systems together with some justifications, based on our willingness to further understand processing properties of Nature, for devoting resources to building more powerful simulators.
Nucleon-deuteron scattering using the adiabatic projection method
Elhatisari, Serdar; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss the adiabatic projection method, a general framework for scattering and reaction calculations on the lattice. We also introduce several new techniques developed to study nucleus-nucleus scattering and reactions on the lattice. We present technical details of the methods for large-scale problems. To estimate the systematic errors of the calculations we consider simple two-particle scattering on the lattice. Then we benchmark the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by applying these to calculate fermion-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory with and without a long-range Coulomb potential. The fermion-dimer calculations correspond to neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron scattering in the spin-quartet channel at leading order in pionless effective field theory.
Influence of coherent adiabatic excitation on femtosecond transient signals
Conde, A Peralta; Longarte, A
2016-01-01
The transient signals derived from femtosecond pump-probe experiments are analyzed in terms of the coherent evolution of the energy levels perturbed by the excitation pulse. The model system is treated as the sum of independent two-level subsystems that evolve adiabatically or are permanently excited, depending on the detuning from the central wavelength of the excitation laser. This approach will allow us to explain numerically and analytically the convergence between the coherent and incoherent (rate equations) treatments for complex multi-level systems. It will be also shown that the parameter that determines the validity of the incoherent treatment is the distribution of states outside and inside the laser bandwidth, rather than the density of states as it is commonly accepted.
Properties of a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
Fukuda, H.; Ueda, S.; Arai, R.; Li, J.; Saito, A. T.; Nakagome, H.; Numazawa, T.
2015-12-01
Currently, many space missions using cryogenic temperatures are being planned. In particular, high resolution sensors such as Transition Edge Sensors need very low temperatures, below 100 mK. It is well known that the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is one of most useful tools for producing ultra-low temperatures in space because it is gravity independent. We studied a continuous ADR system consisting of 4 stages and demonstrated it could provide continuous temperatures around 100 mK. However, there was some heat leakage from the power leads which resulted in reduced cooling power. Our efforts to upgrade our ADR system are presented. We show the effect of using the HTS power leads and discuss a cascaded Carnot cycle consisting of 2 ADR units.
Some properties of adiabatic blast waves in preexisting cavities
Cox, D. P.; Franco, J.
1981-01-01
Cox and Anderson (1982) have conducted an investigation regarding an adiabatic blast wave in a region of uniform density and finite external pressure. In connection with an application of the results of the investigation to a study of interstellar blast waves in the very hot, low-density matrix, it was found that it would be desirable to examine situations with a positive radial density gradient in the ambient medium. Information concerning such situations is needed to learn about the behavior of blast waves occurring within preexisting, presumably supernova-induced cavities in the interstellar mass distribution. The present investigation is concerned with the first steps of a study conducted to obtain the required information. A review is conducted of Sedov's (1959) similarity solutions for the dynamical structure of any explosion in a medium with negligible pressure and power law density dependence on radius.
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Enea Romano
2016-04-01
We then consider an example in which cw=cs, where δPnad=δPc,nad=0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits